Está en la página 1de 56

TITLE II LEGAL SEPARATION Absolute divorce marriage is dissolve Relative divorce or LEGAL SEPARATION-marriage is not dissolve and parties

are merel separated !rom bed and board Art" ##" A petition !or legal separation ma be !iled on an o! t$e !ollo%ing grounds& -mere preponderance o! evidence %ill su!!ice e'cept ground no" ( %$erein t$ere must be !inal )udgment *o! a separate case+" ,-. Repeated p$ sical violence or grossl abusive conduct directed against t$e petitioner/ a common c$ild/ or a c$ild o! t$e petitioner0 ,1. P$ sical violence or moral pressure to compel t$e petitioner to c$ange religious or political a!!iliation0 ,2. Attempt o! respondent to corrupt or induce t$e petitioner/ a common c$ild/ or a c$ild o! t$e petitioner/ to engage in prostitution/ or connivance in suc$ corruption or inducement0 ,(. 3inal )udgment sentencing t$e respondent to imprisonment o! more t$an si' ears/ even i! pardoned0 ,#. 4rug addiction or $abitual alco$olism o! t$e respondent0 ,5. Lesbianism or $omose'ualit o! t$e respondent0 ,6. 7ontracting b t$e respondent o! a subse8uent bigamous marriage/ %$et$er in t$e P$ilippines or abroad0 ,9. Se'ual in!idelit or perversion0 ,concubinage and adulter . -conviction o! concubinage or adulter is not necessar i! t$is is t$e ground0 mere preponderance o! evidence is enoug$ ,:. Attempt b t$e respondent against t$e li!e o! t$e petitioner0 or ,-;. Abandonment o! petitioner b respondent %it$out )usti!iable cause !or more t$an one ear" 3or purposes o! t$is Article/ t$e term <c$ild< s$all include a c$ild b nature or b adoption" ,:a. - 7ourt must !irst tr to e!!ect a reconciliation and must be !ull satis!ied t$at t$e is $ig$l improbable Page | 1

Art" #5" T$e petition !or legal separation s$all be denied on an o! t$e !ollo%ing grounds& ,-. =$ere t$e aggrieved part $as condoned t$e o!!ense or act complained o!0 -!orgiveness a!ter !ull >no%ledge o! t$e o!!ense ,1. =$ere t$e aggrieved part $as consented to t$e commission o! t$e o!!ense or act complained o!0 -be!ore t$e act -one part is at !ault ,2. =$ere t$ere is connivance bet%een t$e parties in t$e commission o! t$e o!!ense or act constituting t$e ground !or legal separation0 ,(. =$ere bot$ parties $ave given ground !or legal separation0 ,mutual guilt or recrimination. -in pari delicto/ t$ere is no o!!ended spouse %$o deserves to bring t$e action ,#. =$ere t$ere is collusion bet%een t$e parties to obtain decree o! legal separation0 or -t$ere is an agreement %$ereb one %ill pretend to $ave committed t$e ground relied upon ,5. =$ere t$e action is barred b prescription" ,-;;a. ,i! during t$e pendenc o! t$e proceeding one part dies/ t$e case %ill be dismissed since t$e action is purel personal Art" #6" An action !or legal separation s$all be !iled %it$in !ive ears !rom t$e time o! t$e occurrence o! t$e cause" ,-;1. -need not to be alleged Art" #9" An action !or legal separation s$all in no case be tried be!ore si' mont$s s$all $ave elapsed since t$e !iling o! t$e petition" -cooling o!! period !or a possible reconciliation Art" #:" No legal separation ma be decreed unless t$e 7ourt $as ta>en steps to%ard t$e reconciliation o! t$e spouses and is !ull satis!ied/ despite suc$ e!!orts/ t$at reconciliation is $ig$l improbable" ,n. -3irst step to be ta>en b t$e court

Page | 2

Art" 5;" No decree o! legal separation s$all be based upon a stipulation o! !acts or a con!ession o! )udgment" In an case/ t$e 7ourt s$all order t$e prosecuting attorne or !iscal assigned to it to ta>e steps to prevent collusion bet%een t$e parties and to ta>e care t$at t$e evidence is not !abricated or suppressed" ,-;-a. -la% re8uires proo!/ not mere stipulation o! !acts or a con!ession o! )udgment -proo! ma be direct or circumstantial Art" 5-" A!ter t$e !iling o! t$e petition !or legal separation/ t$e spouses s$all be entitled to live separatel !rom eac$ ot$er" T$e court/ in t$e absence o! a %ritten agreement bet%een t$e spouses/ s$all designate eit$er o! t$em or a t$ird person to administer t$e absolute communit or con)ugal partners$ip propert " T$e administrator appointed b t$e court s$all $ave t$e same po%ers and duties as t$ose o! a guardian under t$e Rules o! 7ourt" ,-;(a. -living separatel is not mandator Art" 51" 4uring t$e pendenc o! t$e action !or legal separation/ t$e provisions o! Article (: s$all li>e%ise appl to t$e support o! t$e spouses and t$e custod and support o! t$e common c$ildren" ,-;#a. Art" 52" T$e decree o! legal separation s$all $ave t$e !ollo%ing e!!ects& ,-. T$e spouses s$all be entitled to live separatel !rom eac$ ot$er/ but t$e marriage bonds s$all not be severed0 ,1. T$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip s$all be dissolved and li8uidated but t$e o!!ending spouse s$all $ave no rig$t to an s$are o! t$e net pro!its earned b t$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip/ %$ic$ s$all be !or!eited in accordance %it$ t$e provisions o! Article (2,1.0 -dissolution and li8uidation o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip upon issuance o! t$e decree o! legal separation s$all be automatic ,2. T$e custod o! t$e minor c$ildren s$all be a%arded to t$e innocent spouse/ sub)ect to t$e provisions o! Article 1-2 o! t$is 7ode0 and ,(. T$e o!!ending spouse s$all be dis8uali!ied !rom in$eriting !rom t$e innocent spouse b intestate succession" ?oreover/ provisions in !avor o! t$e o!!ending spouse made in t$e %ill o! t$e innocent spouse s$all be revo>ed b operation o! la%" Page | 3

Art" 5(" A!ter t$e !inalit o! t$e decree o! legal separation/ t$e innocent spouse ma revo>e t$e donations made b $im or b $er in !avor o! t$e o!!ending spouse/ as %ell as t$e designation o! t$e latter as bene!iciar in an insurance polic / even i! suc$ designation be stipulated as irrevocable" T$e revocation o! t$e donations s$all be recorded in t$e registries o! propert in t$e places %$ere t$e properties are located" Alienations/ liens and encumbrances registered in good !ait$ be!ore t$e recording o! t$e complaint !or revocation in t$e registries o! propert s$all be respected" T$e revocation o! or c$ange in t$e designation o! t$e insurance bene!iciar s$all ta>e e!!ect upon %ritten noti!ication t$ereo! to t$e insured" T$e action to revo>e t$e donation under t$is Article must be broug$t %it$in !ive ears !rom t$e time t$e decree o! legal separation become !inal" ,-;6a. Art" 5#" I! t$e spouses s$ould reconcile/ a corresponding )oint mani!estation under oat$ dul signed b t$em s$all be !iled %it$ t$e court in t$e same proceeding !or legal separation" ,n. Art" 55" T$e reconciliation re!erred to in t$e preceding Articles s$all $ave t$e !ollo%ing conse8uences& ,-. T$e legal separation proceedings/ i! still pending/ s$all t$ereb be terminated at %$atever stage0 and ,1. T$e !inal decree o! legal separation s$all be set aside/ but t$e separation o! propert and an !or!eiture o! t$e s$are o! t$e guilt spouse alread e!!ected s$all subsist/ unless t$e spouses agree to revive t$eir !ormer propert regime" T$e court@s order containing t$e !oregoing s$all be recorded in t$e proper civil registries" ,-;9a. Art" 56" T$e agreement to revive t$e !ormer propert regime re!erred to in t$e preceding Article s$all be e'ecuted under oat$ and s$all speci! & ,-. T$e properties to be contributed ane% to t$e restored regime0 ,1. T$ose to be retained as separated properties o! eac$ spouse0 and ,2. T$e names o! all t$eir >no%n creditors/ t$eir addresses and t$e amounts o%ing to eac$" T$e agreement o! revival and t$e motion !or its approval s$all be !iled %it$ t$e court in t$e same proceeding !or legal separation/ %it$ copies o! bot$ !urnis$ed to t$e creditors named t$erein" A!ter due $earing/ t$e court s$all/ in its order/ ta>e measure to protect t$e interest o! creditors and suc$ order s$all be recorded in t$e proper registries o! properties" T$e recording o! t$e ordering in t$e registries o! propert s$all not pre)udice an creditor not listed or not noti!ied/ unless t$e debtor-spouse $as su!!icient separate properties to satis! t$e creditor@s claim" ,-:#a/ -;9a. Page | 4

TITLE III RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS BETWEEN HUSBAND AND WIFE Art" 59" T$e $usband and %i!e are obliged to live toget$er/ observe mutual love/ respect and !idelit / and render mutual $elp and support" -%$en t$ere is an obligation/ t$ere is a rig$t Art" 5:" T$e $usband and %i!e s$all !i' t$e !amil domicile" In case o! disagreement/ t$e court s$all decide" T$e court ma e'empt one spouse !rom living %it$ t$e ot$er i! t$e latter s$ould live abroad or t$ere are ot$er valid and compelling reasons !or t$e e'emption" Ao%ever/ suc$ e'emption s$all not appl i! t$e same is not compatible %it$ t$e solidarit o! t$e !amil " -Instances %$ere %i!e is )usti!ied to select $er o%n domicile or residence -" I! t$e $usband lives as a vagabond $aving no !i'ed $ome 1" I! t$e $usband maltreats $er 2" I! t$e $usband insist on $is immoderate or barbaric demands !rom t$e %i!e !or se'ual intercourse (" I! t$e %i!e is as>ed b t$e $usband to leave t$e con)ugal place t$reatening to use violence upon $er i! s$e s$ould return $ome #" I! t$e $usband commits concubinage and continuousl indulges in suc$ illicit relations$ip Art" 6;" T$e spouses are )ointl responsible !or t$e support o! t$e !amil " T$e e'penses !or suc$ support and ot$er con)ugal obligations s$all be paid !rom t$e communit propert and/ in t$e absence t$ereo!/ !rom t$e income or !ruits o! t$eir separate properties" In case o! insu!!icienc or absence o! said income or !ruits/ suc$ obligations s$all be satis!ied !rom t$e separate properties" -sources o! e'penses !or support o! !amil -" 7ommunit propert 1" Income or !ruits o! t$eir separate properties 2" T$eir separate properties

Page | 5

Art" 6-" T$e management o! t$e $ouse$old s$all be t$e rig$t and t$e dut o! bot$ spouses" T$e e'penses !or suc$ management s$all be paid in accordance %it$ t$e provisions o! Article 6;" ,--#a. Art" 61" =$en one o! t$e spouses neglects $is or $er duties to t$e con)ugal union or commits acts %$ic$ tend to bring danger/ dis$onor or in)ur to t$e ot$er or to t$e !amil / t$e aggrieved part ma appl to t$e court !or relie!" ,--5a. Art" 62" Eit$er spouse ma e'ercise an legitimate pro!ession/ occupation/ business or activit %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er" T$e latter ma ob)ect onl on valid/ serious/ and moral grounds" In case o! disagreement/ t$e court s$all decide %$et$er or not& ,-. T$e ob)ection is proper/ and ,1. Bene!it $as occurred to t$e !amil prior to t$e ob)ection or t$erea!ter" I! t$e bene!it accrued prior to t$e ob)ection/ t$e resulting obligation s$all be en!orced against t$e separate propert o! t$e spouse %$o $as not obtained consent" T$e !oregoing provisions s$all not pre)udice t$e rig$ts o! creditors %$o acted in good !ait$" ,--6a. TITLE IV PROPERTY RELATIONS BETWEEN HUSBAND AND WIFE Chapter 1. General Pr !"#" n# Art" 6(" T$e propert relations$ip bet%een $usband and %i!e s$all be governed in t$e !ollo%ing order& ,-. B marriage settlements e'ecuted be!ore t$e marriage0 ,1. B t$e provisions o! t$is 7ode0 and ,2. B t$e local custom" ,--9. Art" 6#" T$e !uture spouses ma / in t$e marriage settlements/ agree upon t$e regime o! absolute communit / con)ugal partners$ip o! gains/ complete separation o! propert / or an ot$er regime" In t$e absence o! a marriage settlement/ or %$en t$e regime agreed upon is void/ t$e s stem o! absolute communit o! propert as establis$ed in t$is 7ode s$all govern" ,--:a. -marriage settlements must be made be!ore t$e celebration o! t$e marriage Page | 6

Art" 65" In order t$at an modi!ication in t$e marriage settlements ma be valid/ it must be made be!ore t$e celebration o! t$e marriage/ sub)ect to t$e provisions o! Articles 55/ 56/ -19/ -2# and -25" ,-1-. Art" 66" T$e marriage settlements and an modi!ication t$ereo! s$all be in %riting/ signed b t$e parties and e'ecuted be!ore t$e celebration o! t$e marriage" T$e s$all not pre)udice t$ird persons unless t$e are registered in t$e local civil registr %$ere t$e marriage contract is recorded as %ell as in t$e proper registries o! properties" ,-11a. Art" 69" A minor %$o according to la% ma contract marriage ma also e'ecute $is or $er marriage settlements/ but t$e s$all be valid onl i! t$e persons designated in Article -( to give consent to t$e marriage are made parties to t$e agreement/ sub)ect to t$e provisions o! Title IC o! t$is 7ode" ,-1;a. Art" 6:" 3or t$e validit o! an marriage settlement e'ecuted b a person upon %$om a sentence o! civil interdiction $as been pronounced or %$o is sub)ect to an ot$er disabilit / it s$all be indispensable !or t$e guardian appointed b a competent court to be made a part t$ereto" ,-12a. Art" 9;" In t$e absence o! a contrar stipulation in a marriage settlement/ t$e propert relations o! t$e spouses s$all be governed b P$ilippine la%s/ regardless o! t$e place o! t$e celebration o! t$e marriage and t$eir residence" T$is rule s$all not appl & ,-. =$ere bot$ spouses are aliens0 ,1. =it$ respect to t$e e'trinsic validit o! contracts a!!ecting propert not situated in t$e P$ilippines and e'ecuted in t$e countr %$ere t$e propert is located0 and ,2. =it$ respect to t$e e'trinsic validit o! contracts entered into in t$e P$ilippines but a!!ecting propert situated in a !oreign countr %$ose la%s re8uire di!!erent !ormalities !or its e'trinsic validit " ,-1(a.

