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The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush

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BC–4th c. AD 3rd 1 2nd 1500 – Egypt invades and destroys Kema 2 1070 – Kush becomes independant of Egypt 780 – Capital moved to Napata c.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush KINGDOM OF KUSH Millennium BC 1 Kerma 2500–1500 2 Egyptian New Kingdom 1550–1069 3 2nd Kingdom of Kush.–4th c. 4 Meroitic period 4th c.736 – King Piye (747-716) invades Egypt 593 – Napata sacked by (possibly) Egyptians 3 1st BC 4 350 – Meroe (possibly) sacked by Aksum 1st AD Front cover image: Ankh symbol imported into Napata (2nd Kingdom of Kush). Napatan period 9th c. British Museum. Millennium AD .

kerma. Four gateways gave access to the city. It was surrounded by a series of smaller huts. In fact. and quarters for family members or for servants. the height of which dominated the townscape. but others were rectangular of stone construction. described by Bonnet 1986: 11 Source 5: Temple © www. and some of mud brick. It may have served as Kerma’s royal audience hall. reached by a staircase. perhaps as many as 2. and deffufa © www. Bianchi 2004: 83 Source 2 The royal city [Kerma] was surrounded by substantial fortifications. Welsby and Anderson 2004: 80 Source 8: Circular audience chamber. the first capital of Kush. Several bakeries with batteries of ovens have been found.kerma.ch Source 6 There was a large building. Dozens of jars were stored in the basements. Source 1 Other inhabitants of the city appear to have lived in houses of irregular layouts that were clustered in four separate residential districts.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 1: WHAT WAS THE CITY OF KERMA LIKE? The outline of the city of Kerma.kerma.ch Source 4 The central block reserved for the owner had two or three floors. where bread and probably beer were prepared for use as offerings. These houses are of different sizes and are noted for their courtyards and gardens.ch Task Make a brochure for tourists visiting the city of Kerma in 1700 BC. circular in plan.000 people living here. . with a conical roof. of grass on a wooden frame. each with a particular function. the size of certain houses suggests there was an elite class that watched the areas where goods were sealed and trade took place. It appears that it was made up of several different sectors. Morkot 2000: 66 Source 3: Model of city with Deffufa (white building) © www. Bianchi 2004: 85 Source 7 All around [the Deffufa were] large avenues. and roadways linked the gates and main structures. Wealthy houses in the city. These held cereals (sorghum) and dried fish. Many of the houses were of the traditional circular plan. has slowly been emerging from the sand. Charles Bonnet has estimated that there were some 150 or 200 households. Around the main building were kitchens with large bread ovens. along which were the houses of the high officials of the kingdom. including a wall 10 metres high. some almost 5 metres in diameter.

Originally. so as to have the landing parties ready for them. Source 1 The Western Deffufa is one of the most extraordinary structures in Nubia [Kush] and the only one of its kind. It would undoubtedly be to the advantage of the king and his officers to have first news of the coming of the boats. Here surely is one of the depots or factories from which emerged the great Nile trade.. and probably stood considerably higher than the 60 feet that are still preserved. It is.. Adams 1977: 201–202 Source 5 The Western Deffufa. Trigger 1976: 13–14 Questions 1.. More recently. Bonnet 1986: vi Source 6 The presence of rooms at all four corners of the building. did not seem to fit in with its role as a fort. the placing of the entrance.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 2: WHAT WAS THE DEFFUFA? The Western Deffufa rises out of the desert at Kerma looking a bit like. Within this solid mass there were no rooms and only the remains of a narrow winding stairway which had evidently led to the top of the structure. it was a solid rectangular mass of mud brick more than 150 feet long and 75 five feet wide. built by his orders. Hintze has suggested that the Deffufa was not Egyptian at all but part of the palace of the king of Kush..  Which one seems the most likely. Here are some of their theories. surrounded by annexes in which attackers could easily hide.  What are the different explanations for the Deffufa in these sources? 2. however. Likewise. however. in its decayed state. clearly man-made and archaeologists have been puzzling over its exact purpose and significance. It seems clear to me that the Kerma Deffufa was designed as an enormous watchtower. given the description in source 1? Source 4 The Deffufa is certainly not a fortress. in particular.. with its extraordinarily thick walls of baked brick seems like the local replica of an Egyptian temple. which its outline suggests. an outcrop of natural rock. hardly seemed to match the needs of military architecture. Kerma © J Anderson Source 3 Reisner thought the Western Deffufa was the fortified residence of an Egyptian governor general of Upper Nubia.. Adams 1977: 199–200 Source 2: Western Deffufa. Bonnet 1986: 14 .

