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Q. Draw the general process flow chart for spinning, weaving and processing A.

Spining INPUT MATERIAL FORM GINNED FIBRE CLEANED FIBRE CARDED SLIVER COMBED SLIVER DRAWN SLIVER ROVING PROCESS BLOWROOM CARDING COMBER DRAW FRAME SPEED FRAME RING FRAME OUTPUT MATERIAL FORM CLEANED FIBRE CARDED SLIVER COMBED SLIVER DRAWN SLIVER ROVING YARN

Weaving INPUT MATERIAL FORM YARN IN SPINDLE YARN IN CONE, CHEESE WARP BEAM SIZED BEAM YARN IN CONE, CHEESE HEALDED BEAM AND WEFT YARN PROCESS WINDING WARPING SIZING DRAWING IN PIRN WINDING WEAVING OUTPUT MATERIAL FORM YARN IN CONE, CHEESE WARP BEAM SIZED BEAM HEALDED BEAM WEFT YARN FABRIC

Processing INPUT MATERIAL FORM GREY FABRIC GREY FABRIC (SHEARED) SINGED GREY FABRIC DESIZED FABRIC SCOURED FABRIC BLEACHED FABRIC MERCERISED FABRIC DYED FABRIC PRINTED FABRIC FINISHED FABRIC INSPECTED FABRIC PROCESS SHEARING AND CROPPING SINGEING DESIZING SCOURING BLEACHING MERCERISING DYEING PRINTING FINISHING INSPECTION FOLDING & PACKING OUTPUT MATERIAL FORM GREY FABRIC (SHEARED) SINGED GREY FABRIC DESIZED FABRIC SCOURED FABRIC BLEACHED FABRIC MERCERISED FABRIC DYED FABRIC PRINTED FABRIC FINISHED FABRIC INSPECTED FABRIC READY TO DISPATCH

Q. What do you understood by shearing cropping and singeing? A. Grey fabric is having loose threads, fluffs and dust and dirt, so to remove these loose threads and superficial dust, shearing and cropping is done. This is done to remove the only superficial entangled particled in the form of loose thread or dust.

Generally these machines are available in two and four cutter system, in both the system both side of the fabric are exposed. One metallic sensor is attached before the blades to avoid and tearing of the fabric and damage of fabric as well. These sensors are stopping the machine whenever the metallic particles are detected. Singeing is also a similar mechanical pretreatment, singeing means skillfully burning of the protruding fibre of the fabric without damaging the fabric. There are 3 types of singeing methods which are listed below a. Plate singeing b. Roller singeing c. Gas singeing These methods are used based on the fibre type and its construction. Generally filament fabrics are singed with the plate singeing. Heavier construction fabric are subjected to gas singeing system with 3 available option which are listed below.

a. 90 to fabric b. Tangential flame c. 90 on cooled bowl. Here also various sensors are used, the speed of the machine is adjusted with the various parameters like flame intensity, flame height, gas pressure etc.

Q. Describe advantage of mechanical pretreatment of textile processing? A. The advantages of mechanical pretreatments are listed below 1. It cleans the superficial fluff, dust, dirt so it is reducing the load of the further processing. 2. These processes are giving the clean and smooth surface so that in printing we are getting the fine borders/ boundaries.

3. These processes are removing the protruding fibres so that it is giving the perfect clear dyeing not a spoty dyeing with minute spots because of the protruding fibres.

4. It clears the surface of textile so that the bead formation of the protruding fiber are reduces. 5. It improves the luster of the fabric.

Q. Describe the machines for the singeing? A. There are mainly 3 types of the singeing machines a. Plate singeing machine b. Roller singeing machine c. Gas singeing machine Plate singeing machine Plate singeing machine is designed in such a way that a flame is not get direct contact to the fabric. The plate is heated first and then this radiates the heat to the fabric which is passes over it. The plates are heated to red hot and then the material is allowed to pass over it. The plate singeing machine is largely used for the synthetic materials of spun synthetic fabric.

This method is having following restrictions 1. Since the heat is not penetrated in warp and weft yarns so interstices of the fabric are remain unsigned because they are not accessible. 2. Furthermore the constant plate is showing uneven temperature across the surface ang maintaining same temperature also a difficult task, so that a chance of unevenness is more. Due to this restrictions this types of singeing is not usually used. Roller singeing machine The restriction of the plate singeing is overcome with the roller singeing; here the material is passed over a cast iron or copper roller which is moving in opposite direction. Thus this movement is helping the heat to penetrate in interstices of fabric. The direct flame is attached inside of the roller and is can be rotated to any angle so that required temperature is achieved easily.

Since the roller is moving continuously, hence the fresh surface is continuously supplied to the fabric. The temperature of rotating cylinder is easy to maintain. With this the counter movement of the fabric and the roller the luster is also imparted to the fabric. This method of singeing is widely used for the velvet and similar pile type of the material. Gas singeing machine Here the flame is directly attached to the fabric and thus this is the most acceptable method of singeing. The main purpose of singeing is to burn the protruding fibres from the yarn and/or fabric surface. In order to burn the protruding fibres, energy must be supplied. The supplied energy must be just enough to burn only the protruding fibres, while keeping the firmly bound fibres intact. It is essentially consist of one or more burners giving continuous flat or vertical flames, produced by a mixture of gas and air. The flame issues from narrow slit. Which are adjusted with respect to width and thickness burner which stands the lying projecting fibers. When the cloth is drawn over the flame at a high speed. The flame impinges on its surface and burns the protruding fibers without damaging the cloth. The speed of transmission of the cloth through the machine has to be adjusted to suit the amount of singeing required, without the risk of burning the cloth. It is important to set a drain temperature of the water-cooled roller in a range of 50 to 550C. Cautions are required because a dew-point is generated when the water-cooled roller is cooled down too much, and results in increased amount of remaining fuzz or adhered carbon. The fabric feed speed is preferably set at around 100 to 150m/minute.

1 = gas; 2 = combustion air; 3 = calibrated opening; 4 = premix zone; 5 = open jet gas injector; 6 = observation port;7 = turbulence ring; 8 = special glass fiber exit via stuffing box; 9 = signal converter (converting the optical into an electrical signal); 10 = pin diaphragm for limiting combustion air quantity; 11 = ignition plug; 12 = plug-in connection for ultra-violet flame detector; 13 = special glass fiber entry side; 14 = special ultra-violet glass fibers.

Major parts of machines are mentioned below 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. J scray Tension and synchronizing rolls Pre brushing rollers Burner Carburetor and blower Steam quench (optional) Post brushing Quenching (Desizing tank) Squeezing and tension rolls