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B GIO DC V O TO

TRNG I HC QUY NHN KHOA K THUT V CNG NGH

N TT NGHIP
ti: K THUT NG B TRONG MNG QUANG SDH V NG DNG TRONG THC T

Gio vin hng dn : ThS Nguyn nh Luyn Sinh vin thc hin : Nguyn Quc Cng Lp : TVT K28-B

Quy Nhn, 6/2010

B GIO DC V O TO

TRNG I HC QUY NHN KHOA K THUT V CNG NGH

N TT NGHIP
ti: K THUT NG B TRONG MNG QUANG SDH V NG DNG TRONG THC T

Gio vin hng dn : ThS Nguyn nh Luyn Sinh vin thc hin : Nguyn Quc Cng Lp : TVT K28-B

Quy Nhn, 6/2010

N TT NGHIP

MC LC
Trang THUT NG VIT TT DANH MC HNH V DANH MC BNG BIU LI M U

THUT NG VIT TT

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Vit tt
AU-LOP AU-NDF AU-AIS AU-PJE ADM APS BITS DPRIN G DXC DCC DUS ITU-T LOF MS-AIS MS-RDI MS-REI MUX MSP MTIE NE PLL PDH PRC

Ting Anh
Loss Of AU Pointer New Data Flat AU Pointer Administration Unit AIS AU Pointer Justification Event Add Drop Multiplexer Automatic Protection Switching Building Integrated Timing Supply Dedicated Protection Ring Digital Cross Connection Data Communication Channel Dont Use Synchronous International Telecom Union-Transmission Loss Of Frame Multiplexer Section Alarm Indication Signal Multiplexer Section Remote Detect Indication Multiplexer Section Remote Error Indication Multiplexer Multiplex Section Protection Max Time Interval Error Network Element Phase-Locked Loop Pleisynchronous Digital Hierachical Primary Reference Clock

Ting Vit
Mt con tr AU C d liu con tr Qun l con tr Cn chnh con tr B ghp xen rt T ng chuyn mch bo v Ngun cung cp nh thi tch hp vn phng Mng vng bo v ton phn B kt ni cho s Knh thng tin d liu Khng dng cho ng b T chc vin thng Th Gii Phn truyn dn Mt khung Ch dn cnh bo vng ghp Ch dn pht hin u xa vng ghp Ch dn pht hin li u xa vng ghp B ghp knh Bo v vng ghp Gi tr ln nht ca hm li trong thi gian Thnh phn mng Mch kha pha H phn cp ghp knh s cn ng b ng h tham chiu s cp Vn hnh, qun l, bo

OAM&P Operation Administration Maintainment &

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

OOF RS-TIM REG SDH SOH SPRING SONET SSU SEC SETS SSM STU TIE TDEV

Protecti Out Of Frame Regeneration Section - Trace Identified Match Regenerator Synchronous Digital Hierachical Section OverHead Shared Protection Ring Synchronous Optical Network Synchronous Supply Unit SDH Equipment Clock Synchronous Equipment Timing Supply Synchonization Status Message Synchronization Trace Unkown Time Interval Error Time Deviration

dng v d phng Ngoi khung Mt du nhn dng vng lp B khuch i H phn cp ghp knh s ng b Mo u Mng vng bo v chia s Mng quang ng b n v cung cp ng b ng h thit b SDH Ngun cung cp nh thi thit b ng b Bn tin trng thi ng b Khng bit du ng b Hm li trong thi gian Sai khc pha c o trong mt khong thi gian Thnh phn qun l mng vin thng Thi bit, khong thi gian truyn mt bit Khung cha o.

TMN UI VC

Telecommunication Management Network Unit Interval Virtual Container

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

DANH MC HNH V

S hiu
1.1 Truy nhp ca SDH

Tn hnh v

Trang
3 Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

1.2

Cu trc ghp knh SDH

1.3

Cu trc VC-11 v VC-12

1.4

Cu trc VC-2

Error:

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

1.5

Cu trc VC-3

1.6

Cu trc VC-4

1.7

Cu trc TU-11 v TU-12

1.8

Cu trc TU-2

1.9

Cu trc TU-3

Error: Referen ce source not

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

1.10

TUG-2 to thnh t 4 x TU-11

1.11

TUG-2 to thnh t 3 x TU-12

1.12

TUG-2 to thnh t TU2

1.13

TU-12 qua TUG-2 vo TUG-3

1.14

TU-3 ghp thnh TUG-3

1.15

Cu trc khung STM-1

Error: Referen ce

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

1.16

Cu trc con tr AU4

1.17

T mo vng SOH

1.18

Cu trc khung truyn STM-N

1.19

Cc vng mng ca SDH

2.1

M hnh b ghp knh

2.2

Cu hnh ADM

Error:

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen

2.3

Thit b kt ni cho DXC

2.4

Cu hnh mng im - im

2.5

M hnh mng truyn dn chuyn tip c ghp xen rt knh

ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

2.6

Cu hnh mng tp trung lu lng

2.7

M hnh mng SPRing

Error: Referen ce source not

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

2.8

M hnh mng DPRing

2.9

Mng vng n hng

2.10

Mng vng song hng

3.1

Cc trng hp khc nhau v pha

3.2

chnh lch pha theo mt hng

3.3

chnh lch pha trn mt hng v hng ngc li

Error: Referen ce

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen

3.4

tch ly pha b nh hng bi chnh xc v n nh

ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

3.5

o chnh xc tn s

3.6

Gi tr MTIE theo khong thi gian quan st

3.7

Chuyn tip pha

3.8

tch ly pha ca cc ng h

3.9

Cu trc ca SETS

Error:

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

3.10

Thnh phn mng dng nh thi ngoi

3.11

Thnh phn mng dng nh thi dng dy

3.12

M hnh phn cp ng h mng

3.13

Gii hn phn b ng h trong chui phn cp

3.14

Phn b nh thi gia cc vn phng

Error: Referen ce source not

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen

3.15

Truyn tn hiu nh thi v d liu

3.16

Xy ra ni vng ng b khi t cp gia nt 3 v 4

3.17

V tr ca cc byte S1 trong mo u

3.18

Cch truyn bn tin nh thi trong mng vng

3.19

Cch truyn bn tin nh thi trong mng vng khi c s c

ce source not found

3.20

Cch truyn bn tin ng b trn mng tuyn tnh

Error: Referen ce

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen

3.21

Cch truyn bn tin ng b trn mng tuyn tnh khi c s c

ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

4.1

T chc h thng FLX 150/600

4.2

Khuyn ngh ITU-T

4.3

S khi h thng FLX 150/600

4.4

Cu hnh mng chui

4.5

S mng phn nhnh HUB

Error:

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found Error: Referen ce source not found

4.6

S khi TRM

4.7

S khi ADM

4.8

Cu hnh thit b REG

4.9

S khi ca h thng ng b ch 1

4.10

S khi ca h thng ng b ch 2

Error: Referen ce source not

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Referen ce source not found

4.11

Cu trc ghp knh ng b

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

DANH MC BNG BIU


S hiu Tn bng Trang
Error: Refere 1.1 Phn cp trong ng b SDH nce source not found Error: Refere 1.2 Nhm n v nhnh nce source not found Error: Refere 1.3 Chc nng ca cc byte mo u nce source not found Error: Refere 2.1 Th t u tin chuyn mch (4 bit u ca byte K1) nce source not found 2.2 Yu cu knh chuyn mch (bn bit cui ca byte K1) Error: Refere nce

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Refere 2.3 Chc nng ca byte K2 nce source not found Error: Refere 2.4 Th t u tin chuyn mch (bn bit u ca byte K1) nce source not found Error: Refere 2.5 Chc nng ca cc bit trong byte K2 nce source not found Error: Refere 3.1 chnh xc v n nh ca cc ng h nce source not found 3.2 Cc trng thi ca bn tin ng b Error: Refere nce

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Refere 4.1 ngha cc LED mt trc card PWRL-1 nce source not found Error: Refere 4.2 ngha cc LED mt trc card SACL-1 nce source not found Error: Refere 4.3 ngha cc LED mt trc card NML-1 nce source not found Error: Refere 4.4 ngha cc LED mt trc card MPL-1 nce source not found 4.5 ngha cc LED mt trc card TSCL-1 Error: Refere nce

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

Error: Refere 4.6 ngha cc LED mt trc card CHPH-D12C nce source not found Error: Refere 4.7 ngha mt trc card CHSD-1L1C nce source not found

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

n tt nghip

LI M U
Mng quang SDH ra i l s kt hp ca k thut ghp knh ng b s SDH v bng thng rng ca si quang. Mng quang SDH tn dng c u im mm do ca k thut ghp knh ng b s v bng thng rng ca si quang nn c xem l k thut ghp knh ng b s bng rng. Tc truyn dn c th ln n hng chc, hng trm Gb/s v th yu cu v tc x l ca cc thit b trn mng v vn ng b cng phi c quan tm. ng b l phng thc gi cho cc thit b s trn mng hot ng theo cng mt tc trung bnh trn tt c cc giao din. Nu tc ng vo v tc ng ra khng bng nhau th mt phn thng tin s b mt, do vn ng b l cha kho quan trng t c cht lng dch v nh mong mun. Hu ht cc thit b s trn mng nh b ghp/tch knh, b ghp xen/rt, b kt ni cho s u cn phi c ng b. Mt ng h mng ti nt pht s iu khin cc bit, khe thi gian v khung truyn i t nt . Mt ng h mng ti nt thu s iu khin tc c thng tin t tn hiu thu c. Mc tiu ca vic ng b mng l gi cho cc ng h ny c ng nhp pha thu khi phc ng tn hiu s. Vy lm th no cc thit b trn mng hot ng cng mt tc trung bnh v duy tr c tc ny? Mc ch ca ti l tm hiu v m hnh phn cp ng b, cc cch truyn tn hiu ng b trong mng v duy tr c ng b k c trong trng hp mng c s c. ti cn gii thiu khi qut v thit b truyn dn quang FLX 150/600 c s dng trong mng quang SDH. Ni dung n ny trnh by chi tit v k thut ng b trong mng quang SDH v ng dng trong thc t. Ni dung n chia lm 4 chng: Chng 1: K thut ghp knh ng b SDH Chng 2: Mng quang ng b SDH Chng 3: ng b trong mng quang SDH Chng 4: Gii thiu thit b truyn dn quang FLX 150/600

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

n tt nghip

n i su phn tch tng thnh phn ca cc k thut, tng hp cc l thuyt v cc bi bo co khoa hc v ti lin quan. Trong qu trnh lm n khng th tranh khi sai st, em mong nhn c s gip ca cc thy c. Em xin chn thnh cm n thy NGUYN NH LUYN gip hng dn em hon thnh n ny. Em xin cm n cc thy c trong khoa h tr em hon thnh n ny. Xin cm n cc anh ch, cc bn gip ng vin c v hon thnh n ny. Sinh vin thc hin Nguyn Quc Cng

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

-3-

CHNG 1 K THUT GHP KNH NG B SDH 1.1. S ra i ca SDH Trong nhng nm 1980 do h thng chuyn mch s ngy cng tng nhiu, thit b truyn dn s c dng nhiu v nhu cu thit lp ISDN ngy cng ln,vic ng b ha mng li tr nn quan trng. Mc khc, nh vo tin b cng ngh tin hc trong cc thit b truyn dn, cc b ni cho thc hin hon ton bng in t. Ti y tc thp c th ni ln vi tn hiu tc cao. Cng ngh truyn dn theo phn cp ng b SDH (Sychronous Digital Hierachy) ra i da vo k thut SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) mng quang ng b, nguyn l ghp knh SDH xen k tng byte. D liu c b tr vo cc container v c gn cc t mo t trng v a ti mt tiu chun quc t chung. Nh vy c nhiu nguyn nhn dn n s ra i ca k thut truyn dn SDH. Trc ht cn phi c thit b truyn dn vi cc knh dung lng ln, p ng c yu cu i hi ca khch hng. Trong k thut PDH, cc lung s c s cc tc thp s c ghp to nn cc lung c tc cao hn, cc tc cha c giao tip tng thch s b mt trong qu trnh x l. Chi ph cho bin i gia cc bc khc nhau rt ln v h thng khng tng thch l iu khng th chp nhn c.
1,544Mbit/s 2,048Mbit/s

6,312Mbit/s

SDH

140Mbit/s 45Mbit/s

34Mbit/s

Hnh 1.1: Truy nhp ca SDH

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

-4-

Do k thut truyn dn SDH c xem l mt h thng to bi s kt hp c nhiu tn hiu nhnh c tc khc nhau (1,544Mbit/s; 2,048Mbit/s; 6,312Mbit/s; 34Mbit/s; 45Mbit/s; 140Mbit/s) trong mt tn hiu n c tc cao, c phn cp tiu chun ho quc t bi s nhn knh s c ng b trc tip. 1.2. Vai tr ca SDH K thut ghp knh cp ng b s ra i nng cao tc truyn dn cng nh cht lng ca thng tin c truyn i. So vi k thut ghp knh s cp cn ng b do hot ng da trn cn ng b v tn hiu ng h nn b gii hn v tc truyn dn, k thut ghp knh s ng b ra i gii quyt c mt phn bi ton v tc v cht lng thng tin truyn i. K thut ghp knh ng b s SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierachical) cho php ghp c cc lung s tc thp cn ng b. Cu trc khung c thit k va tch hp lu lng v thng tin qun l nn ngi qun l v vn hnh mng c th da vo cc byte trong khung gim st v vn hnh hiu qu. SDH cho php hot ng nhiu tc khc nhau, t tc c bn l 155,52 Mb/s n hng chc Gb/s. t c tc cao nh vy th knh truyn dn cn phi c mt bng thng rt ln mi c th p ng c. Do , SDH ra i cng vi ng dng truyn dn trn si quang to thnh mng quang SDH. 1.3. Phn cp SDH
Bng 1.1: Phn cp trong ng b SDH

Cc cp truyn dn STM-1

Tc truyn dn 155,520Mbit/s (155Mbit/s) 622,080Mbit/s

Cc lung PDH to thnh

Giao din

63 lung 2Mbit/s hoc 3 lung in-Quang 34Mbit/s hoc 3 lung 45Mbit/s (Electrichoc 1 lung 140Mbit/s Optical) 252 lung 2Mbit/s hoc 12 lung Quang 34Mbit/s hoc 12 lung 45Mbit/s (Optical) hoc 4 lung 140Mbit/s

STM-4

(622Mbit/s)

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

-5-

288.320Mbit/s STM-16 (2,5Gbit/s) 9.953.280Mbit/s STM-64 (10Gbit/s)

1008 lung 2Mbit/s hoc 48 lung Quang 34Mbit/s hoc 48 lung 45Mbit/s (Optical) hoc 16 lung 140Mbit/s 4032 lung 2Mbit/s hoc 192 Quang lung 34Mbit/s hoc 192 lung (Optical) 45Mbit/s hoc 64 lung 140Mbit/s

1.4. c im ca SDH K thut phn knh n gin do nhn knh theo kiu ng b, theo kiu xen

byte ln lt, iu ny dn n tin cy ca h thng c nng cao.


-

C th truy xut c trc tip cc lung nhnh tc thp m khng cn

phi qua bc x l cc tn hiu trung gian. Do , thit b xen r n gin hn, dn n chi ph gim, h thng c tnh linh hot cao.
-

Kh nng OAM (Operation Administration Maintenance) c nng cao SDH

m bo kh nng qun l vn hnh trong mng linh hot mt cch hiu qu do h thng dnh sn gn 5% bng thng cho qun l vn hnh v bo tr. SDH c th chuyn ti tt c cc loi tn hiu nhnh trn cc mng hin hnh

tc l n c th bao ph tt c cc mng cung cp dch v. D dng tng bc chuyn tip ln tc bit cao hn trong tng lai

p ng nhu cu truyn dn ca cc mng vin thng trng im: mng trc chnh quc gia, mng ni ht v ng dy thu bao i vi dch v bng thng. ng h ca cc thit b c khng ch trong phng thc ng b ho trn

ton mng. vo. Nhn knh theo nguyn l xen byte ln lt. ng b theo nguyn l xen byte. Truy xut trc tip t tn hiu bc cao. Nhn knh cc tn hiu nhnh theo kiu ng b. C cu trc khung ng nht thay i linh hot, ph hp vi tn hiu nhnh

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

-6-

1.5. Cu trc khung SDH Ghp knh ng b s SDH c th c ghp t cc lung s cn ng b. Trong qu trnh ghp iu chnh s tng thch v tc cc lung s vo v cc n v cha th mt s bit v byte chn c nh v c hi s c dng. n v lung s c bn ca SDH l khung STM-1 tc 155,52 Mb/s. T STM-1 c th ghp thnh cc khung STM-N c tc cao hn.

