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การประชุมวิชาการดานการวิจย ั ดําเนินงานแหงชาติ ประจําป 2554

 

วันที่ 8-9 กันยายน 2554 ณ โรงแรม เอส ดี อเวนิว กรุงเทพฯ

การออกแบบระบบหอกลั่นสําหรับการทําใหเอทานอลบริสุทธิ์ Design of distillation system for purification of ethanol
อัญชลี กาญจนบัตร1 และ ผศ.ดร.อมรชัย อาภรณวิชานพ2 1, 2 ภาควิชาวิศวกรรมเคมี คณะวิศวกรรมศาสตร จุฬาลงกรณมหาวิทยาลัย เขตปทุมวัน จ.กรุงเทพฯ 10330 โทรศัพท/โทรสาร: 02-218-6878 E-mail: 1 u_kanchanabut@hotmail.com, 2 amornchai_a@chula.ac.th

บทคัดยอ
เอทานอลเปนหนึ่งในพลังงานทดแทนที่สําคัญที่สุด ที่ผลิต โดยการหมักน้ําตาล หรือแปงใหกลายเปนเอทานอล และกลั่นใหบริสุทธิ์ มีความเขมขน 99.5% โดยปริมาตร และนํามาผสมกับแกสโซลีนใชเปน เชื้อเพลิงสําหรับรถยนตเพื่อลดการใชแกสโซลีน วัตถุดิบที่สามารถนํามา ผลิตและเปนที่นิยมชนิดหนึ่งคือแปงมันสําปะหลัง ในการผลิตเอทานอ ลกระบวนการทําใหบริสุทธิ์เปนสวนที่ใชพลังงานมากที่สุด ในงานวิจัยนี้ จะทําการพัฒนาแบบจําลองเพื่อออกแบบหอ กลั่นเอทานอลสําหรับการ ใชพลังงานอยางคุมคาโดยใชโปรแกรม Aspen HYSYS® การพัฒนา แบบจําลองหอกลั่น จะทํา การปรั บคา ตัวแปรหลั กดัง นี้ อัตราส ว นการ ปอนกลับของสารในหอแรก, ความเขมขนเอทานอลที่ออกจากหอแรกสู หอเรคติฟายอิง และปริมาณของผลิตภัณฑที่ไดตอชั่วโมง เพื่อดูสภาวะที่ ทําใหเกิดการใชพลังงานอยางคุมคามากที่สุด ผลของแบบจําลองแสดงให เห็นวาสภาวะที่ใชควบคุมของหอกลั่นคาใหมนั้นมีการใชพลังงานที่ต่ํา กวาแบบเดิมมาก คําสําคัญ: เอทานอล, การกลั่น, การนําพลังงานกลับมาใชใหม, การใช พลังงานอยางคุมคา

find the suitable condition which is able to optimize energy consumption. And simulation results show that new condition can have significantly lower energy demands than common units. Keywords: Ethanol, Distillation, Heat integration, Energy optimization.

1. Introduction
Presently, ethanol is accepted to be an important renewable fuel and its use can reduce negative environmental impacts originated by the worldwide utilization of biomass fuels. From the production process of ethanol, it can be seen that the aqueous solution of ethanol obtained from the fermentation is concentrated to obtain hydrous ethanol to be utilized as a fuel and an oxygenate compound for adding to gasoline. The ethanol process consists of 4 major unit operations: liquefaction and saccharification, fermentation, distillation and dehydration section to reach 99.5%v/v. The separation of azeotropic mixtures is a process demands large input of energy, more than half of the total energy used. In this case fractional distillation is chosen to produce 95%v/v ethanol concentration because it gets the most purification and high efficiency and commonly used with high capacity. But if compare on the basis of energy requirements it is still extremely high. A considerable amount of energy supplied to the reboiler was wasted at unrecoverable temperatures in the condenser. In this case distillation process is first priority section to optimize [1] the energy by using commercial simulator Aspen HYSYS®. The simulations will be varied based on related major key parameters such as number of stage and heat transfer area to find the suitable condition which is able to optimize energy consumption.