Page | 7

Art" 9-" Ever t$ing stipulated in t$e settlements or contracts re!erred to in t$e preceding articles in consideration o! a !uture marriage/ including donations bet%een t$e prospective spouses made t$erein/ s$all be rendered void i! t$e marriage does not ta>e place" Ao%ever/ stipulations t$at do not depend upon t$e celebration o! t$e marriages s$all be valid" ,-1#a. Chapter $. D nat" n# %& Rea# n ' (arr"a)e Art" 91" 4onations b reason o! marriage are t$ose %$ic$ are made be!ore its celebration/ in consideration o! t$e same/ and in !avor o! one or bot$ o! t$e !uture spouses" ,-15. -4onations propter nuptias a. ?ust be made be!ore t$e celebration o! t$e marriage b. ?ust be made in consideration o! t$e marriage c. ?ust be made in !avor o! one or bot$ o! t$e !uture spouse Art" 92" T$ese donations are governed b t$e rules on ordinar donations establis$ed in Title III o! Boo> III o! t$e 7ivil 7ode/ inso!ar as t$e are not modi!ied b t$e !ollo%ing articles" ,-16a. Art" 9(" I! t$e !uture spouses agree upon a regime ot$er t$an t$e absolute communit o! propert / t$e cannot donate to eac$ ot$er in t$eir marriage settlements more t$an one-!i!t$ o! t$eir present propert " An e'cess s$all be considered void" 4onations o! !uture propert s$all be governed b t$e provisions on testamentar succession and t$e !ormalities o! %ills" ,-2;a. -propert regime is absolute communit no limit -ot$er t$an absolute communit regime/ t$e donation must not e'ceed -D# o! t$eir propert Art" 9#" 4onations b reason o! marriage o! propert sub)ect to encumbrances s$all be valid" In case o! !oreclosure o! t$e encumbrance and t$e propert is sold !or less t$an t$e total amount o! t$e obligation secured/ t$e donee s$all not be liable !or t$e de!icienc " I! t$e propert is sold !or more t$an t$e total amount o! said obligation/ t$e donee s$all be entitled to t$e e'cess" ,-2-a. -rules as to t$e !oreclosure o! t$e propert a. T$e done s$all not be liable !or de!icienc b. In case o! e'cess/ t$e done is entitled to said e'cess Page | 8

Art" 95" A donation b reason o! marriage ma be revo>ed b t$e donor in t$e !ollo%ing cases& ,-. I! t$e marriage is not celebrated or )udiciall declared void ab initio e'cept donations made in t$e marriage settlements/ %$ic$ s$all be governed b Article 9-0 ,1. =$en t$e marriage ta>es place %it$out t$e consent o! t$e parents or guardian/ as re8uired b la%0 ,2. =$en t$e marriage is annulled/ and t$e donee acted in bad !ait$0 ,(. Epon legal separation/ t$e donee being t$e guilt spouse0 ,#. I! it is %it$ a resolutor condition and t$e condition is complied %it$0 ,5. =$en t$e donee $as committed an act o! ingratitude as speci!ied b t$e provisions o! t$e 7ivil 7ode on donations in general" -revocation o! propter nuptias -non-celebration o! marriage considered t$e marriage revocable but does not automaticall revo>ed Art" 96" Ever donation or grant o! gratuitous advantage/ direct or indirect/ bet%een t$e spouses during t$e marriage s$all be void/ e'cept moderate gi!ts %$ic$ t$e spouses ma give eac$ ot$er on t$e occasion o! an !amil re)oicing" T$e pro$ibition s$all also appl to persons living toget$er as $usband and %i!e %it$out a valid marriage" ,-22a. Chapter *. S&#te+ ' A%# l,te C ++,n"t& Se-t" n 1. General Pr !"#" n# Art" 99" T$e absolute communit o! propert bet%een spouses s$all commence at t$e precise moment t$at t$e marriage is celebrated" An stipulation/ e'press or implied/ !or t$e commencement o! t$e communit regime at an ot$er time s$all be void" ,-(#a. Art" 9:" No %aiver o! rig$ts/ s$ares and e!!ects o! t$e absolute communit o! propert during t$e marriage can be made e'cept in case o! )udicial separation o! propert " =$en t$e %aiver ta>es place upon a )udicial separation o! propert / or a!ter t$e marriage $as been dissolved or annulled/ t$e same s$all appear in a public instrument and s$all be recorded as provided in Article 66" T$e creditors o! t$e spouse %$o made suc$ %aiver ma petition t$e court to rescind t$e %aiver to t$e e'tent o! t$e amount su!!icient to cover t$e amount o! t$eir credits" ,-(5a. Page | 9

Art" :;" T$e provisions on co-o%ners$ip s$all appl to t$e absolute communit o! propert bet%een t$e spouses in all matters not provided !or in t$is 7$apter" ,n. Se-t" n $. What C n#t"t,te# C ++,n"t& Pr pert& Art" :-" Enless ot$er%ise provided in t$is 7$apter or in t$e marriage settlements/ t$e communit propert s$all consist o! all t$e propert o%ned b t$e spouses at t$e time o! t$e celebration o! t$e marriage or ac8uired t$erea!ter" ,-:6a. Art" :1" T$e !ollo%ing s$all be e'cluded !rom t$e communit propert & ,-. Propert ac8uired during t$e marriage b gratuitous title b eit$er spouse/ and t$e !ruits as %ell as t$e income t$ereo!/ i! an / unless it is e'pressl provided b t$e donor/ testator or grantor t$at t$e s$all !orm part o! t$e communit propert 0 ,1. Propert !or personal and e'clusive use o! eit$er spouse" Ao%ever/ )e%elr s$all !orm part o! t$e communit propert 0 ,2. Propert ac8uired be!ore t$e marriage b eit$er spouse %$o $as legitimate descendants b a !ormer marriage/ and t$e !ruits as %ell as t$e income/ i! an / o! suc$ propert " ,1;-a.

Art" :2" Propert ac8uired during t$e marriage is presumed to belong to t$e communit / unless it is proved t$at it is one o! t$ose e'cluded t$ere!rom" ,-5;. -evidence must be s$o%n t$at t$e disputed properties $ave been ac8uired during marriage be!ore t$e presumption applies Se-t" n *. Char)e# an. O%l")at" n# ' the A%# l,te C ++,n"t& Art" :(" T$e absolute communit o! propert s$all be liable !or& ,-. T$e support o! t$e spouses/ t$eir common c$ildren/ and legitimate c$ildren o! eit$er spouse0 $o%ever/ t$e support o! illegitimate c$ildren s$all be governed b t$e provisions o! t$is 7ode on Support0 ,1. All debts and obligations contracted during t$e marriage b t$e designated administrator-spouse !or t$e bene!it o! t$e communit / or b bot$ spouses/ or b one spouse %it$ t$e consent o! t$e ot$er0 Page | 10

,2. 4ebts and obligations contracted b eit$er spouse %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er to t$e e'tent t$at t$e !amil ma $ave been bene!ited0 ,(. All ta'es/ liens/ c$arges and e'penses/ including ma)or or minor repairs/ upon t$e communit propert 0 ,#. All ta'es and e'penses !or mere preservation made during marriage upon t$e separate propert o! eit$er spouse used b t$e !amil 0 ,5. E'penses to enable eit$er spouse to commence or complete a pro!essional or vocational course/ or ot$er activit !or sel!-improvement0 ,6. Antenuptial debts o! eit$er spouse inso!ar as t$e $ave redounded to t$e bene!it o! t$e !amil 0 ,9. T$e value o! %$at is donated or promised b bot$ spouses in !avor o! t$eir common legitimate c$ildren !or t$e e'clusive purpose o! commencing or completing a pro!essional or vocational course or ot$er activit !or sel!-improvement0 ,:. Antenuptial debts o! eit$er spouse ot$er t$an t$ose !alling under paragrap$ ,6. o! t$is Article/ t$e support o! illegitimate c$ildren o! eit$er spouse/ and liabilities incurred b eit$er spouse b reason o! a crime or a 8uasi-delict/ in case o! absence or insu!!icienc o! t$e e'clusive propert o! t$e debtor-spouse/ t$e pa ment o! %$ic$ s$all be considered as advances to be deducted !rom t$e s$are o! t$e debtor-spouse upon li8uidation o! t$e communit 0 and ,-;. E'penses o! litigation bet%een t$e spouses unless t$e suit is !ound to be groundless" I! t$e communit propert is insu!!icient to cover t$e !oregoing liabilities/ e'cept t$ose !alling under paragrap$ ,:./ t$e spouses s$all be solidaril liable !or t$e unpaid balance %it$ t$eir separate properties" ,-5-a/ -51a/ -52a/ 1;1a-1;#a. -i! communit propert is not enoug$/ t$e spouses are liable solidaril %it$ t$eir separate properties e'cept in par": Art" :#" =$atever ma be lost during t$e marriage in an game o! c$ance/ betting/ s%eepsta>es/ or an ot$er >ind o! gambling/ %$et$er permitted or pro$ibited b la%/ s$all be borne b t$e loser and s$all not be c$arged to t$e communit but an %innings t$ere!rom s$all !orm part o! t$e communit propert " ,-5(a.

Page | 11

Se-t" n /. O0ner#h"p1 A.+"n"#trat"!e1 En2 &+ent an. D"#p #"t" n ' the C ++,n"t& Pr pert& Art" :5" T$e administration and en)o ment o! t$e communit propert s$all belong to bot$ spouses )ointl " In case o! disagreement/ t$e $usband@s decision s$all prevail/ sub)ect to recourse to t$e court b t$e %i!e !or proper remed / %$ic$ must be availed o! %it$in !ive ears !rom t$e date o! t$e contract implementing suc$ decision" In t$e event t$at one spouse is incapacitated or ot$er%ise unable to participate in t$e administration o! t$e common properties/ t$e ot$er spouse ma assume sole po%ers o! administration" T$ese po%ers do not include disposition or encumbrance %it$out aut$orit o! t$e court or t$e %ritten consent o! t$e ot$er spouse" In t$e absence o! suc$ aut$orit or consent/ t$e disposition or encumbrance s$all be void" Ao%ever/ t$e transaction s$all be construed as a continuing o!!er on t$e part o! t$e consenting spouse and t$e t$ird person/ and ma be per!ected as a binding contract upon t$e acceptance b t$e ot$er spouse or aut$oriFation b t$e court be!ore t$e o!!er is %it$dra%n b eit$er or bot$ o!!erors" ,1;5a.

Art" :6" Eit$er spouse ma dispose b %ill o! $is or $er interest in t$e communit propert " ,n. Art" :9" Neit$er spouse ma donate an communit propert %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er" Ao%ever/ eit$er spouse ma / %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er/ ma>e moderate donations !rom t$e communit propert !or c$arit or on occasions o! !amil re)oicing or !amil distress" ,n.

Se-t" n 3. D"## l,t" n ' A%# l,te C ++,n"t& Re)"+e Art" ::" T$e absolute communit terminates& ,-. Epon t$e deat$ o! eit$er spouse0 ,1. =$en t$ere is a decree o! legal separation0 ,2. =$en t$e marriage is annulled or declared void0 or ,(. In case o! )udicial separation o! propert during t$e marriage under Article -2( to -29" ,-6#a. Art" -;;" T$e separation in !act bet%een $usband and %i!e s$all not a!!ect t$e regime o! absolute communit e'cept t$at& Page | 12

,-.

T$e spouse %$o leaves t$e con)ugal $ome or re!uses to live t$erein / %it$out )ust cause/ s$all not $ave t$e rig$t to be supported0 -loss o! support ,1. =$en t$e consent o! one spouse to an transaction o! t$e ot$er is re8uired b la%/ )udicial aut$oriFation s$all be obtained in a summar proceeding0 -)udicial aut$oriFation instead o! marital consent ,2. In t$e absence o! su!!icient communit propert / t$e separate propert o! bot$ spouses s$all be solidaril liable !or t$e support o! t$e !amil " T$e spouse present s$all/ upon proper petition in a summar proceeding/ be given )udicial aut$orit to administer or encumber an speci!ic separate propert o! t$e ot$er spouse and use t$e !ruits or proceeds t$ereo! to satis! t$e latter@s s$are" -subsidiar solidar liabilit o! t$e separate propert -)udicial aut$orit to administer or encumber t$e separate propert ,including !ruits and proceeds. o! t$e ot$er spouse Art" -;-" I! a spouse %it$out )ust cause abandons t$e ot$er or !ails to compl %it$ $is or $er obligations to t$e !amil / t$e aggrieved spouse ma petition t$e court !or receivers$ip/ !or )udicial separation o! propert or !or aut$orit to be t$e sole administrator o! t$e absolute communit / sub)ect to suc$ precautionar conditions as t$e court ma impose" T$e obligations to t$e !amil mentioned in t$e preceding paragrap$ re!er to marital/ parental or propert relations" A spouse is deemed to $ave abandoned t$e ot$er %$en $er or s$e $as le!t t$e con)ugal d%elling %it$out intention o! returning" T$e spouse %$o $as le!t t$e con)ugal d%elling !or a period o! t$ree mont$s or $as !ailed %it$in t$e same period to give an in!ormation as to $is or $er %$ereabouts s$all be prima !acie presumed to $ave no intention o! returning to t$e con)ugal d%elling" ,-69a. -E!!ect o! abandonment %it$out )ust cause =it$ )udicial aut$oriFation/ t$ere ma be& a. Receivers$ip b. Gudicial separation o! propert c. Sole administration o! t$e absolute communit ,sub)ect ot precautionar conditions. -2-mont$ period presumed t$at t$e spouse %$o le!t t$e d%elling $as no intention o! returning in t$e con)ugal d%elling Se-t" n 4. L"5,".at" n ' the A%# l,te C ++,n"t& A##et# an. L"a%"l"t"e# Page | 13

Art" -;1" Epon dissolution o! t$e absolute communit regime/ t$e !ollo%ing procedure s$all appl & ,-. An inventor s$all be prepared/ listing separatel all t$e properties o! t$e absolute communit and t$e e'clusive properties o! eac$ spouse" -t$e inventor Separate listing o!& a. Absolute communit b. E'clusive properties o! eac$ spouse ,1. T$e debts and obligations o! t$e absolute communit s$all be paid out o! its assets" In case o! insu!!icienc o! said assets/ t$e spouses s$all be solidaril liable !or t$e unpaid balance %it$ t$eir separate properties in accordance %it$ t$e provisions o! t$e second paragrap$ o! Article :(" -pa ment o! debts and obligations o! t$e absolute communit a. Absolute communit assets0 and b. In insu!!icient/ t$e separate properties ,solidaril . ,2. =$atever remains o! t$e e'clusive properties o! t$e spouses s$all t$erea!ter be delivered to eac$ o! t$em"

,(. T$e net remainder o! t$e properties o! t$e absolute communit s$all constitute its net assets/ %$ic$ s$all be divided e8uall bet%een $usband and %i!e/ unless a di!!erent proportion or division %as agreed upon in t$e marriage settlements/ or unless t$ere $as been a voluntar %aiver o! suc$ s$are provided in t$is 7ode" 3or purpose o! computing t$e net pro!its sub)ect to !or!eiture in accordance %it$ Articles (2/ No" ,1. and 52/ No" ,1./ t$e said pro!its s$all be t$e increase in value bet%een t$e mar>et value o! t$e communit propert at t$e time o! t$e celebration o! t$e marriage and t$e mar>et value at t$e time o! its dissolution" -rule o! !or!eiture NOTE& t$e re!erence to bad !ait$ and to c$ildrenPage | 14

a. b.