Hnh 1.2: Cu trc ghp knh SDH

1.6. Cc khi chc nng ca b ghp knh Cc ngn cha container k hiu l C-n cha cc byte thuc mt trong cc tn hiu PDH. C-n (n = 1,2,) l cc container a tn hiu vo, y l phn t c bn c kch thc cha cc byte ti trng (Payload) thuc mt trong cc lung s cn ng b. C-n ch lm chc nng sp xp tn hiu PDH v hiu chnh b li s lch pha gia h thng SDH v tn hiu PDH, cc container gm c: Cc byte thng tin. Cc bit hoc byte chn c nh trong khung, khng mang ni dung d liu m

ch s dng tng thch v pha vi tc bit ca container cao hn.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

-7-

Cc byte chn khng c nh nhm lm cn bng chnh xc v tc gia tn

hiu PDH v container ca n. Cc byte ny c th n thun l byte chn khng mang thng tin m cng c th l byte chn mang thng tin lung s. Cc byte iu khin c chn vo khai bo cho hng thu bit c byte

chn c nh l byte thng tin hay ch l byte chn khng mang thng tin. 1.6.1. Cc gi Container o VC-n Mi gi o l mt cu trc thng tin dng trao i thng tin mc truyn dn trong SDH. N bao gm mt trng tin (Payload) v cc thng tin mo u ng (POH) c t chc trong mt cu trc khi vi di l 125s hay 500s. Thng tin nhn dng u khung VC-n c cung cp bi lp phc v mng, c hai loi gi o VC c nh ngha nh sau:

VC-n cp thp:

VC-n ( n = 1,2) gm mt gi C-n (n = 1,2) v mo u ng cp tng ng, l cc VC c ghp vo mt VC ln hn (VC-11, VC-12, VC-2, VC-3) c xem l LO-VC khi ghp vo VC-4.

VC-n cp cao:

VC-n (n = 3,4) gm mt gi C-n (n = 3,4) hoc mt tp hp nhm khi nhnh (TUG-2 hoc TUG-3) cng thm mo u ng cp tng ng l cc VC c ghp trc tip vo ti trng (Payload) ca khung STM-1 nh VC-4. Trong trng hp VC-3 c ghp trc tip STM-1 th VC-3 cng c xem nh l HO-VC. POH cha cc thng tin h tr gim st s vn chuyn cc container t im pht n im nhn. N c thm vo u ng dn khi VC c to ra v ch c c cui ng dn khi VC b xa. 1.6.2. Cu trc cc VC VC-11: Gm 25 byte cng vi 1 byte POH, sp xp trn 3 ct x 9 hng c dng truyn dn tn hiu 1,544Mbit/s theo tiu chun bc M.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

-8-

VC-12: Gm 34 byte cng vi 1 byte POH, sp xp trn 4 ct x 9 hng c dng truyn dn tn hiu 2,048 Mbit/s theo chun Chu u.
1byte POH

1byte POH

C-11

C-12

VC-11

VC-12

Hnh 1.3: Cu trc VC-11 v VC-12

VC-2: Bao gm 106 byte d liu cng vi 1 byte POH dng tng thch vi lung 6,312 Mbit/s, sp xp trn 12 ct x 9 hng.
1byte POH

12

C-2

Hnh 1.4: Cu trc VC-2

VC-3: Gm 756 byte d liu cng thm 9 byte POH sp xp thnh 85 ct x 9 hng.
9 byte POH
J1 B3 C2 G1

85 ct

F2 H4 Z3 Z4 Z5

C-3

Hnh 1.5: Cu trc VC-3

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

-9-

VC-4: Gm 2340 byte d liu cng thm 9 byte POH sp xp thnh 261 ct x 9 hng.
9 byte POH
J1 B3 C2 G1

261 ct

F2 H4 Z3 Z4 Z5

C-4

Hnh 1.6: Cu trc VC-4

1.6.3. n v nhnh TU-n TU = VC (LO-VC) + PTR Trc khi sp xp vo khung STM-1, cc VC bc thp s c ghp vo mt VC bc cao hn. Mi lin quan v pha gia cc VC c th hin thng qua khi nim con tr (PTR). ng thi n cng thng bo s bt u ca VC . PTR c ghp thm ti mt v tr c nh trong VC v to ra cc TU tng ng nh sau:
TU-1x (TU-11 v TU-12): TU-1x = VC-1x + 1 byte PTR

L cc TU c to thnh t cc VC-1x (VC-11 v VC-12) kt hp vi byte PTR.


1byte PTR

1byte PTR

VC-11 .

VC-12 .

TU-11

TU-12

Hnh 1.7: Cu trc TU-11 v TU-12

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 10 -

TU-2: TU-2 = VC-2 + 1 byte PTR

Vic truyn dn cc byte PTR s xy ra ln lt, c mi khung 125s s c mt byte PTR. Byte PTR ny s c gn vo v tr c nh trong khung cp cao hn l VC-3 hoc VC-4. Nh vy tng cng s c 3 byte PTR cho 3 khung 125s. Cn byte th t ca a khung 500s cng mang 1 byte PTR, nhng byte ny cha c quy nh chc nng v hin nay dng d phng.
1byte PTR

12

VC-2 .

Hnh 1.8: Cu trc TU-2

TU-3:

TU-3 = VC-3 + 3 byte PTR

Kch thc ca TU-3 v v tr ca cc byte PTR nh Hnh 1.9. Ngoi ra c th ghp 3 VC-3 vo khung VC-4 theo nguyn l ghp xen byte, sau chng c pht i trong khung AU-4, trong qu trnh truyn dn c 2 cp PTR c ghp vo thc hin nhim v sau: PTR AU-4 trong thnh phn SOH ch th v tr ca VC-4 trong khung STM-1. 3 PTR TU-3 (mi PTR 3 byte c gn vo trong VC-4 thng bo v tr ca

mi VC-3). Cu thnh t mt ngn cha o VC-n v mt con tr (PTR), n cho php kt hp gia mc ng cp thp v mc ng cp cao. Con tr PTR n v nhnh cho php h thng SDH iu chnh s sai lch v pha

gia VC bc thp v tiu POH ca VC bc cao k tip cha chng.


3 byte PTR

86

VC-3

Hnh 1.9: Cu trc TU-3

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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1.6.4. Nhm n v nhnh TUG Sp xp cc tn hiu khi nhnh thnh tn hiu s c tc cao hn, chuyn n cc VC bc cao hn. C hai loi TUG: TUG-2 v TUG-3 c cc thng s sau:
Bng 1.2: Nhm n v nhnh

Cc loi TUG Kch thc Tc

TUG-2 108 Byte 6,912Mbit/s

TUG-3 774 Byte 49,536Mbit/s

TUG-2:

Mt TUG-2 c th c hnh thnh bi 3 cch sau:

TUG-2 = 4 x TU-11

4 x TU-11 to thnh 1 TUG-2 theo nguyn l ghp xen byte nh Hnh 1.10. Bn byte u tin ca hng th nht l byte PTR, cc byte sau l cc byte d liu.

TUG-2 = 3 x TU-12
3 3 3 3

1byte PTR

TU - 11

TU - 11

TU - 11

TU - 11

TUG -2
..................

12

Hnh 1.10: TUG-2 to thnh t 4 x TU-11

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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3 x TU-12 cng theo nguyn l ghp xen byte to thnh 1 TUG-2 nh l cc PTR, cc byte sau l cc byte d liu, theo Hnh 1.11. Tng t nh trng hp trn, 3 byte u tin ca hng u tin.
1byte PTR 4 4 4

TU - 12

TU - 12

TU - 12

9
12

TUG -2
..................

Hnh 1.11: TUG-2 to thnh t 3 x TU-12

TUG-2 to bi TU-2:

Mi TU-2 c kch thc tng ng 1 TUG-2, vic ghp TU-2 vo TUG-2 nh sau:
1byte PTR

TUG-2 = 1 TU-2

12

Hnh 1.12: TUG-2 to thnh t TU2

Ct u tin cha 3 byte PTR NPI (Null PTR Indication), v 6 byte chn c nh (Fixed Stuff Byte). Cc PTR NPI gi l PTR ch th khng gi tr, chng khng mang ngha no m ch mang cc mu bit c nh.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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TUG-3: 7 TUG-2 = TUG-3 hoc TU-3 = TUG-3


#1 #2 #3

TU-12

TU - 12

TU - 12

TU - 12

9
12

4 TUG-2

#1

#2

#7

NPI

Cc bit chn c nh Con tr (PTR)

21

86

Hnh 1.13: TU-12 qua TUG-2 vo TUG-3


TUG-3: TU-3 = TUG-3

86 TU-3 ......................... TUG-3 ......................... 9

6 byte chn c nh

Hnh 1.14: TU-3 ghp thnh TUG-3

1.6.5. n v qun l AU-N L mt cu trc thng tin cung cp kh nng lm tng hp gia mc ng cp cao vi mc on. N bao gm mt trng tin (gi o cp cao) v mt con tr (PTR) khi qun l. Gm 2 loi: AU-3 v AU-4

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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AU-N = VC (HO-VC) + PTR Trong trng hp ny, cc gi tr ca con tr AU (AU PTR) c gn trong khung STM-1 ghi li mi quan h v pha gia khung truyn dn v cc VC tng ng. Cc byte AU PTR c gn khng c nh vo 9 byte u tin ca hng th t trong khung STM-1, chng c chc nng nh du AU (tuy nhin cc AU-PTR ca AU-3 v ca AU-4 l khc nhau). Con tr AU-N cho php h thng SDH iu chnh s sai lch v pha gia u khung tin tng ng VC-n (n = 3,4) vi u khung STM. V tr ca con tr ny l trong khung STM. Cc AU-N c th c cu thnh nh sau:
-

AU-3 = 1 x VC-3 + PTR AU-4 = 1 x VC-4 + PTR 1.6.6. Nhm n v qun l AUG Gm nhiu AU c nhn knh theo phng thc xen byte ln lt. Trong

AUG ch gm ton AU-3 hoc ton AU-4. 1.7. Cu trc khung STM-1 Khung STM-1 gm c 2430 byte c xp thnh 270 ct v 9 hng. Thi gian truyn mi khung STM-1 l 125 s v tc l 155,52 Mb/s. Cu trc ca khung STM-1 gm ba khi c bn: khi ti d liu chnh payload, khi con tr PTR v khi t mo vng SOH.

Hnh 1.15: Cu trc khung STM-1

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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Cc byte trong khung STM-1 c truyn i theo tng hng, bt u t hng mt ct mt. Nh vy, c sau khi truyn i 9 byte SOH th truyn c 261 byte d liu, ngoi tr hng th t, truyn i 9 byte con tr AU4 thay v 9 byte mo u SOH. 1.7.1. Khi ti d liu chnh payload Cc lung s cp PDH t 2 Mb/s n 140 Mb/s c chuyn vo vng ti d liu payload c kch thc (9x261) byte. thch ng tc gia cc lung s PDH v khung STM-1 th cc bit chn c nh (ch l cc bit chn) v cc bit chn c hi (c th l bit chn hoc l bit d liu) s c dng chn vo tng cp ghp khc nhau. 1.7.2. Khi con tr PTR Khng phi lc no d liu cng c a vo u khung STM-1 nn s chnh lch pha gia d liu ti vo v khung STM-1 cn mt n v ghi li. n v c gi l con tr. V tr ca cc lung s khi chuyn vo khung STM-1 s c con tr ghi nhn chnh xc. V vy, khi c c ni dung con tr, vic truy xut n cc lung ring l l c th m khng cn phi phn knh hon ton tn hiu STM-1 . Gi tr ca con tr s thay i khi xy ra qu trnh cn chnh. Cn chnh l qu trnh iu chnh s thay i pha v tc bit bng cch chn m, chn khng v chn dng. Chn dng: cc bit ti vo khung qu chm so vi bit c chuyn i nn phi chn bit gi vo gi s tng thch tc . Do , gi tr con tr tng ln mt so vi trc . Chn m: cc bit ti vo khung qu nhanh so vi bit c chuyn i nn s c bit khng c chuyn i kp v cn mt v tr ct chng vo (v cc bit ny l bit d liu khng th b c), cc bit s c chuyn vo cc byte trong con tr. Do , gi tr ca con tr gim i mt.

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Chn khng: khng xy ra vic chn no c. C ba con tr, mi con tr c kch thc 3 byte v nm v tr c nh 9 byte u tin ca hng th t trong khung STM-1. C cc loi con tr l AU (AU4 v AU3), TU3 ngoi ra cn c con tr TU1x, TU2 ghi li s chnh lch pha gia d liu ti vo v cc lung s ph cp thp trong qu trnh ghp thnh khung STM-1. hiu r hn v vai tr ca con tr, lun vn xin trnh by cu trc con tr AU4. Loi con tr AU4 c cu trc chung nh sau: H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3
Hnh 1.16:Cu trc con tr AU4

Con tr AU4 ghi li a ch ca byte u tin ca VC4 trong khung STM-1. Con tr AU4 c chn byte, gm ba con tr H1, H2, H3 mi con tr c ba byte v c vai tr, gi tr khc nhau. Y: 1001SS11 1: 11111111 H1: NNNNSSID H2: IDIDIDID H3: cha gi tr chn m. NNNN l bn bit c NDF, bnh thng c gi tr 0110, hai bit ID ca byte H1 v tm bit ID ca byte H2 l mi bit nh a ch con tr. Trong con tr AU4, mt gi tr ca con tr s l a ch ca ba byte lin tip trong khung STM-1. Mi bit ID ny s thay i gi tr ca n khi xy ra cn chnh. Cc bit I s c o gi tr nu xy ra cn chnh dng con tr, o cc bit D nu xy ra cn chnh m con tr. SS l hai bit ch loi con tr, SS=10 l con tr AU4, AU3, TU3.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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1.7.3. Khi t mo vng SOH Khi SOH gm (8x9) byte (chn byte u tin u mi hng, tr hng th t), cc byte ny dnh cho vic ng b khung, gim st, bo dng v iu khin. Khi SOH c chia thnh hai phn: - on mo u vng lp RSOH: ba hng u - on mo u vng ghp knh MSOH: nm hng cui Cu trc vng t mo SOH nh sau: A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 B1 E1 D1 B2 D4 D7 D10 B2 B2 D2 AU4-PTR K1 D5 D8 D1 Z2 K2 D6 D9 D1 M1 2 E2 A2 J0 F1 D3

S1 Z1 Z1 1 Z2

Hnh 1.17: T mo vng SOH

Chc nng ca cc byte t mo trong vng RSOH: - Ba byte A1 v ba byte A2 dng ng b khung, A1=11110110 (F6), A2=00101000 (28). Trong STM-N tt c cc STM-1 u c cc byte ny. - Byte J0 nhn dng v tr ca STM-1 trong STM-N nn trong STM-N mi STM-1 u c byte J0. - Byte B1 c chc nng gim st vng lp. Byte B1 cha mt byte BIP-8 c to da trn tt c cc bit trong khung STM-N trc qu trnh ngu nhin ho. Byte B1 ca khung STM-N thi im hin ti s cha gi tr BIP-8 ca khung STMN lin trc . Trong STM-N ch c byte B1 ca STM-1 u tin c dng

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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kim tra li bit ca tn hiu STM-N. BIP-8 c nh gi v to li trong mi b ghp knh v b lp. - Byte E1 cung cp knh nghip v ni b gia cc b lp v c dng cho thng tin thoi. Knh nghip v E1 ch c trong STM-1 u tin ca khung STM-N. - Byte F1 l knh s dng dnh cho nhn vin iu hnh mng, ging nh byte E1 th F1 cng ch c trong STM-1 u tin trong khung STM-N. - Ba byte D1, D2, D3 dnh cho vic truyn d liu gim st v iu khin trong vng lp, c tc tng cng l 192 kb/s. Cc byte ny ch c trong STM-1 u tin ca STM-N. Chc nng ca cc byte trong vng MSOH: - Ba byte B2 c chc nng gim st vng ghp knh. Trong STM-1, ba byte B2 cha t m BIP-24 c to ra trn tt c cc bit trong khung STM-1 ngoi tr ba hng u tin ca t mo SOH (cc byte RSOH) trc khi ngu nhin ho. Cc byte B2 cha gi tr BIP-24 ca khung STM-1 lin trc . Trong STM-N, BIPNx24 c to ra thay v BIP-24 ngha l BIP-24 c to ra trn cc STM-1 ring l. Cc byte B2 khng b thay i thng tin khi qua cc b lp. - Byte K1 v K2 dng cho bo hiu t ng chuyn mch bov APS (Automatic Protection Switching). Ba bit cui ca byte K2 (tc l bit 6, 7 v 8) c thit lp ln 111 cho tn hiu ch nh cnh bo AIS (Alarm Indication Signal). Khi u thu nhn c tn hiu AIS ngha l u pht bo hiu cnh bo. Khi nhn c tn hiu AIS hoc khng nhn c tn hiu lung s, b ghp knh pht MSRDI v hng ngc li, ba bit cui ca byte K2 s l 110. Byte K1 v K2 ch c trong STM-1 u tin trong khung STM-N. Chc nng c th ca cc K1 v K2 c trnh by trong chng hai. - Chn byte t D4 n D12 dnh cho vic truyn d liu gim st v iu khin trong vng ghp, c tc tng cng l 576 kb/s. Trong STM-N, cc byte ny ch c truyn trong STM-1 u tin.

