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The Renaissance The Southern Renaissance (1450-1550) The northern Italian city states became wealthy from being

ing middlemen of overseas trade. Florence dominated European banking. Their textile industry was strong. The Black Plague: people began to lose faith in the Church and began to appreciate life more and live in the "now."

Political Republicanism in Italy had no support because it was still restrictive. These movements failed and either one ruler or oligarchies (the rule of merchant aristocracies) ruled Italy. People in each city-state were very loyal to their own state, so unification was hindered. Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States, and Naples were the most powerful. Milan was ruled harshly by the Sforza family; Florence by the Medici banking family. When one city got too powerful, the others used the balance of power against them. Their lack of unity and huge wealth made them vulnerable to invasion. Charles VIII of France invaded Italy. Pope Leo X called the Spanish and Germans to defend Italy. These were the Habsburg-Valois Wars (in which gunpowder was used), fought in Italy. The Italian states suffered greatly especially after the sack of Rome by forces under HRE Charles V.

Cultural Savonarola attacked the materialism and corruption of Florence. Petrarch was the father of humanism and attacked the Dark Ages. Pico Della Mirandola (Oration on the Dignity of Man) promoted humanism. Individualism and secularism. People connected with Greco-Roman culture. Lorenzo Valla: textual criticism; proved the forgery of the Donation of Constantine. Writers: Boccaccio (The Decameron which justified the enjoyment of wealth), Dante (Divine Comedy; vernacular) Church leaders were also worldly. They beautified Rome and were patrons of the arts. People were anti-Scholastic but they were still faithful to the basics of religion. Leonardo da Vinci (the Renaissance man), Raphael, Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, and Michelangelo (David, St. Peters Basilica, Sistine Chapel) Art- realism: mirroring reality rather than religious symbols; perspective; invented oil painting. There was a big preoccupation over education and moral behavior Castigliones Book of the Courtier, Machiavellis The Prince. Gutenberg invented the movable type. Clocks were invented. Advancements in shipbuilding. The status of upper-class women declined. They had less political power and had less impact on society. Before, men were supposed to make themselves pleasing to women. Now, shown by the Courtier, women were to make themselves pleasing to men. Double standards arose. Upper-class girls received education similar to the boys , but mostly in domestic subjects. Laura Cereta was very educated prodigy but marriage was a hindrance. She was widowed and spent her life in study, but she was heavily attacked by men who felt threatened. Ordinary, lower-class women were not very affected. They still did tasks similar to men. Very little education was available to them, so they couldnt advance their social status. Rape was no longer considered a serious crime because it only slightly damaged a mans property. In Renaissance society, blacks and women were signs of wealth and used for display.

The Northern Renaissance Italian trade spread ideas and inventions to the rest of Europe. Focused more on reason, science, and technology. Created many schools of higher learning.

Political Strong, centralized monarchy developed from Renaissance political philosophy. Rulers were Machiavellian. Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand of Aragon were called new monarchs, ruling with a strong sense of authority and purpose. They ruthlessly suppressed rebellion and emphasized their sovereignty. France: o The Hundred Years War left France weak, but Charles VII (Valois) revived the monarch and the country. He taxed on salt and land (taille); the main source of state income. o The Pragmatic Sanction of the Bourges; French crown over French church. o Greater control of the church and army consolidated the monarchys power. o His son, Louis XI, laid the foundations for French royal absolutism. o Francis I of France signed the Concordat of Bologna with Pope Leo X which said the Pope could now get payments but the French king was still allowed to choose bishops. o Nationalism began to develop after Hundred Years War. England: o The aristocracy dominated the govt. Population was in decline. The Houses of York and Lancaster were in the War of the Roses. The monarchy was weak. o Henry VII rebuilt the monarchy, encouraged industry and trade. He created peace, a richer country, and built the dignity of the monarchy. o Renaissance under Elizabeth I, intense nationalism. Spain: o Reconquista expelling Muslims and Jews from the south. Focused heavily on religion. o They drove out the Moriscos; excellent farmers and craftsmen, hurting their economy. o Inquisition- a court that tried heretics. o Isabella and Ferdinand strengthened the monarchy. o 1550-1650 was Spains Golden Age. There was little nationalism. Germany before the Reformation was very diverse, progressive, and prosperous.