Bonnet 1992: 622 Source 5: Double burial – one of these was probably a sacrificial victim © www.kerma. a man. Welsby 1996: 89 Questions 1. was accompanied by a woman and an adolescent.kerma.ch Source 7 Only 16 of the tombs certainly contained extra human burials. Trigger 1976: 16 Source 2: Large burial mound with ox skulls © www. Besides the main burial chamber there was a large open room. Why might there have been human sacrifice at burials? Source 8: Bed British Museum . Here there were no grand pyramids – these came later – instead a whole necropolis of shallow burials. What evidence is there for human sacrifice at Kerma? 2. and the extent of the burial chambers within is greater than that in any Egyptian pyramid. These contained the bodies of up to 400 human beings who appear to have been buried alive. some with gruesome secrets. Source 1 The largest single tumulus [burial mound] at Kerma had a diameter of 90 metres. in another the bed was of slate.ch Source 6: Burial with sacrifices © www. On several occasions. The number of sacrificial human burials within this tomb exceeds that of any other known tomb in the world. where certain members agree to follow one of their own in death. we might suppose that these burials relate to a single family. lying on a wooden bed. In at least one of these the ruler was laid out on a bed of glazed quartz. These bodies were accompanied by a few artefacts and many were of women.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 3: WAS HUMAN SACRIFICE PRACTISED AT KERMA? Archaeologists uncovering the burial ground at Kerma came across tombs that were quite unlike those in Egypt.ch Source 4 We see a noticeable increase in human sacrifices. At the present time. Adams 1984: 49 Source 3 Each of the large tumuli contained a mud brick burial chamber. One or two adults and up to seven children are sometimes found beside the main subject.kerma.

‘I came to understand that the Nubian [Kushite] civilizations are really extraordinary.’ he confesses.. [Yet] Kushite art still kept a distinctive character of its own. that Egypt and Kush should have had many things in common.  The three pictures come from Kush.. but there is a Nubian originality and a Nubian identity. Trigger 1976: 14 Source 2: Sphinx with features of Taharqo. given their geographical closeness and historical development. presumably to their own artistic traditions. ruler of Kush and Egypt Source 3 Bonnet admits that he went to Sudan to find Egyptian civilization.  How far do the written sources agree that Kush copied from Egypt? 3. ‘But step by step.’ MacLeod 1997: 7 Source 4 Many items of manufacture and design at Kerma have been thought to be products of Egyptian craftsmen fitting in with local tastes. The rich at Kerma greatly admired Egyptian civilisation and ordered for their own use skilful copies of Egyptian furniture. Welsby 1996: 177 Questions 1. Kushite artists were clearly not simply stealing ideas but also adapting them. jewellery. But it is equally possible that local [Kushite] craftsmen used Egyptian techniques to produce goods adapted to their own culture. How much are they copying Egyptian styles? 2. Source 1 Much that was produced at Kerma was heavily influenced by Egyptian techniques of manufacture and design.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 4: HOW GREAT WAS EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE ON KUSH? It is perhaps not surprising. There might be Egyptian influences. O’Connor 1984: 65 Source 5: Ankh symbol imported into Napata (2nd Kingdom of Kush) British Museum Source 6 Throughout their history the Kushite artists were continually borrowing from the current artistic trends in Egypt. Have a look at these examples of art that were discovered in Kush and see if you can spot any similarities.  Would you agree that Kush did not have an art style of its own? Source 7: Shabtis of Taharqo British Museum . weapons and even architecture.

Source 8: Amphora (Meroe) British Museum Source 9: Faience perfume vase (Meroe) British Museum Source 10: Gold jackal (Meroe) British Museum . see if you think they show good craftsmanship. wooden furniture decorated with carved figures of mica and ivory. Hafsaas-Tsakos 2009: 66 Source 5: Bowl (Kerma) British Museum Source 6: Cup (Meroe) British Museum Source 3 In the early Kushite period pottery was on the whole rather drab and is comparable with the low level of artistic merit of much of Egyptian ceramics. British Museum Source 4: Bronze razor (Kerma) British Museum Source 2 Kush was not totally dependent on Egypt for precious objects for the use of the rich. as well as pots of high artistic value. The potters were able to produce incredibly fine vessels by hand. Source 1 The most distinctive products of the Kerma culture were ceramics. where local craftsmen made razors and daggers of bronze.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 5: HOW SKILLED WERE KUSHITE CRAFTSMEN? Kush is inevitably compared with Egypt in terms of its arts and crafts.[Later. Although we cannot be sure that some of these objects were not imported from Egypt.. without using a wheel. The relations with Egypt also inspired specialized production at Kerma. Welsby 1996: 163 Source 7: Pottery (Meroe) British Museum Task Search the British Museum’s website to find larger versions of these images so that you can decide on the skills of Kushite craftsmen.. faience vessels. under Greek influence] Kushite fine white wares and egg-shell wares are amongst the most competent products of potters of any period in the Nile valley.

Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC). Welsby 1996: 51 Source 6 Closely cropped hair is the most common hairstyle. a method of personal adornment still used in the Sudan today.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 6: WHAT CAN WE LEARN ABOUT KUSHITE SOCIETY? Although we are learning more each year about Kushite society. Source 2: Royal sceptre British Museum Source 1 The priests of Meroe were apparently able to decide when the king should die.  What do the statues (source 4 and 8) tell you about the power of the rulers of Kush? 2. This is sometimes decorated with a small topknot. These sources may supply some clues. What other evidence is there of royal power and control? 3. A number of adult females had nails and hair stained with henna. especially about the power of the rulers. The queen is enthroned. Kohl was very commonly used as a cosmetic. Edwards 1998: 186 Source 5 Life expectancy may have been a few years less than the 20–25 year expectancy in Egypt. we don’t have the same level of knowledge as we do about Egypt. At Meroe royal ladies are shown on reliefs sporting very long fingernails. the prince is behind. and both figures are protected by wings of Isis. Welsby 1996: 52 Source 7: Sandstone relief from south wall of funerary chapel of Queen Shanakdakhete. quoted in Welsby 1996: 32 Source 4: The god Amun protecting King Taharqo British Museum Source 3 The main centre for the collection and administration of goods seems to have been the royal palaces: the main temples do not appear to have acted as major economic institutions as in Egypt. and by tradition the king accepted their decision as having divine authority. British Museum Questions 1. What else can you learn about Kushite society from these sources? Source 8: Head of a king British Museum Source 9: Sherd of pottery with Meroitic writing British Museum .

Adams 1984: 41 Source 5 There is no evidence for the working of gold mines by the Kushites. due to its location in the centre of a fertile basin and at the crossroads of desert routes linking Egypt.  How important was Egypt to Kush’s prosperity? Source 8 The control of the trade networks with the north. copper and precious stones. We may assume that forced labour was only one of the means by which Kushites had access to this material: trade with the desert dwellers would have been a more reliable option. ebony.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 7: HOW IMPORTANT TO KUSH WAS TRADE WITH EGYPT? Kush occupied a strategic position in terms of trade. Adams 1977: 216 Questions 1. Mission archéologique Suisse au Soudan 2010 Source 2: Ostrich egg. Hafsaas-Tsakos 2009: 66 . as well as to obtain raw materials such as gold. Hafsaas-Tsakos 2009: 60–61 Source 3 Trade (gold. business rather than military or political figures. elite group of Egyptian officials oversaw the manufactures and the export trade of Kerma on behalf of the Kushite ruler. used for storage British Museum Source 4 A text mentions the Kushites’ fondness for Egyptian honey. ivory. ivory. incense. and ointments. and so could supply this material that Egypt craved. the Red Sea and the heart of Africa. They were. cattle) also contributed to the city’s [Kerma] wealth. Which goods did Egypt want? 2. but it also controlled the route along which goods from the heart of the continent passed. precious stones. animal hide. oil. however.. Not only was it close to the gold mines. as well as for woven garments. and hides from wild animals. appear to have given a boost to the rise of Kush. nor of the goldfields. ostrich eggs and feathers. as well as the supply of raw materials from the south through trade and raiding. Source 1 The motive for the Egyptian expansion [into Kush] was to take control of the trade in slaves and African exotics such as ebony. How was Kush useful to Egypt? 3. Welsby 1996: 169 Source 6: Kushite gold jewellery British Museum Source 7 A small..

although limited local production did occur. We have no evidence to show how these people were paid. growth and wealth of the Meroite kingdom. Edwards 1998: 185 Source 8 The state [of Kush] showed off its presence at these hafirs [water tanks] by building temples and statues. A number of ancient writers record that cotton was grown in Kush. Twelve structures identified as wine presses have been found in the north of the kingdom. the administration. historians are unsure how the economy worked. they would have needed an efficient government system to ensure they were regularly maintained.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 8: HOW IMPORTANT WAS THE GOVERNMENT IN THE KUSHITE ECONOMY? As there was no coinage in Kush.ch Source 4 The climate is not ideal for vines. may have been organised by the state © www. collected as taxes. Welsby 1996: 173 Source 2: Ovens Large groups of these have been discovered near grain stores. and get paid. Welsby 1996: 173 Source 3 There would have been a number of individuals who were not food producers. was then shared out by the state. Source 1 Some scholars believe that the Kushite economy worked as a redistributive system. Iron provided the farmers and hunters of Meroe with superior tools and weapons.. Welsby 1996: 158–159 Source 5: Wall of a hafir at Basa Source 6 The main industrial craft in Meroe was smelting of iron and the making of iron tools. some of them clearly designed to demonstrate the military power of Kush. Welsby 1996: 37 . Surplus produce. As their use in recent times has shown. the priesthood and the royal family.kerma.. Those who didn’t grow food still had to eat. and baking and distribution of bread. These included members of the army. In the desert regions. The development and use of iron was thus partly responsible for the very success. Shillington 1995: 43 Questions 1. How was the problem of water solved? 3. What did Kush produce? 2.  What evidence is there that the state organised the economy? Source 7 The construction of water tanks involved considerable organisation and mobilisation of workers. Others think that most people worked the land at subsistence level. contributing nothing to the state and receiving nothing from it. This might suggest that the collection of grain. archaeologists have found the remains of large water tanks (hafirs) which suggest that the government took responsibility for water supply.

Is everyone happy to be accompanying the King into the tomb? 3.The wealth of Africa The kingdom of Kush SHEET 9: BURIAL AT KERMA Source 1: Illustration by Tayo Fatunla Questions 1. Describe what is happening in this picture 2.  Why might some of these people be glad to be buried with the King? 4. What does this tell you about Kushite society? .

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