Abstract
Ethanol is one of the most important renewable fuels which is transformation of sugar or starch to ethanol by fermenting organisms and purified to 99.5%v/v by distillation. Tapioca is one of the famous raw materials used to produce ethanol. This process also consume huge amount of energy especially in purification process. In order to analyze the process viability, distillation processes are simulated and parametrically optimized to reduce energy consumptions. Simulations are carried out in steady state using the commercial simulator Aspen HYSYS®. The simulations vary based on these key parameters: reflux ratio of mash column (R1), volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (XD1)and distillate flow rate of rectifying column (D2) to

2. Theories 2.1. Process Description 156

 

and in the process produces heat. xD1 Feed tray Tray n TB1 QR1 Steam Steam B1. At the end of this process.1. xB1 B2 . heat is added at the highest temperature (TB) in the column. These impurities are removed during the distillation phase until pure alcohol with at least 95% alcohol by volume is obtained.3. 2.Fermentation Yeast is added to the mash to ferment the sugars. xB2 Tray n TB2 QR2 Fig. xD2 Feed tray D1. the ethanol is pumped into storage tanks.Dehydration The alcohol circulates through a molecular sieve to capture the last bit of water. the yeast eats the sugars. The alcohol moves on to dehydration. 3 Simplified heat integrated distillation flowsheet In the HIDiC scheme. Mash  column Heat source Rectifying column Fig.Storage Finally. Liquefaction & Saccharification Heat up the mash to 90 oC. During this process.4.1 Process Flow Diagram of Ethanol Process The ethanol process consists of 4 major unit operations: 2. 2 Simplified conventional distillation flowsheet lowest temperature (TD). ethanol 10%v/v and carbon dioxide. liquefying the starch. Heat is added at the reboiler and thrown away at the condenser.1.5. Interestingly. 157   . It is then ready for shipment to gasoline terminals or retailers. the overhead vapor of the rectifying column enters the reboiler of mash column as heat source. whereas that is removed at the Fig. Actually the energy is degraded over the temperature range of TB-TD and this is the prime reason of thermodynamic inefficiency of the conventional distillation technology [2].2. the thermal energy recovered at the condenser cannot be reused for heating other flows in the same distillation unit since the temperature of the coolant is usually sufficiently lower than that of the flows inside the column. The mash feed is preheated by vapor of mash column before entering to mash column. 2. The beer contains approximately 10% alcohol by volume and still has many impurities.CW CW TD1 Tray 1 F. the ethanol obtains at least 99. The stillage is processed into distiller grains.Distillation After fermentation the mash is called beer. 2. So steam and cooling water consumption can be saved. Actually. And enzymes are added to the mash to convert the starch to dextrose.2.5% v/v.2 Heat distribution in distillation section For conventional distillation column Conventionally supplied at the bottom reboiler to evaporate a liquid mixture and is lost when liquefying the overhead vapor at the reflux condenser. 2.2. ZF R1 QC1 TD2 Tray 1 R2 QC2 D2.2.2. For heat integrated distillation column 2.