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- Byte S1 cho bit cht lng ng b. Byte ny nhm ch nh tn hiu STM1 ng vo mang xung ng h ng b thu c t ng h chnh ca mng. Cc bit t 5 n 8 ch trng thi ng b ca h thng. Byte S1 ch c trong STM-1 u tin ca khung STM-N. - Byte M1 cha ch s li c pht hin bi m BIP-24 (ba byte B2) trong c 8 bit. Byte M1 ch c nh ngha trong STM-1 v STM-4. - Byte E2 cung cp knh nghip v ni b gia cc b ghp knh v c dng cho thng tin thoi. Knh nghip v E2 ch c xc nh trong STM-1 u tin ca khung STM-N. - Cc byte cn li c dng cho cp quc gia hoc d phng cho tng lai cha c nh ngha. Tng kt chc nng ca cc byte mo u trong bng:
Bng 1.3: Chc nng ca cc byte mo u

SDH Vng lp Ngoi khung OOF Mt khung LOF Gim st vng lp Mt du nhn dng STM-1 Vng ghp Ch nh cnh bo vng ghp MS-AIS Ch nh pht hin u xa vng ghp MS-RDI Ch nh pht hin li u xa MS-REI Gim st vng ghp n v qun l Mt con tr AU-LOP Cn chnh con tr AU-PJE C d liu con tr AU-NDF 1.8. Cu trc khung STM-N

Byte mo u A1,A2 A1,A2 B1 J0 K2 K2 M1 B2 H1,H2 H1,H2 H1,H2

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Cu trc khung STM-N cng tng t nh cu trc khung STM-1, ch khc nhau l khung STM-N c kch thc l Nx(9x270) byte. Nh vy, thi gian cho mi khung STM-N vn l 125s. Khung STM-N cng c cc byte SOH, byte PTR v vng ti d liu c to bng cch ghp xen k tng byte SOH, PTR v byte d liu ca cc khung STM cp thp hn. Khung STM-N c to theo nguyn l ghp knh l NxSTM-1 s cho khung STM-N. Nu ghp MxSTM-N vo khung s cho khung STM(MxN).

Hnh 1.18: Cu trc khung truyn STM-N

1.9. Phn vng trong SDH Cc vng trong mng SDH gm vng ghp, vng lp.

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Hnh 1.19: Cc vng mng ca SDH.

1.9.1. Vng ghp Trong SDH, vng ghp bao gm cc phng tin truyn dn, cc thit b lin quan gia hai u cui vi nhau. Vng ghp knh c ngha c bit quan trng v mng SDH c th thi hnh cc chc nng khc nhau (kim tra li ng truyn bng ba byte B2, chuyn mch bo v bng byte K1 v K2) trong cc trng hp khc nhau nh h hng thit b hay gim cht lng ng truyn. Cc byte mang chc nng bo v c trong t mo vng ghp knh MSOH c gn vo lung tn hiu v truyn n u cui khc. 1.9.2. Vng lp Vng lp bao gm cc phng tin truyn dn, cc thit b lin quan gia mt phn t mng v mt b lp hoc gia hai b lp vi nhau. Cc thit b lin quan gm cc thit b giao tip quang, cc thit b x l to ra v pht i hay thu v v x l cc t mo vng lp RSOH. 1.10. Kt lun chng K thut ghp knh ng b SDH ra i gii quyt c vn v tc truyn dn cng nh cht lng ca thng tin c truyn i. K thut ny p ng c nhu cu truyn dn ca cc mng vin thng trng im: mng trc chnh quc gia, mng ni ht v ng dy thu bao i vi dch v bng thng. SDH ra i cng vi ng dng truyn dn trn si quang to thnh mng quang SDH. Chng sau s trnh by v mng quang ng b SDH.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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CHNG 2 MNG QUANG NG B SDH 2.1. Cc thnh phn trong mng SDH Cc thnh phn trong mng quang ng b SDH ng vai tr ghp tch lu lng nhiu tc khc nhau t ng truyn quang vo thit b v ngc li t thit b vo ng truyn quang. Cc thnh phn ny gm b ghp knh, b ghp xen/rt, b kt ni cho s, b khuch i 2.1.1. B ghp knh B ghp knh MUX (MUltipleXer) c dng ghp cc lung tn hiu cp cn ng b v ng b ring r thnh mt lung tn hiu duy nht.

Hnh 2.1: M hnh b ghp knh

2.1.2. B ghp xen/rt Cc tn hiu cn ng b v tn hiu ng b tc thp hn c tch ra v xen vo b ghp xen/rt ADM (Add and Drop Multiplexer) t c tn hiu SDH c tc cao hn. Cc b rt/xen knh ADM c hai im truy xut STM-N. N c th ly ra (rt) cc tn hiu t khung STM-N ng vo v xen cc tn hiu khc vo khung STM-N ng ra. Phn lu lng cn li vn tip tc c chuyn i trong mng. ADM rt hu ch trong cc cu trc mng vng, to cc ng bo v trong vng trong trng hp xy ra s c.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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Hnh 2.2: Cu hnh ADM

2.1.3. B kt ni cho s Kt ni cho s DXC (Digital Cross Connection) l phn m rng ca b ghp knh c rt v xen knh. N cho php nh x cc lung nhnh PDH vo cc VC. DXC rt hu ch trong cu trc mng mt li.

Hnh 2.3: Thit b kt ni cho DXC

2.1.4. Qun l thnh phn mng Cc thnh phn mng c qun l ti ch hoc t xa thng qua phn mm, y l mt trong nhng c im ni bt ca SDH. Chc nng ca thnh phn qun l TMN (Telecommunication Management Network) gm vn hnh, qun l, bo dng v d phng c gi l OAM&P (Operation Administration Maintainment & Protection). 2.2. Cc cu hnh mng SDH 2.2.1. Mng im-im Trn cu hnh mng im-im n gin ch c cc thit b ghp knh truyn lu lng cho nhau. Cu hnh ny c dng cho cc tuyn c khong cch ngn. Khi c s c xy ra nh t cp th mng gn nh b cch ly hon ton nn thng c trin khai cu hnh bo v 1+1.
M U X M U X

Hnh 2.4: Cu hnh mng im - im

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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2.2.2. Mng tuyn tnh Trn mng quang SDH dng tuyn tnh ngoi b ghp knh cn c thm cc thnh phn mng chc nng khuch i v ghp xen/rt. Cu hnh ny c dng cho cc tuyn lu lng cao nh quc gia hay lin tnh. Khi xy ra s c trn mt on ghp hay on lp th mng cng b cch ly nn cn cu hnh bo v 1+1 trn ton mng.
M U X R E G A D M M U X

Hnh 2.5: M hnh mng truyn dn chuyn tip c ghp xen rt knh

2.2.3. Mng Hub tp trung lu lng Mng ny c dng tp trung lu lng t nhng nt mng nh v mt nt mng trung tm nn vai tr cng nh n nh ca thit b trung tm rt ln. Thit b trung tm c th l b ghp xen/rt hoc b kt ni cho.

Hnh 2.6: Cu hnh mng tp trung lu lng

2.2.4. Mng vng Thit b mng c s dng ph bin trn mng vng l b ghp xen/rt, cho php ghp v tch cc lung s tc thp vo mng m khng lm nh

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

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hng n mng. Mng vng c kh nng bo v ln, khi mt s c xy ra trn ng truyn th chc nng chuyn mch bo v ca thit b cho php lu lng trn mng c truyn theo hng cn li, m bo mng lun c thng sut. SPRING (Shared Protection Ring): Mt na khe thi gian trn c hai hng ca tuyn truyn dn s c dng truyn d liu, mt na khe thi gian cn li c dng cho d phng.

Hnh 2.7: M hnh mng SPRing DPRING (Dedicated Protection Ring): Ton b d liu trn hai hng ca tuyn truyn dn c bo v 100%.

Hnh 2.8: M hnh mng DPRing 2.2.5. Cu hnh bo v mng

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2.2.5.1. Cu hnh bo v 1+1 v N+1 ca mng tuyn tnh Mt s khi nim: Cu ni (bridge) l chc nng m u cui ny pht lu lng trn c knh lm vic v knh d phng, c cu ni dng c nh v tm thi. Yu cu cu ni: mt bn tin s c gi t u cui ny n u cui kia yu cu thc hin chc nng cu ni trn knh lm vic v d phng. Loi cu hnh bo v 1+1: tn hiu quang u cui ny s c cu hnh dng cu ni cho c knh lm vic v knh d phng nh vy th tn hiu quang s c truyn hai ln n u thu bn kia. u thu, tn hiu trn hai knh lm vic v d phng c gim st ring v u thu s chn tn hiu trn knh lm vic hoc knh d phng. Cu hnh 1+1 c dng bo v vng c lu lng ln hay quan trng thng l vng ghp nn c gi l bo v vng ghp MSP (Multiplex Section Protection). Knh t ng chuyn mch bo v APS (Automatic Protection Switching) trn byte K1 v K2 s c dng thng tin gia hai u cui trn c hai knh lm vic v d phng. Loi cu hnh 1:1 cng c dng bo v nhng knh d phng c dng truyn thm lu lng ph lc ri. Loi cu hnh bo v 1:n c n knh lm vic (n c th ln ti 14) cng chia s mt knh bo v. Thng tin gia hai u cui cng c qun l qua knh APS. Knh d phng c dng qua cu ni bng phn mm d phng cho mt trong n knh lm vic. Knh d phng c th dng ti lu lng ph khi cc knh lm vic ang hot ng tt.

Bng 2.1: Th t u tin chuyn mch (4 bit u ca byte K1)

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Bit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

iu kin hoc yu cu Kha phn bo v (lockout),u tin cao Chuyn mch cng bc (forced) S c tn hiu (Signal Fail),u tin cao S c tn hiu,u tin thp Suy gim tn hiu (Signal Degrade),u tin cao Suy gim tn hiu,u tin thp Khng s dng Chuyn mch nhn cng (manual) Khng s dng Thi gian ch khi phc (Wait-to-restore) Khng s dng Hot ng th Khng s dng Yu cu chuyn li Khng chuyn tr li Khng yu cu

Bng 2.2: Yu cu knh chuyn mch (bn bit cui ca byte K1)

Bit 1 1 1 n 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 3 1 0 4 1 1

Knh s 15 14 1 0

Yu cu chuyn mch Knh mang lu lng ph ch dng cho 1:n

Knh lm vic

Knh chy khng

Bng 2.3: Chc nng ca byte K2

Bit

Chc nng

Cc bit t 1 Ch dn s knh m c th dng cu ni,gm c 16 knh:1111 l

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n 4 Bit 5 n 8

knh mang lu lng ph (dng cho 1:n),0000 l knh chy khng,cn cc knh 0001 n 1110 l knh lm vic. Cu trc chuyn mch MSP:0 cho cu trc 1+1 v 1 cho cu trc 1:n

Cc bit t 6 111: AIS cho vng ghp 110: RDI cho vng ghp 101: chuyn mch song hng 100: chuyn mch n hng 011 n 000: dng cho tng lai 2.2.5.2. Cc cu hnh bo v ca mng vng Mng vng n hng Trn mng vng n hng, lu lng ch truyn theo mt hng trng thi bnh thng. Nh hnh sau, ta thy nu t C mun truyn lu lng sang A th truyn theo hng C B A (trn hnh v l ng x), cn t A mun truyn lu lng sang C th truyn theo hng A D C (trn hnh v l ng y). Khi mng c li xy ra gia thnh phn mng A v B th ng y khng b nh hng bi li ny nn t A lu lng c th truyn sang C theo hng bnh thng. T C truyn lu lng sang A b gin on nn h thng phi chuyn mch sang mt ng khc. Nhng thnh phn mng khc (C v D) s chuyn mch ti lu lng ny. Ti A s gi yu cu to cu ni n C, khi lu lng t C m mun truyn sang A th s i theo hai ng: ng lm vic C B A v ng d phng C D A (theo ng x).

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Hnh 2.9: Mng vng n hng

Mng vng hai hng Trn mng vng ny, kt ni gia cc thnh phn mng l song hng. trng thi bnh thng, khi t C mun truyn lu lng sang A th theo hng C B A, t A mun truyn lu lng sang C th s theo hng A B C (theo ng x). Khi mng xy ra s c gia thnh phn mng A v B, t C mun truyn lu lng sang A th s truyn lu lng n B, ti B lu lng s c chuyn mch sang ng d phng truyn n A. Nh vy, lu lng s c truyn theo hng: C B C D A.

Hnh 2.10: Mng vng song hng

Trn mng vng, chc nng APS c thc hin khi xy ra s c trn h thng, trnh t thng tin x l li c truyn trong byte K1 v K2.

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Bng 2.4: Th t u tin chuyn mch (bn bit u ca byte K1)

Bit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

iu kin hoc yu cu Kha phn bo v hay mt tnh hiu Chuyn mch cng bc trn tuyn Chuyn mch cng bc trn mng vng Mt tn hiu (tuyn) Mt tn hiu (mng vng) Suy gim tn hiu(d phng) Suy gim tn hiu(tuyn) Suy gim tn hiu (mng vng) Chuyn mch nhn cng (tuyn) Chuyn mch nhn cng(mng vng) Thi gian ch khi phc(wait-to-restore) Hot ng th(tuyn) Hot ng th (mng vng) Yu cu chuyn li (tuyn) Yu cu chuyn li (mng vng) Khng yu cu

Cc bit t nm n tm ca byte K1 c dng ch s nhn dng ca nt ch (thng thng l s nhn dng ca nt k bn). Cc bit t mt n bn ca byte K2 c dng ch s nhn dng ca nt ngun (l s nhn dng ca chnh n), bit nm c dng ch chuyn mch sang ng di hay ng ngn. Cc bit su, by v tm s c dng ch trng thi.

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Bng 2.5: Chc nng ca cc bit trong byte K2 Bit 6 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 7 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 AIS cho tuyn RDI cho tuyn Dng cho tng lai Dng cho tng lai Lu lng ph trn knh d phng Cu ni v chuyn mch Cu ni Khng s dng iu kin hoc yu cu

2.3. Kt lun chng Chng ny trnh by c bn mng quang SDH v cc thnh phn trong mng cng nh v cc cu hnh ca mng quang SDH. Mng quang SDH mang li nhu li ch to ln cho nh cung cp mng nh: Kh nng p ng cao v dung lng ph hp; tin cy cao; lm nn tng ca nhiu dch v tng lai; kt ni d dng vi cc h thng khc.

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CHNG 3 NG B TRONG MNG QUANG SDH 3.1. Tn Hiu ng B 3.1.1. Vai tr ca ng b ng b l phng thc gi cho cc thit b s trn mng hot ng theo cng mt tc trung bnh trn tt c cc giao din. Nu tc ng vo v tc ng ra khng bng nhau th mt phn thng tin s b mt, do vn ng b l cha kho quan trng t c cht lng dch v nh mong mun. Hu ht cc thit b s trn mng nh b ghp/tch knh, b ghp xen/rt, b kt ni cho s u cn phi c ng b. Mt ng h mng ti nt pht s iu khin cc bit, khe thi gian v khung truyn i t nt . Mt ng h mng ti nt thu s iu khin tc c thng tin t tn hiu thu c. Mc tiu ca vic ng b mng l gi cho cc ng h ny c ng nhp pha thu khi phc ng tn hiu s. C nhiu cch ng b trong mng nh da vo tn hiu ng h ni b, tn hiu ng h ngoi, tn hiu ng h c tch t tn hiu thu Cc hin tng nh hng n cht lng ng b l jitter, wander, slip. 3.1.2. Cc phng thc ng b trong vin thng Cc phng php ng b vin thng bao gm: cn ng b, phn cp ngunthu, ng b ln nhau, xung nhi v con tr. - Cn ng b: mi nt mng thu mt tn hiu tham chiu nh thi t nhng ngun nh thi khc nhau nn gii hn tc truyn dn. - Phn cp ch-t: ngun tham chiu c bn nt ch to ra mt tn hiu nh thi tham chiu chia s v phn phi. Hai im chnh trong cu hnh ny l nhng ng h thu ti to li tn hiu nh thi tham chiu v nhng ng truyn s truyn tn hiu nh thi qua mng.

