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General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms

Linearity property
Shifting property (Translation theorem)
Change of scale property
Multiplication by s
Division by powers of s

Linearity property:
If ( ) { } ( ) s f t f L = and ( ) { } ( ) s g t g L = , the
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t g c t f c s g L c s f L c s g c s f c L
2 1
1
2
1
1 2 1
1
+ = + = +

,
where
1
c and
2
c are any two constants.

Shifting property for inverse Laplace Transforms:
(First shift or Translation theorem)
If ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] s f L e ) t ( f e a s f L
1 at at 1
= = .
4 44 4
th th th th
Topic Topic Topic Topic
Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms
General properties of
Inverse Laplace Transforms
Convolution Theorem

Prepared by:
Dr. Sunil
NIT Hamirpur (HP)
(Last updated on 20-10-2007)
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

2
Change of scale property:
( ) [ ]
|

\
|
=

k
t
f
k
1
ks f L
1
.

Multiplication by s:
If ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, and f(0) = 0, then ( ) { } ( ) { } t f


dt
d
s f s L
1
=

.
In general, ( ) { } ( ) { } t f
dt
d
s f s L
n
n
n 1
=

, provided ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 f .......... 0 f 0 f
1 n
= = = =

.
Division by powers of s:
( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then
( )
( )dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
1

=
)
`

.
Also
( )
( ) dt dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
t
0
2
1

=
)
`

.

( )
( ) dt dt dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
t
0
t
0
3
1

|
|

\
|
=
)
`

and so on .
**********************************
Inverse Laplace transform of derivatives:
If ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) ( ) [ ]
)
`

=

s f
ds
d
L t tf
1

The above result follows from ( ) { } ( ) { } s f
ds
d
t tf L = .
In general, ( ) [ ] { } ( ) ( ) t f t 1 s f L
n n n 1
=

, n = 1, 2, 3, . .

Inverse Laplace transform of integrals:
If { } ( ) t f ) s ( f L
1
=

, then ( )
( )
t
t f
ds s f L
s
1
=

.
***************************************

Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

3
CONVOLUTION THEOREM:
Statement: If ( ) { } ( ) t f s f L
1
=

and ( ) { } ( ) t g s g L
1
=

,
then ( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) G * F du u t g u f s g s f L
t
0
1
= =

.
[F*G is called the convolution or falting of F and G.]
Proof: Let ( ) ( ) ( )du u t g u f t
t
0
=


( ) { } ( ) ( ) dt du u t g u f e t L
t
0
st
0

)

( ) ( ) dt . du u t g u f e
st
t
0 0
=


(i)
The domain of integration for this double integral is the entire area lying between the
lines u = 0 and u = t.
On changing the order of integration, we get
( ) { } ( ) ( ) du . dt u t g u f e t L
st
u 0
=



( )
( )
( ) du dt u t g e u f e
u t s
0
su
0

)



( ) ( ) du dv v g e u f e
sv
0
su
0

)


, on putting t u = v
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s g . du u f e du s g u f e
su
0
su
0


= = ( ) ( ) s g . s f =
whence follow the desire result.
**************************
Now let us find the inverse Laplace transform:
Always Remember: Linearity property:
If ( ) { } ( ) s f t f L = and ( ) { } ( ) s g t g L = , the
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t g c t f c s g L c s f L c s g c s f c L
2 1
1
2
1
1 2 1
1
+ = + = +

,
where
1
c and
2
c are any two constants.
Q.No.1.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of :
4 s
1 s 2
2

+
.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

4
Sol.: Here t 2 sinh
2
1
t 2 cosh . 2
4 s
1
L
4 s
s 2
L
4 s
1 s 2
L
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ =
)
`

+
)
`

=
)
`

+

.
Q.No.2.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of :
s
1
e
s
1

.
Sol.: We know that
( )
2
n
n
0 n
n
0 n
s
1
s
1
! n
1
! n
1
s
1
e

=
|
|

\
|
=


=

.
( )
1
2
n
n
0 n
s
1
s
1
! n
1
e
s
1
+

=

.
( )

1
2
n
n
0 n
1
s
1
1
s
1
! n
1
L e
s
1
L
( )

=
+

1
2
n
1
n
0 n
s
1
L
! n
1


( )
|

\
|
+

=
1
2
n
t
! n
1
2
n
n
0 n
.
Q.No.3.: Show that (i)
( ) ( ) ( )
.........
! 7
t
! 5
t
! 3
t
t
s
1
sin
s
1
L
2
7
2
5
2
3
1
+ + = |

\
|

,
(ii)
( ) ( ) ( )
.........
! 6
t
! 4
t
! 2
t
t
s
1
cos
s
1
L
2
6
2
4
2
2
1
+ + = |

\
|

.
Sol.: (i)
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(

)
`

+ + = |

\
|

.........
! 7 s
1
! 5 s
1
! 3 s
1
s
1
s
1
L
s
1
sin
s
1
L
7 5 3
1 1


( ) ( ) ( )
)

+ + =

........
! 7 s
1
! 5 s
1
! 3 s
1
s
1
L
8 6 4 2
1


( ) ( ) ( )
........
! 7 s
1
L
! 5 s
1
L
! 3 s
1
L
s
1
L
8
1
6
1
4
1
2
1
+
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
=



( ) ( ) ( )
. ..........
! 7
t
! 5
t
! 3
t
t
2
7
2
5
2
3
+ =
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

5
Thus |

\
|

s
1
sin
s
1
L
1
( ) ( ) ( )
... ..........
! 7
t
! 5
t
! 3
t
t
2
7
2
5
2
3
+ = .Ans.
(ii)
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(

)
`

+ + = |

\
|

.........
! 6 s
1
! 4 s
1
! 2 s
1
1
s
1
L
s
1
cos
s
1
L
6 4 2
1 1


( ) ( ) ( )
)

+ + =

........
! 6 s
1
! 4 s
1
! 2 s
1
s
1
L
7 5 3
1


( ) ( ) ( )
........
! 6 s
1
L
! 4 s
1
L
! 2 s
1
L
s
1
L
7
1
5
1
3
1 1
+
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
=



( ) ( ) ( )
. ..........
! 6
t
! 4
t
! 2
t
1
2
6
2
4
2
2
+ + =
|

\
|

s
1
cos
s
1
L
1
( ) ( ) ( )
. ..........
! 6
t
! 4
t
! 2
t
1
2
6
2
4
2
2
+ + = . Ans.

Always Remember: Shifting property for inverse Laplace Transforms:
(First shift or Translation theorem)
If ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] s f L e ) t ( f e a s f L
1 at at 1
= = .
Q.No.1.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
1 n
a s
1
+
+
, n: non-negative integer.
Sol.: Here
( ) )
`

+
+

+

1 n
1 at
1 n
1
s
1
L e
a s
1
L .
Applying shift theorem, we get
( )
! n
t
e
a s
1
L
n
at
1 n
1
+

+
.
Q.No.2.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
2 2
b a s
s
+ +
.
Sol.: Here
( )
(

=
(
(

+ +

2 2
1 at
2 2
1
b s
a s
L e
b a s
s
L .
Applying shift theorem, we get
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

6
( )
)
`

+
=
(
(

+ +

2 2
1
2 2
1 at
2 2
1
b s
b
L
b
a
b s
s
L e
b a s
s
L
)
`

=

bt sin .
b
a
bt cos e
at
.
Q.No.3.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
25 s
s 3
2

.
Sol.: t 5 cosh 3
5 s
s
L 3
25 s
s 3
L
2 2
1
2
1
=
)
`

=
)
`


.
Q.No.4.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
2
3
s
1
.
Sol.:

=
|

\
|

=
|

\
|

t
2
2
1
2
1
t
2
3
t
s
1
L
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
.
Q.No.5.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
4
1 s
1 s 3
+
+