7ommon c$ildren 7$ildren o! t$e guilt ,not innocent spouse.

,#. T$e presumptive legitimes o! t$e common c$ildren s$all be delivered upon partition/ in accordance %it$ Article #-" ,5. Enless ot$er%ise agreed upon b t$e parties/ in t$e partition o! t$e properties/ t$e con)ugal d%elling and t$e lot on %$ic$ it is situated s$all be ad)udicated to t$e spouse %it$ %$om t$e ma)orit o! t$e common c$ildren c$oose to remain" 7$ildren belo% t$e age o! seven ears are deemed to $ave c$osen t$e mot$er/ unless t$e court $as decided ot$er%ise" In case t$ere in no suc$ ma)orit / t$e court s$all decide/ ta>ing into consideration t$e best interests o! said c$ildren" ,n. -%$o gets t$e con)ugal d%elling or lot a. =$atever is agreed upon in t$e marriage settlement b. I! no suc$ agreement- t$e spouse %it$ %$om t$e ma)orit o! t$e common c$ildren c$ose to remain -c$ildren belo% 6 ears old are deemed to $ave c$osen t$e mot$er/ unless t$e court decides ot$er%ise Art" -;2" Epon t$e termination o! t$e marriage b deat$/ t$e communit propert s$all be li8uidated in t$e same proceeding !or t$e settlement o! t$e estate o! t$e deceased" I! no )udicial settlement proceeding is instituted/ t$e surviving spouse s$all li8uidate t$e communit propert eit$er )udiciall or e'tra-)udiciall %it$in si' mont$s !rom t$e deat$ o! t$e deceased spouse" I! upon t$e lapse o! t$e si' mont$s period/ no li8uidation is made/ an disposition or encumbrance involving t$e communit propert o! t$e terminated marriage s$all be void" S$ould t$e surviving spouse contract a subse8uent marriage %it$out compliance %it$ t$e !oregoing re8uirements/ a mandator regime o! complete separation o! propert s$all govern t$e propert relations o! t$e subse8uent marriage" ,n. -%$en li8uidation is made a" during t$e settlement proceedings o! t$e estate o! t$e deceased b" i! none-%it$in 5 mont$s a!ter t$e deat$ o! t$e deceased spouse Page | 15

-rule i! no li8uidation is made %it$in 5 mont$s An disposition or encumbrance involving communit propert s$all be void -i! t$ere is subse8uent marriage %it$out t$e li8uidation re8uired b la% A mandator regime o! complete separation o! propert s$all govern t$e propert relations o! t$e subse8uent marriage Art" -;(" =$enever t$e li8uidation o! t$e communit properties o! t%o or more marriages contracted b t$e same person be!ore t$e e!!ectivit o! t$is 7ode is carried out simultaneousl / t$e respective capital/ !ruits and income o! eac$ communit s$all be determined upon suc$ proo! as ma be considered according to t$e rules o! evidence" In case o! doubt as to %$ic$ communit t$e e'isting properties belong/ t$e same s$all be divided bet%een t$e di!!erent communities in proportion to t$e capital and duration o! eac$" Chapter /. C n2,)al Partner#h"p ' Ga"n# Se-t" n 1. General Pr !"#" n# Art" -;#" In case t$e !uture spouses agree in t$e marriage settlements t$at t$e regime o! con)ugal partners$ip gains s$all govern t$eir propert relations during marriage/ t$e provisions in t$is 7$apter s$all be o! supplementar application" T$e provisions o! t$is 7$apter s$all also appl to con)ugal partners$ips o! gains alread establis$ed bet%een spouses be!ore t$e e!!ectivit o! t$is 7ode/ %it$out pre)udice to vested rig$ts alread ac8uired in accordance %it$ t$e 7ivil 7ode or ot$er la%s/ as provided in Article 1#5" ,n.

Art" -;5" Ender t$e regime o! con)ugal partners$ip o! gains/ t$e $usband and %i!e place in a common !und t$e proceeds/ products/ !ruits and income !rom t$eir separate properties and t$ose ac8uired b eit$er or bot$ spouses t$roug$ t$eir e!!orts or b c$ance/ and/ upon dissolution o! t$e marriage or o! t$e partners$ip/ t$e net gains or bene!its obtained b eit$er or bot$ spouses s$all be divided e8uall bet%een t$em/ unless ot$er%ise agreed in t$e marriage settlements" ,-(1a. -t$e !ruits s$all !orm con)ugal propert Page | 16

7ommon !und& -" T$e proceeds/ products/ !ruits/ and income o! t$eir separate properties0 1" Ever t$ing ac8uired b t$em %it$in marriage t$roug$ t$eir o%n e!!orts0 2" Ever t$ing ac8uired b t$em b c$ance Art" -;6" T$e rules provided in Articles 99 and 9: s$all also appl to con)ugal partners$ip o! gains" ,n. -commence at t$e precise moment t$at t$e marriage is celebrated" An stipulation/ e'press or implied/ !or t$e commencement o! t$e communit regime at an ot$er time s$all be void -No %aiver o! rig$ts/ s$ares and e!!ects o! t$e absolute communit o! propert during t$e marriage can be made e'cept in case o! )udicial separation o! propert " Art" -;9" T$e con)ugal partners$ip s$all be governed b t$e rules on t$e contract o! partners$ip in all t$at is not in con!lict %it$ %$at is e'pressl determined in t$is 7$apter or b t$e spouses in t$eir marriage settlements" ,-(6a. -pro-rate liabilit o! partners

Se-t" n $. E6-l,#"!e Pr pert& ' Ea-h Sp ,#e Art" -;:" T$e !ollo%ing s$all be t$e e'clusive propert o! eac$ spouse& ,-. T$at %$ic$ is broug$t to t$e marriage as $is or $er o%n0 ,1. T$at %$ic$ eac$ ac8uires during t$e marriage b gratuitous title0 ,2. T$at %$ic$ is ac8uired b rig$t o! redemption/ b barter or b e'c$ange %it$ propert belonging to onl one o! t$e spouses0 and Page | 17

,(. T$at %$ic$ is purc$ased %it$ e'clusive mone o! t$e %i!e or o! t$e $usband" ,-(9a. 7apital $usband Parap$ernal %i!e Art" --;" T$e spouses retain t$e o%ners$ip/ possession/ administration and en)o ment o! t$eir e'clusive properties" Eit$er spouse ma / during t$e marriage/ trans!er t$e administration o! $is or $er e'clusive propert to t$e ot$er b means o! a public instrument/ %$ic$ s$all be recorded in t$e registr o! propert o! t$e place t$e propert is located" ,-26a/ -59a/ -5:a. Art" ---" A spouse o! age ma mortgage/ encumber/ alienate or ot$er%ise dispose o! $is or $er e'clusive propert / %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er spouse/ and appear alone in court to litigate %it$ regard to t$e same" ,n. Art" --1" T$e alienation o! an e'clusive propert o! a spouse administered b t$e ot$er automaticall terminates t$e administration over suc$ propert and t$e proceeds o! t$e alienation s$all be turned over to t$e o%ner-spouse" ,n. Art" --2" Propert donated or le!t b %ill to t$e spouses/ )ointl and %it$ designation o! determinate s$ares/ s$all pertain to t$e donee-spouses as $is or $er o%n e'clusive propert / and in t$e absence o! designation/ s$are and s$are ali>e/ %it$out pre)udice to t$e rig$t o! accretion %$en proper" ,-#;a. Art" --(" I! t$e donations are onerous/ t$e amount o! t$e c$arges s$all be borne b t$e e'clusive propert o! t$e donee spouse/ %$enever t$e $ave been advanced b t$e con)ugal partners$ip o! gains" ,-#-a. Art" --#" Retirement bene!its/ pensions/ annuities/ gratuities/ usu!ructs and similar bene!its s$all be governed b t$e rules on gratuitous or onerous ac8uisitions as ma be proper in eac$ case" ,n. Se-t" n *. C n2,)al Partner#h"p Pr pert& Art" --5" All propert ac8uired during t$e marriage/ %$et$er t$e ac8uisition appears to $ave been made/ contracted or registered in t$e name o! one or bot$ spouses/ is presumed to be con)ugal unless t$e contrar is proved" ,-5;a. Page | 18

Art" --6" T$e !ollo%ing are con)ugal partners$ip properties& ,-. T$ose ac8uired b onerous title during t$e marriage at t$e e'pense o! t$e common !und/ %$et$er t$e ac8uisition be !or t$e partners$ip/ or !or onl one o! t$e spouses0 ,1. T$ose obtained !rom t$e labor/ industr / %or> or pro!ession o! eit$er or bot$ o! t$e spouses0 ,2. T$e !ruits/ natural/ industrial/ or civil/ due or received during t$e marriage !rom t$e common propert / as %ell as t$e net !ruits !rom t$e e'clusive propert o! eac$ spouse0 ,(. T$e s$are o! eit$er spouse in t$e $idden treasure %$ic$ t$e la% a%ards to t$e !inder or o%ner o! t$e propert %$ere t$e treasure is !ound0 ,#. T$ose ac8uired t$roug$ occupation suc$ as !is$ing or $unting0 ,5. Livestoc> e'isting upon t$e dissolution o! t$e partners$ip in e'cess o! t$e number o! eac$ >ind broug$t to t$e marriage b eit$er spouse0 and ,6. T$ose %$ic$ are ac8uired b c$ance/ suc$ as %innings !rom gambling or betting" Ao%ever/ losses t$ere!rom s$all be borne e'clusivel b t$e loser-spouse" ,-#2a/ -#(a/ -##/ -#:. Art" --9" Propert boug$t on installments paid partl !rom e'clusive !unds o! eit$er or bot$ spouses and partl !rom con)ugal !unds belongs to t$e bu er or bu ers i! !ull o%ners$ip %as vested be!ore t$e marriage and to t$e con)ugal partners$ip i! suc$ o%ners$ip %as vested during t$e marriage" In eit$er case/ an amount advanced b t$e partners$ip or b eit$er or bot$ spouses s$all be reimbursed b t$e o%ner or o%ners upon li8uidation o! t$e partners$ip" ,n. Art" --:" =$enever an amount or credit pa able %it$in a period o! time belongs to one o! t$e spouses/ t$e sums %$ic$ ma be collected during t$e marriage in partial pa ments or b installments on t$e principal s$all be t$e e'clusive propert o! t$e spouse" Ao%ever/ interests !alling due during t$e marriage on t$e principal s$all belong to t$e con)ugal partners$ip" ,-#5a/ -#6a. Art" -1;" T$e o%ners$ip o! improvements/ %$et$er !or utilit or adornment/ made on t$e separate propert o! t$e spouses at t$e e'pense o! t$e partners$ip or t$roug$ t$e acts or e!!orts o! eit$er or bot$ spouses s$all pertain to t$e con)ugal partners$ip/ or to t$e original o%ner-spouse/ sub)ect to t$e !ollo%ing rules& Page | 19

=$en t$e cost o! t$e improvement made b t$e con)ugal partners$ip and an resulting increase in value are more t$an t$e value o! t$e propert at t$e time o! t$e improvement/ t$e entire propert o! one o! t$e spouses s$all belong to t$e con)ugal partners$ip/ sub)ect to reimbursement o! t$e value o! t$e propert o! t$e o%ner-spouse at t$e time o! t$e improvement0 ot$er%ise/ said propert s$all be retained in o%ners$ip b t$e o%ner-spouse/ li>e%ise sub)ect to reimbursement o! t$e cost o! t$e improvement" In eit$er case/ t$e o%ners$ip o! t$e entire propert s$all be vested upon t$e reimbursement/ %$ic$ s$all be made at t$e time o! t$e li8uidation o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip" ,-#9a. Se-t" n /. Char)e# Up n an. O%l")at" n# ' the C n2,)al Partner#h"p Art" -1-" T$e con)ugal partners$ip s$all be liable !or& ,-. T$e support o! t$e spouse/ t$eir common c$ildren/ and t$e legitimate c$ildren o! eit$er spouse0 $o%ever/ t$e support o! illegitimate c$ildren s$all be governed b t$e provisions o! t$is 7ode on Support0 ,1. All debts and obligations contracted during t$e marriage b t$e designated administrator-spouse !or t$e bene!it o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip o! gains/ or b bot$ spouses or b one o! t$em %it$ t$e consent o! t$e ot$er0 ,2. 4ebts and obligations contracted b eit$er spouse %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er to t$e e'tent t$at t$e !amil ma $ave bene!ited0 ,(. All ta'es/ liens/ c$arges/ and e'penses/ including ma)or or minor repairs upon t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert 0 ,#. All ta'es and e'penses !or mere preservation made during t$e marriage upon t$e separate propert o! eit$er spouse0 ,5. E'penses to enable eit$er spouse to commence or complete a pro!essional/ vocational/ or ot$er activit !or sel!improvement0 ,6. Antenuptial debts o! eit$er spouse inso!ar as t$e $ave redounded to t$e bene!it o! t$e !amil 0 ,9. T$e value o! %$at is donated or promised b bot$ spouses in !avor o! t$eir common legitimate c$ildren !or t$e e'clusive purpose o! commencing or completing a pro!essional or vocational course or ot$er activit !or sel!-improvement0 and ,:. E'penses o! litigation bet%een t$e spouses unless t$e suit is !ound to groundless" I! t$e con)ugal partners$ip is insu!!icient to cover t$e !oregoing liabilities/ t$e spouses s$all be solidaril liable !or t$e unpaid balance %it$ t$eir separate properties" ,-5-a.

Page | 20

Art" -11" T$e pa ment o! personal debts contracted b t$e $usband or t$e %i!e be!ore or during t$e marriage s$all not be c$arged to t$e con)ugal properties partners$ip e'cept inso!ar as t$e redounded to t$e bene!it o! t$e !amil " Neit$er s$all t$e !ines and pecuniar indemnities imposed upon t$em be c$arged to t$e partners$ip" Ao%ever/ t$e pa ment o! personal debts contracted b eit$er spouse be!ore t$e marriage/ t$at o! !ines and indemnities imposed upon t$em/ as %ell as t$e support o! illegitimate c$ildren o! eit$er spouse/ ma be en!orced against t$e partners$ip assets a!ter t$e responsibilities enumerated in t$e preceding Article $ave been covered/ i! t$e spouse %$o is bound s$ould $ave no e'clusive propert or i! it s$ould be insu!!icient0 but at t$e time o! t$e li8uidation o! t$e partners$ip/ suc$ spouse s$all be c$arged !or %$at $as been paid !or t$e purpose above-mentioned" ,-52a. Art" -12" =$atever ma be lost during t$e marriage in an game o! c$ance or in betting/ s%eepsta>es/ or an ot$er >ind o! gambling %$et$er permitted or pro$ibited b la%/ s$all be borne b t$e loser and s$all not be c$arged to t$e con)ugal partners$ip but an %innings t$ere!rom s$all !orm part o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert " ,-5(a.