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- ng b ln nhau: thng tin ca ng h c chia s gia cc nt vi nhau trong ton mng. Mi ng h pht v thu tn hiu nh thi tham chiu n t tt c cc ng h khc trong mng. ng b mng c xc nh bng trung bnh cc tn hiu ng b thu c t tt c cc nt trong mng. Theo nguyn l, ch ny c th cung cp cc tn hiu ng b ng nht ti mi nt, tuy nhin theo thc t th ng b c th thay i bt thng bi v cc ng h c th khng hon ho hoc khng hon ho trong qu trnh truyn tn hiu ng b. - Xung nhi: c dng truyn chui tn hiu bt ng b c tc cao hn tc ca DS1/E1. K thut ny, cc bit gi c chn vo chui bit ghp, n lm tng tc ca nhng ng h ni b. Do , tc ra ca b ghp phi cao hn tc tng ca cc lung tn hiu n. - Con tr: c s dng trong SDH v SONET truyn phn payload m c th khng ng b vi ng h ca thit b SDH/SONET. Nhng con tr c s dng ghi nhn v tr bt u khung truyn trong payload. Khc nhau v tn s gia nhng thnh phn mng hoc gia payload v thit b SDH/SONET c khc phc bng cch iu chnh gi tr ca con tr. Phng php ny khng cn ng b payload theo thit b m thit b phi c ng b nhng iu chnh ca con tr c ti thiu. C nhiu phng php ng b trong vin thng, mi phng php c nhng c im ring nn ty vo tc truyn dn v cu hnh mng m cc phng php c s dng cho ph hp. Cc thng s Khi so snh pha hai tn hiu vi nhau s c ba trng hp c th xy ra nh sau:

ng pha

Thay i pha

Chnh lch pha

Hnh 3.1: Cc trng hp khc nhau v pha

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Khi truyn tn hiu i, do cc nh hng bn ngoi v bn thn thit b th pha gia tn hiu danh nh (mt tn hiu chun) v tn hiu truyn i s c mt chnh lch v chnh lch s c tch ly dn, dn n mt vn cn quan tm l chnh xc v n nh tn s ca thit b. tch ly pha lin tc trn mt hng l mt ch s ca chnh lch tn s v tc thay i pha s xc nh ln ca gi tr chnh lch tn s , y c s xc nh chnh xc ca tn s.

Hnh 3.2: chnh lch pha theo mt hng

Hnh 3.3: chnh lch pha trn mt hng v hng ngc li

tch ly pha trn mt hng so vi tch ly pha trn hng ngc li l mt ch s ca n nh tn s.

Hnh 3.4: tch ly pha b nh hng bi chnh xc v n nh

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xc nh chnh xc tn s,cn o chnh lch pha trong mt khong thi gian v ly gi tr trung bnh trong khong thi gian .

Hnh 3.5: o chnh xc tn s

o chnh xc tn s c xc nh trong mt khong thi gian o, gi tr chnh lch pha trong tng khong thi gian quan st ngn c gi l hm li trong thi gian TIE(Time Interval Error). n nh tn s s l gi tr TIE ln nht trong sut thi gian o c gi l MTIE (Max Time Interval Error), n v tnh l nano giy hoc trung bnh ca TIE trong nhng khong thi gian o khc nhau c gi l TDEV (Time Deviation ) n v tnh l nano giy.

Hnh 3.6: Gi tr MTIE theo khong thi gian quan st

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Tn s khng n nh s gy ra tri pha (wander) v rung pha (jitter). chnh lch pha gia tn hiu o v tn hiu danh nh m ln hn 10 Hz th c gi l jitter, nu nh chnh lch ny nh hn 10 Hz th c gi l wander. Jitter thng c o trong mt khong thi gian ngn, c th o theo bin UI (Unit Interval) hoc o theo tn s Hz. Nguyn nhn gy jitter do mch iu chnh khi phc nh thi trong b khuch i, qu trnh b chn cc bit nhi trong b gii ghp. Jitter ln c th gy ra li bit v thit b s khng th ly ng mu tn hiu n, gy ra trn (overflow) hoc trong (underflow) b m. Wander thng c o trong mt khong thi gian di, cng c th o theo bin UI (Unit Interval) hoc theo tn s Hz. Nguyn nhn gy wander do s tri pha khi nhit thay i, do cc qu trnh ng b li cc ng h. Wander tn hiu nh thi tham chiu ng vo c th nh hng n ng h ch lu gi khi n mt tt c cc tn hiu tham chiu. n nh tn s cn th hin chuyn tip pha. Chuyn tip pha l s trt pha ln trong mt khong thi gian rt ngn. Nguyn nhn do iu chnh con tr, chuyn tip pha gy ra li bit, nh hng n ng h ch lu gi.

Hnh 3.7: Chuyn tip pha

3.2. Cc Loi ng H Mt m hnh ng h phn cp c xy dng, mt ng h tham chiu s cp c dng phn b ng b ti cc thit b. M hnh ny gm bn cp ng h, cp cao nht l ng h tham chiu s cp v cp thp nht l ng h ca thit b ngi dng. Hin nhin, thit b ng b trn mng SDH ch dng ng h t cp ba tr ln. Cc ng h cp thp hn s nhn tn hiu nh thi t cc ng h cp

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cao hn hoc bng v phi duy tr c sai s ph hp khi mt tt c tn hiu tham chiu ng b. Hai thng s nh gi ng h l chnh xc v n nh tn s. 3.2.1. PRC PRC (Primary Reference Clock): ng h chun s cp yu cu chnh xc v n nh rt cao lm ng h ch ca mng. Loi ng h lm PRC l mt ng h ring bit khng c bt k tn hiu vo no, thng l cc loi ng h nguyn t hoc cc ng h dao ng vi sai s tuyt i nh hn 1x10-11. Vi chnh xc nh vy, ng h PRC cung cp chui bit nh thi s khng gy ra trt khung trong t nht vi thng. Cc loi ng h c dng lm PRC l ng h nguyn t Cesium - c xem l ng h cp mt c cht lng cao nht; ng h Rubidium c iu khin bng cc thng tin nh thi thu t h thng nh v ton cu GPS. Cc quy nh v jitter v wander ca ng h PRC c quy nh theo chun ca ITU-T G.811. 3.2.2. SSU ng h cp hai SSU (Synchronous Supply Unit) l ng h c nhim v nhn cc ng vo ng b khc nhau, la chn mt trong cc tn hiu tham chiu ng b ti to v phn b cho ton mng. Tn hiu nh thi c khi phc bng vng kha pha PLL. ng h cp hai c xem nh mt nt mng ng b. C hai loi SSU l SSU chuyn tip v SSU ni b. SSU c xc nh trong chun G.812, yu cu chnh xc l 1,6 x 10-8 v cc gi tr gii hn wander v jitter ca SSU. 3.2.3. ng h ca thit b SDH ng h ca thit b mng SEC (SDH Equipment Clock) thc hin cc chc nng nhn tn hiu tham chiu ng b t cc ngun ng b vo khc nhau, la chn mt trong cc ngun ti to tn hiu ng b t tn hiu tham chiu. Tn

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hiu nh thi c ti to bng vng kha pha. Trng hp mt tt c cc ngun ng b th thit b mng s s dng ngun ng h ni ring ca mnh. ng h SEC yu cu chnh xc nh hn 4,6x10-6 cho php trt mt khung trong by gi. Cc yu cu v jitter v wander ca SEC c quy nh chun G.813.
Bng 3.1: chnh xc v n nh ca cc ng h

Loi ng h PRC SSU loi 1 SSU loi 2 SSU loi 3 SEC

chnh xc 1 x 10-11 Khng dng 1,6 x 10-8 4,6 x 10-6 4,6 x 10-6

n nh Khng dng 1 x 10-10/ngy 2,7 x 10-9/ngy 1,2 x 10-8/ngy 2 x 10-6/ngy

Hnh 3.8: tch ly pha ca cc ng h

3.2.4. B to nh thi trong thit b ng b SETS (Synchronous Equipment Timing Supply) Trong thit b SDH c h tr mt ng h cung cp tn hiu nh thi cho thit b hot ng vi b dao ng ni sai s 4,6 ppm trong ch t do v 0,37 ppm trong ch lu gi.

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ng b l phn quan trng ca cc thit b SDH. Cc thnh phn mng SDH c thit k vi thc thi v n nh cao. Mi thnh phn mng c th cung cp ch hot ng t do t b dao ng ni, ch tn hiu nh thi tch t tn hiu quang n v ch nh thi ngoi ly t mng ng b s qua giao din E1. - T0: Tn hiu tham chiu nh thi bn trong phn t mng - T1: Tn hiu nh thi thu c t ng vo STM-N (ly t ng dy) - T2: Tn hiu nh thi thu c t ng vo E1 (ly t lung) - T3: Tn hiu nh thi thu c t ng vo ng b E1 (ng b ngoi) - T4: Ng ra ca tn hiu nh thi ( cung cp cho thit b khc).

Hnh 3.9: Cu trc ca SETS

Tt c cc tn hiu nh thi n c a n SETS, SETS s chn ra tn hiu nh thi c du ng b cao nht a n mch PLL khi phc xung ng h v c dng lm ng h trung tm cho thit b v ng b cho tn hiu SDH i ra. SETS cung cp tn hiu ng b cho mi khi trong phn t mng ng thi c c kh nng cung cp cho thit b khc, thng qua ng giao tip T4. 3.3. Cc ch hot ng ca ng H

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3.3.1. Kha ng b Ch kha ng b c xc lp khi SETS nhn c tn hiu nh thi t ng h c cp cao hn. Khi , SETS s trch tn hiu ng b ny ng ra. 3.3.2. Lu gi Trong trng hp tham chiu ng b b mt m khng c d phng, SETS s chuyn sang ch lu gi v tip tc cung cp nh thi cho thit b, s dng ngun dao ng ni m bo tn s hot ng ny c tt nht c th. C hai nguyn nhn chnh nh hng n cht lng ca ng h ch lu gi l chnh xc v n nh. 3.3.3. Chy t do Khi ng h ch lu gi khng th tip tc cung cp nh thi tn s lu gi c na th n s chuyn sang ch t do. Trong ch t do s khng c ch chuyn mch no c thc hin. SETS trch ra mt tn hiu ly t dao ng thch anh. Ch mt thnh phn mng trong mng con c hot ng trong ch t do, tt c cc thnh phn mng khc trong mng s nhn tn hiu nh thi hot ng trong ch nh thi ng dy trnh cn chnh con tr. Mt tn hiu nh thi ra c th c tch ra t ng truyn tc STM-N v th s khng nh hng n ghp knh v x l con tr. Ng ra nh thi ny c th c ngt hoc STM-N s thng bo trng thi qua bn tin ng b. 3.4. Cc tn hiu nh thi 3.4.1. Ch nh thi ngoi (external timing) Ch nh thi ngoi, SETS c th nhn hai tn hiu tham chiu E1 t ng h phn cp ba hoc cao hn. Nhng lung E1 tham chiu ny ng b cho nhng thnh phn mng SDH v nhng thnh phn mng ni b khc hot ng cng ngun ng h. Tn hiu E1 ny c th c khi phc vi jitter nh bng PLL (Phase-Locked Loop). Ch nh thi ngoi thng c dng cho cc thnh phn mng t trong vn phng v ch cn mt thit b trong mng dng nh thi ngoi, cc thnh phn mng khc s c cung cp nh thi bng ch nh thi

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ng dy. Trn Hnh 3.10 cc ng lin l nh thi s cp, ng gch ni l nh thi th cp.

Hnh 3.10: Thnh phn mng dng nh thi ngoi

3.4.2. Ch nh thi ng dy (line timing) Trong ch nh thi ng dy, SETS trch ra tn hiu nh thi t tn hiu ng truyn quang tc cao. PLL c dng gim hin tng jitter. Khi cung cp ch chuyn mch t ng, nu mt STM-N tham chiu b mt, SETS s chuyn mch sang ngun tham chiu kia m khng lm nh hng n cht lng ng b. Nu tt c cc tn hiu nh thi STM-N u b mt th SETS s chuyn sang ch lu gi v s chuyn li bnh thng khi tn hiu tham chiu ng dy c li. Ch ny c th dng cho cc thnh phn mng xa.

Hnh 3.11: Thnh phn mng dng nh thi dng dy

3.4.3. Ch lu gi (Holdover mode)

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Trong trng hp tham chiu ng b b mt m khng c d phng, SETS s chuyn sang ch lu gi v tip tc cung cp nh thi h thng. Lc ny,SETS s hot ng vi tn s n nh sau cng, s dng ngun dao ng ni m bo tn s hot ng ny c tt. 3.4.4. Ch t do (free-running) SETS s chuyn sang ch t do khi mt tt c tn hiu nh thi v khng th duy tr hot ng ch lu gi. Khi , SETS s hot ng da vo tn s m b dao ng thch anh cung cp. 3.4.5. Ch nh thi trong sut Ch nh thi trong sut ch dng cho cc thit b khng cn tn hiu nh thi m vn hot ng tt c. Trn mng SDH ch c b khuch i khng cn tn hiu nh thi. 3.5. Phn b ng b mng 3.5.1. M hnh phn b Trong mng SDH, ng b c phn b theo m hnh sau:

Hnh 3.12: M hnh phn cp ng h mng

Trong m hnh ny, tn hiu ng b c phn b n tt c cc trm ca mng theo cu trc hnh cy. M hnh phn b ng b phi tha mn rng cc ng h cp thp s nhn thng tin ng b t cc ng h cp cao hn hoc bng v trnh

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ni vng ng b. Ni vng ng b xy ra khi tn hiu ng b ng ra c dng lm tn hiu ng b ng vo ca chnh n. Cc thnh phn mng c ng b t nhng nt mng ng b gn nht. Thit b c th khng nhn tn hiu ng b ngoi m c th nhn t tn hiu ng dy c tch ra t lu lng. Do mi ng h c mt gi tr chnh xc v n nh ring nn khi truyn tn hiu nh thi t cc ng h cho nhau (lun m bo th t phn cp) cc gi tr ny cng s tch ly dn. Trong qu trnh hot ng, cc ngun nh thi s c cc gin on ngn c th do iu kin khch quan bn ngoi hoc do bn thn thit b. Khi tn hiu tham chiu c khi phc hoc s gin on ko di th s to ra tn hiu tham chiu mi v tn hiu tham chiu ny s c mt sai khc v thi gian so vi tn hiu tham chiu ca thit b ang hot ng. Sai s ny c gi l hm li thi gian. Hm li thi gian s tch ly nh l s tri ngu nhin trong tn hiu ng b ca ng h thu. Ngoi s tri ngu nhin, cc s gin on cn c th gy ra s dch chuyn tn s gia ng h thu v ng h ngun. l lch trong b so pha ca ng h thu khi tn hiu tham chiu c khi phc. lch ny s tch ly qua chui ng h thu v s gy dch chuyn tn s gia tt c cc ng h trong chui ng b. Do , s lng cc ng h trong chui phn cp s c gii hn. S lng SSU ti a trong chui khng c ln hn 10, s lng SEC ti a gia PRC v SSU hoc gia hai SSU khng c qu 20 v tng s lng SEC trong chui khng qu 60 theo khuyn ngh G.803.

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Hnh 3.13: Gii hn phn b ng h trong chui phn cp

3.5.2. Phn b ng b trong mng 3.5.2.1. BITS Trong cc vn phng thng dng mt thit b ng b tch hp BITS (Building Integrated Timing Supply). BITS l mt ng h c cht lng cao nn c dng ng b cho tt c cc thnh phn mng trong vn phng. Nhng yu cu v cp ng h ca BITS c xc nh da vo nhng yu cu v kh nng thc thi v kch thc ca vn phng. ng h cp hai v cp chuyn tip c dng cho cc vn phng ln, cn cc ng h cp ba hay ni b c dng cho cc vn phng nh hn. ng h BITS phi l ng h c cht lng tt nht trong ch lu gi v vng chc nht. BITS s cung cp nh thi cho cc thit b khc trong vn phng bng ng truyn tc E1.

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3.5.2.2. Phn b ng h gia cc vn phng

Hnh 3.14: Phn b nh thi gia cc vn phng

Trong mng SDH, gia cc vn phng tit kim chi ph v ng truyn ng b E1 kh c nn cc thnh phn mng gia cc vn phng thng c ng b bng nh thi ng dy. SDH c th ci thin cht lng nh thi trong mng lin vn phng bng cch tch nh thi E1 t cc ng truyn quang tc cao (mt dng ca nh thi ngoi). Lung E1 ny c cung cp cho ng h BITS, ng h BITS s cung cp tun t cho cc thit b mng SDH v cc thit b khc trong vn phng. Nu khng c BITS th nh thi E1 s c dng nh thi trc tip cho cc thit b. Cc thnh phn mng c th cung cp nh thi E1 cho nhiu m hnh mng nh tuyn tnh, vng. Phn b nh thi qua STM-N, tn hiu ng truyn STM-N s tin li hn l ghp E1 ny vo payload ca khung STM-1 v n i hi phn c kh tch ghp lung ng b ny phc tp hn. Phn b nh thi trn mng phi m bo rng cc ng h cp thp ch nhn nh thi t ng h cp cao hn hoc bng cp vi n v khng ni vng ng b. Trn Hnh 3.15 l mt mng vng hai hng c bn nt mng. Thnh phn mng ti nt 1 c nh thi ngoi t mt ngun nh thi cp hai, y l cp ng h cao nht trong cc ng h trn mng nn s l ng h ch. Ti ba nt cn li trn mng vng c nh thi ng dy thng qua cc lung STM-N t nt 1. Thng tin nh thi c gi chung vi d liu nn chiu truyn tn hiu nh thi s cng chiu vi chiu truyn d liu. Ti mt nt mng s nhn hai du ng b cp hai t

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tn hiu nh thi ng dy trn hai hng v cng truyn tn hiu nh thi ng dy i theo hai hng.