Sol.:
( )
( )
|
|

\
| +
=
|
|

\
|
+
+

4
1 t
4
1
s
1 1 s 3
L e
1 s
1 s 3
L
)
`

|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
=

4
1
3
1 t
s
1
L 2
s
1
L 3 e

=

! 3
t
. 2
! 2
t
. 3 e
3 2
t
)
`

=
3 2 t
t
3
1
t
2
3
e .
Q.No.6.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
25 s 6 s
1 s
2
+ +
+
.
Sol.:
( )
)

+ +
+
=
)
`

+ +
+

16 3 s
1 s
L
25 s 6 s
1 s
L
2
1
2
1

Applying shift theorem, we get
( )
)
`

+
+
=

16 s
1 3 s
L e
2
1 t 3
)
`

=

16 s
2 s
L e
2
1 t 3
)
`

=

t 4 sin
2
1
t 4 cos . e
t 3
.
Q.No.7.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of ( ) b as F + .
Sol.: ( ) b as F +
( )
( )dt t tf e
b as
0
+

= ( )dt t f e e
bt ast
0

=
Put at = u,
a
du
dt =
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

7
( ) du .
a
1
.
a
u
f . e . e b as F
u
a
b
su
0
|

\
|
= +

du
a
u
f . e . e
a
1
u
a
b
su
0

\
|
=

\
|
=

a
u
f . e . L
a
1
u
a
b
( )
)
`

=

t f . e
a
1
L
bt

( ) { }= +

b as F L
1
( ) t f . e
a
1
bt
.
Q.No.8.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
3 s 2
1
+
.
Sol.:

\
|
+
=
)
`

+

2 / 1
1 1
2
3
s
1
L
2
1
3 s 2
1
L .
Applying shift theorem, we get

|

\
|

2
1
t
. e
2
1
s
1
L . e
2
1
2
1
2
t 3
2
1
1
2
t 3

=

2
t 3
2
1
e . t
2
1
.
Q.No.9.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of the following: (i)
( )
3
2
2 s
s

,
(ii)
13 s 4 s
3 s
2
+
+
.
Sol.: (i) Since ( ) ( ) 4 2 s 4 2 s s
2 2
+ + =
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 3
2
2 s
4
2 s
4
2 s
1
2 s
s


( ) ( ) ( )
|
|

\
|

+
|
|

\
|

+ |

\
|


3
1
2
1 1
3
2
1
2 s
1
L 4
2 s
1
L 4
2 s
1
L
2 s
s
L
2 t 2 t 2 t 2
t e 2 t e 4 e + + = .
(ii)
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
3 2 s
5
3 2 s
2 s
13 s 4 s
3 s
+
+
+

=
+
+

Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

8
( ) ( )
)

+
+

=
+
+


2 2
1
2 2
1
2
1
3 2 s
3
L
3
5
3 2 s
2 s
L
13 s 4 s
3 s
L t 3 sin e
3
5
t 3 cos e
t 2 t 2
+ = .
Q.No.10.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
2
a s
s
+
.
Sol.:
( ) (
(

2
1
a s
s
L
Resolving
( )
2
a s
s
+
into partial fractions
( ) (
(

+
=

2
1
a s
a
a s
1
L
( )
|
|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+
=

2
1 1
a s
1
aL
a s
1
L t . ae e
at at
=
Thus
( )
[ ] at 1 e
a s
s
L
at
2
1
=
(
(

+

. Ans.
Q.No.11.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
3
2
a s
s
+
.
Sol.:
( ) (
(

3
2
1
a s
s
L
Now,
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 3
2
a s
C
a s
B
a s
A
a s
s
+
+
+
+
+
=
+

( ) ( ) C a s B a s A s
2 2
+ + + + =
( ) C aB A a s B aA 2 As s
2 2 2
+ + + + + = Equating the coefficient of
2
s , we get
1 A =
Equating the coefficient of s, we get
a 2 B 0 B aA 2 = = +
Similarly equating the coefficient of constant term, we get
2 2 2 2
a C 0 C a 2 a 0 C aB A a = = + = + +
( ) ( ) ( ) (
(

+
+
+

+
=
(
(

+

3
2
2
1
3
2
1
a s
a
a s
a 2
a s
1
L
a s
s
L
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

9

! 2
t
. e a t . ae 2 e
2
at 2 at at
+ = [ ]
2 2 at
t a at 4 2 e
2
1
+ =


( )
[ ] 2 at 4 t a e
2
1
a s
s
L
2 2 at
3
2
1
+ =
(
(

+

. Ans.

Always Remember: Change of scale property: ( ) [ ]
|

\
|
=

k
t
f
k
1
ks f L
1
.
Q.No.1.: Find
)
`

256 s 81
64
L
4
1
.
Sol.: We know that ( ) at sin at sinh
2
1
a s
a
a s
a
L
2
1
a s
a
L
2 2 2 2
1
4 4
3
1
=
)
`



( )
( ) { } s 3 F L
4 s 3
4
L
256 s 81
64
L
1
4 4
3
1
4
1
=

=
)
`

, with a = 4
where ( )
4 4
3
a s
a
s F

= and ( ) at sin at sinh


2
1
) t ( f = .
Thus, applying change of scale property (with k = 3), we get
( ) { }
(

=
(

= |

\
|
=

3
t 4
sin
3
t 4
sinh
6
1
3
t 4
sin
3
t
4 sinh
2
1
.
3
1
3
t
f
3
1
s 3 F L
1
.

Always Remember: Multiplication by s:
If ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, and f(0) = 0, then ( ) { } ( ) { } t f


dt
d
s f s L
1
=

.
In general, ( ) { } ( ) { } t f
dt
d
s f s L
n
n
n 1
=

, provided ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 f .......... 0 f 0 f
1 n
= = = =

.
Q.No.1.: Evaluate the following
)
`

2 2
1
a s
s
L .
Sol.: We know that
a
at sinh
a s
a
L
a
1
2 2
1
=
)
`

, and 0 0 sinh = .
a
at cosh a
a
at sinh
dt
d
a s
1
. s L
2 2
1
= =
)
`


Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

10
at cosh
a s
s
L
2 2
1
=
)
`


.

Always Remember: Division by powers of s:
( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then
( )
( )dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
1

=
)
`


Also
( )
( ) dt dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
t
0
2
1

=
)
`



( )
( ) dt dt dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
t
0
t
0
3
1

|
|

\
|
=
)
`

and so on .
Q.No.1.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( ) 3 s s
2 s
2
+
+
.
Sol.:
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2
1 1
2
1
R R
3 s s
2
L
3 s s
1
L
3 s s
2 s
L + =

+
+
)
`

+
=

+
+

.
We know that
t 3 1 t 3 1
e
s
1
L . e
3 s
1
L

=
)
`

=
)
`

+
.
du e
3 s
1
.
s
1
L R
u 3
t
0
1
1

=
)
`

+
= , by inverse Laplace transform of integrals
[ ]
t 3
t
0
u 3
e 1
3
1
3
e

= .
( )
)
`

+
=
)
`

+
=

3 s s
1
.
s
1
L 2
3 s
1
s
1
L 2 R
1
2
1
2

( )du e 1
3
1
2
u 3
t
0

t
0
u 3
3
e
u
3
2
(
(

(
(

+ =

3
1
3
e
t
3
2
t 3

( )
9
2
e
9
2
t
3
2
e
3
1
3
1
3 s s
2 s
L
t 3 t 3
2
1
+ + =

+
+

t 3
e
9
1
t
3
2
9
1

+ = .
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

11
Q.No.2.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( ) 1 s s
1
3
+
.
Sol.: We know that
t 1 t 1
e
s
1
L e
1 s
1
L