Se-t" n 3. A.+"n"#trat" n ' the C n2,)al Partner#h"p Pr pert& Art" -1(" T$e administration and en)o ment o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip s$all belong to bot$ spouses )ointl " In case o! disagreement/ t$e $usband@s decision s$all prevail/ sub)ect to recourse to t$e court b t$e %i!e !or proper remed / %$ic$ must be availed o! %it$in !ive ears !rom t$e date o! t$e contract implementing suc$ decision" In t$e event t$at one spouse is incapacitated or ot$er%ise unable to participate in t$e administration o! t$e con)ugal properties/ t$e ot$er spouse ma assume sole po%ers o! administration" T$ese po%ers do not include disposition or encumbrance %it$out aut$orit o! t$e court or t$e %ritten consent o! t$e ot$er spouse" In t$e absence o! suc$ aut$orit or consent/ t$e disposition or encumbrance s$all be void" Ao%ever/ t$e transaction s$all be construed as a continuing o!!er on t$e part o! t$e consenting spouse and t$e t$ird person/ and ma be per!ected as a binding contract upon t$e acceptance b t$e ot$er spouse or aut$oriFation b t$e court be!ore t$e o!!er is %it$dra%n b eit$er or bot$ o!!erors" ,-5#a. Page | 21

Art" -1#" Neit$er spouse ma donate an con)ugal partners$ip propert %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er" Ao%ever/ eit$er spouse ma / %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er/ ma>e moderate donations !rom t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert !or c$arit or on occasions o! !amil re)oicing or !amil distress" ,-6(a. Se-t" n 4. D"## l,t" n ' C n2,)al Partner#h"p Re)"+e Art" -15" T$e con)ugal partners$ip terminates& ,-. Epon t$e deat$ o! eit$er spouse0 ,1. =$en t$ere is a decree o! legal separation0 ,2. =$en t$e marriage is annulled or declared void0 or ,(. In case o! )udicial separation o! propert during t$e marriage under Articles -2( to -29 ,-6#a. Art" -16" T$e separation in !act bet%een $usband and %i!e s$all not a!!ect t$e regime o! con)ugal partners$ip/ e'cept t$at& ,-. T$e spouse %$o leaves t$e con)ugal $ome or re!uses to live t$erein/ %it$out )ust cause/ s$all not $ave t$e rig$t to be supported0 ,1. =$en t$e consent o! one spouse to an transaction o! t$e ot$er is re8uired b la%/ )udicial aut$oriFation s$all be obtained in a summar proceeding0 ,2. In t$e absence o! su!!icient con)ugal partners$ip propert / t$e separate propert o! bot$ spouses s$all be solidaril liable !or t$e support o! t$e !amil " T$e spouse present s$all/ upon petition in a summar proceeding/ be given )udicial aut$orit to administer or encumber an speci!ic separate propert o! t$e ot$er spouse and use t$e !ruits or proceeds t$ereo! to satis! t$e latter@s s$are" ,-69a. Art" -19" I! a spouse %it$out )ust cause abandons t$e ot$er or !ails to compl %it$ $is or $er obligation to t$e !amil / t$e aggrieved spouse ma petition t$e court !or receivers$ip/ !or )udicial separation o! propert / or !or aut$orit to be t$e sole administrator o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert / sub)ect to suc$ precautionar conditions as t$e court ma impose" Page | 22

T$e obligations to t$e !amil mentioned in t$e preceding paragrap$ re!er to marital/ parental or propert relations" A spouse is deemed to $ave abandoned t$e ot$er %$en $e or s$e $as le!t t$e con)ugal d%elling %it$out intention o! returning" T$e spouse %$o $as le!t t$e con)ugal d%elling !or a period o! t$ree mont$s or $as !ailed %it$in t$e same period to give an in!ormation as to $is or $er %$ereabouts s$all be prima !acie presumed to $ave no intention o! returning to t$e con)ugal d%elling" ,-56a/ -:-a. Se-t" n 7. L"5,".at" n ' the C n2,)al Partner#h"p A##et# an. L"a%"l"t"e# Art" -1:" Epon t$e dissolution o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip regime/ t$e !ollo%ing procedure s$all appl & ,-. An inventor s$all be prepared/ listing separatel all t$e properties o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip and t$e e'clusive properties o! eac$ spouse" ,1. Amounts advanced b t$e con)ugal partners$ip in pa ment o! personal debts and obligations o! eit$er spouse s$all be credited to t$e con)ugal partners$ip as an asset t$ereo!" ,2. Eac$ spouse s$all be reimbursed !or t$e use o! $is or $er e'clusive !unds in t$e ac8uisition o! propert or !or t$e value o! $is or $er e'clusive propert / t$e o%ners$ip o! %$ic$ $as been vested b la% in t$e con)ugal partners$ip" ,(. T$e debts and obligations o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip s$all be paid out o! t$e con)ugal assets" In case o! insu!!icienc o! said assets/ t$e spouses s$all be solidaril liable !or t$e unpaid balance %it$ t$eir separate properties/ in accordance %it$ t$e provisions o! paragrap$ ,1. o! Article -1-" ,#. =$atever remains o! t$e e'clusive properties o! t$e spouses s$all t$erea!ter be delivered to eac$ o! t$em" ,5. Enless t$e o%ner $ad been indemni!ied !rom %$atever source/ t$e loss or deterioration o! movables used !or t$e bene!it o! t$e !amil / belonging to eit$er spouse/ even due to !ortuitous event/ s$all be paid to said spouse !rom t$e con)ugal !unds/ i! an " ,6. T$e net remainder o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip properties s$all constitute t$e pro!its/ %$ic$ s$all be divided e8uall bet%een $usband and %i!e/ unless a di!!erent proportion or division %as agreed upon in t$e marriage settlements or unless t$ere $as been a voluntar %aiver or !or!eiture o! suc$ s$are as provided in t$is 7ode" ,9. T$e presumptive legitimes o! t$e common c$ildren s$all be delivered upon t$e partition in accordance %it$ Article #-" ,:. In t$e partition o! t$e properties/ t$e con)ugal d%elling and t$e lot on %$ic$ it is situated s$all/ unless ot$er%ise agreed upon b t$e parties/ be ad)udicated to t$e spouse %it$ %$om t$e ma)orit o! t$e common c$ildren c$oose to remain" Page | 23

7$ildren belo% t$e age o! seven ears are deemed to $ave c$osen t$e mot$er/ unless t$e court $as decided ot$er%ise" In case t$ere is no suc$ ma)orit / t$e court s$all decide/ ta>ing into consideration t$e best interests o! said c$ildren"

Art" -2;" Epon t$e termination o! t$e marriage b deat$/ t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert s$all be li8uidated in t$e same proceeding !or t$e settlement o! t$e estate o! t$e deceased" I! no )udicial settlement proceeding is instituted/ t$e surviving spouse s$all li8uidate t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert eit$er )udiciall or e'tra-)udiciall %it$in si' mont$s !rom t$e deat$ o! t$e deceased spouse" I! upon t$e lapse o! t$e si'-mont$ period no li8uidation is made/ an disposition or encumbrance involving t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert o! t$e terminated marriage s$all be void" S$ould t$e surviving spouse contract a subse8uent marriage %it$out compliance %it$ t$e !oregoing re8uirements/ a mandator regime o! complete separation o! propert s$all govern t$e propert relations o! t$e subse8uent marriage" ,n.

Art" -2-" =$enever t$e li8uidation o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip properties o! t%o or more marriages contracted b t$e same person be!ore t$e e!!ectivit o! t$is 7ode is carried out simultaneousl / t$e respective capital/ !ruits and income o! eac$ partners$ip s$all be determined upon suc$ proo! as ma be considered according to t$e rules o! evidence" In case o! doubt as to %$ic$ partners$ip t$e e'isting properties belong/ t$e same s$all be divided bet%een t$e di!!erent partners$ips in proportion to t$e capital and duration o! eac$" Art" -21" T$e Rules o! 7ourt on t$e administration o! estates o! deceased persons s$all be observed in t$e appraisal and sale o! propert o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip/ and ot$er matters %$ic$ are not e'pressl determined in t$is 7$apter" ,-96a. Art" -22" 3rom t$e common mass o! propert support s$all be given to t$e surviving spouse and to t$e c$ildren during t$e li8uidation o! t$e inventoried propert and until %$at belongs to t$em is delivered0 but !rom t$is s$all be deducted t$at amount received !or support %$ic$ e'ceeds t$e !ruits or rents pertaining to t$em" ,-99a. Page | 24

Chapter 3. Separat" n ' Pr pert& ' the Sp ,#e# an. A.+"n"#trat" n ' C ++ n Pr pert& %& One Sp ,#e D,r"n) the (arr"a)e Art" -2(" In t$e absence o! an e'press declaration in t$e marriage settlements/ t$e separation o! propert bet%een spouses during t$e marriage s$all not ta>e place e'cept b )udicial order" Suc$ )udicial separation o! propert ma eit$er be voluntar or !or su!!icient cause" ,-:;a. Art" -2#" An o! t$e !ollo%ing s$all be considered su!!icient cause !or )udicial separation o! propert & ,-. T$at t$e spouse o! t$e petitioner $as been sentenced to a penalt %$ic$ carries %it$ it civil interdiction0 ,1. T$at t$e spouse o! t$e petitioner $as been )udiciall declared an absentee0 ,2. T$at loss o! parental aut$orit o! t$e spouse o! petitioner $as been decreed b t$e court0 ,(. T$at t$e spouse o! t$e petitioner $as abandoned t$e latter or !ailed to compl %it$ $is or $er obligations to t$e !amil as provided !or in Article -;-0 ,#. T$at t$e spouse granted t$e po%er o! administration in t$e marriage settlements $as abused t$at po%er0 and ,5. T$at at t$e time o! t$e petition/ t$e spouses $ave been separated in !act !or at least one ear and reconciliation is $ig$l improbable" In t$e cases provided !or in Numbers ,-./ ,1. and ,2./ t$e presentation o! t$e !inal )udgment against t$e guilt or absent spouse s$all be enoug$ basis !or t$e grant o! t$e decree o! )udicial separation o! propert " ,-:-a. Art" -25" T$e spouses ma )ointl !ile a veri!ied petition %it$ t$e court !or t$e voluntar dissolution o! t$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip o! gains/ and !or t$e separation o! t$eir common properties" All creditors o! t$e absolute communit or o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip o! gains/ as %ell as t$e personal creditors o! t$e spouse/ s$all be listed in t$e petition and noti!ied o! t$e !iling t$ereo!" T$e court s$all ta>e measures to protect t$e creditors and ot$er persons %it$ pecuniar interest" ,-:-a.

Page | 25

Art" -26" Once t$e separation o! propert $as been decreed/ t$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip o! gains s$all be li8uidated in con!ormit %it$ t$is 7ode" 4uring t$e pendenc o! t$e proceedings !or separation o! propert / t$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip s$all pa !or t$e support o! t$e spouses and t$eir c$ildren" ,-:1a. Art" -29" A!ter dissolution o! t$e absolute communit or o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip/ t$e provisions on complete separation o! propert s$all appl " ,-:-a. Art" -2:" T$e petition !or separation o! propert and t$e !inal )udgment granting t$e same s$all be recorded in t$e proper local civil registries and registries o! propert " ,-:2a. Art" -(;" T$e separation o! propert s$all not pre)udice t$e rig$ts previousl ac8uired b creditors" ,-:(a. Art" -(-" T$e spouses ma / in t$e same proceedings %$ere separation o! propert %as decreed/ !ile a motion in court !or a decree reviving t$e propert regime t$at e'isted bet%een t$em be!ore t$e separation o! propert in an o! t$e !ollo%ing instances& ,-. =$en t$e civil interdiction terminates0 ,1. =$en t$e absentee spouse reappears0 ,2. =$en t$e court/ being satis!ied t$at t$e spouse granted t$e po%er o! administration in t$e marriage settlements %ill not again abuse t$at po%er/ aut$oriFes t$e resumption o! said administration0 ,(. =$en t$e spouse %$o $as le!t t$e con)ugal $ome %it$out a decree o! legal separation resumes common li!e %it$ t$e ot$er0 ,#. =$en parental aut$orit is )udiciall restored to t$e spouse previousl deprived t$ereo!0 ,5. =$en t$e spouses %$o $ave separated in !act !or at least one ear/ reconcile and resume common li!e0 or

Page | 26

,6. =$en a!ter voluntar dissolution o! t$e absolute communit o! propert or con)ugal partners$ip $as been )udiciall decreed upon t$e )oint petition o! t$e spouses/ t$e agree to t$e revival o! t$e !ormer propert regime" No voluntar separation o! propert ma t$erea!ter be granted" T$e revival o! t$e !ormer propert regime s$all be governed b Article 56" ,-:#a. Art" -(1" T$e administration o! all classes o! e'clusive propert o! eit$er spouse ma be trans!erred b t$e court to t$e ot$er spouse& ,-. =$en one spouse becomes t$e guardian o! t$e ot$er0 ,1. =$en one spouse is )udiciall declared an absentee0 ,2. =$en one spouse is sentenced to a penalt %$ic$ carries %it$ it civil interdiction0 or ,(. =$en one spouse becomes a !ugitive !rom )ustice or is in $iding as an accused in a criminal case" I! t$e ot$er spouse is not 8uali!ied b reason o! incompetence/ con!lict o! interest/ or an ot$er )ust cause/ t$e court s$all appoint a suitable person to be t$e administrator" ,n.

Chapter 4. Re)"+e ' Separat" n ' Pr pert& Art" -(2" S$ould t$e !uture spouses agree in t$e marriage settlements t$at t$eir propert relations during marriage s$all be governed b t$e regime o! separation o! propert / t$e provisions o! t$is 7$apter s$all be suppletor " ,1-1a. Art" -((" Separation o! propert ma re!er to present or !uture propert or bot$" It ma be total or partial" In t$e latter case/ t$e propert not agreed upon as separate s$all pertain to t$e absolute communit " ,1-2a. Art" -(#" Eac$ spouse s$all o%n/ dispose o!/ possess/ administer and en)o $is or $er o%n separate estate/ %it$out need o! t$e consent o! t$e ot$er" To eac$ spouse s$all belong all earnings !rom $is or $er pro!ession/ business or industr and all !ruits/ natural/ industrial or civil/ due or received during t$e marriage !rom $is or $er separate propert " ,1-(a. Page | 27

Art" -(5" Bot$ spouses s$all bear t$e !amil e'penses in proportion to t$eir income/ or/ in case o! insu!!icienc or de!ault t$ereo!/ to t$e current mar>et value o! t$eir separate properties" T$e liabilities o! t$e spouses to creditors !or !amil e'penses s$all/ $o%ever/ be solidar " ,1-#a.