Cultural They were more Christian; less focused on Greco-Roman paganism. They wanted broad social reform based on Christian ideals; wanted more morality. Reason over dogma; rejected Scholasticism, society can be improved through education. Thomas More deeply Christian, moral. Wrote Utopia; humans are naturally good but are corrupted by society. Therefore, we need to reform society. Erasmus Prince of Humanism. Praise of Folly; criticized worldliness, encouraged faith and gradual reform. Handbook of a Christian Knight; taught practical Christian behavior. Rabelais- French writer (Gargantua and Pantagruel) and Montaignes essays: gradual reform. Mysticism: Thomas a Kempis, the individual alone can communicate with God. Gradual reform. Copernicus and Nicholas of Cusas heliocentric theory. Low Countries: Jan van Eck, Albrecht Durer (4 Horsemen of Apocalypse), Rembrandt, Bosch England: Francis Bacon, Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare. Spain: Cervantes (Don Quixote)

The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) Started in Northern Europe because: o It focused more on reason, science, and technology during the Renaissance. o It was more far away from Rome, which housed the power and influence of the Church. o It used the Renaissance concept of individualism and applied it to religion by mysticism. Causes of the Protestant Reformation: o The clergy was very corrupt: worldliness, indulgences, absenteeism, and pluralism. o Impact of humanism, which contradicted the Churchs emphasis on salvation. o Declining prestige of the papacy from the Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism o Dissident theologians like Wycliffe and Hus who preached against parts of the Church. o Resentment of secular kings over the Churchs power. o Resistance to Charles V (HRE)s power. (Protestantism for the German princes) o Invention of the printing press, allowing dissenters to spread their ideas and making the Bible available to the common people. France never tried to turn Protestant because the French king controlled the Gallican church. Pope Boniface VIII issued the Unam Sanctam; every human was subject to Roman Cath. rule. When he died, Philip IV elected a pope at Avignon. Rome elects a 2nd pope at Rome. There was a third elected at Pisa. This begins the Babylonian Captivity. The Churchs prestige declines. People sought other ways for salvation. Dissident theologians like Wycliffe and Hus preached against the Church. At the Council of Constance, the 3 popes are forced to resign. This is the Conciliar Movement. Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses. o Salvation by faith alone. Good works are not necessary. o The Bible is the ultimate authority, not the Pope. o Only God gives absolution of sins. (No indulgences, pilgrimages, saints, etc.) o Baptism and Communion are the only 2 sacraments. (The Church had 7). o Consubstantiation- bread and wine are only somehow part of Christ. o Priesthood of all believers. The clergy is not superior to the laity. Marriage is permitted. o The Church is subordinate to the state. (This appealed to monarchs and German princes). Luther is excommunicated by the Diet of Worms. German Prince takes him to safety. The Peasants Rebellion occurs in Germany, demanding the abolishment of manorialism. It was the 1st major rebellion rallying over economic egalitarianism. Luther condemns them. League of Schmalkalden formed by Protestant Princes; defense against the emperor. France allied with the League even though France was Catholic because of political interests France wanted a weak HRE. The League goes to war with the Emperor. This results in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), which gave princes the right to choose the religion for their people. (Protestant or Catholic) Protestantism also spread to Switzerland (and Finland) by Ulrich Zwingli; Denmark and Norway. Protestantism did not change the role of women, nor did Catholicism. Witchcraft. The Reformation in Germany: o Protestantism was a way for the princes to reject the HREs authority. o The French foreign policy was to keep the HRE weak and divided so the Catholic king of France supported the Protestant princes of Germany.