=
)
`

=
)
`

+
.
Applying inverse Laplace transform of integrals
t
t
0
u
u
t
0
1
e 1
1
e
du e
1 s
1
s
1
L

= =
)
`

+

.
Now consider
( )
( ) 1 e t
1
e
u du e 1
1 s s
1
s
1
L
t
t
0
u
u
t
0
1
+ =

= =
)
`

.
Finally,
( )
( )du 1 e u
1 s s
1
.
s
1
L
u
t
0 2
1
+ =


1 e
2
t
t
1
e
2
u
u
t
2
t
0
u 2
+ + =
(
(

+ + =



t 2
e t
2
1
t 1

+ = .
Q.No.3.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
2
2 2
a s
1
+
.
Sol.: Rewrite
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
2 2
a s
s
.
s
1
a s
1
+
=
+
.
We know that
( )
a 2
at sin
t
a s
s
L
2
2 2
1
=

.
(Using inverse Laplace transform for derivatives).
Now
( ) ( )

)

+
=

+

2
2 2
1
2
2 2
1
a s
s
.
s
1
L
a s
1
L .
Using inverse Laplace transform for integral, we get
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

12
du
a 2
au sin
. u
t
0
=

.
Integrating by parts, we get

t
0
2
t
0
2
a
au sin
.
a 2
1
au cos . u
a 2
1
+ =
{ } at cos . at at sin
a 2
1
3
= .
Q.No.4.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
2
2 2
2
a s
s
+
.
Sol.: Rewriting
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
a s
a a s
a s
s
+
+
=
+
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
2 2
a s
a
a s
1
+

+
=
( ) ( )

)

)
`

+
=

+

2
2 2
1 2
2 2
1
2
2 2
2
1
a s
1
L a
a s
1
L
a s
s
L
{ } at cos at at sin
a 2
1
. a
a
at sin
3
2
=
( ) at cos at at sin
a 2
1
+ = .
Q.No.5.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
2 2 2
a s s
1
+
.
Sol.:
( )
(

2 2 2
1
a s s
1
L
We know that
at sin
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+


( )
atdt sin
a
1
a s s
1
L
t
0
2 2
1

=
(


[ ] [ ] 1 at cos
a
1
at cos
a
1
2
t
0
2
= = [ ] at cos 1
a
1
2
=
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

13
( )
( )dt at cos 1
a
1
a s s
1
L
t
0 2 2 2 2
1
=
(
(

t
0
2
a
at sin
t
a
1
(

=
( )
|

\
|
+ =
a
0 a sin
0
a
at sin
t
a
1
2

( )
( ) at sin at
a
1
a s s
1
L
3 2 2 2
1
=
(


. Ans.
Q.No.6.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( ) 1 s s
1
2 3
+
.
Sol.:
( )
(

1 s s
1
L
2 3
1

We know that
t sin
1 s
1
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+


( )
tdt sin
1 s s
1
L
t
0
2
1

=
(


[ ]
t
0
t cos = [ ] t cos 1 1 t cos = =

( )
( )dt t cos 1
1 s s
1
L
t
0
2 2
1
=
(

[ ] t sin t t sin t
t
0
= =
( )
( )
t
0
2
t
0
2 3
1
t cos
2
t
dt t sin t
1 s s
1
L
(
(

+ = =
(


( )
1 t cos
2
t
1 s s
1
L
2
2 3
1
+ =
(


. Ans.
Q.No.7.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of (i)
( )
2 2
a s s
1
+
,
(ii)
( )
3
a s s
1
+
.
Sol.: (i) Since
( )
at sin
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
=
+


Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

14
( )
atdt sin
a
1
a s s
1
L
t
0
2 2
1

=
)
`


[ ]
( )
2
t
0
2
a
at cos 1
at cos
a
1
= = . Ans.
(ii)
( ) ( ) [ ]( )
)

+ +
=

+

3
1
3
1
a s a a s
1
L
a s s
1
L
( )
)
`

=

3
1 at
s a s
1
L e .
Now
at 1
e
a s
1
L =
)
`


( ) a
1
a
e
dt e
s a s
1
L
at
at
t
0
1
= =
)
`

.
( )
( ) ( ) 1 at e
a
1
dt 1 e
a
1
a s s
1
L
at
2
at
t
0
2
1
= =


( )
( )
|
|

\
|
= =

1 at t
2
a
e
a
1
dt 1 at e
a
1
a s s
1
L
2
2
at
3
at
t
0
2 3
1
.
Hence
( )
|
|

\
|
=

+

1 at
2
t a
e
a
1
. e
a s s
1
L
2 2
at
3
at
3
1


|
|

\
|
=
at 2
2
at at
3
e t
2
a
ate e 1
a
1
. Ans.
Q.No.8.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of
( )( ) 2 s 1 s s
2 s
2
+
+
.
Sol.:
( )( )
t t 2 1 1 1
e
3
1
e
3
4
1 s
1
L
3
1
2 s
1
L
3
4
2 s 1 s
2 s
L

= |

\
|
+
|

\
|

=
)
`

+
+

Then by formula
( )
( )dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
1

=
)
`

,
( )( ) ( )( )
dt .
2 s 1 s
2 s
L
2 s 1 s s
2 s
L
1
t
0
1
|
|

\
|
+
+
=
)
`

+
+

1 e
3
1
e
3
2
dt e
3
1
e
3
4
t t 2 t t 2
t
0
+ = |

\
|
=


Again by formula
( )
( )dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
1

=
)
`

,
( )( )
( )( )
dt
2 s 1 s s
2 s
L
2 s 1 s s
2 s
L
1
t
0
2
1
)
`

+
+
=
)
`

+
+


Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

15
( ) t e e
3
1
dt 1 e
3
1
e
3
2
t t 2 t t 2
t
0
= |

\
|
+ =

. Ans.
Q.No.9.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( ) 2 s s
1
+
.
Sol.:
( )
(

2 s s
1
L
1

We know that,
( )
( )dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
1

=
(


Let ( ) ( )
t 2 1
e
2 s
1
L t f
2 s
1
s f

= |

\
|
+
=
+
=
( )
t
0
t 2 t 2
t
0
1
e
2
1
dt e
2 s s
1
L

= =
(

[ ] 1 e
2
1
t 2
=

[ ]
t 2
e 1
2
1

= . Ans.
Q.No.10.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( ) 2 s s
1
2
+
.
Sol.: Since
( )
[ ]
t 2 1
e 1
2
1
2 s s
1
L

=
(

+
.
Hence
( )
[ ]dt e 1
2
1
2 s s
1
L
t 2
t
0 2
1
=
(
(

+

t
0
t 2
2
e
t
2
1
(
(

(
(

+ =

2
1
2
e
t
2
1
t 2

( )
[ ] 1 e t 2
4
1
2 s s
1
L
t 2
2
1
+ =
(


. Ans.
Q.No.11.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
3
2 s s
1
+
.
Sol.:
( ) ( ) { }( ) ( )
(

+
=
(
(

+ +
=
(
(

+

3
1 t 2
3
1
3
1
s 2 s
1
L e
2 s 2 2 s
1
L
2 s s
1
L
Since
( )
[ ] 1 e t 2
4
1
2 s s
1
L
t 2
2
1
+ =
(

+


( )
[ ]dt 1 t 2 e
4
1
2 s s
1
L
t 2
t
0
3
1
+ =
(

t
0
2
t 2
t t
2
e
4
1
(
(


Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

16

t
0
2
t 2
2
1
t t
2
e
4
1
(
(

+ +

[ ] 1 t 2 t 2 e
8
1
2 t 2
+ + =


[ ] 1 t 2 t 2 e
8
1
2 t 2
+

=


( )
[ ] 1 t 2 t 2 e
8
e
2 s s
1
L
2 t 2
t 2
3
1
+

=
(
(

. Ans.