Chapter 7. Pr pert& Re)"+e ' Un" n# W"th ,t (arr"a)e Art" -(6" =$en a man and a %oman %$o are capacitated to marr eac$ ot$er/ live e'clusivel %it$ eac$ ot$er as $usband and %i!e %it$out t$e bene!it o! marriage or under a void marriage/ t$eir %ages and salaries s$all be o%ned b t$em in e8ual s$ares and t$e propert ac8uired b bot$ o! t$em t$roug$ t$eir %or> or industr s$all be governed b t$e rules on co-o%ners$ip" In t$e absence o! proo! to t$e contrar / properties ac8uired %$ile t$e lived toget$er s$all be presumed to $ave been obtained b t$eir )oint e!!orts/ %or> or industr / and s$all be o%ned b t$em in e8ual s$ares" 3or purposes o! t$is Article/ a part %$o did not participate in t$e ac8uisition b t$e ot$er part o! an propert s$all be deemed to $ave contributed )ointl in t$e ac8uisition t$ereo! i! t$e !ormer@s e!!orts consisted in t$e care and maintenance o! t$e !amil and o! t$e $ouse$old" Neit$er part can encumber or dispose b acts inter vivos o! $is or $er s$are in t$e propert ac8uired during co$abitation and o%ned in common/ %it$out t$e consent o! t$e ot$er/ until a!ter t$e termination o! t$eir co$abitation" =$en onl one o! t$e parties to a void marriage is in good !ait$/ t$e s$are o! t$e part in bad !ait$ in t$e co-o%ners$ip s$all be !or!eited in !avor o! t$eir common c$ildren" In case o! de!ault o! or %aiver b an or all o! t$e common c$ildren or t$eir descendants/ eac$ vacant s$are s$all belong to t$e respective surviving descendants" In t$e absence o! descendants/ suc$ s$are s$all belong to t$e innocent part " In all cases/ t$e !or!eiture s$all ta>e place upon termination o! t$e co$abitation" ,-((a. -T$eir %ages and salaries o%ned in EHEAL s$ares b bot$ t$e man and t$e %oman - propert ac8uired bot$ t$ru t$eir %or> and industr rules o! co-o%ners$ip s$all appl ,proportionate to t$eir e!!orts in t$e %or> or industr . AO=EIER& -" T$e presumption is t$at t$e e!!ort/ %or> or industr is GOINT and t$ere!ore t$e s$ares are e8ual 1" 7are and maintenance o! t$e !amil and $ouse$old deemed to be )oint and e8ual Page | 28

Art" -(9" In cases o! co$abitation not !alling under t$e preceding Article/ onl t$e properties ac8uired b bot$ o! t$e parties t$roug$ t$eir actual )oint contribution o! mone / propert / or industr s$all be o%ned b t$em in common in proportion to t$eir respective contributions" In t$e absence o! proo! to t$e contrar / t$eir contributions and corresponding s$ares are presumed to be e8ual" T$e same rule and presumption s$all appl to )oint deposits o! mone and evidences o! credit" I! one o! t$e parties is validl married to anot$er/ $is or $er s$are in t$e co-o%ners$ip s$all accrue to t$e absolute communit or con)ugal partners$ip e'isting in suc$ valid marriage" I! t$e part %$o acted in bad !ait$ is not validl married to anot$er/ $is or $er s$all be !or!eited in t$e manner provided in t$e last paragrap$ o! t$e preceding Article" T$e !oregoing rules on !or!eiture s$all li>e%ise appl even i! bot$ parties are in bot$ !ait$" ,-((a.

PROPERTJ REGI?E O3 ENIONS =ITAOET ?ARRIAGE Art. 1/7

Art. 1/8

Page | 29

Appl"-a%"l"t&

-" man and %oman 1" living toget$er as $usband and %i!e 2" %it$ capacit to marr ,Art"# %it$out an legal impediment. -at least -9 ears old n t Art" 26,incestuous void marriage. n t Art" 29 ,void marriage b reason o! public polic . N t bigamous (" ot$er void marriages due to absence o! !ormal re8uisite O%ned in e8ual s$ares Remains e'clusive provided t$ere is proo! Governed b rules on co-o%ners$ip O%ned in e8ual s$ares since it is presumed to $ave been ac8uired t$roug$ )oint e!!orts i! one part did not participate in ac8uisition/ presumed to $ave contributed t$roug$ care and maintenance o! !amil and $ouse$old

-" man and %oman 1" living toget$er as $usband and %i!e 2" NOT capacitated to marr ,Art"2#,-. under -9 ears old. (" adulterous relations$ip ,e"g" concubinage. #" bigamousDpol gamous marriage ,Art"2#,(.. 5" incestuous marriages under Art"26 6" Ioid marriages b reason o! public polic under Art"29 Separatel o%ned b parties Remains e'clusive O%ned in common in proportion to respective contribution No presumption o! )oint ac8uisition" =$en t$ere is evidence o! )oint ac8uisition but none as to t$e e'tent o! actual contribution/ t$ere is a presumption o! e8ual s$aring to anot$er& $isD$er s$are in t$e co-o%ned properties %ill accrue to t$e A7PD7PG o! $isD$er e'isting valid marriage I! t$e part %$o acted in bad !ait$ is not Page | 30

Wa)e# an. Salar"e# Pr pert"e# a-5,"re. thr ,)h e6-l,#"!e ',n.# Pr pert"e# a-5,"re. %& % th thr ,)h 0 r9 r "n.,#tr& Pr pert"e# a-5,"re. 0h"le l"!"n) t )ether

validl married to anot$er/ $isD$er s$are s$all be !or!eited in t$e same manner as t$at provided in Art -(6" T$e same rules on !or!eiture s$all appl i! bot$ parties are in bad !ait$ =$en onl one o! t$e parties is in good !ait$/ t$e s$are o! t$e part in bad !ait$ s$all be !or!eited& -" In !avor o! t$eir common c$ildren 1" In case o! de!ault o! or %aiver b an or all o! t$e common c$ildren or t$eir descendants/ eac$ vacant s$are s$all belong to t$e respective surviving descendants 2" In t$e absence o! suc$ descendants/ suc$ s$are belongs to t$e innocent part

F r'e"t,re

I! one part is validl married

TITLE V THE FA(ILY Chapter 1. The Fa+"l& a# an In#t"t,t" n Page | 31

Art" -(:" T$e !amil / being t$e !oundation o! t$e nation/ is a basic social institution %$ic$ public polic c$eris$es and protects" 7onse8uentl / !amil relations are governed b la% and no custom/ practice or agreement destructive o! t$e !amil s$all be recogniFed or given e!!ect" ,1-5a/ 1-9a. Art" #;" 3amil relations include t$ose& ,-. Bet%een $usband and %i!e0 ,1. Bet%een parents and c$ildren0 ,2. Among brot$ers and sisters/ %$et$er o! t$e !ull or $al!blood" ,1-6a. Art" -#-" No suit bet%een members o! t$e same !amil s$all prosper unless it s$ould appear !rom t$e veri!ied complaint or petition t$at earnest e!!orts to%ard a compromise $ave been made -/ but t$at t$e same $ave !ailed1" I! it is s$o%n t$at no suc$ e!!orts %ere in !act made/ t$e same case must be dismissed" T$is rules s$all not appl to cases %$ic$ ma not be t$e sub)ect o! compromise under t$e 7ivil 7ode" ,111a. E'ceptions under 7ivil 7ode& :V;LAFF< a" 7ivil status o! persons/ b" Ialidit o! marriage or a legal separation/ c" An ground !or legal separation/ d" 3uture support/ e" Gurisdiction o! courts/ !" 3uture legitime

Chapter $. The Fa+"l& H +e Art" -#1" T$e !amil $ome/ constituted )ointl b t$e $usband and t$e %i!e or b an unmarried $ead o! a !amil / is t$e d%elling $ouse %$ere t$e and t$eir !amil reside/ and t$e land on %$ic$ it is situated" ,112a.

Page | 32

Art" -#2" T$e !amil $ome is deemed constituted on a $ouse and lot !rom t$e time it is occupied as a !amil residence" 3rom t$e time o! its constitution and so long as an o! its bene!iciaries actuall resides t$erein/ t$e !amil $ome continues to be suc$ and is e'empt !rom e'ecution/ !orced sale or attac$ment e'cept as $ereina!ter provided and to t$e e'tent o! t$e value allo%ed b la%" Art" -#(" T$e bene!iciaries o! a !amil $ome are& ,-. T$e $usband and %i!e/ or an unmarried person %$o is t$e $ead o! a !amil 0 and ,1. T$eir parents/ ascendants/ descendants/ brot$ers and sisters/ %$et$er t$e relations$ip be legitimate or illegitimate/ %$o are living in t$e !amil $ome and %$o depend upon t$e $ead o! t$e !amil !or legal support" ,115a. Art" -##" T$e !amil $ome s$all be e'empt !rom e'ecution/ !orced sale or attac$ment e'cept& ,-. 3or nonpa ment o! ta'es0 ,1. 3or debts incurred prior to t$e constitution o! t$e !amil $ome0 ,2. 3or debts secured b mortgages on t$e premises be!ore or a!ter suc$ constitution0 and ,(. 3or debts due to laborers/ mec$anics/ arc$itects/ builders/ materialmen and ot$ers %$o $ave rendered service or !urnis$ed material !or t$e construction o! t$e building" ,1(2a. Art" -#5" T$e !amil $ome must be part o! t$e properties o! t$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip/ or o! t$e e'clusive properties o! eit$er spouse %it$ t$e latter@s consent" It ma also be constituted b an unmarried $ead o! a !amil on $is or $er o%n propert " Nevert$eless/ propert t$at is t$e sub)ect o! a conditional sale on installments %$ere o%ners$ip is reserved b t$e vendor onl to guarantee pa ment o! t$e purc$ase price ma be constituted as a !amil $ome" ,116a/ 119a. Art" -#6" T$e actual value o! t$e !amil $ome s$all not e'ceed/ at t$e time o! its constitution/ t$e amount o! t$e t$ree $undred t$ousand pesos in urban areas/ and t%o $undred t$ousand pesos in rural areas/ or suc$ amounts as ma $erea!ter be !i'ed b la%" In an event/ i! t$e value o! t$e currenc c$anges a!ter t$e adoption o! t$is 7ode/ t$e value most !avorable !or t$e constitution o! a !amil $ome s$all be t$e basis o! evaluation" 3or purposes o! t$is Article/ urban areas are deemed to include c$artered cities and municipalities %$ose annual income at least e8uals t$at legall re8uired !or c$artered cities" All ot$ers are deemed to be rural areas" ,12-a. Page | 33

Art" -#9" T$e !amil $ome ma be sold/ alienated/ donated/ assigned or encumbered b t$e o%ner or o%ners t$ereo! %it$ t$e %ritten consent o! t$e person constituting t$e same/ t$e latter@s spouse/ and a ma)orit o! t$e bene!iciaries o! legal age" In case o! con!lict/ t$e court s$all decide" ,12#a. Art" -#:" T$e !amil $ome s$all continue despite t$e deat$ o! one or bot$ spouses or o! t$e unmarried $ead o! t$e !amil !or a period o! ten ears or !or as long as t$ere is a minor bene!iciar / and t$e $eirs cannot partition t$e same unless t$e court !inds compelling reasons t$ere!or" T$is rule s$all appl regardless o! %$oever o%ns t$e propert or constituted t$e !amil $ome" ,129a. Art" -5;" =$en a creditor %$ose claims is not among t$ose mentioned in Article -## obtains a )udgment in $is !avor/ and $e $as reasonable grounds to believe t$at t$e !amil $ome is actuall %ort$ more t$an t$e ma'imum amount !i'ed in Article -#6/ $e ma appl to t$e court %$ic$ rendered t$e )udgment !or an order directing t$e sale o! t$e propert under e'ecution" T$e court s$all so order i! it !inds t$at t$e actual value o! t$e !amil $ome e'ceeds t$e ma'imum amount allo%ed b la% as o! t$e time o! its constitution" I! t$e increased actual value e'ceeds t$e ma'imum allo%ed in Article -#6 and results !rom subse8uent voluntar improvements introduced b t$e person or persons constituting t$e !amil $ome/ b t$e o%ner or o%ners o! t$e propert / or b an o! t$e bene!iciaries/ t$e same rule and procedure s$all appl " At t$e e'ecution sale/ no bid belo% t$e value allo%ed !or a !amil $ome s$all be considered" T$e proceeds s$all be applied !irst to t$e amount mentioned in Article -#6/ and t$en to t$e liabilities under t$e )udgment and t$e costs" T$e e'cess/ i! an / s$all be delivered to t$e )udgment debtor" ,1(6a/ 1(9a. Art" -5-" 3or purposes o! availing o! t$e bene!its o! a !amil $ome as provided !or in t$is 7$apter/ a person ma constitute/ or be t$e bene!iciar o!/ onl one !amil $ome" ,n. Art" -51" T$e provisions in t$is 7$apter s$all also govern e'isting !amil residences inso!ar as said provisions are applicable" ,n. TITLE VI PATERNITY AND FILIATION Page | 34

Chapter 1. Le)"t"+ate Ch"l.ren Art" -52" T$e !iliation o! c$ildren ma be b nature or b adoption" Natural !iliation ma be legitimate or illegitimate" ,n. -!iliation is t$e relation o! c$ild %it$ regard to $is or $er mot$er/ !at$er and ancestors -paternit is t$e relation o! t$e c$ild to $is mot$er Art" -5(" 7$ildren conceived or born during t$e marriage o! t$e parents are legitimate" 7$ildren conceived as a result o! arti!icial insemination o! t$e %i!e %it$ t$e sperm o! t$e $usband or t$at o! a donor or bot$ are li>e%ise legitimate c$ildren o! t$e $usband and $is %i!e/ provided/ t$at bot$ o! t$em aut$oriFed or rati!ied suc$ insemination in a %ritten instrument e'ecuted and signed b t$em be!ore t$e birt$ o! t$e c$ild" T$e instrument s$all be recorded in t$e civil registr toget$er %it$ t$e birt$ certi!icate o! t$e c$ild" ,##a/ 1#9a. Art" -5#" 7$ildren conceived and born outside a valid marriage are illegitimate/ unless ot$er%ise provided in t$is 7ode" ,n. Art" -55" Legitimac o! a c$ild ma be impugned onl on t$e !ollo%ing grounds& ,-. T$at it %as p$ sicall impossible !or t$e $usband to $ave se'ual intercourse %it$ $is %i!e %it$in t$e !irst -1; da s o! t$e 2;; da s %$ic$ immediatel preceded t$e birt$ o! t$e c$ild because o!& ,a. t$e p$ sical incapacit o! t$e $usband to $ave se'ual intercourse %it$ $is %i!e0 ,b. t$e !act t$at t$e $usband and %i!e %ere living separatel in suc$ a %a t$at se'ual intercourse %as not possible0 or ,c. serious illness o! t$e $usband/ %$ic$ absolutel prevented se'ual intercourse0 ,1. T$at it is proved t$at !or biological or ot$er scienti!ic reasons/ t$e c$ild could not $ave been t$at o! t$e $usband/ e'cept in t$e instance provided in t$e second paragrap$ o! Article -5(0 or ,2. T$at in case o! c$ildren conceived t$roug$ arti!icial insemination/ t$e %ritten aut$oriFation or rati!ication o! eit$er parent %as obtained t$roug$ mista>e/ !raud/ violence/ intimidation/ or undue in!luence" ,1##a.

