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22

2005

( )

: , , 2005, 24( 6) 22~ 27


,
, ,
, , , ,

, ,

- 56. 7 , 1 287. 2 km, 1 220


m m, 14. 27 mm 11. 73 mm,
800, ,

,
, ,

680. 6 km12,

2. 5 ~ 3. 5

m/ s 21 , - 28. 9
, 4!

,
, ,
,

, 0. 5 m / s 3. 3 ~ 3. 5

, Alaska
,

1~ 3!

,
,

,
, ,
, ,
, ,

, 1977Alaska,
* 213016, ; : ( 0519) 3290280

:
K D( T - T 0 ) dl = -

QC ( T ) dT +

Qig dl

K # # # , W/ ( m K) ;
T T 0 # # # , ;
2

D # # # , m;
C( T ) # # # , J/ ( kg K) ;
# # # , kg/ m 3 ;

( 1)

24 6

Q # # # , m / s;
g # # # ;
3

V c r :
V cr = 2

i # # # , m/ km;
# # # , m

dl

23

T - T0

1
3

D
d

( 7)

( 6) i cr :
1/ 3

W T = K D( T - T 0 ) dl
, W 1 = - QC( T ) dT W 2 = Qi gdl

, T > T 0 W T
, W T W 1 W 2
, W 2 K
i , W 2 W T

icr = 2
g d

T - T0

2/ 3

D
d

( 8)

K !T = T - T 0 ,
( 7)
( 8)
K
!T ,
, , V cr K !T
, V cr i cr

W 2 < W T , dT < 0, ; W 2

K !T 2/ 3 , V cr ,

> W T , dT > 0, ; W 2 = W T

, , ic r

dT = 0,

d , d , i cr

( 1) , ( 1)

, ( 7) ( 8) V cr icr

dT = 0 :

K D( T - T 0 ) dl =

Qi g dl

( 2)

dl , :

, ,

T - T 0 - Qg i = 0
K D
b=

( 3)

Qg i , ( 3)
K D

( 4)

( 3) ( 4)
,
b , ( T 0 + b)
T , , ,
, T , T 0 , , D ,
( 3) , K i ,

K D
( T - T 0)
Qg

( 5)

1 v
d 2g

( 10)

i < i cr

( 11)

3 v
v
K cr R min ( 3)

K cr =

R min =

Darcy , :
i=

v < V cr

1 =
R min

Qgi
D( T - T 0 )

( 12)

( 6) , R min :

2 K
( 3) :
i=

( 9)

:
T = T0 + b

T > T0 + b

( 6)

# # # ;
d # # # , m;
v # # # , m/ s
v Q , ( 5) ( 6)

1
8 D( T - T 0 )
=
K cr
d

1
v

( 13)

K cr
, R min
R min K cr ,
K R

K R :
K % K cr , R & R min
( 14)
,
, ,

24

R K ,
( 14) ,
v = 1. 0 m / s , ( 13) :
8 D( T - T 0 )
d

1. 0

R min =

( 15)

1. 0 m/ s R min K cr v

:
ln( D W / d W )
8( T - T 0 ) 1 3
=
- 1
2 W
min
v
d
#1 d
ln( D i / d i )
- 1 -
( 17)
#2 D W
2 i

, R 1.min0

; v> 1. 0 , K cr v , R min
, v
, K cr R min ;
, v 0. 8
0. 630. 5 , R min
1. 954. 0
8. 0 R 1.min0
; v 1. 25
1. 692. 0 , R min R 1.min0
51%
25% 12. 5% ,

, 426 , 226 km,


0. 4~ 0. 5 m / s, 8
2 ,
, ,
,

, ,
,
,
, R

d W # # # ;
D W # # # ;

W # # #
,

, v< 1. 0 , K cr v
, R min ,

2005

( 17) ( 13) ( 17)



5291 220 0. 4 m/ s
( 13) R min 165. 6 m 2 K/ W
202. 9 m K/ W,
, ,
2

1. 8 m / s, R min 2. 65 m 2 K/ W 3. 08
m K/ W,
529 0. 4 m/ s ,
2

K = 2. 0 W/ ( m 2 K) , R= 0. 5
m K/ W, 80 mm
, ( 16) R 3. 19
2

m K/ W, K 0. 314 W/ ( m K ) , R
R min ,
2

84. 3% ,
,

:
R= 1 = D +
#1 d
K

Dln( D i / d i )
+ D
2 i
#2 D W

( 16)

#1 # # # ,
W/ ( m K) ;
2

#2 # # # ,
W/ ( m 2 K) ;
d i # # # ,
m;
D i # # # ,
m;
i # # #
,

, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,

!r !r
5! :
!r = %r v bi v y

W/ ( m K)
#1 #2 , d i , D i i
, , ( 13) ( 16)