Always Remember: Inverse Laplace transform of derivatives:
If ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) ( ) [ ]
)
`

=

s f
ds
d
L t tf
1

The above result follows from ( ) { } ( ) { } s f
ds
d
t tf L = .
In general, ( ) [ ] { } ( ) ( ) t f t 1 s f L
n n n 1
=

, n = 1, 2, 3, .
Q.No.1.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
2
2
2 s 2 s
1 s
+ +
+
.
Sol.:
( ) ( ) { } ( )

)

+
=

+ +
+
=

+ +
+

2
2
1 t
2
2
1
2
2
1
1 s
s
L e
1 1 s
1 s
L
2 s 2 s
1 s
L
We know that
( )
2
2
2
1 s
s 2
1 s
1
ds
d
+

=
)
`

+

So that
( )
)
`

+
=
+
1 s
1
ds
d
2
1
1 s
s
2 2
2

But t sin
1 s
1
L
2
1
=
)
`


Using inverse Laplaces transform of derivatives [(with n = 1) one differentiation]
( ) ( )

)

+
=

+ +
+

2
2
1 t
2
2
1
1 s
s
L e
2 s 2 s
1 s
L
( )
)

|
|

\
|
+

=

1 s
1
ds
d
L
2
1
. e
2
1 t

Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

17
( )
)
`

+
=

1 s
1
L . t . 1 . e
2
1
2
1 1 1 t
t sin . t . e
2
1
t
= .
Q.No.2.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
3
a s
1

.
Sol.: We know that
at 1
e
a s
1
L =


Let
( ) a s
1
) s ( F

= so that
( ) { }
at 1
e ) s ( F L t f = =


Then
( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
3 3 2
a s
2
a s
2 1
) s ( F .
a s
1
s F

=
By inverse Laplaces transform of derivatives with n = 2, we get
( )
( ) { }
( )
) t ( f . t
2
1
s F L
2
1
a s
1
L
2
2
1
3
1

= =


2
e . t
2
e . t
. 1
at 2 at 2
= = .
Q.No.3.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
2 2
2 2
a s
b s
log
2
1
+
+
.
Sol.: Here
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
a s
b s log
2
1
) s ( F
+
+
= .
( ) ( ) [ ]
2 2 2 2
a s log b s log
2
1
) s ( F + + = .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
a s
s
b s
s
a s
s 2
2
1
b s
s 2
2
1
) s ( F
+

+
=
+

+
= .
{ }
)
`

+
=

2 2 2 2
1 1
b s
s
b s
s
L ) s ( F L at cos bt cos
a s
s
L
b s
s
L
2 2
1
2 2
1
=
)
`

)
`

+
=

.
Using inverse Laplaces transform of derivatives, we get
( ) { } at cos bt cos s F L ) t ( tf
1
= =

.
Thus,
t
bt cos at cos
) t ( f

= .
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

18
Q.No.4.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
|

\
| +

b
a s
cot
1
.
Sol.:
|

\
| +
=

b
a s
cot ) s ( F
1
, ( )
b
1
.
b
a s
1
1
s F
2
|

\
| +
+
=
( )
( )
2 2
2
b a s
b
b
1
s F
+ +

= , so
( ) { }
( )
bt sin e
b a s
b
L s F L
at
2 2
1 1
=

+ +
= .
Since { } bt sin e ) s ( F L ) t ( tf
at 1
= = .
Thus bt sin
t
e
) t ( f
at
= .
Q.No.5.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
1 s
1 s
log s
+

.
Sol.:
(

1 s
1 s
log s L
1

If ( )
(

=

1 s
1 s
log s L t f
1

( )
(

)
`

=

1 s
1 s
log s
ds
d
L t tf
1
( ) ( )
( )
(
(

+
(
(

+
+

+
=

1 s
1 s
log
1 s
1 s 1 s
.
1 s
1 s
s L
2
1


( )( )
(

+
+
=

1 s
1 s
log
1 s 1 s
s 2
L
1
1 s
1 s
log L
1 s
s 2
L
1
2
1
+

+
(

=



(

\
|
|

\
|

=

1 s
1 s
log
ds
d
L
t
1
1 s
s 2
L
1
2 2
1
( ) ( )
( ) (
(

+
+

+
+ =

2
1
1 s
1 s 1 s
.
1 s
1 s
L
t
1
t cosh 2

( )( )
(

+
+ =

1 s 1 s
2
L
t
1
t cosh 2
1
t sinh
t
2
t cosh 2 + =
( ) t sinh
t
2
t cosh
t
2
t f
2
+ =
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

19
Thus
(

1 s
1 s
log s L
1
( )
2 2
t
t cosh t t sinh 2
t sinh
t
2
t cosh
t
2
= + = . Ans.
Q.No.6.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of |

\
|

s
2
tan
1
.
Sol.:
(

\
|

s
2
tan L
1 1

If ( )
(

\
|
=

s
2
tan L t f
1 1

( )
(

\
|
=

s
2
tan
ds
d
L t tf
1 1
(

+
=

4 s
2
L
2
1
t 2 sin
4 s
2
L
2
1
=
(

+
=


( )
t
t 2 sin
t f = .
Thus
t
t 2 sin
s
2
tan L
1 1
=
(

\
|

.
Q.No.7.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of
(i)
1 s
1 s
log

+
, (ii)
( ) 1 s s
1 s
log
2
+
+
, (iii) |

\
|

2
s
cot
1
, (iv) |

\
|

2
1
s
2
tan .
Sol.: If ( )
1 s
1 s
log L t f
1

+
=


Then by formula, if ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) ( ) [ ]
)
`

=

s f
ds
d
L t tf
1

( ) ( ) ( )
)
`

+
)
`

+ =
)
`

\
|

+
=

1 s log
ds
d
L 1 s log
ds
d
L
1 s
1 s
log
ds
d
L t tf
1 1 1

t sinh 2 e e
1 s
1
L
1 s
1
L
t t 1 1
= + = |

\
|

+ |

\
|
+
=


( )
( )
t
t sinh 2
t f = . Ans.
(ii) If ( )
( ) 1 s s
1 s
log L t f
2
1
+
+
=

,
Then by formula, if ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) ( ) [ ]
)
`

=

s f
ds
d
L t tf
1

Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

20
( )
( )
( ) ( )
)
`

+ +
)
`

+
)
`

+ =

|
|

\
|
+
+
=

1 s log
ds
d
L s log
ds
d
L 1 s log
ds
d
L
1 s s
1 s
log
ds
d
L t f . t
1 1 2 1
2
1


t 1 1
2
1
e 1 t cos 2
1 s
1
L
s
1
L
1 s
s 2
L

+ + = |

\
|
+
+ |

\
|
+ |

\
|
+
=
Thus ( ) ( ) t cos 2 e 1
t
1
t f
t
+ =

. Ans.
(iii) If ( ) |

\
|
=

2
s
cot L t f
1 1
.
Then by formula, if ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) ( ) [ ]
)
`

=

s f
ds
d
L t tf
1

( ) t 2 sin
2 s
2
L
2
s
cot
ds
d
L t tf
2 2
1 1 1
=
)
`

+
=
)
`

\
|
=


Thus ( )
( )
t
t sin
t f = . Ans.
(iv) If ( )
)
`

\
|
=

2
1 1
s
2
tan L t f
Then by formula, if ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) ( ) [ ]
)
`

=

s f
ds
d
L t tf
1
.
( )
)
`

+
=
)
`

\
|
=

4 s
s 4
L
s
2
tan
ds
d
L t f . t
4
1
2
1 1


( ) ( )
( )( )
)

+ + +
=

+
=

s 2 2 s s 2 2 s
s 4
L
s 2 2 s
s 4
L
2 2
1
2
2
2
1


( ) ( )
)