Page | 35

Art" -56" T$e c$ild s$all be considered legitimate alt$oug$ t$e mot$er ma $ave declared against its legitimac or ma $ave been sentenced as an adulteress" ,1#5a. Art" -59" I! t$e marriage is terminated and t$e mot$er contracted anot$er marriage %it$in t$ree $undred da s a!ter suc$ termination o! t$e !ormer marriage/ t$ese rules s$all govern in t$e absence o! proo! to t$e contrar & ,-. A c$ild born be!ore one $undred eig$t da s a!ter t$e solemniFation o! t$e subse8uent marriage is considered to $ave been conceived during t$e !ormer marriage/ provided it be born %it$in t$ree $undred da s a!ter t$e termination o! t$e !ormer marriage0 ,1. A c$ild born a!ter one $undred eig$t da s !ollo%ing t$e celebration o! t$e subse8uent marriage is considered to $ave been conceived during suc$ marriage/ even t$oug$ it be born %it$in t$e t$ree $undred da s a!ter t$e termination o! t$e !ormer marriage" ,1#:a. Art" -5:" T$e legitimac or illegitimac o! a c$ild born a!ter t$ree $undred da s !ollo%ing t$e termination o! t$e marriage s$all be proved b %$oever alleges suc$ legitimac or illegitimac " ,15-a. Art" -6;" T$e action to impugn t$e legitimac o! t$e c$ild s$all be broug$t %it$in one ear !rom t$e >no%ledge o! t$e birt$ or its recording in t$e civil register/ i! t$e $usband or/ in a proper case/ an o! $is $eirs/ s$ould reside in t$e cit or municipalit %$ere t$e birt$ too> place or %as recorded" I! t$e $usband or/ in $is de!ault/ all o! $is $eirs do not reside at t$e place o! birt$ as de!ined in t$e !irst paragrap$ or %$ere it %as recorded/ t$e period s$all be t%o ears i! t$e s$ould reside in t$e P$ilippines0 and t$ree ears i! abroad" I! t$e birt$ o! t$e c$ild $as been concealed !rom or %as un>no%n to t$e $usband or $is $eirs/ t$e period s$all be counted !rom t$e discover or >no%ledge o! t$e birt$ o! t$e c$ild or o! t$e !act o! registration o! said birt$/ %$ic$ever is earlier" ,152a. Art" -6-" T$e $eirs o! t$e $usband ma impugn t$e !iliation o! t$e c$ild %it$in t$e period prescribed in t$e preceding article onl in t$e !ollo%ing cases& ,-. I! t$e $usband s$ould died be!ore t$e e'piration o! t$e period !i'ed !or bringing $is action0 ,1. I! $e s$ould die a!ter t$e !iling o! t$e complaint %it$out $aving desisted t$ere!rom0 or Page | 36

,2. I! t$e c$ild %as born a!ter t$e deat$ o! t$e $usband" ,151a. Chapter $. Pr ' ' F"l"at" n Art" -61" T$e !iliation o! legitimate c$ildren is establis$ed b an o! t$e !ollo%ing& ,-. T$e record o! birt$ appearing in t$e civil register or a !inal )udgment0 or ,1. An admission o! legitimate !iliation in a public document or a private $and%ritten instrument and signed b t$e parent concerned" In t$e absence o! t$e !oregoing evidence/ t$e legitimate !iliation s$all be proved b & ,-. T$e open and continuous possession o! t$e status o! a legitimate c$ild0 or ,1. An ot$er means allo%ed b t$e Rules o! 7ourt and special la%s" ,15#a/ 155a/ 156a. Art" -62" T$e action to claim legitimac ma be broug$t b t$e c$ild during $is or $er li!etime and s$all be transmitted to t$e $eirs s$ould t$e c$ild die during minorit or in a state o! insanit " In t$ese cases/ t$e $eirs s$all $ave a period o! !ive ears %it$in %$ic$ to institute t$e action" Art" -6(" Legitimate c$ildren s$all $ave t$e rig$t& ,-. To bear t$e surnames o! t$e !at$er and t$e mot$er/ in con!ormit %it$ t$e provisions o! t$e 7ivil 7ode on Surnames0 ,1. To receive support !rom t$eir parents/ t$eir ascendants/ and in proper cases/ t$eir brot$ers and sisters/ in con!ormit %it$ t$e provisions o! t$is 7ode on Support0 and ,2. To be entitled to t$e legitimate and ot$er successional rig$ts granted to t$em b t$e 7ivil 7ode" ,15(a. Chapter *. Ille)"t"+ate Ch"l.ren Art" -6#" Illegitimate c$ildren ma establis$ t$eir illegitimate !iliation in t$e same %a and on t$e same evidence as legitimate c$ildren" T$e action must be broug$t %it$in t$e same period speci!ied in Article -62/ e'cept %$en t$e action is based on t$e second paragrap$ o! Article -61/ in %$ic$ case t$e action ma be broug$t during t$e li!etime o! t$e alleged parent" ,19:a.

Page | 37

Art" -65" Illegitimate c$ildren s$all use t$e surname and s$all be under t$e parental aut$orit o! t$eir mot$er/ and s$all be entitled to support in con!ormit %it$ t$is 7ode" T$e legitime o! eac$ illegitimate c$ild s$all consist o! one-$al! o! t$e legitime o! a legitimate c$ild" E'cept !or t$is modi!ication/ all ot$er provisions in t$e 7ivil 7ode governing successional rig$ts s$all remain in !orce" ,196a. Chapter /. Le)"t"+ate. Ch"l.ren Art" -66" Onl c$ildren conceived and born outside o! %edloc> o! parents %$o/ at t$e time o! t$e conception o! t$e !ormer/ %ere not dis8uali!ied b an impediment to marr eac$ ot$er ma be legitimated" ,15:a. Art" -69" Legitimation s$all ta>e place b a subse8uent valid marriage bet%een parents" T$e annulment o! a viodable marriage s$all not a!!ect t$e legitimation" ,16;a. Art" -6:" Legitimated c$ildren s$all en)o t$e same rig$ts as legitimate c$ildren" ,161a. Art" -9;" T$e e!!ects o! legitimation s$all retroact to t$e time o! t$e c$ild@s birt$" ,162a. Art" -9-" T$e legitimation o! c$ildren %$o died be!ore t$e celebration o! t$e marriage s$all bene!it t$eir descendants" ,16(. Art" -91" Legitimation ma be impugned onl b t$ose %$o are pre)udiced in t$eir rig$ts/ %it$in !ive ears !rom t$e time t$eir cause o! action accrues" ,16#a. TITLE VII ADOPTION Art" -92" A person o! age and in possession o! !ull civil capacit and legal rig$ts ma adopt/ provided $e is in a position to support and care !or $is c$ildren/ legitimate or illegitimate/ in >eeping %it$ t$e means o! t$e !amil " Onl minors ma be adopted/ e'cept in t$e cases %$en t$e adoption o! a person o! ma)orit age is allo%ed in t$is Title" In addition/ t$e adopter must be at least si'teen ears older t$an t$e person to be adopted/ unless t$e adopter is t$e parent b nature o! t$e adopted/ or is t$e spouse o! t$e legitimate parent o! t$e person to be adopted" ,16a/ EO :- and P4 5;2. Art" -9(" T$e !ollo%ing persons ma not adopt& ,-. T$e guardian %it$ respect to t$e %ard prior to t$e approval o! t$e !inal accounts rendered upon t$e termination o! t$eir guardians$ip relation0 ,1. An person %$o $as been convicted o! a crime involving moral turpitude0 ,2. An alien/ e'cept& ,a. A !ormer 3ilipino citiFen %$o see>s to adopt a relative b consanguinit 0 Page | 38

,b. One %$o see>s to adopt t$e legitimate c$ild o! $is or $er 3ilipino spouse0 or ,c. One %$o is married to a 3ilipino citiFen and see>s to adopt )ointl %it$ $is or $er spouse a relative b consanguinit o! t$e latter" Aliens not included in t$e !oregoing e'ceptions ma adopt 3ilipino c$ildren in accordance %it$ t$e rules on inter-countr adoptions as ma be provided b la%" ,19a/ EO :- and P4 5;2. Art" -9#" Ausband and %i!e must )ointl adopt/ e'cept in t$e !ollo%ing cases& ,-. =$en one spouse see>s to adopt $is o%n illegitimate c$ild0 or ,1. =$en one spouse see>s to adopt t$e legitimate c$ild o! t$e ot$er" ,1:a/ EO :- and P4 5;2. Art" -95" In case $usband and %i!e )ointl adopt or one spouse adopts t$e legitimate c$ild o! t$e ot$er/ )oint parental aut$orit s$all be e'ercised b t$e spouses in accordance %it$ t$is 7ode" ,1:a/ EO and P4 5;2. Art" -96" T$e !ollo%ing ma not be adopted& ,-. A person o! legal age/ unless $e or s$e is a c$ild b nature o! t$e adopter or $is or $er spouse/ or/ prior to t$e adoption/ said person $as been consistentl considered and treated b t$e adopter as $is or $er o%n c$ild during minorit " ,1. An alien %it$ %$ose government t$e Republic o! t$e P$ilippines $as no diplomatic relations0 and ,2. A person %$o $as alread been adopted unless suc$ adoption $as been previousl revo>ed or rescinded" ,2;a/ EO :- and P4 5;2. Art" -99" T$e %ritten consent o! t$e !ollo%ing to t$e adoption s$all be necessar & ,-. T$e person to be adopted/ i! ten ears o! age or over/ ,1. T$e parents b nature o! t$e c$ild/ t$e legal guardian/ or t$e proper government instrumentalit 0 ,2. T$e legitimate and adopted c$ildren/ ten ears o! age or over/ o! t$e adopting parent or parents0 ,(. T$e illegitimate c$ildren/ ten ears o! age or over/ o! t$e adopting parent/ i! living %it$ said parent and t$e latter@s spouse/ i! an 0 and ,#. T$e spouse/ i! an / o! t$e person adopting or to be adopted" ,2-a/ EO :- and P4 5;2. Page | 39

Art" -9:" Adoption s$all $ave t$e !ollo%ing e!!ects& ,-. 3or civil purposes/ t$e adopted s$all be deemed to be a legitimate c$ild o! t$e adopters and bot$ s$all ac8uire t$e reciprocal rig$ts and obligations arising !rom t$e relations$ip o! parent and c$ild/ including t$e rig$t o! t$e adopted to use t$e surname o! t$e adopters0 ,1. T$e parental aut$orit o! t$e parents b nature over t$e adopted s$all terminate and be vested in t$e adopters/ e'cept t$at i! t$e adopter is t$e spouse o! t$e parent b nature o! t$e adopted/ parental aut$orit over t$e adopted s$all be e'ercised )ointl b bot$ spouses0 and ,2. T$e adopted s$all remain an intestate $eir o! $is parents and ot$er blood relatives" ,2:,-.a/ ,2.a/ P4 5;2. Art" -:;" Legal or intestate succession to t$e estate o! t$e adopted s$all be governed b t$e !ollo%ing rules& ,-. Legitimate and illegitimate c$ildren and descendants and t$e surviving spouse o! t$e adopted s$all in$erit !rom t$e adopted/ in accordance %it$ t$e ordinar rules o! legal or intestate succession0 ,1. =$en t$e parents/ legitimate or illegitimate/ or t$e legitimate ascendants o! t$e adopted concur %it$ t$e adopter/ t$e s$all divide t$e entire estate/ one-$al! to be in$erited b t$e parents or ascendants and t$e ot$er $al!/ b t$e adopters0 ,2. =$en t$e surviving spouse or t$e illegitimate c$ildren o! t$e adopted concur %it$ t$e adopters/ t$e s$all divide t$e entire estate in e8ual s$ares/ one-$al! to be in$erited b t$e spouse or t$e illegitimate c$ildren o! t$e adopted and t$e ot$er $al!/ b t$e adopters" ,(. =$en t$e adopters concur %it$ t$e illegitimate c$ildren and t$e surviving spouse o! t$e adopted/ t$e s$all divide t$e entire estate in e8ual s$ares/ one-t$ird to be in$erited b t$e illegitimate c$ildren/ one-t$ird b t$e surviving spouse/ and one-t$ird b t$e adopters0 ,#. =$en onl t$e adopters survive/ t$e s$all in$erit t$e entire estate0 and ,5. =$en onl collateral blood relatives o! t$e adopted survive/ t$en t$e ordinar rules o! legal or intestate succession s$all appl " ,2:,(.a/ P4 5;2. Art" -:-" I! t$e adopted is a minor or ot$er%ise incapacitated/ t$e adoption ma be )udiciall rescinded upon petition o! an person aut$oriFed b t$e court or proper government instrumental acting on $is be$al!/ on t$e same grounds prescribed !or loss or Page | 40

suspension o! parental aut$orit " I! t$e adopted is at least eig$teen ears o! age/ $e ma petition !or )udicial rescission o! t$e adoption on t$e same grounds prescribed !or disin$eriting an ascendant" ,(;a/ P4 5;2. Art" -:1" T$e adopters ma petition t$e court !or t$e )udicial rescission o! t$e adoption in an o! t$e !ollo%ing cases& ,-. I! t$e adopted $as committed an act constituting ground !or disin$eriting a descendant0 or ,1. =$en t$e adopted $as abandoned t$e $ome o! t$e adopters during minorit !or at least one ear/ or/ b some ot$er acts/ $as de!initel repudiated t$e adoption" ,(-a/ P4 5;2. Art" -:2" I! t$e adopted minor $as not reac$ed t$e age o! ma)orit at t$e time o! t$e )udicial rescission o! t$e adoption/ t$e court in t$e same proceeding s$all reinstate t$e parental aut$orit o! t$e parents b nature/ unless t$e latter are dis8uali!ied or incapacitated/ in %$ic$ case t$e court s$all appoint a guardian over t$e person and propert o! t$e minor" I! t$e adopted person is p$ sicall or mentall $andicapped/ t$e court s$all appoint in t$e same proceeding a guardian over $is person or propert or bot$" Gudicial rescission o! t$e adoption s$all e'tinguis$ all reciprocal rig$ts and obligations bet%een t$e adopters and t$e adopted arising !rom t$e relations$ip o! parent and c$ild" T$e adopted s$all li>e%ise lose t$e rig$t to use t$e surnames o! t$e adopters and s$all resume $is surname prior to t$e adoption" T$e court s$all accordingl order t$e amendment o! t$e records in t$e proper registries" ,(1a/ P4 5;2. TITLE VIII SUPPORT Art" -:(" Support compromises ever t$ing indispensable !or sustenance/ d%elling/ clot$ing/ medical attendance/ education and transportation/ in >eeping %it$ t$e !inancial capacit o! t$e !amil " T$e education o! t$e person entitled to be supported re!erred to in t$e preceding paragrap$ s$all include $is sc$ooling or training !or some pro!ession/ trade or vocation/ even be ond t$e age o! ma)orit " Transportation s$all include e'penses in going to and !rom sc$ool/ or to and !rom place o! %or>" ,1:;a. Art" -;#" Sub)ect to t$e provisions o! t$e succeeding articles/ t$e !ollo%ing are obliged to support eac$ ot$er to t$e %$ole e'tent set !ort$ in t$e preceding article& ,-. T$e spouses0 Page | 41