5 0. XD1.7 0. Compare and conclude for the optimized design – min QR/D Conduct the design of the heat integrated distillation column Sensitivity test (R1.8 0. The volume fraction of the ethanol was fixed at 0. output flow rate.95 3 200 Compare and conclude for optimized design min QR/D Obtain the optimization process Fig. Design of experiment to design optimized process for heat integrated distillation column Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 R1 0. 3. Table 1.8 D2 (kmol/h) 60 60 70 70 60 60 70 70 158   . The objective function was inserted by means of the Aspen HYSYS®.7 0. feed stage and D2) Simulate to optimize energy consumption (by vary R1. Conduct the design of the heat integrated distillation column : determine the number of stages. volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (XD1) and distillate flow rate of rectifying column (D2)) [5-6]. XD1 and D2) Value 2335 17 6 25 13 30 0.08 0.3.2 (Reflux ratio of mash column (R1).95 at top of the rectifying column. feed location. A simple procedure is shown in Fig 4. 4 Procedure for design optimized process for heat integrated distillation column QR = QR1 + QR2 5.8 0.7 0. 2.5 0.6 0. The procedure starts with the simulation of conventional distillation column and heat integrated distillation column which uses data as shown in Table 1 respectively. mole fraction of output and reflux ratio. feed flow rate. The total amount of heat rejected from the mash column (QR1) and rectifying column (QR2) will be compared. kmol/h Number of stages for mash column (N1) Feed stage to mash column (NF1) Number of stages for rectifying column (N2) Feed stage to rectifying column (NF2) Mash feed temperature (TF).5 1 1 1 1 XD1 0. oC Volume fraction of ethanol in mash feed (ZF) Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (X D1) Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of rectifying column (X D2) Reflux ratio mash column (R1) Reflux ratio rectifying column (R2) 4. 1. Obtain the optimization process (1) And then the simulation uses to design optimized process for heat integrated distillation column [4].5 0. R2.7 0. feed temperature. Sensitivity test : evaluate the influence of the main variables and to decide which variable should be manipulated. mole fraction of feed in.8 0. Experiments The objective function was defined by considering the ratio of the heat duty of the reboiler (QR1+QR2) and the specified production of ethanol (D) [3]. Table 2. Simulate to optimize energy consumption : vary the main variables which get from sensitivity test as shown in Table. Data for simulation conventional and heat integrated distillation column Paramters Feed flow rate (F).

volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (XD1) and distillate flow rate of rectifying column (D2) effected to energy consumption. Conventional 2335 3 200 0. Comparison of specific heat duty between conventional and heat integrated distillation column Parameters Mash feed rate (F).2 Sensitivity Analysis The objective of this process is to evaluate the influence of main variables on the energy consumption. 5a-e show the effect of reflux ratio of mash column (R1). 5c Relation between ethanol composition of distillate of mash column and specific heat duty Fig.974 Fig. And fig. Relationship of each main parameter and specific heat duty can be described as below. • • • • • More reflux ratio of mash column (R1). Vary of feed stage of mash column (NF1) do not effect much to total specific heat duty. to decide which variables should be optimized [7].203 HIDiC 2335 3 200 0. volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (XD1).4. 5b Relation between reflux ratio of rectifying column and specific heat duty 159   . distillate flow rate of rectifying column (D2) and feed stage of mash column (NF1) on the specific heat duty while the other parameters are constant. less energy consumes.95 70 1. Results and discussions 4.6 0. More ethanol composition of distillate of mash column (XD1). Fig. kmol/h Reflux ratio mash column(R1) Reflux ratio rectifying column(R2) Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (XD1) Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of rectifying column (XD2) Distillate flowrate of rectifying column (D2). Vary of rectifying column’s reflux ratio (R2) do not effect much to total specific heat duty. 5a Relation between reflux ratio of mash column and specific heat duty 4.1 Simulation of conventional and heat integrated distillation column Results of simulation compare between conventional and heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) was shown in Table 3 that HIDiC consumed less energy than conventional. More distillate flow rate of rectifying column (D2).6 0. reflux ratio of rectifying column (R2). GJ/mol From the sensitivity analysis it can conclude that only 3 parameters which are reflux ratio of mash column (R1). To reach as objective function the simulation will be based on process parameters and configuration of heat integrated distillation column. kmol/h Specific heat duty (QR/D). less energy consumes.95 70 0. more energy consumes. Table 3. To optimize distillation process only these 3 parameters will be varied and the design of experiment is shown as table 2.