+ +

+
=
)
`

+ +

+
=

1 1 s
1
1 1 s
1
L
2 s 2 s
1
2 s 2 s
1
L
2 2
1
2 2
1

t sin t sinh 2 t sin e t sin e
t t
= =

. Ans.
Q.No.8.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of
( )
2
2
5 s 4 s
2 s
+ +
+
.
Sol.:
( ) ( )
t sin e
1 2 s
1
L
5 s 4 s
1
L
t 2
2
1
2
1
=

+ +
=

+ +

Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

21
By formula if ( ) [ ] ( ) t f s f L
1
=

, then ( ) ( ) { } t f t s f
ds
d
L
1
=
)
`

.
( )
( ) t sin e . t 1
5 s 4 s
1
ds
d
L
t 2 1
2
1
=

|
|

\
|
+ +

( )
( )
t sin e . t
5 s 4 s
4 s 2
L
t 2
2
2
1
=

+ +
+


( )
t sin e . t
2
1
5 s 4 s
2 s
L
t 2
2
2
1
=

+ +
+
. Ans.
Q.No.9.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of |

\
| +
s
s 1
log .
Sol.: |

\
| +
s
s 1
log
If ( ) t f
s
s 1
log L
1
=
(

\
| +


( )
(

\
| +
=

s
s 1
log
ds
d
L t tf
1
( )
(

+
+
=

2
1
s
s 1 s
.
s 1
s
L
( )
( )
(

+
=

s 1 s
1
L t tf
1

Resolving
( )
(

+ s 1 s
1
into partial, we get
( )
t 1
e 1
1 s
1
s
1
L t tf

=
(

+
= ( )
t
e 1
t f
t

=
Thus
t
e 1
s
s 1
log L
t
1


=
(

\
| +

Q.No.10.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of |

\
|
+
+
b s
a s
log .
Sol.: |

\
|
+
+
b s
a s
log
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

22
If ( )
(

\
|
+
+
=

b s
a s
log L t f
1

( )
( ) ( )
( ) (
(

+
+ +
+
+
=
(

\
|
+
+
=

2
1 1
b s
a s b s
.
a s
b s
L
b s
a s
log
ds
d
L t tf
( ) (
(

+
+
=

2
1
b s
a b
.
a s
b s
L

( )( )
(

+ +

=

b s a s
b a
L
1

Resolving
( )( ) b s a s
b a
+ +

into partial fraction, we get



( ) ( )
(

+
=

a s
1
b s
1
L
1

|

\
|
+
|

\
|
+
=

a s
1
L
b s
1
L
1 1

( )
at bt
e e t tf

=
( )
t
e e
t f
at bt

=
Thus [ ]
at bt 1
e e
t
1
b s
a s
log L

=
(

\
|
+
+

Q.No.11.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )( )
)
`

+ +
+

3 s 2 s
1 s
log L
1
.
Sol.:
( )( )
)
`

+ +
+

3 s 2 s
1 s
log L
1

If
( )( )
( ) t f
3 s 2 s
1 s
log L
1
=
)
`

+ +
+


Then ( )
( )( )
(

+ +
+
=

3 s 2 s
1 s
log
ds
d
L t tf
1
( )( )
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) (
(

+ +
+ + + +
+
+ +
=

2 2
1
3 s 2 s
5 s 2 1 s 3 s 2 s
.
1 s
3 s 2 s
L

( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )( ) ( )( )( )
(
(

+ + +
+
=
(

+ + +
+ + + +
=

3 s 2 s 1 s
1 s 2 s
L
3 s 2 s 1 s
5 s 2 1 s 3 s 2 s
L
2
1 1


( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )( )
(

+

+
+

+
+

=

3 s 1 2
1 6 9
1 2 s 1
1 4 4
2 1 1 s
1 2 1
L
1

Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

23

(

+
+
+
+
+
=

3 s
1
2 s
1
1 s
1
L
1
( )
t 3 t 2 t
e e e

=
Thus
( )( )
( )
t 3 t 2 t 1
e e e
t
1
3 s 2 s
1 s
log L

=
)
`

+ +
+
. Ans.
Q.No.12.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
|
|

\
|
+
+
2 2
2 2
a s
b s
log
2
1
.
Sol.:
|
|

\
|
+
+
2 2
2 2
a s
b s
log
2
1

If ( )
(
(

|
|

\
|
+
+
=

2 2
2 2
1
a s
b s
log
2
1
L t f
Then ( )
(
(

|
|

\
|
+
+
=

2 2
2 2
1
a s
b s
log
ds
d
2
1
L t tf
( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
(
(

+
+ +
+
+
=

2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
1
a s
b s s 2 s 2 a s
.
b s
a s
L
2
1
t tf
( )
( )( )
)

(
(

+ +
+
=

2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3
1
b s a s
s b s s a s 2
2
1
L

( )
( )( )
(
(

+ +

=

2 2 2 2
2 2
1
b s a s
s b a
L
(

)
`

+
=

2 2 2 2
1
a s
1
b s
1
s L
[ ] at cos bt cos
a s
s
b s
s
L
2 2 2 2
1
=
(

+
=

.
( )
t
bt cos at cos
t f

=
t
bt cos at cos
a s
b s
log
2
1
L
2 2
2 2
1

=
(
(

|
|

\
|
+
+

. Ans.
Q.No.13.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
|
|

\
|

2
2
s
a
1 log .
Sol.:
|
|

\
|

2
2
1
s
a
1 log L
( )
|
|

\
|
=

2
2
1
s
a
1 log L t f
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

24
( )
(
(

|
|

\
|
=

2
2
1
s
a
1 log
ds
d
L t tf ( )
(
(

|
|

\
|

=

3
2
2 2
2
1
s
2
a .
a s
s
L

( )
(
(

=

2 2
2
1
a s s
a 2
L
( )
(

=

2 2
1
a s s
a
aL 2 .
Now, since at sinh
a s
a
L
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|

.
( )
dt . at sinh
a s s
a
L
t
o
2 2
1

=
|
|

\
|


dt
2
e e
at at
t
0

t
0
at at
a
e
a
e
2
1

+ = 2 e e
a 2
1
at at
+ =


( )
at at
e e 2 t tf

=
( )
t
e e 2
t f
at at

=
Thus ( ) at cosh 1
t
2
t
e e 2
s
a
1 log L
at at
2
2
1
=

=
|
|

\
|

. Ans.
Q.No.14.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of
( )
|

\
|
+
+
4 s
1 s s
log
2
.
Sol.:
( )
|

\
|
+
+

4 s
1 s s
log L
2
1

If
( )
(

\
|
+
+
=

4 s
1 s s
log L ) t ( f
2
1

( )
(

\
|
+
+
=

4 s
1 s s
log
ds
d
L ) t ( tf
2
1
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( )
(
(

+
+ + +
+
+
=

2
2
2 2
1
4 s
s 2 1 s s 1 s 2 4 s
.
1 s s
4 s
L

( )( )
(
(

+ +
+ +
=

4 s 1 s s
4 s 8 s
L
2
2
1
( )( )
(
(

+ +

=

4 s 1 s s
4 s 8 s
L
2
2
1

( )( )
( ) ( )
4 s
B As
1 s 5
5
4 s
4
4 s 1 s s
4 s 8 s
2 2
2
+
+
+
+

=
(
(

+ +


( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 s s B As 4 s s 4 s 1 s 4 s 8 s
2 2 2
+ + + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) 4 s B 4 4 s A B 1 s A 1 1 4 s 8 s
2 3 2
+ + + + + + =
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

25
Equating the coefficient of
3
s on both sides, we get
2 A 0 A 1 1 = = +
Equating the coefficient of
2
s on both sides, we get
0 B A 2 B 1 A B 1 = = = + +
( )
(