o Finally, in 1555, Charles V signed the Peace of Augsburg. o Most of North Germany became Lutheran, while the South remained Catholic. The English Reformation: o Henry VIII was afraid that civil war like the War of the Roses would break out if he didnt have a male heir. He wanted divorce from Catherine of Aragon, but the pope refused because Catherine was related to Charles V of HRE. o Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, which made Henry VIII head of the Church. o Elizabeth I established the Elizabethan Settlement, where the Puritans cooperate with the Church of England and Catholicism is banished. This was a middle path between the Catholic and Puritan extremes. Elizabeth made England Protestant. Protestantism in France: o The monarchy grew weak and divided. When King Henry II died, there was a civil war. o Calvinism spread quickly. Queen Catherine de Medici, mother of Henry II decided to kill Huguenots at St. Bartholomews Day Massacre. Coligny was a Huguenot. o The War of the Three Henrys started; fought between Henry III (successor), Henry duke of Guise (led the Catholics), and Henry Bourbon (led the Huguenots). Bourbon won, converted to become king, and gave freedom to the Huguenots by the Edict of Nantes. o Politiques decided that religion wasnt worth fighting over. Bourbon was a politique. o Another Politique was Jean Bodin, the developer of the modern theory of sovereignty. By 1555 most of N. Europe had broken with the Catholic Church. Calvinism: o Started by John Calvin in Switzerland. He wrote On the institutes of Christian Religion, telling people to take a stand if theyre dissatisfied with the church. o Bread and wine is just symbolic of Christ. o Predestination (shown by material wealth, which helped justify capitalism) o Church over state. They wanted to Christianize the state. o Calvinists were called puritans in England and Huguenots in France. John Knox brought Calvinism to Scotland, where Presbyterianism became the religion. Results of the Protestant Reformation: o The unity of Western Christianity was shattered. Religious wars broke out for over a century. o The Protestant value of individualism encouraged democracy, science, and capitalism.

The Counter Reformation The Council of Trent met to reform Catholicism and its abuses and to unify it. It declared: o Justification to be by both works and faith. o The seven sacraments and transubstantiation o The state of the priesthood being above the laity o Confession and absolution o The validity of church services (not just the Bible) o Individuals could not interpret the Bible, which was to be only in Latin. o Celibacy of the clergy and monasticism upheld. The Jesuits of Ignatius Loyola swore to oppress Protestantism. They used the Inquisition and established schools for indoctrination. They sent missionaries to far places to convert people. The Index of Prohibited Books was instituted to keep out heretic literature. Protestantism at this time was still weak and not powerful compared to Catholicism. Baroque art tried to bring glory back to Catholicism through evoking intense emotion/sensation, since most were illiterate. (incl. Rubens, Gentileschi, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Bach, Handel) The Rococo art which followed counteracted that, with elegance, pleasantness, and frivolity.

The Wars of Catholic Spain: The Netherlands and England Philip II was an oppressive king of Spain. The Spanish Habsburgs split with the Austrian. He ruled the Iberian Peninsula, Milan, all of America, Portuguese empires, and the Netherlands. The Netherlands began revolting. Protestantism took root here very early. They didnt want the Spanish Inquisition in their territory because it would crush the liberty of their provinces. Philip still sent the Inquisition. This united many in opposition, including William of Orange. They began destroying churches. The Spanish again tortured, burned, and hanged. Queen Elizabeth aided the Netherlands. She was also dealing with Mary Queen of Scots. The Spanish wanted to invade England through the Netherlands and make Mary the queen, reCatholicizing England. Thus, the security of Elizabethan England depended on the Netherlands. The northern provinces of the Netherlands declared their independence from Spain by the Union of Utrecht, calling themselves the Dutch Republic, or Holland. William of Orange tried to clear the Spanish out from all of the Netherlands. When Spain came closer to a port by which they could attack England, Elizabeth declared war. England universally hated Spain and resentment against Mary Stuart. Philip thought the only way to reconquer the Netherlands was through England. He therefore invaded England, but was badly defeated. Its armada never reached the English Channel. The Netherlands was still partitioned; the North became the Dutch (Protestant); the South, the Spanish Netherlands (Catholic). With a ruined Spanish armada, the Netherlands and England could openly sail. Amsterdam became the financial center of N. Europe. Spains decline began.