,1. Legitimate ascendants and descendants0 ,2. Parents and t$eir legitimate c$ildren and t$e legitimate and illegitimate c$ildren o! t$e latter0 ,(. Parents and t$eir illegitimate c$ildren and t$e legitimate and illegitimate c$ildren o! t$e latter0 and ,#. Legitimate brot$ers and sisters/ %$et$er o! !ull or $al!-blood ,1:-a. Art" -:5" Brot$ers and sisters not legitimatel related/ %$et$er o! t$e !ull or $al!-blood/ are li>e%ise bound to support eac$ ot$er to t$e !ull e'tent set !ort$ in Article -:(/ e'cept onl %$en t$e need !or support o! t$e brot$er or sister/ being o! age/ is due to a cause imputable to t$e claimant@s !ault or negligence" ,1:-a. Art" -:6" In case o! legitimate ascendants0 descendants/ %$et$er legitimate or illegitimate0 and brot$ers and sisters/ %$et$er legitimatel or illegitimatel related/ onl t$e separate propert o! t$e person obliged to give support s$all be ans%erable provided t$at in case t$e obligor $as no separate propert / t$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip/ i! !inanciall capable/ s$all advance t$e support/ %$ic$ s$all be deducted !rom t$e s$are o! t$e spouse obliged upon t$e li8uidation o! t$e absolute communit or o! t$e con)ugal partners$ip" ,n. Art" -:9" 4uring t$e proceedings !or legal separation or !or annulment o! marriage/ and !or declaration o! nullit o! marriage/ t$e spouses and t$eir c$ildren s$all be supported !rom t$e properties o! t$e absolute communit or t$e con)ugal partners$ip" A!ter t$e !inal )udgment granting t$e petition/ t$e obligation o! mutual support bet%een t$e spouses ceases" Ao%ever/ in case o! legal separation/ t$e court ma order t$at t$e guilt spouse s$all give support to t$e innocent one/ speci! ing t$e terms o! suc$ order"

Art" -::" =$enever t%o or more persons are obliged to give support/ t$e liabilit s$all devolve upon t$e !ollo%ing persons in t$e order $erein provided& ,-. T$e spouse0 ,1. T$e descendants in t$e nearest degree0 ,2. T$e ascendants in t$e nearest degree0 and ,(. T$e brot$ers and sisters" ,1:(a.

Page | 42

Art" 1;;" =$en t$e obligation to give support !alls upon t%o or more persons/ t$e pa ment o! t$e same s$all be divided bet%een t$em in proportion to t$e resources o! eac$" Ao%ever/ in case o! urgent need and b special circumstances/ t$e )udge ma order onl one o! t$em to !urnis$ t$e support provisionall / %it$out pre)udice to $is rig$t to claim !rom t$e ot$er obligors t$e s$are due !rom t$em" =$en t%o or more recipients at t$e same time claim support !rom one and t$e same person legall obliged to give it/ s$ould t$e latter not $ave su!!icient means to satis! all claims/ t$e order establis$ed in t$e preceding article s$all be !ollo%ed/ unless t$e concurrent obligees s$ould be t$e spouse and a c$ild sub)ect to parental aut$orit / in %$ic$ case t$e c$ild s$all be pre!erred" ,1:#a.

Art" 1;-" T$e amount o! support/ in t$e cases re!erred to in Articles -:# and -:5/ s$all be in proportion to t$e resources or means o! t$e giver and to t$e necessities o! t$e recipient" ,1:5a. Art" 1;1" Support in t$e cases re!erred to in t$e preceding article s$all be reduced or increased proportionatel / according to t$e reduction or increase o! t$e necessities o! t$e recipient and t$e resources or means o! t$e person obliged to !urnis$ t$e same" ,1:6a. Art" 1;2" T$e obligation to give support s$all be demandable !rom t$e time t$e person %$o $as a rig$t to receive t$e same needs it !or maintenance/ but it s$all not be paid e'cept !rom t$e date o! )udicial or e'tra)udicial demand" Support pendente lite ma be claimed in accordance %it$ t$e Rules o! 7ourt" Pa ment s$all be made %it$in t$e !irst !ive da s o! eac$ corresponding mont$ or %$en t$e recipient dies/ $is $eirs s$all not be obliged to return %$at $e $as received in advance" ,1:9a. Art" 1;(" T$e person obliged to give support s$all $ave t$e option to !ul!ill t$e obligation eit$er b pa ing t$e allo%ance !i'ed/ or b receiving and maintaining in t$e !amil d%elling t$e person %$o $as a rig$t to receive support" T$e latter alternative cannot be availed o! in case t$ere is a moral or legal obstacle t$ereto" ,1::a.

Page | 43

Art" 1;#" T$e rig$t to receive support under t$is Title as %ell as an mone or propert obtained as suc$ support s$all not be levied upon on attac$ment or e'ecution" ,2;1a. Art" 1;5" =$en/ %it$out t$e >no%ledge o! t$e person obliged to give support/ it is given b a stranger/ t$e latter s$all $ave a rig$t to claim t$e same !rom t$e !ormer/ unless it appears t$at $e gave it %it$out intention o! being reimbursed" ,1-5(a. Art" 1;6" =$en t$e person obliged to support anot$er un)ustl re!uses or !ails to give support %$en urgentl needed b t$e latter/ an t$ird person ma !urnis$ support to t$e need individual/ %it$ rig$t o! reimbursement !rom t$e person obliged to give support" T$is Article s$all particularl appl %$en t$e !at$er or mot$er o! a c$ild under t$e age o! ma)orit un)ustl re!uses to support or !ails to give support to t$e c$ild %$en urgentl needed" ,1-55a. Art" 1;9" In case o! contractual support or t$at given b %ill/ t$e e'cess in amount be ond t$at re8uired !or legal support s$all be sub)ect to lev on attac$ment or e'ecution" 3urt$ermore/ contractual support s$all be sub)ect to ad)ustment %$enever modi!ication is necessar due to c$anges o! circumstances mani!estl be ond t$e contemplation o! t$e parties" ,n. TITLE I= PARENTAL AUTHORITY Chapter 1. General Pr !"#" n# Art" 1;:" Pursuant to t$e natural rig$t and dut o! parents over t$e person and propert o! t$eir unemancipated c$ildren/ parental aut$orit and responsibilit s$all include t$e caring !or and rearing t$em !or civic consciousness and e!!icienc and t$e development o! t$eir moral/ mental and p$ sical c$aracter and %ell-being" ,n. Art" 1-;" Parental aut$orit and responsibilit ma not be renounced or trans!erred e'cept in t$e cases aut$oriFed b la%" ,2-2a. Art" 1--" T$e !at$er and t$e mot$er s$all )ointl e'ercise parental aut$orit over t$e persons o! t$eir common c$ildren" In case o! disagreement/ t$e !at$er@s decision s$all prevail/ unless t$ere is a )udicial order to t$e contrar " Page | 44

7$ildren s$all al%a s observe respect and reverence to%ards t$eir parents and are obliged to obe t$em as long as t$e c$ildren are under parental aut$orit " ,2--a. Art" 1-1" In case o! absence or deat$ o! eit$er parent/ t$e parent present s$all continue e'ercising parental aut$orit " T$e remarriage o! t$e surviving parent s$all not a!!ect t$e parental aut$orit over t$e c$ildren/ unless t$e court appoints anot$er person to be t$e guardian o! t$e person or propert o! t$e c$ildren" ,n. Art" 1-2" In case o! separation o! t$e parents/ parental aut$orit s$all be e'ercised b t$e parent designated b t$e 7ourt" T$e 7ourt s$all ta>e into account all relevant considerations/ especiall t$e c$oice o! t$e c$ild over seven ears o! age/ unless t$e parent c$osen is un!it" ,n. Art" 1-(" In case o! deat$/ absence or unsuitabilit o! t$e parents/ substitute parental aut$orit s$all be e'ercised b t$e surviving grandparent" In case several survive/ t$e one designated b t$e court/ ta>ing into account t$e same consideration mentioned in t$e preceding article/ s$all e'ercise t$e aut$orit " ,2##a. Art" 1-#" No descendant s$all be compelled/ in a criminal case/ to testi! against $is parents and grandparents/ e'cept %$en suc$ testimon is indispensable in a crime against t$e descendant or b one parent against t$e ot$er" ,2-#a. Chapter $. S,%#t"t,te an. Spe-"al Parental A,th r"t& Art" 1-5" In de!ault o! parents or a )udiciall appointed guardian/ t$e !ollo%ing person s$all e'ercise substitute parental aut$orit over t$e c$ild in t$e order indicated& ,-. T$e surviving grandparent/ as provided in Art" 1-(0 ,1. T$e oldest brot$er or sister/ over t%ent -one ears o! age/ unless un!it or dis8uali!ied0 and ,2. T$e c$ild@s actual custodian/ over t%ent -one ears o! age/ unless un!it or dis8uali!ied" =$enever t$e appointment or a )udicial guardian over t$e propert o! t$e c$ild becomes necessar / t$e same order o! pre!erence s$all be observed" ,2(:a/ 2#-a/ 2#(a.

Page | 45

Art" 1-6" In case o! !oundlings/ abandoned neglected or abused c$ildren and ot$er c$ildren similarl situated/ parental aut$orit s$all be entrusted in summar )udicial proceedings to $eads o! c$ildren@s $omes/ orp$anages and similar institutions dul accredited b t$e proper government agenc " ,2-(a. Art" 1-9" T$e sc$ool/ its administrators and teac$ers/ or t$e individual/ entit or institution engaged in c$ild are s$all $ave special parental aut$orit and responsibilit over t$e minor c$ild %$ile under t$eir supervision/ instruction or custod " Aut$orit and responsibilit s$all appl to all aut$oriFed activities %$et$er inside or outside t$e premises o! t$e sc$ool/ entit or institution" ,2(:a. Art" 1-:" T$ose given t$e aut$orit and responsibilit under t$e preceding Article s$all be principall and solidaril liable !or damages caused b t$e acts or omissions o! t$e unemancipated minor" T$e parents/ )udicial guardians or t$e persons e'ercising substitute parental aut$orit over said minor s$all be subsidiaril liable" T$e respective liabilities o! t$ose re!erred to in t$e preceding paragrap$ s$all not appl i! it is proved t$at t$e e'ercised t$e proper diligence re8uired under t$e particular circumstances" All ot$er cases not covered b t$is and t$e preceding articles s$all be governed b t$e provisions o! t$e 7ivil 7ode on 8uasi-delicts" ,n. Chapter *. E''e-t ' Parental A,th r"t& Up n the Per# n# ' the Ch"l.ren Art" 11;" T$e parents and t$ose e'ercising parental aut$orit s$all $ave %it$ t$e respect to t$eir unemancipated c$ildren on %ards t$e !ollo%ing rig$ts and duties& ,-. To >eep t$em in t$eir compan / to support/ educate and instruct t$em b rig$t precept and good e'ample/ and to provide !or t$eir upbringing in >eeping %it$ t$eir means0 ,1. To give t$em love and a!!ection/ advice and counsel/ companions$ip and understanding0 ,2. To provide t$em %it$ moral and spiritual guidance/ inculcate in t$em $onest / integrit / sel!-discipline/ sel!-reliance/ industr and t$ri!t/ stimulate t$eir interest in civic a!!airs/ and inspire in t$em compliance %it$ t$e duties o! citiFens$ip0

Page | 46

,(. To !urnis$ t$em %it$ good and %$olesome educational materials/ supervise t$eir activities/ recreation and association %it$ ot$ers/ protect t$em !rom bad compan / and prevent t$em !rom ac8uiring $abits detrimental to t$eir $ealt$/ studies and morals0 ,#. To represent t$em in all matters a!!ecting t$eir interests0 ,5. To demand !rom t$em respect and obedience0 ,6. To impose discipline on t$em as ma be re8uired under t$e circumstances0 and ,9. To per!orm suc$ ot$er duties as are imposed b la% upon parents and guardians" ,2-5a. Art" 11-" Parents and ot$er persons e'ercising parental aut$orit s$all be civill liable !or t$e in)uries and damages caused b t$e acts or omissions o! t$eir unemancipated c$ildren living in t$eir compan and under t$eir parental aut$orit sub)ect to t$e appropriate de!enses provided b la%" ,1-9;,1.a and ,(.a . Art" 111" T$e courts ma appoint a guardian o! t$e c$ild@s propert or a guardian ad litem %$en t$e best interests o! t$e c$ild so re8uires" ,2-6. Art" 112" T$e parents or/ in t$eir absence or incapacit / t$e individual/ entit or institution e'ercising parental aut$orit / ma petition t$e proper court o! t$e place %$ere t$e c$ild resides/ !or an order providing !or disciplinar measures over t$e c$ild" T$e c$ild s$all be entitled to t$e assistance o! counsel/ eit$er o! $is c$oice or appointed b t$e court/ and a summar $earing s$all be conducted %$erein t$e petitioner and t$e c$ild s$all be $eard" Ao%ever/ i! in t$e same proceeding t$e court !inds t$e petitioner at !ault/ irrespective o! t$e merits o! t$e petition/ or %$en t$e circumstances so %arrant/ t$e court ma also order t$e deprivation or suspension o! parental aut$orit or adopt suc$ ot$er measures as it ma deem )ust and proper" ,2-9a. Art" 11(" T$e measures re!erred to in t$e preceding article ma include t$e commitment o! t$e c$ild !or not more t$an t$irt da s in entities or institutions engaged in c$ild care or in c$ildren@s $omes dul accredited b t$e proper government agenc " T$e parent e'ercising parental aut$orit s$all not inter!ere %it$ t$e care o! t$e c$ild %$enever committed but s$all provide !or $is support" Epon proper petition or at its o%n instance/ t$e court ma terminate t$e commitment o! t$e c$ild %$enever )ust and proper" Page | 47