+
+
+
=

4 s
s 2
1 s
1
s
1
L t tf
2
1
|

\
|
+
+ |

\
|
+
+ |

\
|
=

2 2
1 1 1
2 s
s
L 2
1 s
1
L
s
1
L
t 2 cos 2 e 1
t
+ =


Thus ( )
t
1 e t 2 cos 2
t f
t

=


( )
t
1 e t 2 cos 2
4 s
1 s s
log L
t
2
1

= |

\
|
+
+


Q.No.15.: Find the Inverse Laplaces transform of ( ) 1 s cot
1
+

.
Sol.: ( ) [ ] 1 s cot L
1 1
+


If ( ) ( ) [ ] 1 s cot L t f
1 1
+ =


( ) ( )
(

+ =

1 s cot
ds
d
L t f . t
1 1
( )
( ) (
(

+ +

=

1 1 s
1
L
2
1
( ) (
(

+ +
=

1 1 s
1
L
2
1
t sin e
t
=
( )
t
t sin e
t f
t
=
Thus ( ) [ ]
t
t sin e
1 s cot L
t
1 1


= + . Ans.

Always Remember: Inverse Laplace transform of integrals:
If { } ( ) t f ) s ( f L
1
=

, then ( )
( )
t
t f
ds s f L
s
1
=

.
Q.No.1.: Evaluate the following
)
`

\
|

1 s
1 s
log
2
1
L
1
.
Sol.: Since ( ) ( ) [ ] 1 s log 1 s log
2
1
1 s
1 s
log
2
1
+ = |

\
|

+
|

\
|

+
+

1 u
du
1 u
du
2
1
s
.
But we know that
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

26
t sinh
2
e e
1 s
1
1 s
1
L
2
1
t t
1
=

=
)
`

.
Thus applying inverse linear transform of integrals, we get
)
`

\
|

1 s
1 s
log
2
1
L
1
)
`

\
|
+

1 u
du
1 u
du
2
1
L
s
1
( )
t
t sinh
t
t f
= = .
Q.No.2.: Evaluate the following
)
`

|
|

\
|
+

du
b u
u
a u
u
L
2 2 2 2 s
1
.
Sol.: Consider ( )
2 2 2 2
b s
s
a s
s
s f
+

+
= .
{ }
|
|

\
|

= =

2 2 2 2
1 1
b s
s
a s
s
L ) s ( f L ) t ( f = bt cos at cos .
Thus applying inverse linear transform of integrals, we get
( )
)
`

du u f L
s
t
( )
t
t f
du
b u
u
a u
u
L
2 2 2 2 s
1
=
)
`

|
|

\
|
+

+
=

t
bt cos at cos
= .

Always Remember: CONVOLUTION THEOREM:
Statement: If ( ) { } ( ) t f s f L
1
=

and ( ) { } ( ) t g s g L
1
=

,
then ( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) G * F du u t g u f s g s f L
t
0
1
= =


[F*G is called the convolution or falting of F and G.]
Q.No.1.: Apply Convolution theorem to evaluate
(i)
( )
2
2 2
1
a s
s
L
+

, (ii)
( )( )
2 2 2 2
2
1
b s a s
s
L
+ +

.
Sol.:(i) Since at cos
a s
s
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+

and at sin
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+

.
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( ) du
a
au sin
u t a cos
a s
1
.
a s
s
L
t
0
2 2 2 2
1
= |

\
|
+ +


Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

27
( ) [ ] ( )
t
0
t
0
at au 2 cos
a 2
1
at sin u
a 2
1
du at au 2 sin at sin
a 2
1
= + =


Hence,
( )
at sin t
a 2
1
a s
s
L
2
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+

. Ans.
(ii) Since at cos
a s
s
L
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+

and bt cos
b s
s
L
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+

.
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( ) du . bu cos u t a cos
b s
s
.
a s
s
L
t
0
2 2 2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+ +


( ) [ ] ( ) [ ] { }du u a b at cos u a b at cos
2
1
t
0
+ + + =

( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
)
`

+
+

+
=
a b
at sin t a b at sin
a b
at sin t a b at sin
2
1
( )
( ) ( ) at sin a bt sin b
a b
1
at sin a 2 bt sin b 2
a b 2
1
2 2 2 2

= . Ans.
Q.No.2.: Apply Convolution theorem to evaluate inverse Laplace transform of

( )
2
2 2
a s
as 2
+
.
Sol.: Here
( ) ( )
(
(

+
=
(
(

+

2
2 2
1
2
2 2
1
a s
s
aL 2
a s
as 2
L .
Also
( )
at cos
a s
s
L
2 2
1
=
(

,
( )
at sin
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
=
(
(

.
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
|

\
|
+ +

2 2 2 2
1
a s
1
.
a s
s
aL 2 ( ) du
a
au sin
. u t a cos a 2
t
0
=


( ) du . au sin . u t a cos 2
t
0
=

( ) [ ]du . at au 2 sin at sin


t
0
+ =


( )
t
0
at au 2 cos
a 2
1
at sin u = at cos
a 2
1
at cos
a 2
1
at sin t + =
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

28
( )
at sin t
a s
as 2
L
2
2 2
1
=
(
(

. Ans.
Q.No.3.: Using Convolution theorem to evaluate
( )( )
)
`

+ +

b s a s
1
L
1
.
Sol.: Since
at 1
e
a s
1
L

= |

\
|
+
and
bt 1
e
b s
1
L

= |

\
|
+
.
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( )( )
( )
du e e
b s a s
1
L
bu u t a
t
0
1

=
|
|

\
|
+ +
( )
du e
u b a at
t
0
+

=
( )
[ ]
t
0
u b a at
e
b a
1
+

=

( )
[ ]
at t b a at
e e
b a
1
+

= [ ]
at bt
e e
b a
1

=
Thus
( )( )
=
|
|

\
|
+ +

b s a s
1
L
1
[ ]
at bt
e e
b a
1

. Ans.
Q.No.4.: Using Convolution theorem to evaluate
( )
)
`

4 s s
1
L
2
1
.
Sol.: Since 1
s
1
L
1
= |

\
|

and t 2 sin
2
1
4 s
1
L
2
1
= |

\
|
+

.
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( )
udu 2 sin
2
1
. 1
4 s s
1
L
t
0
2
1

=
)
`

t
0
2
u 2 cos
2
1
= 1 t 2 cos
4
1
=
( )
[ ] t 2 cos 1
4
1
4 s s
1
L
2
1
=
)
`

. Ans.
Q.No.5.: Using Convolution theorem to evaluate
( )
)

2
2 2
1
a s
1
L .
Sol.:
( )
)

2
2 2
1
a s
1
L
Since
( )
at sin
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
=
)
`

.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

29
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( )
( ) du . au sin
a
1
. u t a sin
a
1
a s
1
.
a s
1
L
t
0 2 2 2 2
1
=

+ +

( ) du . au sin u t a sin
a
1 t
0 2
=


( ) du . au sin u t a sin 2
a 2
1 t
0
2
=


( ) du . au sin u t a sin 2
a 2
1 t
0
2
=


( ) [ ]du u 2 t a cos at cos
a 2
1 t
0
2
=



( )
t
0
2
a 2
u 2 t a sin
at cos u
a 2
1
(

=

(

= at sin
a 2
1
at sin
a 2
1
at cos t
a 2
1
2

[ ] at cos at at sin
a 2
1
3
= .
Thus
( )
)

2
2 2
1
a s
1
L [ ] at cos at at sin
a 2
1
3
= . Ans.
Q.No.6.: Using Convolution theorem evaluate
( )
)
`