Hnh 3.15: Truyn tn hiu nh thi v d liu

Nh vy, ti nt 3 s nhn tn hiu nh thi ng dy t nt 2 v nt 4. Gi s t cp trn chiu truyn ngc chiu kim ng h t nt 4 n nt 3 Hnh 3.16 nn d liu v c tn hiu nh thi ng dy t nt 4 cho nt 3 b gin on. Ti nt 3 ch cn nhn tn hiu nh thi t nt 2. Tn hiu nh thi ny c dng truyn cho nt 4 theo chiu cng chiu kim ng h v cng c truyn cho nt 2 theo chiu ngc chiu kim ng h. Tn hiu nh thi ny c nhn t nt 2 li c truyn ti nt 2 nn gy ni vng ng b trn mng.

Hnh 3.16: Xy ra ni vng ng b khi t cp gia nt 3 v 4

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trnh ni vng ng b v duy tr ng b tt nht trn mng th bn tin trng thi ng b c dng ch ra trng thi ca cc tn hiu nh thi trn thit b. Nu ti mt nt mng nhn c hai tn hiu nh thi cng cp nhau th s u tin chn tn hiu nh thi ang hot ng. 3.6. Bn tin ng b Bn tin ng b c truyn trn bn bit 5, 6, 7 v 8 ca byte S1 trong phn mo u vng ghp ca STM-1 u tin trong STM-N. Thng tin trong byte S1 ny cc b khuch i khng c c nn cc b khuch i khng bit c trng thi ng b do m cc b khuch i c th dng nh thi trong sut. A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 B1 E1 D1 B2 D4 D7 D10 B2 B2 D2 AU4-PTR K1 D5 D8 D1 Z2 K2 D6 D9 D1 M1 2 E2 A2 J0 F1 D3

S1 Z1 Z1 1 Z2

Hnh 3.17: V tr ca cc byte S1 trong mo u Bng 3.2: Cc trng thi ca bn tin ng b

Bit 5 dn 8 ca S1 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100

Cp cht lng 0 1 2 3 4

M t Khng bit du ng b STU Dnh cho tng lai G.811 (ST1) Dnh cho tng lai G.812 chuyn tip (ST2)

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0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Dnh cho tng lai Dnh cho tng lai Dnh cho tng lai G.812 ni b (ST2) Dnh cho tng lai Dnh cho tng lai SETS (ST3) Dnh cho tng lai Dnh cho tng lai Dnh cho tng lai Khng s dng DUS

Thnh phn mng SDH cung cp mt bn tin ng b m bo chc ton b mng c ng b trong iu kin bnh thng v c khng bnh thng. S dng bn tin ng b c th truyn thng tin v cht lng v n nh ca ngun ng b hin ti t mt thnh phn mng n mt thnh phn mng k n. Bn tin ny cho php thnh phn mng ngoi cng (dng nh thi ng truyn, tch t STM-N) t ng thay i tham chiu nh thi lun gi nh thi cht lng cao nht v trnh ni vng ng b. Bn tin ny cng cho cc thnh phn mng thng tin n ng h BITS khi nh thi E1 gim cht lng v khng cn c dng lm tham chiu. Bn tin ng b c chia thnh hai loi: ton vn nh thi E1 v t ng cu hnh li ng b. Ng ra nh thi E1 c s dng nh mt tham chiu ng b ti ng h BITS. Tham chiu ng b c ly ra t truyn dn s c ng b vi mt tham chiu nh thi ang c s dng. Nh vy, nh thi t ng h BITS trong vn phng chnh s c phn b ti vn phng k tip dng truyn dn SDH gia hai vn phng ny. BITS c th ng b t ng h phn cp ba hoc cao hn.

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Cc thnh phn mng SDH c SETS c th ng b ti ng h c chnh xc l 4,6 ppm (ng h phn cp ba) hay tt hn. Phn cp ng h ng b yu cu rng nhng ng h bng cp hoc cao hn c th ng b cho cc ng h khc. Nh vy, phn cp nh thi c gi di tt c cc iu kin xu. Trong iu kin tt bnh thng, cc thnh phn mng SDH s khng truyn ngun nh thi ni ca chng nhng s truyn thng tin v cht lng nh thi tham chiu. Khi c iu kin xu xy ra cho tt c cc tham chiu E1 ly ra t thnh phn mng c a ti BITS vn phng chnh th cc BITS s chuyn sang ch lu gi, chnh xc ph thuc vo ng h ni ca n. V ng h ni ca BITS l ngang hoc cao hn cp ca ng h SETS nn thnh phn mng SDH s s dng tham chiu ny ng b tt c cc tn hiu truyn dn ra ngoi. 3.6.1. Cc trng thi ng b 3.6.1.1. Bn tin ng b khng c gi tr Bn tin ng b c th khng c gi tr trn mi giao din STM-N, bn tin khng s dng c truyn trn bit 5 n 8. Bn tin ny c truyn i ch rng nh thi ca n khng c dng cho ng b, v d nh truyn hng ngc li hng truyn ng b ng dy. 3.6.1.2. ng b ngoi vi sync out Khi thnh phn mng c cu hnh cho ng b ngoi v ng ra E1 ca n c cung cp cho ch sync out th bn tin khng s dng c gi ti giao din STM-N cho thnh phn mng gi E1 ng b. 3.6.1.3. Bn tin khng bit du ng b STU Bn tin khng bit du ng b c gi trn tt c cc giao din STM-N khc. Bn tin ny c cht lng cao hn cht lng ca tn hiu nh thi t SETS. Bn tin khng bit du ng b c gi khi thnh phn mng nhn c tn hiu

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ng b m khng c bn tin v trng thi ng b nh tn hiu nh thi ngoi 2,048 MHz. 3.6.1.4. SETS chy t do v lu gi Khi s dng SETS, nu cc thnh phn mng c cu hnh cho ch chy t do hay ch lu gi th bn tin du ng b cp ba s c gi trn tt c giao din STM-N. 3.6.1.5. nh thi ng dy Khi thnh phn mng c cu hnh cho nh thi ng dy, bn tin khng s dng c gi cho cc giao din STM-N v hng ngc li vi hng truyn nh thi ng dy. 3.6.1.6. T ng cu hnh li ng b Trong t ng cu hnh ng b li, thnh phn mng ca SDH s thu v so snh nhng bn tin ng b n trn giao din STM-N ch nh thi ng dy chn ra tham chiu ng b cht lng cao nht trong cc tham chiu . Nu mc cht lng thu c ging nh tham chiu nh thi c sn th tham chiu nh thi ng dy ang hot ng s c u tin. T ng cu hnh ng b li s khng nh hng n chuyn mch bo v ng truyn STM-N. Thnh phn mng ca SDH c th c la chn xc nh tham chiu nh thi c sn no l tt nht cho mnh v chuyn sang dng tham chiu nn hot ng ng b c gi tt. Chuyn mch nh thi tham chiu v bn tin ng b s trnh c ni vng ng b trong mng. 3.6.2. V d Trong phn ny, lun vn s trnh by mt s v d chi tit v cch truyn bn tin ng b qua mng v t ng khi phc ng b khi b t cp. Qua v d ny, c th m rng cho nhng m hnh mng khc ln hn v kch thc, v tr h hng

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3.6.2.1. Mng vng Trn Hnh 3.18 l mt mng vng song hng c su nt mng. Nt 1 c ng b ngoi, c du ng b cp mt ST1, cc nt cn li dng nh thi ng dy t tn hiu ng truyn STM-N. Nt 1 truyn tn hiu nh thi du ng b cp mt cho nt 2 thng qua bn tin ng b ST1. Tn hiu nh thi ny c a n SETS, SETS nhn thy tn hiu nh thi c du ng b cp mt cao hn cht lng ca tn hiu nh thi cp ba ca n nn dng tn hiu nh thi ny cho ng b thit b v gi bn tin DUS trn byte S1 trong khung tn hiu STM-N ti nt 1. Nt 2 s gi tn hiu nh thi du ng b cp mt ny cho nt 3 bng bn tin ST1. Tn hiu nh thi ny c a n SETS, SETS s chn tn hiu nh thi ny v bn tin DUS s c gi trn byte S1 trong khung tn hiu STM-N ti nt 2. Tng t, nt 3 s gi tn hiu nh thi du ng b cp mt cho nt 4 qua bn tin ST1. Tn hiu nh thi ny c a n SETS, SETS s dng tn hiu nh thi ny v gi bn tin DUS trn byte S1 trong khung tn hiu STM-N ti nt 3. Nt 1 cng gi tn hiu nh thi du ng b cp mt cho nt 6 bng bn tin ST1. Tn hiu nh thi ny c a n SETS, SETS s dng tn hiu nh thi ny v bn tin DUS c gi trn byte S1 trong khung tn hiu STM-N ti nt 1. Tng t, nt 6 s gi tn hiu nh thi du ng b cp mt cho nt 5 qua bn tin ST1. Tn hiu nh thi ny c a n SETS, SETS s dng tn hiu nh thi ny v gi bn tin DUS trn byte S1 trong khung tn hiu STM-N ti nt 6.

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Hnh 3.18: Cch truyn bn tin nh thi trong mng vng

Nt 5 s ruyn tn hiu nh thi mang du ng b cp mt qua nh thi ng dy ti nt 4 m nt 4 ang cng dng tn hiu nh thi ng dy mang du ng b cp mt. Tn hiu nh thi ny c a n SETS ca nt 4 m SETS ang chn tn hiu nh thi mang du ng b cp mt t nt 3 cung cp cho thit b. Hai tn hiu ny u cng cp nh nhau nn SETS s u tin chn tn hiu nh thi ng dy c gi t nt 3 cho thit b mng ti nt 4. Gi s cp gia nt 1 v nt 2 b t nh Hnh 3.19. Nh vy th thng tin nh thi t nt 1 gi cho nt 2 b gin on. Ti nt 2, SETS s chn tn hiu nh thi ni l tn hiu nh thi cp ba a ti thit b mng ti nt 2. Bn tin nh thi ST3 c gi ti nt 3 qua tn hiu STM-N. Sau khi nhn tn hiu nh thi cp ba t nt 2, m bo iu chnh con tr mc thp nht th SETS nt 3 s

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chn tn hiu nh thi ti hot ng v gi bn tin ST3 ti nt 4, cng gi bn tin DUS cho nt 2 .

Hnh 3.19: Cch truyn bn tin nh thi trong mng vng khi c s c

Nt 4 nhn c bn tin ST3 t nt 3 v cng nhn bn tin ST1 t nt 5 ti. SETS nt 4 so snh chnh xc ca cc ng h ch qua cc tn hiu nh thi v s chn tn hiu nh thi mang du ng b cp mt cho thit b. Thit b mng ti nt 4 cng s gi bn tin ST1 cho nt 3 qua STM-N. Nt 3 nhn c bn tin ST1 s chuyn sang dng tn hiu nh thi ng dy n t nt 4, gi bn tin DUS cho nt 4 v bn tin ST1 cho nt 2. Nt 2 nhn c bn tin ST1 bit tn hiu nh thi ng dy t nt 3 c cht lng cao hn tn hiu nh thi cp ba ca SETS nn chuyn sang dng tn hiu nh thi ng dy cp mt t nt 3. Nh vy, ng b trong mng vng lun c gi.

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3.6.2.2. Mng tuyn tnh Trn mng tuyn tnh, cch truyn tn hiu nh thi cng tng t nh trn mng vng.

Hnh 3.20: Cch truyn bn tin ng b trn mng tuyn tnh

Hnh 3.21: Cch truyn bn tin ng b trn mng tuyn tnh khi c s c

Ni chung quy lut chn tn hiu nh thi ca cc SETS nh sau: - Nu ti nt ch dng tn hiu nh thi cp mt hoc cp hai th cc nt cn li trn mng c tn hiu nh thi cp ba s c truyn nh thi ng dy c du nh thi ging nt ch. - SETS thu c bn tin ng b cp cao s truyn bn tin DUS cho hng ngc li. - SETS thu c bn tin ng b cp thp hn cp ca tn hiu nh thi ni th n s truyn tn hiu nh thi ni.

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3.7. Kt lun chng ng b gi cho cc thit b s trn mng hot ng theo cng mt tc trung bnh trn tt c cc giao din. C nhiu cch ng b trong mng nh da vo tn hiu ng h ni b, tn hiu ng h ngoi, tn hiu ng h c tch t tn hiu thuVic ng b mng l gi cho cc ng h ny c ng nhp pha thu khi phc ng tn hiu s.

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CHNG 4 GII THIU V THIT B TRUYN DN QUANG FLX 150/600 H thng thng tin vin thng trn th gii pht trin nhnh chng kp tr li cc nhu cu khch hng bng s tng ln bng rng, cung cp cc dch v linh hot v m bo mng thc hin. Lm m bo yu cu ngi vn hnh l nng cp cc mng bng s pht trin c bn cc h thng truyn dn da trn k thut SDH. Cc h thng ny em li vic qun l linh hot iu khin mng kh ln v thc hin vic gim st hot ng d dng v c bit l cc t tnh bo v c nng cp . iu ny din t trong FLX150/600, ci m c th c dng t s s dng ti vic kt ni cho d dng. y l mt sn phm c bn duy nht trn mt Shelf nn, ci m c th cu hnh nh mt thit b ang dng t STM-1 n STM-4. S pht trin v dng c k thut SDH trong cc mng c cng nhn bng s hot ng chnh trong h thng vin thng, cng chnh l cha kho chnh cnh tranh trong tng lai. Mt chin lc pht trin mng ton cu c s cn nhc, thit k c tnh tng vng trong mng vin thng v lp t cc c o SDH trong mng a phng phc v vng ny. Cc vng ny c th c xem xt nu SDH ng h v c mt cn nhc cn i cao ca s bt u lu thoi v u cui trong vng ging nhau. Mc khc s yu cu ny ca khch hng tng ln.V th thit b truyn dn ng b l i hi vi dung lng vn chuyn thay i cc tc truyn dn cn ng b v ng b mt cch hi ho trong mt c khung SDH, vi tt c mng gim st v thc hin iu khin h thng bng qun l . K thut xy dng FLX150/600, c miu t v gii thch h thng kin thc, chc nng xy dng qun l v thay i cho php ng dng trong mng.
FLX150/600

FLX150/600 l mt trong h FLX c to ra t hng Fujitsu. H thng

FLX150/600 bao gm :

tip vi SDH, PDH, NMS v giao din cnh bo.