0. 25

( 18)

%r = 1+ 0. 22 G r P r R e
v bi # # # ;
0. 16
y

v y # # # ;

( 19)

24 6

25

G r # # # ;
P r # # # ;

V cr 3. 143. 32
3. 49 m/ s, ,
i cr 32. 6
15. 9
8. 91 m/ km,

R e # # #


:
i = !r

, ,

1 v
d 2g

( 20)

( 7)
( 8)
( 13) ( 15)
( 17)
( !r ) ,
, !r > 1,
, V cr R min , K cr ,

, , 20
0. 87 40 , 529
K K 1. 9 W/ ( m 2 K)
V cr i cr !T = T - T 0 , A laska
, C ( T )
[ 5]

K V cr !T

K i cr !T

1
2 529 K = 0. 1~ 3. 1
W/ ( m K) V cr i cr !T
, V cr i cr !T , K , V cr
2

i cr , !T , K V cr
i cr , !T
, ,
529 K 1. 8~ 2. 6 W/ ( m 2 K) ,
1. 2~ 1. 8 W/ ( m K)
2

5!

, 0 , ,
529 40 V cr
3. 17~ 3. 63 m / s 2. 74~ 3. 17 m/ s ,
i cr 21. 7~ 27. 4 m / km 16. 7
~ 21. 7 m/ km
3
4 K = 1. 9 W/ ( m 2 K)
377~ 1 420 mm V cr icr !T
3
4 , K !T V cr
i cr , V cr ,
, icr ,
0 , 377720 1 220

26

2005

, 40
, 50 km

!T f 5 ,
,

!T f :

!T f = igL / C = 0. 207 i

( 21)

,
, v = 1. 0 m/ s , 5297201 220
!T f 0. 590. 4
0. 21 ,
1. 40. 930. 5
kJ/ ( kg s) , 249. 2315. 6469
kJ/ s; v = 3. 4 m / s !T f 5. 063. 4
1. 76 , 12. 0
8. 06
4. 17 kJ/ ( kg s) , 722. 0913. 5
1 358. 9 kJ/ s, ,
,
6 0 529 1 220
K cr
R min v , R 1.min0 13. 32
16. 33 m 2 K/ W 6 , v< 1. 0 m/ s ,
v , R min , K cr , v
> 1. 0 m / s , v , R min , K cr
; , R min v > 2. 6 m / s

V cr !T

2. 8 m / s , K cr 1. 04
W/ ( m K) K &1 ~ 2
W/ ( m 2 K) , ( 14)
2

3. 0 m/ s ,
, A laska
3. 3~ 3. 5 m/ s, 60 ,
,
, ,
116. 7 ,
80 , 3. 4 m/ s, R min 1. 621. 049
m 2 K/ W, K cr 0. 617 0. 953 W/ ( m 2 K)
, , ,
K K cr ,
R min , 3. 4 m/ s
,

,

, 95. 3 m m
ic r !T

2 4 !T f

,
, 95. 3

4 , K !T ,
,
, 5 0 50 km

m m 3. 4 m 2 K/ W ,
3. 4 m / s R min 2. 1 ,

24 6

27

, 1977 6
0. 5 m/ s - 6. 7

, K cr
, V cr K cr ,

, 52. 8

,
4!

( 3) v< 1. 0 m/ s , R min v
, K cr ; v > 1. 0m / s, R min v
, K cr ,
,
,
, ,

( 4) ,
,
,
,

( 5) ,

50 km

,
,

1,

: , ,

2002, 21( 4)
2,

: ,

, 2003, 22( 3)
3,

, , 2003, 22( 4)
4,

: , ( ) ,

1994
5,

: , ( ) , 1986

( : 2004 09 17)

( )

( 1) v V cr ,
K K cr ,

( 2) V cr

?
( )

()

24 6

59

, 1930 , 1952 ,
, ,

, ,
, , () 1~ 6

, 1952 , 1978 ,

, 1965 , 1985 ,
( ) ,

, 1969 , 1991 ,

, 1964 , 1985 , ( )
,

, 1960 , 1982 ,

, 1950 , 1981 ( ) , ,

1977 , 2001 , 2004 ( )


, ,

, 1963 , 1989 ,

, 1967 , 1990 ,

, 1967 , 1989 ,

, 1968 , 1992 ( ) ,

, 1958 , 1982 , 1997

, 1965 , 1988 ,

, , 1941 , 1965 ,

, 1975 , 1999 ,

4 #