The sensitivity analysis is one of the important methods to verify the strong influence parameters.757 160   .95 0. Table 4. Acknowledgement I would like to express my gratitude to my thesis advisor.5 0.7 0.7 0.683 0. reflux ratio of mash column (R1). Nomenclature F ZF D1 D2 XD1 XD2 Feed flow rate Volume fraction of ethanol in mash feed Distillate flow rate of mash column Distillate flow rate of rectifying column Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of rectifying column Not suitable condition 0.4.8 70 70 60 60 70 70 0. kmol/h Reflux ratio mash column (R1) Reflux ratio rectifying column (R2) Specific heat duty (QR/D).8 0.3 . Table 5. GJ/kmol o Fig. The existing operating condition consumes 0.95 70 0. This operating condition optimized energy consumption as our objective. More details are shown in table 4. 5e Relation between feed stage of mash column and specific heat duty 4.57 7.57 Fig.8 0. C Volume fraction of ethanol in mash feed (ZF) Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (XD1) Volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of rectifying column (X D2) Distillate flow rate (D2).5 1 1 1 1 0.594 0.617 0. 5d Relation between distillate flow rate of rectifying column and specific heat duty Feed flow rate (F). 6.7 0.974 GJ/kmol but the optimized operating condition consumes only 0. Optimized operating condition Paramters Value 2335 17 6 25 13 30 0.95 0.7 0. Conclusion In this research. Results of optimization Case 1 2 R1 0. volume fraction of ethanol in distillate of mash column (XD1) and distillate flow rate of rectifying column (D2) are strongly effect parameters to energy consumption of ethanol’s distillation. It can be optimized by simulation tools as Aspen HYSYS® program which is also widely used in other industries.95 0. Assistant Professor Amornchai Arpornwichanop for his comments and suggestion to the research work.95 0.08 0.95 0. kmol/h Number of stages for mash column (N1) Feed stage to mash column (N F1) Number of stages for rectifying column (N2) Feed stage to rectifying column (NF2) Mash feed temperature (TF).95 0. 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.57 GJ/kmol or half of existing one.8 D2 (kmol/h) XD2 QR/D (GJ/kmol) 60 0.7 0. Compare and conclude for the optimized design – min QR/D The final result shows that operation condition of case 3 can optimize energy consumption for ethanol production which is on product specification.5 0.628 60 Not suitable condition 5.5 XD1 0.4 Result of optimization The results of simulation by vary the main influenced variable to design the optimization process are shown in table 5.5 200 0.

[7] M. Pontual Guedes. 8. 2009. Huang. She is interested in ethanol production and purification process. Separation and Purification Technology 73 (230242). Zhang. Chemical engineering research and design 87 (1658-1666). K. Jul 15. 2010. modeling and optimization for energy saving and pollution reduction”. Chen. Computer and Chemical engineering 4150 (1016-1023).A. 2009. Energy 35 (1505-1514). [5] H. 2010 [6] X. Friedler “Process integration. Feitosa de Figueiredo. Apr 5. Unchalee Kanchanabut studied for Master Degree of Chemical engineering. Gonzaga Sales Vasconcelos and R. Suphanit “Design of internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) : Uniform heat transfer area versus uniform heat distribution”.New systematic design methodology”. K. Huang and S. Applied energy 87 (1477-1494). Jun 11. Wang “Comparing three configurations of the externally heat-integrated double distillation columns (EHIDDiCs)”. Chen and S. Chemical engineering research and design 548 (1010-1016). Jana “Heat integrated distillation operation”. Jun 13. Nov 12. [4] M. 2010. H. Pereira Brito “Optimal design of extractive distillation columns-A 161   . 2010. Wang “A novel simplified configuration for an ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC)”. Manzi Manzi Monteiro de Araujo. [3] B. 2009. Nov 24. Chulalongkorn University.B1 B2 XB1 XB2 R1 R2 QC1 QC2 QR1 QR2 TD1 TD2 TB1 TB2 QR/D Bottom flow rate of mash column Bottom flow rate of rectifying column Volume fraction of ethanol in bottom of mash column Volume fraction of ethanol in bottom of rectifying column Reflux ratio of mash column Reflux ratio of rectifying column Heat duty of mash column’s condenser Heat duty of rectifying column’s condenser Heat duty of mash column’s reboiler Heat duty of rectifying column’s reboiler Temperature at top of mash column Temperature at top of rectifying column Temperature at bottom of mash column Temperature at bottom of rectifying column Specific heat duty of reboiler systematic procedure using a process simulator”. Applied thermal engineering 30 (2270-2280). Gadalla “Internal heat integrated distillation column (iHIDiCs). L. Reference [1] F. B. [2] A. J. Dec 28.