NMS SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

FLX-LS (SFL-1) Cc loi card trong plug-in NE * gi my (RACK-ET) Thnh phn mng (NE), bo dng, gim stKhung v qun l cc NEs. Mi NE giao Shelf qut (SFF-1) Phn cng Phn mm My tnh c nhn (PC)* Trm lm vic (WS)* GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn FLER FLEXR Plus*

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Hnh 4.1: T chc h thng FLX 150/600

Cc chun SDH

G.707. Tc bit G.708. Giao tip mng G.809. Cu trc ghp knh G.803. Kin trc mng truyn G.81s. ng h G.813. 2,048Mbit trc v tri G.826. i tng v cc thng s li G.781 Cu trc G.782 Cc loi v cc c tnh chung G.783 Cc c tnh G.784 Qun l G.825 Rung pha v tri pha G.925 Giao tip quang G.958 H thng truyn dn s

Kin trc

Thit b

Hnh 4.2: Khuyn ngh ITU-T

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4.1. M t h thng 4.1.1. c im ca h thng * Tnh tng thch ca h thng: FLX150/600 c ch to da trn chun ITU-T (Hnh 4.2). * Kt hp cc sheft n: Ch mt FLX LS c th cung cp cho tt c cc cu hnh thit b TRM, ADM, REG v c truyn dn quang STM-1 v STM-4. * Kt hp giao din lung: FLX150/600 cho php gm cc giao tip lung cn ng b PDH nh: 2,048Mb/s; 34,368Mb/s hay 139,264Mb/s v giao tip lung STM-1 SDH. * C ch bo v c tin cy cao: FLX150/600 l h thng c tin cy cao da trn cu trc. - Bo v on ghp knh. - Chuyn mch bo v ng dn (PPS). - Khi bo v card. * Nng cp cc dch v: FLX 150/600 c kh nng nng cp cc dch v t STM-1 n STM-4 v lm thay i cu hnh thit b bn ngoi lm cn tr. * Hot ng qun l bo dng v d phng: FLX 150/600 c th hot ng bo dng, cnh bo ti ch hay t xa thng qua giao tip qun l mng (NMI) hay knh thng tin qun l mng (DCCs). 4.1.2. Gii thiu s khi tng th thit b FLX 150/600 Cc khi trong h thng FLX 150/600 c chia thnh 4 phn chnh : 4.1.2.1. Nhm chung y l phn chung m tt c cc cu hnh thit b u c. Trn gi FLX -LS, phn ny c cc k hiu sau: SACL, NML, MPL, TSCL(1), TSCL(2):

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Cnh bo qun l nghip v

Giao tip PC
NML

ng b ngoi
MPL
TSCL(1) C2(2)

TSCL(2) C2(2)

PWRL(1 )

PWRL(2 )

2-1 1-1

CHSD

TSCL(2) (1/2)
TSCL(1) (1/2)

CHSD CHSD

CHSD
1-2

CH CH CH CH CH CH

2-2

STM-10 x (1+1) STM-40 x (1+1)

2,048Mb/s x 63(1:3), 34,368Mb/sx5(1+0)


34,368Mb/sx3(1+1) 139x5(1+0),139,264Mb/sx3(1+1) STM-1E/o x 5(1+0),STM1E/o x 3(1+1)

139,264Mb/ x(1+1,1+0) STM1E x (1+1,1+0) STM-10 x (1+1) STM-40 x (1+1)

Hnh 4.3: S khi h thng FLX 150/600

4.1.2.2. Phn giao din tng hp. Phn giao din tng hp l phn giao din quang gm c 4 khe trn gi FLXLS, 4 khe ny c nh s nh sau CH1-1,CH1-2 (Nhm 1) CH2-1,CH2-2 (Nhm 2), cc khe ny s dng cc lung tn hiu 139,264 Mb/s, STM-1, STM-4. Cc thit b ADM trong mng chui, nhm 1 v nhm 2 c s dng cho cc cu hnh d phng 1+1 nu c hai khe ca mt nhm iu c card. Nu mi nhm c mt khe c card th khng c chc nng d phng 1+1. Cc thit b ADM trong mng vng s dng hai khe CH1-2 v CH2-2 hoc CH1-1 v CH2-1. Cc khe CH2-1 v CH2-2 cng c th s dng lp cu hnh mt d phng 1+1 cho giao din nhnh.

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4.1.2.3. Phn giao din nhnh. Phn giao din nhnh c 6 khe trn FLX-LS: CH3,CH4 (Nhm 3), CH5,CH6 (Nhm 5), CH7 v CH8 (Nhm 7). Cc khe ny dng cho giao din 2M, 34M, 140M v STM-1. i vi cc giao din 34M, 140M, STM-1. Nhm 3, nhm 5 c s dng cho cu hnh 1+1 hoc nh 1 giao din c lp. Nhm 7 s dng cho cu hnh 1+1. i vi giao din 2M, khe s 4 n khe s 8 c s dng theo cu hnh d phng 1:3 hoc khng d phng. S lung 2M c th t ti 63 lung. * Ch : Cc nhm thuc giao din tng hp v giao din nhnh c th s dng ht v tr cc khe hoc khng tu thuc vo cu hnh mng v nhu cu s dng ca nh khai thc. Trong mi nhm s dng li c th s dng mt trong hai khe hoc c hai khe tu theo nhu cu bo v mng hoc nhu cu phn lung theo nhiu hng. Trong mng vng, hai nhm 1 v 2 ch s dng hai cp khe 1-1 v 2-1 hoc 12 v 2-2 v mng c chc nng d phng PPS. 4.1.2.4 V tr v chc nng cc card trong h thng FLX 150/600. STT Loi card k hiu khe PWRL(1) v PWRL (2) 2 SACL Khe s 1 k hiu SACL Khi cnh bo: ch th cnh bo thit b ra cc LED v a cnh bo ra thit b cnh bo ngoi. -Thu thp v iu khin cnh bo qun l trm. -Chc nng nghip v. -Giao din thoi nghip v 4W VF. V tr vt l Chc nng

Khe 16 v 17 vi Cp ngun: chuyn i in p -48V hoc -60V 1 PWRL thnh cc in p th cp +5V; -5,2V; +12V; +3,3Vdc

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-Knh d liu 64 bit/s Khe s 2 k hiu NML 3 NML Giao din qun l mng: -Cung cp giao din X.25 ni ti h thng qun l mng NMS. -Cung cp giao din X.24 ni trc tip vi h thng qun l. -Bo hiu bng LED khi c truy nhp. Khe s 3 k hiu 4 MPL MPL Vi x l: -Thu nhp cc cnh bo, trng thi, thng tin cht lng tn hiu Khe 4, 5, 6, 7 vi Giao din quang SDH: cc k hiu 1-1, 1- -Chn v tch phn SOH. 2, 2-1, 2-2 cho giao -Knh truyn s liu DCC. din tng hp khe CHSD 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, -D phng PPS trong mng vng. 15 vi k hiu 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, cho giao din nhnh Khe 8, 9 vi k 6 TSCL hiu TSCL(1) v TSCL(2). Chuyn mch lung v iu khin thi gian: -u ni cho cc mc VC-12, VC- 3,VC- 4. -Chc nng ng b. Giao din PDH: -Cung cp cc lung tn hiu PDH:2,048Mbit/s, Khe 10, 11, 12, 13, 34,368Mbit/s; 139,264Mbit/s. 7 CHPD 14, 15 vi k hiu 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. - Ghp knh theo cu trc SDH. - Giao din vi TSCL qua AU-4 - Chc nng PPS trong mng vng Ring

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CHSW Khe 15, K hiu 8

iu khin chuyn mch lung trong cu hnh d phng 1: n

4.1.3. Ch tiu k thut thit b FLX 150/600 Model c tnh h thng Dung lng truyn dn STM-1 line: 1890 VF knh hoc tng ng STM-4 line: 7560 VF knh hoc tng ng H s bo v 1+1 MSP STM-1 line v giao tip lung 1:N (N<=3) lung 2M/1,5M 1+1 cho tt c lu thoi khc nh hng cc n v S lung 63x1,5M or 2Mx34M or45,4x140M or STM-1(khng d phng), 3x140M or STM-1(d phng) hoc s kt hp. Giao tip ng dy STM-1: ITU-T S1.1, L1.1 and L1.2 STM-4: ITU-T S4.1, L4.1 and L4.2 Tc STM-1: 155,52Mbit/s STM-4: 622,08Mbit/s Phng php iu ch M ng dy Qui nh i ngun Gii in p vo(hot ng bnh thng) S xy dng c kh Kch thc Shelf Mi trng hot ng Gii nhit m 00C - 450C(bnh thng), -400C - 650C(ko di) 95% at 250C 600(H) x 450(W) x 280(D)mm ETS -300-194-4 - 48V to -75V(-48V bnh thng) hoc -20 V to -27V(-24V bnh thng) PCM-IM i tn s NRZ FLX 150/600

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Cc c tnh chnh CM lu thoi linh hot u ni cho y u ni ng lung Mode chuyn giao ng b ha Giao tip nghip v Chn la Thay i khe thi gian (TSI ) Sp xp khe thi gian (TSA) Pht thanh tin tc dng li Chn ngun thch hp , ITU-T G.811 and G.783 Orderwire:2W VF, 4W VF, 64Kbit/s knh s dng Housekeeping Giao tip qun l mng Qun l cc b : V.24/FLEXRTRM Operator Terminal Trung tm qun l: X.25/LAN/TMN tiu chun FLEXR PlusTm with sofofftwave download capability. 4.1.4. Cc cu hnh mng s dng thit b FLX150/600 4.1.4.1. Mng im ni im FLX 150/600 c dng nh hai thit b u cui (TRM) lin kt vi nhau. Ti mi trm FLX 150/600 cung cp chc nng ghp tch cc lung d liu 2,048Mb/s; 34,368Mb/s; 139,264Mb/s; STM-1 t STM-1 hoc STM-4. 4.1.4.2. Mng chui Mng ny c t 3 thit b tr ln c ni lin tip vi nhau trong hai trm 2 u c cu hnh (TRM) cn cc trm gia c cu hnh php tch ADM hoc ti to tn hiu REG.
FLX 150/600 TRM FLX 150/600 ADM FLX 150/600 REG FLX 150/600 REG FLX 150/600 REG

3 x STM-1

3 x STM-1

Hnh 4.4: Cu hnh mng chui

Cc thit b trung gian c cu trc xen r ADM cung cp cc lung d liu tc thp (cc tn hiu mc VC) trong STM-1 hoc STM-4. Cc thit b ti to tn hiu REG s cho php truy nhp vo phn RSOH gim st v iu khin mng.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 64 -

4.1.4.3. Mng vng Mng ny cc nt mng c lin kt vi nhau theo mt vng khp kn. Ti mi nt mng, FLX 150/600 l thit b xen r ADM, cho php cc nh khai thc truy nhp ti lung tc thp (tc l cc mc VC ) trong tn hiu STM-1/4. Mng ny c chc nng bo v lung nhnh (PPS). Trong mng ny, FLX 150/600 pht tn hiu theo c hai hng. Ti pha thu, FLX 150/600 s la chn mt trong hai tn hiu thu c c cht lng cao nht, da trn c ch kim tra li v cc thng tin cnh bo ca tn hiu thu c. Bng vic thit lp hai tuyn truyn dn ring bit vi cng mt tn hiu, mng vng c kh nng bo v rt cao (chc nng bo v PPS). 4.1.4.4. Mng phn nhnh HUB y l mng c cu hnh im ti a im. Ti trm nt l mt ADM, cung cp cc tn hiu STM-1 ti cc trm khc.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 65 -

FLX 150/600 TRM

STM 1/4

FLX 150/600 ADM

STM 1/4

FLX 150/600 TRM

STM -1
2,048Mb/s 34,368Mb/s 139,264Mb/s STM-1

STM -1 FLX 150/600 TRM

STM -1

2,048Mb/s 34,368Mb/s 139,264Mb/s STM-1

FLX 150/600 TRM

FLX 150/600 TRM

2,048Mb/s 34,368Mb/s 139,264Mb/s STM-1

2,048Mb/s 34,368Mb/s 139,264Mb/s STM-1

2,048Mb/s 34,368Mb/s 139,264Mb/s STM-1

Hnh 4.5: S mng phn nhnh HUB

4.1.5. Cc cu hnh h thng FLX150/600 FLX150/600 cung cp 3 loi cu hnh thit b : - u cui TRM - Xen r ADM - Lp REG 4.1.5.1. Thit b u cui Thit b u cui c s dng trong cu hnh mng im ni im hoc mng chui. N thc hin vic ghp cc tn hiu lung nhnh thnh mt tn hiu tng hp AGGR STM-1 hoc STM-4.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 66 -

Cnh bo qun l nghip v

Giao tip PC

ng b ngoi

Ngun
NML MPL PWRL(2) TSCL(1) (2/2) TSCL(2) (2/2) PWRL(1)

SACL

1-1
STM-1(1+1)

CHSD-1 CHSD-1

TSCL(2) (1/2) TSCL(1) (1/2) 3


CHPD - D3

2-1
6
CHPD -D12

4
CHPD -D3(P)

5
CHPD -D12

7
CHPD -D12(P)

8
CHSW -D1

1-2

2-2

21 1x34,368Mb/s

21 1: 2

42x2,048Mb/s

Hnh 4.6: S khi TRM

4.1.5.2. Thit b xen r ADM Trong cu hnh mng chui, mng vng, v mng HUB, thit b FLX150/600 trung gian c sp xp thnh cu hnh xen r ADM. Thit b ADM c nhim v tch cc tn hiu t tn hiu STM-N xung giao din nhnh v ghp cc tn hiu lung nhnh ln tn hiu tng STM-N hoc cho tn hiu chy thng qua m khng tch ghp xung trm. Ngoi ra ADM cn c chc nng u ni cho. Tn hiu STM-N c cu hnh d phng1+1 hoc 1+0 tu nh khai thc .
Cnh bo qun l nghip v Giao tip PC

ng b ngoi
MPL TSCL(1) (2/2) TSCL(2) (2/2)

Ngun
PWRL(1) PWRL(2)

SACL

NML

1-1 CHSD-1 CHSD-1


STM-1(1+1)

TSCL(2) (1/2) TSCL(1) (1/2) 3 CH 4


CHPD -D12 (p)

CHSD-1 6
CHPD -D12

2-1
STM-1(1+1)

5
CHPD -D12

7
CHPD -D12(P)

8
CHSW -D1

CHSD-1

1-2

21

21

21

2-2

63 x 2,048Mbit/s

1: 3

Hnh 4.7: S khi ADM

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 67 -

4.1.5.3. Cu hnh lp REG Khi ng truyn qu di, thit b FLX150/600 c cu hnh ADM hay TRM khng th truyn tn hiu vi cht lng tt.V th m bo tt ngi ta xen vo gia tuyn thit b FLX150/600 c cu hnh lp REG. Cu hnh thit b lp ch c giao din STM-4 . REG Giao din tng hp
Hnh 4.8: Cu hnh thit b REG

Giao din tng hp

S khi REG cng tng t nh ADM, nhng giao din tng hp STM-4 (CHSD-4R) v phn giao din nhnh khng c. 4.2. Cc chc nng ca h thng FLX 150/600 4.2.1. Chc nng ng b mng Tt c cc tri thc hit b trn mng SDH c ng b da trn mt ng h ch. ng h ch ny c phn b theo cc lung tn hiu SDH, PDH v cc b pht tn hiu ng b ngoi ti tt c cc thit b trn mng. Khi mng hot ng da trn cng mt ng h, mng cn phi nh tuyn a hng trnh nhng s c. Do , mng SDH phi c chc nng chn cc tn hiu ng h t nhiu ngun v la chn ngun ng b c cht lng tt nht. 4.2.1.1. Ngun ng b FLX-150/600 c th trch ngun ng b t cc ngun khc nhau v ng h thit b ng b vi tn hiu ny. FLX-150/600 c th ly cc tn hiu ng b t cc ngun sau: + u vo lung nhnh 2,048Mb/s (la chn cc knh CH1,CH4,CH7 cc card) + u vo AGGR STM-N (tt c cc giao din) + Cc ng h ngoi 2,048MHz (2 knh lm vic v bo v)

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 68 -

+ ng h ni b 2,048MHz + 4,6ppm (s dng khi bo dng) 4.2.1.2. La chn ngun ng b FLX 150/600 c hai ch chn ngun ng b thi gian:ch 1v ch 2 * Ch 1: Ch ny cho php la chn ba trong s cc ngun ng b v c th ch nh mc u tin tng ngun. FLX 150/600 t ng chn ngun ng b trong ba ngun c cht lng cao nht lm ngun ng b cho thit b. ch ny, u ra EC c th thit lp l c hoc khng c tn hiu ng b, trong khi , ngun LC t ng t l khng c tn hiu ng b.
La chn cc ngun ng b
2,048Mbit/s CLK ngoi

~ EC

~ B dao ng ni

Hnh 4.9: S khi ca h thng ng b ch 1

* Ch 2: Khi cn thit phi dng SSU ti to li tn hiu ng b th FLX-150/600 hot ng ch 2. Ch 2 cho php nh khai thc chn ba ngun u vo STM-N v t u tin cho chng. FLX-150/600 t ng chn mt trong ba ngun c cht lng cao nht v a ra dng LC ti SSU, sau SSU ti to li tn hiu, FLX-150/600 t ng la chn hai trong s cc ngun ny t ng b vi ngun c cht lng cao nht gi l ng h thit b.
SSU
STM-N La chn cc ngun ng b STM-N STM-N u ra LC CLK ngoi EC

SSU ngun ng b

~ B dao ng ngoi

Hnh 4.10: S khi ca h thng ng b ch 2

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 69 -

4.2.1.3. Chuyn i ngun ng b FLX-150/600 c hai ch chuyn i ngun ng b hot ng ch 1 v ch 2: Ch t ng v ch nhn cng. * Ch t ng: FLX-150/600 t ng chn ngun ng b c cht lng cao nht trong s ba ngun la chn, ngun ng b c la chn da trn hai thng s sau: + u tin: Cc ngun ng b c nh khai thc gn s u tin t 1 n 3 + Cht lng: Tn hiu STM-N :c nh gi bi byte SSMB (byte ch th cht lng tn hiu thu);Cc tn hiu khc : cht lng c ch nh bi nh khai thc. * Ch nhn cng: Ch ny ch s dng trong trng hp bo dng. 4.2.2. Chc nng d phng H thng FLX-150/600 c ba chc nng d phng, ba chc nng d phng ny lm cho h thng c tin cy cao : - D phng phn on ghp knh MSP - D phng lung PPS - D phng card 4.2.2.1. D phng phn on ghp knh MSP Ch d phng ny c s dng trong mng im ni im v mang tuyn tnh. Nu c s c xy ra trn giao din quang, chc nng MSP s t ng chuyn lung tn hiu tng hp t ng lm vic sang ng d phng. Chc nng ny ca h thng FLX-150/600 l ty chn.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 70 -