2 2 2
1
a s s
1
L .
Sol.:
( )
)
`

2 2 2
1
a s s
1
L
Since t
s
1
L
2
1
= |

\
|

and
( )
at sin
a
1
a s
1
L
2 2
1
=
)
`


Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( )
( ) du . au sin
a
1
u t
a s
1
.
s
1
L
t
0
2 2 2
1
=
)
`

du . au sin u
a
1
du . au sin t
a
1 t
0
t
0

=

t
0
t
0
t
0
du . au cos
a
1
a
au cos
u
a
1
a
au cos
a
t
(

\
|


Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

30

t
0
t
0
2 2
du . au cos au cos u
a
1
1 at cos
a
t

+ =
( )
t
0
2 2
a
au sin
au cos u
a
1
1 at cos
a
t
+ =
( )
a
at sin
at cos t
a
1
at cos 1
a
t
2 2
+ =

3 2 2 2
a
at sin
at cos
a
t
at cos
a
t
a
t
+ = ( ) at sin at
a
1
3
=
Thus
( )
)
`

2 2 2
1
a s s
1
L ( ) at sin at
a
1
3
= . Ans.
Q.No.7.: Using Convolution theorem evaluate
( )
)

2 2
1
1 s s
1
L .
Sol.:
( )
)

2 2
1
1 s s
1
L
Since t
s
1
L
2
1
= |

\
|

and
( )
t e
1 s
1
L
t
2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+

Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( )
( ) du . u e . u t
1 s
1
.
s
1
L
u
t
0
2 2
1
=
|
|

\
|
+

du e u du tue
u 2
t
0
u
t
0


=

t
0
u u 2
t
0
u u
du
1
ue 2
1
e u
du
1
e
1
ue
t
(
(

(
(

=




t
0
u
u
u 2
t
0
u
u
du e
1
ue
2 e u
1
e
ue t
(
(

+
(
(

+ =


[ ] { } [ ]
t
0
u u u 2
t
0
u u
e ue 2 e u e ue t

+ =
[ ] [ ]
t
0
u u u 2 t t
e 2 ue 2 e u 1 e te t

+ =
[ ] [ ] 2 e 2 te 2 e t 1 e te t
t t t 2 t t
+ + + + =


2 e 2 te 2 e t t te e t
t t t 2 t t 2
+ + + + =


Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

31
2 t e 2 te
t t
+ + =


Thus
( )
)

2 2
1
1 s s
1
L 2 t e 2 te
t 1
+ + =

. Ans.
Q.No.8.: Using Convolution theorem to evaluate
( )( )
)

2
1
2 s 2 s
1
L .
Sol.:
( )( )
)

2
1
2 s 2 s
1
L
Since
( )
t 2 1
e
2 s
1
L =
)
`

and
( )
t e
2 s
1
L
t 2
2
1
=

+
.
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( )
( )
( )
du . u e . e
2 s
1
.
2 s
1
L
u 2 u t 2
t
0
2
1

du ue
u 4 t 2
t
0

= .
Integrating by parts, we get

t
0
u 4 t 2 u 4 t 2
du
4
e
4
e
u
(
(

t
0
u 4 t 2
u 4 t 2
4
e
4
1
e
4
u
(
(

|
|

\
|

+ =



t
0
u 4 t 2 u 4 t 2
e
16
1
e
4
u
(

+ =

(

+ =
t 2 t 2 t 2
e
16
1
e
16
1
e
4
t

Thus
( )( )
[ ]
t 2 t 2 t 2
2
1
te 4 e e
16
1
2 s 2 s
1
L

=

+
. Ans.
Q.No.9.: Using Convolution theorem to evaluate
( )( )
)

+ +

2
1
9 s 1 s
1
L .
Sol.:
( )( )
)

+ +

2
1
9 s 1 s
1
L
Since
( )
t 1
e
1 s
1
L

=
+
and
( )
t . e
9 s
1
L
t 9 1
=
+

Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( )
( )
du ue . e
9 s
1
.
1 s
1
L
u 9 u t
t
0 2
1

+
+
udu e
t u 8
t
0

=
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

32
Integrating by parts, we get

t
0
t u 8
t u 8
dt e
8
1
8
e
u
(
(

t
0
t u 8 t u 8
e
64
1
e
8
u
(

=



(

+ =
t t 9 t 9
e
64
1
e
64
1
e
8
t

Thus
( )( )
)

+ +

2
1
9 s 1 s
1
L
(

+ =
t t 9 t 9
e
64
1
e
64
1
e
8
t
( ) ( ) t 8 1 e 1
64
e
t 8
t
+ =

. Ans.
Q.No.10.: Using Convolution theorem to evaluate
( )( )
)
`

+ +

4 s 1 s
s
L
2 2
1
.
Sol.:
( )( )
)
`

+ +

4 s 1 s
s
L
2 2
1

Since t sin
1 s
1
L
2
1
=
)
`

and t 2 cos
4 s
s
L
2
1
=
)
`

.
Using Convolution theorem, we obtain
( ) du . u 2 cos u t sin
4 s
s
.
1 s
1
L
t
0
2 2
1
=
)
`

+ +

( ) ( ) [ ]du u 3 t sin u t sin


2
1 t
0
+ + =


( )
( )
t
0
t
0
3
u 3 t cos
2
1
u t cos
2
1


+ + =
t cos t 2 cos
6
1
t cos t 2 cos
2
1
+ =
|

\
|
+ |

\
|
=
6
1
2
1
t cos
2
1
6
1
t 2 cos t cos
3
1
t 2 cos
3
1
+ =
( )( )
( ) t 2 cos t cos
3
1
4 s 1 s
s
L
2 2
1
=
)
`

+ +

. Ans.

Some more problems
Q.No.1.: Find the inverse Laplace transforms of
(i)
( )
2
2 2
a s
s
+
, (ii)
( )
2
2 2
2
a s
s
+
, (iii)
( )
2
2 2
a s
1
+
.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

33
Sol.: If ( )
( )
2
2 2
1
a s
s
L t f
+
=

, then by formula
( )
( )ds s f
t
t f
L
s

=
)
`


( )
( ) ( )
ds
a s
s 2
2
1
ds
a s
s
t
t f
L
2
2 2
s
2
2 2
s +
=
+
=
)
`



2 2
s
2 2
a s
1
.
2
1
a s
1
2
1
+
=
|
|

\
|
+
=


( )
a 2
at sin
a s
1
L
2
1
t
t f
2 2
1
= |

\
|
+
=

.
Hence, ( ) at sin t
a 2
1
t f = . Ans.
(ii) In (i), we have proved that
( )
( ), t f at sin t
a 2
1
a s
s
L
2
2 2
1
= =

(say)
Since ( ) 0 0 f = , we get from formula ( ) { } ( ) { } t f
dt
d
s f s L
1
=

, that
( ) ( )
( ) { } t f
dt
d
a s
s
. s L
a s
s
L
2
2 2
1
2
2 2
2
1
=

+
=

+


( ) at cos at at sin
a 2
1
at sin t
a 2
1
dt
d
+ = |

\
|
= . Ans.
(iii) In (i), we have shown that

( )
( ) ( ) t f at sin t
a 2
1
a s
s
L
2
2 2
1
= =

, say
Then by formula
( )
( )dt t f
s
s f
L
t
0
1

=
)
`

, we get
( ) ( )
( ) dt
a 2
at sin t
dt t f
a s
s
.
s
1
L
a s
1
L
t
0
t
0
2
2 2
1
2
2 2
1

= =

+
=

\
|

dt
a
at cos
. 1
a
at cos
. t
a 2
1
t
0
t
0

( ) at cos at at sin
a 2
1
a
at sin
a
at cos t
a 2
1
3 2
=
)
`

= . Ans.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

34

*** *** *** *** ***
*** *** ***
***
Home Assignments
Linearity property:
Q.No.1.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
4 s
3
+
.
Ans.:
t 4
e 3