Chapter /. E''e-t ' Parental A,th r"t& Up n the Pr pert& ' the Ch"l.ren Art" 11#" T$e !at$er and t$e mot$er s$all )ointl e'ercise legal guardians$ip over t$e propert o! t$e unemancipated common c$ild %it$out t$e necessit o! a court appointment" In case o! disagreement/ t$e !at$er@s decision s$all prevail/ unless t$ere is a )udicial order to t$e contrar " =$ere t$e mar>et value o! t$e propert or t$e annual income o! t$e c$ild e'ceeds P#;/;;;/ t$e parent concerned s$all be re8uired to !urnis$ a bond in suc$ amount as t$e court ma determine/ but not less t$an ten per centum ,-;K. o! t$e value o! t$e propert or annual income/ to guarantee t$e per!ormance o! t$e obligations prescribed !or general guardians" A veri!ied petition !or approval o! t$e bond s$all be !iled in t$e proper court o! t$e place %$ere t$e c$ild resides/ or/ i! t$e c$ild resides in a !oreign countr / in t$e proper court o! t$e place %$ere t$e propert or an part t$ereo! is situated" T$e petition s$all be doc>eted as a summar special proceeding in %$ic$ all incidents and issues regarding t$e per!ormance o! t$e obligations re!erred to in t$e second paragrap$ o! t$is Article s$all be $eard and resolved" T$e ordinar rules on guardians$ip s$all be merel suppletor e'cept %$en t$e c$ild is under substitute parental aut$orit / or t$e guardian is a stranger/ or a parent $as remarried/ in %$ic$ case t$e ordinar rules on guardians$ip s$all appl " ,21;a. Art" 115" T$e propert o! t$e unemancipated c$ild earned or ac8uired %it$ $is %or> or industr or b onerous or gratuitous title s$all belong to t$e c$ild in o%ners$ip and s$all be devoted e'clusivel to t$e latter@s support and education/ unless t$e title or trans!er provides ot$er%ise" T$e rig$t o! t$e parents over t$e !ruits and income o! t$e c$ild@s propert s$all be limited primaril to t$e c$ild@s support and secondaril to t$e collective dail needs o! t$e !amil " ,21-a/ 212a. Art" 116" I! t$e parents entrust t$e management or administration o! an o! t$eir properties to an unemancipated c$ild/ t$e net proceeds o! suc$ propert s$all belong to t$e o%ner" T$e c$ild s$all be given a reasonable mont$l allo%ance in an amount not less t$an t$at %$ic$ t$e o%ner %ould $ave paid i! t$e administrator %ere a stranger/ unless t$e o%ner/ grants t$e entire proceeds to t$e c$ild" In an case/ t$e proceeds t$us give in %$ole or in part s$all not be c$arged to t$e c$ild@s legitime" ,211a. Chapter 3. S,#pen#" n r Ter+"nat" n ' Parental A,th r"t& Page | 48

Art" 119" Parental aut$orit terminates permanentl & ,-. Epon t$e deat$ o! t$e parents0 ,1. Epon t$e deat$ o! t$e c$ild0 or ,2. Epon emancipation o! t$e c$ild" ,216a. Art" 11:" Enless subse8uentl revived b a !inal )udgment/ parental aut$orit also terminates& ,-. Epon adoption o! t$e c$ild0 ,1. Epon appointment o! a general guardian0 ,2. Epon )udicial declaration o! abandonment o! t$e c$ild in a case !iled !or t$e purpose0 ,(. Epon !inal )udgment o! a competent court divesting t$e part concerned o! parental aut$orit 0 or ,#. Epon )udicial declaration o! absence or incapacit o! t$e person e'ercising parental aut$orit " ,216a. Art" 12;" Parental aut$orit is suspended upon conviction o! t$e parent or t$e person e'ercising t$e same o! a crime %$ic$ carries %it$ it t$e penalt o! civil interdiction" T$e aut$orit is automaticall reinstated upon service o! t$e penalt or upon pardon or amnest o! t$e o!!ender" ,22;a. Art" 12-" T$e court in an action !iled !or t$e purpose in a related case ma also suspend parental aut$orit i! t$e parent or t$e person e'ercising t$e same& ,-. Treats t$e c$ild %it$ e'cessive $ars$ness or cruelt 0 ,1. Gives t$e c$ild corrupting orders/ counsel or e'ample0 ,2. 7ompels t$e c$ild to beg0 or ,(. Sub)ects t$e c$ild or allo%s $im to be sub)ected to acts o! lasciviousness" T$e grounds enumerated above are deemed to include cases %$ic$ $ave resulted !rom culpable negligence o! t$e parent or t$e person e'ercising parental aut$orit " la%p$i-"net I! t$e degree o! seriousness so %arrants/ or t$e %el!are o! t$e c$ild so demands/ t$e court s$all deprive t$e guilt part o! parental aut$orit or adopt suc$ ot$er measures as ma be proper under t$e circumstances" Page | 49

T$e suspension or deprivation ma be revo>ed and t$e parental aut$orit revived in a case !iled !or t$e purpose or in t$e same proceeding i! t$e court !inds t$at t$e cause t$ere!or $as ceased and %ill not be repeated" ,22a. Art" 121" I! t$e person e'ercising parental aut$orit $as sub)ected t$e c$ild or allo%ed $im to be sub)ected to se'ual abuse/ suc$ person s$all be permanentl deprived b t$e court o! suc$ aut$orit " ,n. Art" 122" T$e person e'ercising substitute parental aut$orit s$all $ave t$e same aut$orit over t$e person o! t$e c$ild as t$e parents" In no case s$all t$e sc$ool administrator/ teac$er o! individual engaged in c$ild care e'ercising special parental aut$orit in!lict corporal punis$ment upon t$e c$ild" ,n. TITLE = FUNERALS ,n. Article 2;#" T$e dut and t$e rig$t to ma>e arrangements !or t$e !uneral o! a relative s$all be in accordance %it$ t$e order establis$ed !or support/ under article 1:(" In case o! descendants o! t$e same degree/ or o! brot$ers and sisters/ t$e oldest s$all be pre!erred" In case o! ascendants/ t$e paternal s$all $ave a better rig$t" Article 2;5" Ever !uneral s$all be in >eeping %it$ t$e social position o! t$e deceased" Article 2;6" T$e !uneral s$all be in accordance %it$ t$e e'pressed %is$es o! t$e deceased" In t$e absence o! suc$ e'pression/ $is religious belie!s or a!!iliation s$all determine t$e !uneral rites" In case o! doubt/ t$e !orm o! t$e !uneral s$all be decided upon b t$e person obliged to ma>e arrangements !or t$e same/ a!ter consulting t$e ot$er members o! t$e !amil "

Page | 50

Article 2;9" No $uman remains s$all be retained/ interred/ disposed o! or e'$umed %it$out t$e consent o! t$e persons mentioned in articles 1:( and 2;#" Article 2;:" An person %$o s$o%s disrespect to t$e dead/ or %rong!ull inter!eres %it$ a !uneral s$all be liable to t$e !amil o! t$e deceased !or damages/ material and moral" Article 2-;" T$e construction o! a tombstone or mausoleum s$all be deemed a part o! t$e !uneral e'penses/ and s$all be c$argeable to t$e con)ugal partners$ip propert / i! t$e deceased is one o! t$e spouses" TITLE =II Care an. E.,-at" n ' Ch"l.ren

Article 2#5" Ever c$ild& ,-. Is entitled to parental care0 ,1. S$all receive at least elementar education0 ,2. S$all be given moral and civic training b t$e parents or guardian0 ,(. Aas a rig$t to live in an atmosp$ere conducive to $is p$ sical/ moral and intellectual development" Article 2#6" Ever c$ild s$all& ,-. Obe and $onor $is parents or guardian0 ,1. Respect $is grandparents/ old relatives/ and persons $olding substitute parental aut$orit 0 ,2. E'ert $is utmost !or $is education and training0 ,(. 7ooperate %it$ t$e !amil in all matters t$at ma>e !or t$e good o! t$e same" Article 2#9" Ever parent and ever person $olding substitute parental aut$orit s$all see to it t$at t$e rig$ts o! t$e c$ild are respected and $is duties complied %it$/ and s$all particularl / b precept and e'ample/ imbue t$e c$ild %it$ $ig$mindedness/ love o! Page | 51

countr / veneration !or t$e national $eroes/ !idelit to democrac as a %a o! li!e/ and attac$ment to t$e ideal o! permanent %orld peace" Article 2#:" T$e government promotes t$e !ull gro%t$ o! t$e !aculties o! ever c$ild" 3or t$is purpose/ t$e government %ill establis$/ %$enever possible& ,-. Sc$ools in ever barrio/ municipalit and cit %$ere optional religious instruction s$all be taug$t as part o! t$e curriculum at t$e option o! t$e parent or guardian0 ,1. Puericulture and similar centers0 ,2. 7ouncils !or t$e Protection o! 7$ildren0 and ,(. Guvenile courts" Article 25;" T$e 7ouncil !or t$e Protection o! 7$ildren s$all loo> a!ter t$e %el!are o! c$ildren in t$e municipalit " It s$all/ among ot$er !unctions& ,-. 3oster t$e education o! ever c$ild in t$e municipalit 0 ,1. Encourage t$e cultivation o! t$e duties o! parents0 ,2. Protect and assist abandoned or mistreated c$ildren/ and orp$ans0 ,(. Ta>e steps to prevent )uvenile delin8uenc 0 ,#. Adopt measures !or t$e $ealt$ o! c$ildren0 ,5. Promote t$e opening and maintenance o! pla grounds0 ,6. 7oordinate t$e activities o! organiFations devoted to t$e %el!are o! c$ildren/ and secure t$eir cooperation" Article 25-" Guvenile courts %ill be establis$ed/ as !ar as practicable/ in ever c$artered cit or large municipalit " Article 251" =$enever a c$ild is !ound delin8uent b an court/ t$e !at$er/ mot$er/ or guardian ma in a proper case be )udiciall admonis$ed" Article 252" In all 8uestions on t$e care/ custod / education and propert o! c$ildren t$e latter@s %el!are s$all be paramount" No mot$er s$all be separated !rom $er c$ild under seven ears o! age/ unless t$e court !inds compelling reasons !or suc$ measure" Page | 52

TITLE =III U#e ' S,rna+e# :n< Article 25(" Legitimate and legitimated c$ildren s$all principall use t$e surname o! t$e !at$er" Article 25#" An adopted c$ild s$all bear t$e surname o! t$e adopter" Article 255" A natural c$ild ac>no%ledged b bot$ parents s$all principall use t$e surname o! t$e !at$er" I! recogniFed b onl one o! t$e parents/ a natural c$ild s$all emplo t$e surname o! t$e recogniFing parent" Article 256" Natural c$ildren b legal !iction s$all principall emplo t$e surname o! t$e !at$er" Article 259" Illegitimate c$ildren re!erred to in article 196 s$all bear t$e surname o! t$e mot$er" Article 25:" 7$ildren conceived be!ore t$e decree annulling a voidable marriage s$all principall use t$e surname o! t$e !at$er" Article 26;" A married %oman ma use& ,-. Aer maiden !irst name and surname and add $er $usband@s surname/ or ,1. Aer maiden !irst name and $er $usband@s surname or ,2. Aer $usband@s !ull name/ but pre!i'ing a %ord indicating t$at s$e is $is %i!e/ suc$ as <?rs"< Article 26-" In case o! annulment o! marriage/ and t$e %i!e is t$e guilt part / s$e s$all resume $er maiden name and surname" I! s$e is t$e innocent spouse/ s$e ma resume $er maiden name and surname" Ao%ever/ s$e ma c$oose to continue emplo ing $er !ormer $usband@s surname/ unless& ,-. T$e court decrees ot$er%ise/ or ,1. S$e or t$e !ormer $usband is married again to anot$er person" Article 261" =$en legal separation $as been granted/ t$e %i!e s$all continue using $er name and surname emplo ed be!ore t$e legal Page | 53

separation" Article 262" A %ido% ma use t$e deceased $usband@s surname as t$oug$ $e %ere still living/ in accordance %it$ article 26;" Article 26(" In case o! identit o! names and surnames/ t$e ounger person s$all be obliged to use suc$ additional name or surname as %ill avoid con!usion" Article 26#" In case o! identit o! names and surnames bet%een ascendants and descendants/ t$e %ord <Gunior< can be used onl b a son" Grandsons and ot$er direct male descendants s$all eit$er& ,-. Add a middle name or t$e mot$er@s surname/ or ,1. Add t$e Roman numerals II/ III/ and so on" Article 265" No person can c$ange $is name or surname %it$out )udicial aut$orit " Article 266" Esurpation o! a name and surname ma be t$e sub)ect o! an action !or damages and ot$er relie!" Article 269" T$e unaut$oriFed or unla%!ul use o! anot$er person@s surname gives a rig$t o! action to t$e latter" Article 26:" T$e emplo ment o! pen names or stage names is permitted/ provided it is done in good !ait$ and t$ere is no in)ur to t$ird persons" Pen names and stage names cannot be usurped" Article 29;" E'cept as provided in t$e preceding article/ no person s$all use di!!erent names and surnames" TITLE =IV ABSENCE CHAPTER 1 Pr !"#" nal (ea#,re# "n Ca#e ' A%#en-e Page | 54

Article 29-" =$en a person disappears !rom $is domicile/ $is %$ereabouts being un>no%n/ and %it$out leaving an agent to administer $is propert / t$e )udge/ at t$e instance o! an interested part / a relative/ or a !riend/ ma appoint a person to represent $im in all t$at ma be necessar " T$is same rule s$all be observed %$en under similar circumstances t$e po%er con!erred b t$e absentee $as e'pired" ,-9-a. Article 291" T$e appointment re!erred to in t$e preceding article $aving been made/ t$e )udge s$all ta>e t$e necessar measures to sa!eguard t$e rig$ts and interests o! t$e absentee and s$all speci! t$e po%ers/ obligations and remuneration o! $is representative/ regulating t$em/ according to t$e circumstances/ b t$e rules concerning guardians" ,-91. Article 292" In t$e appointment o! a representative/ t$e spouse present s$all be pre!erred %$en t$ere is no legal separation" I! t$e absentee le!t no spouse/ or i! t$e spouse present is a minor/ an competent person ma be appointed b t$e court" ,-92a. CHAPTER $ De-larat" n ' A%#en-e Article 29(" T%o ears $aving elapsed %it$out an ne%s about t$e absentee or since t$e receipt o! t$e last ne%s/ and !ive ears in case t$e absentee $as le!t a person in c$arge o! t$e administration o! $is propert / $is absence ma be declared" ,-9(. Article 29#" T$e !ollo%ing ma as> !or t$e declaration o! absence& ,-. T$e spouse present0 ,1. T$e $eirs instituted in a %ill/ %$o ma present an aut$entic cop o! t$e same0 ,2. T$e relatives %$o ma succeed b t$e la% o! intestac 0 Page | 55

,(. T$ose %$o ma $ave over t$e propert o! t$e absentee some rig$t subordinated to t$e condition o! $is deat$" ,-9#. Article 295" T$e )udicial declaration o! absence s$all not ta>e e!!ect until si' mont$s a!ter its publication in a ne%spaper o! general circulation" ,-95a.

Page | 56