4.2.2.2. D phng lung VC(PPS) Ch d phng lung VC (container o) c sn trong mng Ring. Chc nng ny s t ng chuyn lung lm vic sang lung d phng ti cc mc VC (VC4,VC-3,VC-12). 4.2.2.3. D phng card C ch d phng card ca FLX-150/600 l ty chn mi loi card trong thit b FLX-150/600 c chc nng t pht hin li v t chuyn sang card d phng. 4.2.3. Chc nng gim st cht lng thng tin FLX 150/600 c chc nng gim st cht lng thng tin qun l v khai thc mng. Chc nng ny s dng cho c tn hiu xen r v i thng . - Cc tn hiu xen r trm : tn hiu ny i din cho tt c cc loi giao din SDH v PDH, b ghp knh (MS) v cc tn hiu lung VC r xung ti trm . - Tn hiu i thng : tn hiu ny i din cho cc lung VC i thng m khng r xung trm. Cc tn hiu i thng ny c kim tra ring. Vic kim tra nhiu ln mt lc l khng cho php . 4.2.4. Chc nng nng cp h thng khi h thng ang trong trng thi lm vic FLX150/600 c th nng cp t STM-1 ln STM-4 v kh nng thay i cu hnh thit b m khng b gin on thng tin . nng cp khi ang trng thi lm vic th thit b phi thit lp ch (UPGRADE) v thit b phi c chc nng bo v MSP hoc PPS. Sau thay th giao din STM-1 bng giao din STM-4 C hai phng thc nng cp mng : -Nng cp mng trong trng thi lm vic vi chc nng d phng MSP -Nng cp mng trong trng thi lm vic vi chc nng d phng PPS

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 71 -

4.2.5. Chc nng u ni cho, xen r FLX150/600 cung cp chc nng u ni cho, cho php ni mt u vo ca mt cng ti mt cng bt k khng phn bit gia giao din AGGR v giao din nhnh TRIB. 4.2.6. Cc chc nng dch v tin ch FLX150/600 cung cp cc chc nng tin ch tu chn cho ngi s dng, tu thuc loi card SACL. l cc chc nng : - Thoi nghip v - Cc cnh bo qun l trm HK - Cc cnh bo chung - Cc knh dnh cho ngi s dng. 4.2.7. Chc nng t ng ngt ngun LASER(ALS) Khi si quang b gin on, thit b FLX 150/600 t ng ngt ngun LASER. Chc nng ny nhm bo v cho ngi bo dng ng cp quang nht l mt v da. 4.2.8. Chc nng qun l lung FLX 150/600c chc nng ch nh du hiu lung v gn nhn cho lung -Du ca lung : chc nng ny nhm kim tra mt lung thu c ti mt trm c ng hay khng . -Nhn tn hiu : Chc nng ny cng nhm kim tra xem tn hiu thu c c ng hay khng. Chc nng ny s t mt m ch th cu trc ghp knh vo byte mo u C2 hoc V5 ca cc lung VC-N Ti trm s so snh tn hiu thu c c gi tr nh gi tr mong mun hay khng, nu khng s pht sinh mt cnh bo. Nhn lung c th c kim tra ti trm trung gian m tn hiu chuyn n.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 72 -

4.3. Gii thiu cc card trong Plug-in ca thit b FLX 150/600 4.3.1. Card ngun PWRL-1 Card ny c chc nng chuyn i ngun -48V hoc -60Vdc nhn c t PWR DIS thnh cc mc ngun khc nhau theo yu cu tng card trong thit b. Cc mc ngun ny khng ph thuc vo in p cung cp bi PWR DIS (-48Vdc n -75Vdc) FLX 150/600 s dng hai card ngun PWRL-1 ring bit hot ng ng thi d phng. * Cc chc nng ca card PWRL-1 Chuyn i mt chiu DC/DC: trong card ngun PWRL-1 c mt b chuyn i DC/DC chuyn i in p u vo -48Vdc hoc -60Vdc thnh cc in p ra +5Vdc; -5,2Vdc; +3,3Vdc v 13Vdc cc in p ny a n tng card tu theo nhu cu cung cp in p cho tng card. Gim st in p ng vo ra: card ngun PWRL -1 c chc nng cho php kim tra n nh v an ton ca in p u ra. Nu c mt s c bt thng in p u ra, PWRL-1 s ngt tt c cc in p u ra, ng thi to mt cnh bo bo hiu s bt thng .C th kim tra in p u vo ti im kim tra mt trc card PWRL-1 nhng ch rng in p c lun nh hn in p thc t v card c in tr ni. u vo ca mch: card ngun PWRL-1 c th tip nhn 2 loi in p u vo danh nh -48Vdc v -60Vdc. Gii in p u vo cho php trong gii t -40,8Vdc n -75Vdc. trnh cc dng st hoc nhiu c th pht sinh trong trm ngun, u vo card c mt cng tc khng cu ch NFB v mt b lc u vo. Lu tr cc d liu vt l: PWRL-1 c th lu tr cc d liu vt l ca chnh n. D liu ny khng th thay i c. Card PWRL-1 khng c cc nt gt v cc thng s thit lp cu hnh.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 73 -

* M t mt trc PWRL-1 Trn mt trc ca card c mt LED ch th cnh bo c k hiu UNIT/RC, mt cng tc NEB d phng ngun, mt im kim tra in p u vo. LED ch th cnh bo c hai trng thi cnh bo nh sau:
Bng 4.1: ngha cc LED mt trc card PWRL-1

Tn LED UNIT/RCI

Mu LED

Tnh trng -C mt li xy ra trong card -ang thc hin th LED

Nhp nhy 4.3.2. Card cnh bo nghip v

-C ch th thay card t trung tm

Card SACL-1 cung cp cc giao din cnh bo v giao din nghip v: SACL1 gip ngi vn hnh bo dng bng nhng thng tin cnh bo ch th trn LED ng thi cng bo cho trung tm thit lp ci t nhng thng tin cnh bo u ra, nhng chc nng bo dng ang hot ng. SACL-1 cung cp cc giao din nghip v, gip nhng ngi khai thc bo dng lin lc gia cc trm vi nhau. C cc giao din nghip v 2w v 4w. SACL1 cng cung cp chc nng qun l, cnh bo trm (Houekeeping). * Cc chc nng ca card SACL-1 Hin th cc cnh bo tn hiu: di s iu khin ca card MPL, card SACL1 hin th tt c cc cnh bo thng tin cnh bo v trng thi thit b ra LED. ng thi n cng a ra cc tn hiu cnh bo ti cc thit b cnh bo ngoi nh RAD (Rack Alarm Bus). SACL-1 a ra 4 cp cnh bo t khn cp n nhc nh: CR (Critical), MJ (Major), MN (Minor), WR (Warning). SACL-1 c ch nng ngt cnh bo (ACO) dp cnh bo chung. Mt vi cnh bo nh l PWR FAIL v cng sut quang c truyn ngoi phm vi nh hng n s phc v. Khi n nt ACO, hoc bng tn hiu ACO thng qua RAD th b phn ny ngng chung t b phn cnh bo bng m thanh.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 74 -

SACL-1 cng trang b mt nt nhn kim tra cc n LED trn cc b phn c cm trn shelf. Chc nng truyn thng nghip v SACL-1 c chc nng dng SDH truyn thng tin gia nhng ngi bo tr: b phn ny mang giao tip 2 dy v 4 dy. Giao tip 2 dy c th tng thch vi cc in thoi bnh thng. Giao din 4 dy s dng ni nghip v ca FLX 150/600 vi cc thit b nghip v ngoi hoc ni gia cc mng vi nhau li (ni thng qua giao din PDH m khng qua giao din STM-1). Trong mt mng c th s dng 20 phn t mng NE cho giao din nhnh hoc ni lin kt cc thit b vi nhau. Trong cc NE c th c 6 trm lin lc ng thi vi nhau. Cht lng nghip v khng c m bo khi vt qu 6 trm lin lc vi nhau. C 2 cch gi nghip v: + Gi l tng trm tc l gi t trm ch n mt trm ring l. + Gi theo nhm tc l gi t trm ch n nhiu i tng trong tt c cc trm. Giao din qun l trm (housekeeping) SACL-1 c chc nng phn tch v kim tra cnh bo t bn ngoi a vo. V d: mt cnh bo t bn ngoi (bo chy ngun...) a vo thit b lm sng LED. FLX 150/600 cng c th a cc cnh bo thit b bn ngoi. Thit b c 16 cng a cnh bo ngoi vo v 4 cng a cnh bo ra. Giao din byte mo u SACL-1 c giao din vi tn hiu STM-N (N=1,4) cc tn hiu nghip v, cc tn hiu d liu d phng card. Card cng c ch nng iu khin tn hiu nghip v chuyn qua card.

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 75 -

Giao din vi MPL SACL-1 c giao din gia chc nng cnh bo thit b v chc nng iu khin cnh bo ca card MPL. Lu tr d liu vt l ca card SACL-1 c chc nng t ghi li d liu vt l ca chnh n. D liu ny khng th thay i c. SACL-1 khng c cc nt gt thit lp cc thng s. * M t mt trc card Trn card c 8 LED cnh bo, mt nt ct cnh bo, mt nt th LED cc n LED v cc nt ny c b tr mt trc card. ngha cnh bo cc LED ny c m t nh di y.
Bng 4.2: ngha cc LED mt trc card SACL-1

Tn LED UNIT/ CRI

Ch th Sng Nhp nhy Sng xanh Sng vng

ngha C li xy ra trong card C ch th thay card t trung tm C card lp khng ng v tr thit lp card khng thnh cng Th n C li nghim trng trong thit b,c ch th thay card t trung tm th n C cnh bo mc thp xy ra trong thit b th n Mt card khe khai bo cu hnh.Sng khi c 4 mc cnh bo c thit lp Mt card khe khai bo cu hnh sng xanh khi thit lp khng cnh bo hoc khng thng bo.

CR/MJ/RCI Sng MN/WR Sng

CARD OUT Sng Sng xanh

Sng vng

Th n

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 76 -

Tn LED MAINT

Ch th Sng xanh

ngha ang thc hin chc nng bo dng , ang thc hin iu khin cnh bo qun l th n.

ACO MISC CALL

Sng xanh Sng Sng xanh

Thc hin chc nng ct cnh bo th n Xut hin cnh bo qun l th n. Th n

Nhp nhy xanh Khi quay s nghip v, khi m thoi n s tt. 4.3.3. Card qun l mng NML-1 Card ny c mt giao din truyn trong qun l mng NMS. NML-1 c knh DCC truyn d liu qun l, iu hnh mng gia cc nt mng, c mt giao din RS-232 kt ni trc tip ti phn mm FLEXR. NML-1 cng c mt giao din X.25 kt ni ti mng chuyn mch gi PSN. Qua phn mm qun l mng FLEXR Plus c th truy nhp ti cc thit b FLX 150/600. NML-1 c mt b nh lu tr truy nhp t FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus. * Cc chc nng ca card NML-1 Giao din ni b NML-1 c giao din RS-232 cho php kt ni trc tip ti thit b ni ht. Card c nhim v chuyn i mc tn hiu thu c l FLEXR sau NML-1 gi d liu chuyn i ti card MPL ca thit b nh a ch. a ch d liu ny c NML-1 nh tuyn thng qua card CHSD. NML-1 cng thu d liu t MPL hoc t CHSD v gi li nhng d liu thch hp ti FLEXR. Giao din X.25 NML-1 c mt giao din X.25 cho php thit b FLX 150/600 c th kt ni ti mng chuyn mch gi PSN. Thng qua mng chuyn mch gi, phn mm

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 77 -

FLEXR v FLEXR Plus c th truy nhp ti bt k nt mng FLX 150/600 no trn mng. NML-1 c nhim v chuyn i mc tn hiu thu c t FLEXR qua giao din X.25 v giao thc LAPB thnh tn hiu c mc thch hp, sau NML-1 s gi d liu ny ti card MPL c a ch c nh trc. a ch d liu ny c NML-1 nh tuyn qua card CHSD. Card NML-1 cng thu nhng tn hiu t MPL hoc CHSD, qua s l giao thc, gi qua mng PSN. Knh DCC NML-1 nhn d liu t DCC ca card CHSD theo dng giao thc LAPD v kt thc giao thc ny. Sau NML-1 s gi d liu ny ti MPL. NML-1 cng nhn d liu tng ng t MPL, x l giao thc v gi d liu ny ti CHSD. Truyn ti thng lnh Ngn ng giao thc 1 (TL1) l ngn ng gia ngi v my ca ITU-T chuyn ti d liu NMS gia FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus v card NML. NML-1 bin dch thng lnh TL1 thnh d liu c th c x l bi card MPL v ngc li. Kt ni lng i lng NML-1 cho php kt ni theo dng lng i lng s dng connector X.25 trn phn giao din trm SIA. Khi khng cn thit kt ni ti knh DCC ca giao din STM-N.

Truy nhp b lu tr d liu NML-1 c b lu tr s liu ca FLEXR v FLEXR Plus truy nhp ti FLX 150/600 . D liu ny vn cn ngay c khi ngun b ngt. Lu tr cc d liu vt l

SVTH: Nguyn Quc Cng

GVHD: Th.S Nguyn nh Luyn

N TT NGHIP

- 78 -

NML-1 lu tr cc d liu vt l ca chnh n. D liu ny khng th thay i c. * M t mt trc card NML-1 Mt trc card NMl-1 c 3 n LED v mt cng dnh cho nh sn xut truy nhp, bo dng . Cc n LED sng, nhp nhy , sng xanh hoc vng ty thuc tng iu kin cnh bo ring.
Bng 4.3: ngha cc LED mt trc card NML-1

Tn LED UNI/RCI

Ch th Sng

ngha Mt li xy ra trong card. Tng s cc lnh trong b nh vt qu ngng. Tng s file truy nhp trong b nh vt qu ngng. Th n.

Nhp xanh

nhy Mt Card khng ng v tr. Thit lp card khng thnh cng. Th n. Mt li xy ra trn knh DCC. Th n.

Sng vng LINE Sng

Nhp nhy Ch th thay card t trung tm.

ACS

Sng xanh Sng xanh

H thng FLEXR ang truy nhp vo thit b. Th n.

4.3.4. Card vi x l MPL-1 MPL-1 thc hin cc lnh thit lp h thng v gim st t FLEXR v FLEXR Plus thng qua Card NML ti tt c cc Card trong h thng FLX 150/600. MPL-1 la chn v phn loi cc cnh bo ca h thng, a cc cnh bo ny ra ngoi thng qua card SACL hoc a thng bo ti FLEXR thng qua card NML. thc hin kim tra cc d liu ca cc card, cc tnh ton cn thit trn d liu ny v gi cc kt qu theo mt chu k nht nh ti FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus.

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Trong h thng c cu hnh d phng quang 1+1, MPL-1 gi tn hiu iu khin ti card CHSD v TSCL chuyn i card d phng. MPL-1 cng lu tr cc d liu vt l v bo dng ca tt c cc card trong h thng FLX 150/600. * Cc chc nng ca card MPL-1. Chc nng hin th cnh bo. MPL-1 thc hin vic hin th tt c cc cnh bo ca cc card trong h thng FLX 150/600. Khi c mt cnh bo xut hin trong h thng, card MPL-1 s gi cc thng tin cnh bo ny ti cc LED ch th cnh bo trn card SACL, ng thi cng truyn nhng cnh bo ny ti FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus thng qua NML. Chc nng kim tra cht lng tn hiu. Vi chu k xc nh, MPL-1 la chn nhng d liu t tt c cc card trong h thng, phn tch v truyn ti FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus thng qua NML. Chu k ny c th chn 15 pht hoc 24 gi. Khi gi tr kim tra vt qu ngng thit lp, MPL s to mt cnh bo qu ngng TCA ti FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus.

Chc nng thit lp h thng. MPL-1 nhn c lnh thit lp h thng t FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus thng qua NML, ghi nhng thng s thit lp vo thanh ghi tng ng trong h thng FLX 150/600. Chc nng bo dng. MPL-1 nhn c ch th t FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus thng qua NML, iu khin cc card thc hin chc nng bo dng ch nh (kim tra tn hiu, u vng tn hiu, chuyn i d phng nhn cng ).

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Chc nng chuyn mch d phng. MPL-1 thc hiu chc nng chuyn i d phng cho cc card CHSD, CHPD-D3/D4 v card TSCL. Trong c ch d phng phn on ghp knh 1+1 (MSP), MPL-1 nhn mt tn hiu yu cu chuyn i d phng t card CHSD, thc hin vic x l d liu ny, gi mt lnh chuyn i d phng card CHSD, ng thi thay i gi tr byte K1 v K2 theo ng truyn ti thit b pha i phng. Khi h thng chuyn i d phng MSP hot ng theo ch hai hng, card MPL-1 s kim tra hai byte K1 v K2 t pha i phng gi li. Khi pht hin thy lnh chuyn i d phng trong hai byte ny, MPL-1 iu khin chuyn sang card d phng. Trong ch chuyn i d phng 1+1, card MPL-1 nhn tn hiu chuyn i d phng card CHPD v TSCL, thc hin x l tn hiu ny, sau chuyn sang card d phng ny. Chc nng qun l d liu vt l. MPL-1 thc hin vic qun l cc d liu vt l ca tt c cc card trong h thng FLX 150/600. Cc d liu ny c th c t h thng FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus.