.
Q.No.2.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
16 s
s 8
2
+
.
Ans.: t 4 cos . 8 .
Q.No.3.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
5 s 2
1

.
Ans.:
2
t 5
e
2
1
.
Q.No.4.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
4 s
6
2
+
.
Ans.: t 2 sin 3 .
Q.No.5.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
8 s
12 s 3
2
+

.
Ans.: t 2 2 sin 2 3 t 2 2 cos 3 .
Q.No.6.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
( ) 9 s
5 s 2
2

.
Ans.: t 3 sinh
3
5
t 3 cosh 2 .
Q.No.7.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
2
7
s

.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

35
Ans.:
15
t 8
2
5
.
Q.No.8.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
3
4
s
1 s +
.
Ans.:
|

\
|

|
|
|

\
|
+

3
1
t 3 t
3
1
3
2
.
Q.No.9.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
2
s
1 s
|
|

\
|

.
Ans.:

+
2
1
t 4
t 1 .
Q.No.10.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
25 s 4
8 s 3
2
+

.
Ans.:
2
t 5
sin
5
4
2
t 5
cos
4
3
.
Q.No.11.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
25 s 4
10 s 5
2
+
+
.
Ans.:
3
t 4
sinh
6
5
3
t 4
cosh
9
5
+ .
Q.No.12.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
( )
2
5
2
1
2 5
2
2
s
s 2 1 s
s 9
18 s 4
s 2
1 s 3
|
|
|

\
|
+
+

.
Ans.: t 3 sinh 6 t 3 cosh 4
3
t 8 t
4 t
16
1
t
2
3
t
2
1
2
3
2
1
4 2
+

+ + .
Q.No.13.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
|

\
|
s
1
sin
s
1
.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

36
Ans.:
( )
( ) [ ]
1 n 2
2
1 n
0 n
t
! 1 n 2
1


=

.
Q.No.14.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
s
1
e
s
1

.
Ans.:
( )
( ) [ ]
1 n 2
2
n n
0 n
t
! n
t 1

.
First shift theorem:
Q.No.1.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
5
2 s
5
+
.
Ans.:
t 2 4
e t
24
5
.
Q.No.2.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
16 s 8 s
12 s 4
2
+ +
+
.
Ans.: ( ) t 1 e 4
t 4

.
Q.No.3.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
5
1 s
s
+
.
Ans.: ( )
4 3
t
t t 4
24
e

.
Q.No.4.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
5
1 s
s
+
.
Ans.:
( )

3
t 2 3 t 2
2
1
.
Q.No.5.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
3
27 s 8
1

.
Ans.:
|

\
|

3
1
2
e t
8
t 27
3
2
.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

37
Q.No.6.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
8 s 4 s
14 s 3
2
+

.
Ans.: ( ) t 2 sin 4 t 2 cos 3 e
t 2
.
Q.No.7.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
8 s 4 s
2 s 5
2
+ +

.
Ans.:
)
`

3
t 5 2
sin 5 24
3
t 5 2
cos 25
15
e
3
t 2

Q.No.8.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
9 s 12 s 4
2 s 3
2
+ +
+
.
Ans.:
2
t 3
2
t 3
te
8
5
e
4
3

.
Q.No.9.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
32 s 12 s
20 s 8
2
+
+
.
Ans.: ( ) t 2 sinh 17 t 2 cosh 4 e 2
t 6
+ .
Q.No.10.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
5 s 2 s
1
+ +
.
Ans.: ( ) t 2 cos t 2 t 2 sin
16
e
t

.
Change of scale property:
Q.No.1.: If
t
t 2 cos
s
e
L
s
1
1

, show that
t
at 2 cos
s
e
L
s
a
1

when a > 0.
Q.No.2.: If { } ) t ( f ) s ( F L
1
=

, prove that ( ) { }
|

\
|
= +
|

\
|

a
t
f e
a
1
b as F L
t
a
b
1
, where a > 0.
Q.No.3.: If
( )
2
t sin t
1 s
s
L
2
2
1
=

, show that
( )
2
t
sin
2
t
1 s 4
s 8
L
2
2
1
=

.
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

38
Q.No.4.: If
( )
t cos t
1 s
1 s
L
2
2
2
1
=

, show that
( )
3
t
sin
9
t
1 s 9
1 s 8
L
2
2
2
1
=

.

Multiplication by s:
Q.No.1.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
1 s
s
2
2
+
.
Ans.: t cos .
Q.No.2.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
1 s
s
+
.
Ans.: t sin t
2
1
.
Division by powers of s:
Q.No.1.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) 1 s s
1
2 3
+
.
Ans.: 1 t cos
2
t
2
+ .
Q.No.2.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
( ) ( ) 1 s 2 s
s
5
+
.
Ans.:
243
e
243
1
81
t
54
t
54
t
36
t
e
t 2 3 4
t 2
+
|
|

\
|
+ + .
Q.No.3.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2
2
5 s 4 s
s
+
.
Ans.: ( ) t sin t cos te
t 2
.
Q.No.4.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
|

\
|
+

a s
a s
s
1
.
Ans.: 1 e 2
at

.
Q.No.5.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
|
|

\
|
+
+
1 s
1 s
s
1
2 2
.
Ans.: t sin t cos t 1 + .
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

39
Q.No.6.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
3 4
s 2 s
1

.
Ans.:
( )
8
t 2 t 2 1 e
2 26

.
Q.No.7.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2 2
a s s
1
+
.
Ans.:
( )
2
a
at cos 1
.
Q.No.8.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
3
a s s
1
+
.
Ans.: ( ) 1 e
a
1
a
te
a 2
e t
at
3 2
at at 2



.
Q.No.9.: Evaluate the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2 2 2
a s s
1
+
.
Ans.: |

\
|

a
at sin
t
a
1
2
.

Inverse Laplace transform of derivatives:
Q.No.1.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
n
a s
1

, n = 1, 2, 3,..
Ans.:
( )! n
e . t
at 1 n
+

.
Q.No.2.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
2
2 2
a s
s
+
.
Ans.:
a 2
at sin t
.
Q.No.3.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
5 s 4 s
1
2
+ +
.
Ans.:
2
t sin te
t 2
.
Q.No.4.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
|

\
|
+
+
b s
a s
log .
Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

40
Ans.:
t
e e
bt at


.
Q.No.5.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
( )
( ) 4 s
1 s s
log
2
+
+
.
Ans.:
t
1 e t 2 cos 2
t


.
Q.No.6.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
1 s
1 s
log

+
.
Ans.:
t
t sinh 2
.
Q.No.7.: Find the inverse Laplace transform of
|

\
| +

2
3 s
cot
1
.
Ans.: t 2 sin e
t
2
t 3
.
Inverse Laplace transform of integrals:
Q.No.1.: Evaluate the following
)
`

\
|
+

dx
1 u
1
u
1
L
s
1
.
Ans.:
t
e 1
t

.
Q.No.2.: Evaluate the following
)
`

\
|
+
+

du
1 u
2 u
In L
s
1

Ans.:
2
t 2 t
t
e e

.
Q.No.3.: Evaluate the following
)
`

|
|

\
|

du
u
2
tan L
2
1
s
1

Ans.:
3
t
t sinh t sin 2
.
*** *** *** *** ***
*** *** ***
***

Laplace Transforms: General properties of Inverse Laplace Transforms Convolution Theorem
Inverse Laplace Transforms of derivatives and Integrals Prepared by: Dr. Sunil, NIT Hamirpur (HP)

41
5 55 5
th th th th
Topic Topic Topic Topic
Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms Laplace Transforms
Applications to differential equations
Solution of differential equation by Laplace Transforms

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