Chc nng lu tr cc d liu vt l. MPL-1 c th c lu tr cc d liu vt l ca chnh n. Cc d liu ny khng th thay i c. * M t mt trc ca card MPL-1. Trn mt trc ca card c mt n cnh bo, hai cng dnh cho nh sn xut kim tra card, mt nt khi to li CPU. LED c th sng , nhp nhy , sng xanh ty thuc vo cc iu kin cnh bo.
Bng 4.4: ngha cc LED mt trc card MPL-1

Tn LED

Ch th

ngha

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UNIT/RCL

Sng

- C mt li xy ra trong card - C mt li xy ra trong MSP CPU1 - C mt li xy ra trong MSP CPU2 - C mt li xy ra trong MSP CPU3 - Th n

Nhp nhy

- C ch th thay card ang thc hin t trung tm.

4.3.5. Card chuyn mch lung v ng b * Cc chc nng ca card TSCL-1. Chc nng x l con tr. Card TSCL-1 thc hiu x l con tr cho tn hiu mc AU-4 ni gia container o bc cao HOVC v container o bc thp LOVC. i vi qu trnh x l con tr, TSCL-1 d tm con tr ca tn hiu u vo mc AU-4, tch ra c phn mo u VC-4. Khi u ra thc hin thay i khe thi gian (TSI) mc HOVC, TSCL1 thc hin ngc li tc l chn thm phn mo u v con tr.

Chc nng u ni cho. TSCL-1 c th thc hin u ni cho ln n 13 ng VC-4 bng cch thay i khe thi gian ca container o bc cao (HOVC TSI), hn na c thc hin thm 6 ng u ni cho ti cc mc VC-3 v VC-12 bng cch thay i khe thi gian ca container o bc thp (LOVC TSI). Vic thit lp u ni cho c thc hin trn phn mm FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus. kim tra chc nng u ni cho c ng hay khng, khi HOVC TSI v LOVC TSI hin th cc ng u ra ca chnh n. Chc nng kim tra lung tn hiu i thng.

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TSCL-1 c th kim tra trc cc byte qun l lung POH ca tt c cc u vo hiu lung VC-4, VC-3 v VC-12 ti khi HOVC TSI nh v li trong mng truyn dn. Tuy nhin, cc byte POH ca tng knh c xc nh bi FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus c th kim tra bt k thi im no. iu khin tn hiu ng h. TSCL-1 ch nh cp u tin cho cc lung ng b ca h thng. Cc ngun ng b ca h thng th l : ngun dao ng ni, ngun ng h ngoi, tn hiu tng hp AGGR, tn hiu nhnh TRTB. Vic thit lp cp u tin bng cch s dng phn mm FLEXR hoc FLEXR Plus. Na byte thng bo trng thi ng b SSMB dng ch cht lng ca tn hiu ng h lung tng hp. Cht lng ca cc ng h khc c thit lp bi ngi vn hnh. Theo vic nh ngha cp u tin v qun l cht lng, card TSCL-1 la chn tn hiu ng h cht lng v cung cp n ti cc khi khc nh mt ngun ng h thit b. Nu tt c cc ngun ng h b ngt, card TSCL-1 s gi li tn s v pha ca tn hiu ng h s dng ln sau cng v gi vic cung cp ca n. Tn hiu ng h c a ra bn ngai thit b sao khi c chuyn i t tn hiu hnh sin thnh tn hiu lng cc (ng h EC, LC 2,048MHz v 2,048Mb/s) . Chuyn i d phng card. Nu mt card CHPD-D12 b s c, card MPL ra mt thng lnh chuyn i ch lm vic sang card d phng ph hp vi thng lnh ca card CHSW-D1. i vi nhng card khc c cu hnh d phng 1+1 th lnh ny pht ra t card NPL. Cu hnh d phng. Nu card lm vic TSCL-1 b s c, card MPL ra mt thng lnh chuyn i ch lm vic sang card TSCL-1 d phng. Chc nng ny khng c khi card

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CHSD-1 hoc CHPH-4 c s dng pha giao din nhnh ca thit b cu hnh mng vng ring. Lu tr d liu vt l. Card TSCL-1 c kh nng lu tr d liu vt l ca chnh n, d liu ny khng th thay i c. * M t mt trc ca card TSCL-1. Trn mt trc ca card TSCL-1 c hai n LED ch th cnh bo LED c th sng hoc nhp nhy ty thuc vo iu kin cnh bo.
Bng 4.5: ngha cc LED mt trc card TSCL-1

Tn LED UNI/RCI

Ch th Sng

ngha - C mt li xy ra trong card.

Nhp nhy - C ch th thay Card t trung tm Nhp xanh Sng vng LINE Sng nhy - Lp Card khng ng v tr - Thit lp card khng thnh cng Th n - C ch th cnh bo trong AU-4 - C cnh bo mc VC-4 trm i phng - Tn hiu VC-4 khng c ni - Mu chun nhn tn hiu VC-4 - C li trong byte u tin ch th a khung ca tn hiu TU trong tn hiu VC-4 - S cc li nghim trng trong hng VC-4 vt qu gi tr ngng (li thc hin chu k ngt STEP) - S cc li trong VC-4 chu k 15 pht vt gi tr ngng (thi gian li chu k 15 pht TESP)

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- S cc li nghim trng trong VC-4 chu k 24 gi vt qu gi tr ngng (thi gian li nghim trng chu k 24 gi TSEP) - C cnh bo xy ra trong tn hiu VC-3, VC-2 hoc VC-12 pha trm i phng - Li tn hiu con th TU. - S c vo tn hiu ng h ngoi 2,048 Mb/s, 2,048 MHz - Cnh bo AIS tn hiu ng h ngoi 2,048 Mb/s - Khng c ngun ng b no c s dng h thng s dng ng h s dng ln sau cng gi c. - Th n

4.3.6. Card giao din 2,048Mb/s CHPD-D12C


AU-4

VC-4
X3
TUG-3

X7 X3
TUG-2 TU-12

2,048Mb/s VC-12 C-2

Hnh 4.11: Cu trc ghp knh ng b

Card CHPD-D12C chuyn i 21 lung tn hiu 2,048Mb/s n t cc thit b ghp knh ngoi thnh mt tn hiu AU-4 (25,92Mb/s x 6) bng cch ghp chng li vi nhau v chn thm POH. Ngc li, card CHPD-D12C lm nhim v chuyn i lung tn hiu AU-4 n t card TSCL thnh 21 lung tn hiu 2,048Mb/s. CHPD-D12C cng c chc nng u vng cc tn hiu 2,048Mb/s trn card. * Cc chc nng ca card CHPD-D12C.

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B iu khin chuyn tip. Card c th chuyn i lung gia hai trng thi lm vic v khng lm vic ng thi cho c 21 lung tn hiu da trn d liu thit lp. Chuyn i tn hiu lng cc- n cc. Card c th chuyn i tn hiu lng cc thnh n cc v ngc li. B tch ghp tn hiu. B ghp knh MUX1 ghp tn hiu C-12 m HDB-3 thnh TU-12 ri thnh TUG-2. B tch tn hiu DMUX1 x l qu trnh ngc li. Khi card c cu hnh 1+1, DMUX1 lm nhim v chuyn i lung. Trong qua trnh tch ghp, card cng thc hin qu trnh x l con tr pht hin trng thi lung, cnh bo hoc cc ng iu khin. B tch ghp tn hiu 2. B tch ghp tn hiu MUX2 ghp 7 TUG-2 thnh tn hiu TUG-3. Sau ghp 3TUG-3 thnh mt tn hiu AU-4 (25,92MB/s x 6). B DMUX2 thc hin qu trnh ngc li. Trong qu trnh tch ghp tn hiu. Card thc hin qu trnh x l con tr v phn mo u d tm trng thi lung, cnh bo hoc tn hiu iu khin. Khi to tn hiu ng h. Card khi to v phn b tn hiu ng h (49,152Mhz cho mch vng kha pha PLL, 25,59Mhz cho ng h ch MUX v DMUX v 8Mhz cho ng h thi gian) iu khin tn hiu khng ng b. La chn v thng tin cnh bo. Card la chn cc cnh bo ly ra t phn qun l lung POH trong qu trnh tch ghp tn hiu v hin th chng ln cc LED mt trc card. Khi to li ngun.

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Khi ngun c bt li sau khi b ngt, card s thit lp li d liu ng truyn bng cch gi i tn hiu yu cu thit lp li ti phn LSI v b chuyn i lng cc - n cc. Giao din vi khi MPL. Card CHPD-D12C c giao din vi card MPL lu tr tnh trng lung v cc cnh bo POH d tm trong qu trnh tch ghp tn hiu vo b nh. Lu tr cc d liu vt l. Card c th lu tr cc d liu vt l ca chnh n cc d liu ny khng th thay i c. * M t mt trc card CHPD-D12C. Trn mt trc card c 2 LED ch th cnh bo. Hai LED c th sng , nhp nhy hoc sng xanh ty thuc vo iu kin cnh bo.
Bng 4.6: ngha cc LED mt trc card CHPH-D12C

Tn LED UNIT/RCT

Ch th Sng Nhp nhy Nhp nhy xanh

ngha -C mt li trong card -C ch th thay card t trung tm -Lp card khng ng v tr -Thit lp card khng thnh cng

Sng xanh Sng vng LINE Sng

- Card trong trng thi bnh thng -Th n -Tn hiu ch th cng bo trong TU-12 -Lp con tr trong TU-12 -C cnh bo trong CV-12 -Mt u vo VC-12 -AIS trong C-12 -Li khung trong C-12

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-Li tn hiu lng cc. -Th n

4.3.7. Card giao din quang CHSD-1L1C * Cc chc nng ca card CHSD-1L1C Giao din quang Giao din quang c s dng chuyn i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in v tch cc tn hiu ng b. ng thi n cng lm nhim v chuyn i tn hiu in v tn hiu ng h thnh tn hiu quang. Khi tn hiu quang thu c qu yu, khng th tch cc bit ng h (BER khong 10-13) hoc lin tip nhn c cc bit 0 trong thi gian 12,5s hoc lu hn sau khi chuyn i thnh tn hiu in, cnh bo mt tn hiu LOS c khi to. Nu c cnh bo ny, chc nng ALS c kch hat, thit b ngng pht tn hiu quang. ng b khung Card lin tip kim tra mu bit trong 2 byte A1 v A2 trong phn RSOH. Card CHSD-1 s khi to mt xung ng h mi khi nhn c mu bit. Nu mu bit khng tm thy trong khong thi gian nh, mt cnh bo ng b xut hin, card s khi to tn hiu cnh bo mt khung LOF. Tch phn mo u Tch RSOH Card CHSD-1L1C tch RSOH sau khi ng b khung. Mi mt byte RSOH c chuyn thnh d liu tng ng v ngc li. Do nhng chc nng sau y c thc hin (chc nng nghip v, kim tra chn l BIP-8, knh truyn d liu phn on lp li RS-232, chc nng du tn hiu). Tch MSOH

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Card cng tch MSOH tng t nh RSOH, do chc nng sau y c thc hin (kim tra chn l BIP-24, bo v phn on ghp knh MSP,knh truyn d liu phn on ghp knh MS-DCC). Bo v v khi phc nghip v mng vng Card CHSD cung cp chc nng bo v mng vng ring. Chc nng ny hy b u vng ca tn hiu nghip v 0W v ch pht theo mt hng ch nh (ng X) ti trm ch ngn cn tn hiu nghip v quay ngc trong cu hnh mng vng. Khi c li xy ra trn ng quang, card ca trm ch s chuyn mch pht hai hng v u vng nghip v, cc card quang ca trm t d tm li pha thu loi b tn hiu u vng v chuyn mch pht mt hng do ng nghip v c khi phc.

Chc nng cho nghip v s i thng Khi khng lp card SACL hoc c lnh ca ngi khai thc t FLEX/FLEXR Plus, tn hiu nghip v chuyn qua card CHSD m khng chuyn qua tn hiu tng t. Chuyn mch lung Card CHSD-1 c th la chn tn hiu thu AU-4 trong cu hnh mng vng lung truyn dn s c pht theo hai hng khc nhau u thu s la ch lung c cht lng tt hn. Trong mng chui hoc cu hnh u cui, lung s c chy theo mt hng. Trong cu hnh mng chui, lung c th c thit lp trn FLEXR hoc FLEXR Lus. Trong cu hnh u cui, lung c thit lp c nh theo hai hng. C hai ch chuyn mch lung ngoi ch t ng : Ch cng bc : Lung d liu ch nh c nh theo mt hng. Ch nhn cng : Mt trong hai lung l c nh. Chc nng th tn hiu

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Card cung cp chc nng u vng. Nu c li xy ra trn card, card s u vng tn hiu AU-4 bng nhn cng pht hin ra nguyn nhn li. D liu ch dc u vng theo hng bn ngoi thit b. Lu tr d liu vt l Card CHPD-1L1C c th lu tr d liu vt l ca chnh n. D liu ny khng th thay i c. * M t mt trc card : Mt trc card CHSD-1L1C c 2 cng dnh cho nh sn xut kim tra card, c hai LED ch th cnh bo v mt nhn nhc nh nh khai thc v bc x Laser.

Bng 4.7: ngha mt trc card CHSD-1L1C

Tn LED UNIT/RCI

Ch th Sng

ngha -C mt li xy ra trong card -Mc pht quang kh cao -Mc pht quang kh thp -Dng vt qu ngng b pht lazer

Nhp nhy Nhp xanh Sng xanh LINE Sng

-C ch th thay th card t trung tm

nhy -Mt card lp khng ng v tr -Thit lp card khng hon thnh -Card trong trng thi hot ng bnh thng -Tn hiu STM-1 b tc -Li ng b khung STM-1 khng ng -AIS trong STM-1 -Mt bit li xy ra trong tn hiu thu STM-1 -Tn hiu STM-1 b suy gim phn thu

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-Mt li xy ra tn hiu STM-1 trm i phng. - C li trong byte MSP - Li con tr AU - AIS trong AU-4 - Mt bit li xy ra trong VC-4 - Tn hiu VC-4 khng c kt ni

4.4. Kt lun chng Thit b FLX 150/600 l mt thit b linh ng c th cu hnh vi nhiu ng dng khc nhau. Thit b ny c th s dng nh mt trung tm hoc h thng ni cho s (DXC) v mt thit b l tng thit lp mng tin tin vng, tuyn v im n im. Mng FLX c th iu hnh hu hiu bng cch dng h thng qun l mng FLEXR plus hoc FLEXR. C th iu khin t xa qua ng X.25 hoc LCN hoc ni trc tip ni ht.

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KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI


ti K thut ng b trong mng quang SDH v ng dng trong thc t trnh by mt cch chi tit v vn ng b trong mng quang SDH. ti cn gii thiu v thit b FLX 150/600, thng qua thit b ny gii thiu k thut ghp knh, k thut ng b trong mng quang SDH. Hin nay k thut ghp knh ng b SDH v ang c ng dng rng ri trong cc h thng truyn dn quang. Mng SDH l nn tng cho cc dch v POTS, ISDN, di ng...N cng d dng p ng c cc dch v video theo yu cu, truyn hnh s qung b... Mng quang SDH kt ni d dng vi cc h thng khc. Giao din SDH c tiu chun ha ton cu, c th kt hp nhiu phn t khc nhau trong cng mt mng v tng tc vi cc mng khc d dng. Pht trin ti ny, c th nghin cu thm cc dng sn phm FLX nh: FLX 2500A, FLX-GS cng nh nghin cu thm v cng ngh ghp knh khc nh cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng DWDM. Cng ngh ny c th truyn nhiu bc sng trong cng si quang n mode.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


[ 1 ] K thut ghp knh s ng b, L Chu Khn [ 2 ] ng b mng vin thng, Trn nh Thun, L Quc Cng 12/1999 [ 3 ] Trung tm thng tin bu in, H Ni 1999 [ 4 ] ITU-T Recommendations G.703, G.781, G.783, G.811, G.812, G.813, G.823, G.825, G.958 [ 5 ] Sync-101_intl, John EhrigSDH. [6 ] SONET.Explained.in.Functional.Models.Modeling.the.Optical.Transport.Netw ork., Team Ling [ 7 ] Network%20Synchro%20Fundamentals_TF13, Marys Gragnomati [ 8 ] SDH vol.1, Wandel Goltermann [ 9 ] Synchronizing Telecommunications Networks Basic Concepts, Hewlett Packard, Application Note 1264-1

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