The Thirty Years War Religion in the HRE was divided. Germany had lost much of its glory. The Protestant states formed a union and looked to the French, English, and Dutch. The Catholic states formed a union and looked to Spain. The states also wanted independence from the HRE. Bohemian Phase: Bohemians were mostly Calvinist. They feared religious oppression from their Catholic king, Matthias, so they defenestrated him. They made Calvinist Frederick V of the Palatinate their king. But Matthiass successor, Ferdinand II, became HRE and King of Bo hemia. Supported by the Spanish, he defeated the Bohemian Calvinists. Danish Phase: King Christian IV of Denmark, a Protestant, was defeated by the HRE. The HRE imperial army, led by Wallenstein, scored great victories. HRE issued Edict of Restitution, which took away Protestant lands. Wallenstein disagreed, HRE dismissed him. Swedish Phase: Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus, a very strong leader and a Lutheran, entered the war to help the oppressed Protestants. Richelieu supported Adolphus, hoping to weaken the HRE. Adolphus won, but died. French-International Phase: Richelieu declared war on Spain, assisted the Swedes, and the French and Swedes destroyed German agriculture and commerce. The war was over. The Treaty of Westphalia (1684): o Peace of Augsburg reinstated with Calvinism added; Edict of Restitution revoked. o Switzerland and Holland were made independent from Hapsburgs. o France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (future Prussia) received lands. o German princes were made sovereign rulers, limiting the HRE and Habsburgs power. National unification was thus delayed. Germany was devastated. The age of religious wars ended; balance of power emerged. Both Habsburgs were weakened. Counter Reformations slowed. The HRE ceased to be a viable political structure. Calvinism was accepted, Anabaptists were persecuted.

Status of Women: The husband protects the family and rules it. The wife should be subservient and faithful. Both had to have fidelity. The household was a womans first priority and she shouldnt be distracted from it. If a woman suffered under her husband, it was punishment from Eve. Catholics: marriage is a sacred union. Protestants: marriage is a contract, supporting each other. As shown by art, there was a great value for the human body. Sensual age.

The Growth of European Nation-States (1500s and 1600s) England: When Elizabeth died, the crown went to James I, Mary Stuarts son. Parliament disliked him and his son, Charles I, who both believed in the divine right of kings and absolutism. Robert Filmer. They both wanted England to be Catholic. Puritans opposed this. James alienated the Puritans, unlike Elizabeth, and threatened to exile them. Parliament refused to give either of them funds. They feared the Common Law was in danger. Parliament was made up mostly of large property owners supported by merchants. It was secular and strong in its organization and in the social interests and wealth it represented. In 1629 Charles I attempted to rule without Parliament. He antagonized the English landlords, supported the Church of England and made enemies with Puritans. He also tried to modernize the navy with funds raised without parliamentary consent (ship money), alarming landowners, who didnt want to pay for policies they opposed. They wouldnt give funds until he signed the Petition of Right in 1628: Parliament alone levies taxes; no martial law in peacetime; soldiers cant be quartered in private homes; habeas corpus. The Parliament refused to give Charles I money to suppress the Scottish rebellion. Charles dissolved the parliament, called a new one, but the same members were elected back. Charles left the parliament alone without elections for 20 years, called the Long Parliament, who ruled that Parliament must be assembled 3x a year. In 1642 Charles tried to dissolve Parliament and they went to war. The kings army lost. During the war, Parliament asked for Scottish support by promising Presbyterianism to be the official religion for the 3 kingdoms. Parliament won with the efficient New Model Army, led by Oliver Cromwell, a devout Puritan. Cromwell became extremely powerful. He and the Rump Parliament had Charles I executed for treason. Cromwell ruled the entire British Isles, now called the Commonwealth. He had to subdue Ireland and Scotland by force, starting the Irish Question. He passed the Navigation Act of 1651 which barred Dutch ships from carrying goods to England for other countries, attacking Dutch maritime supremacy. As a regicide and a Puritan, he could not turn to the loyalists or former leaders of the Anglican Church. He also couldnt agree with Parliament, so he abolished it and tried to govern as Lord Protector through representative bodies under a written constitution. Cromwell eventually put England under military rule and dictatorship, prohibiting theaters and popular entertainment. His rule was called the Interregnum. Dissatisfaction caused new religions groups: Levellers (wanted more equality in property ownership), Diggers (desired a communal society), and Quakers (preached toleration and peace) Later, Charles II, son of Charles I, became king of England and Scotland the Restoration.

The Church of England no longer tolerated other religious groups. Parliament passed the Test Act, banning non-Anglicans from holding offices. The Cavalier Parliament Tories (non-religious toleration, majority) and Whigs. The Whig Parliament enacted the Habeas Corpus act, limiting royal power.

The Glorious Revolution (1688) James II was extremely unpopular and openly Catholic. In 1688, nobles invited William of Orange and Mary to take the English throne. James fled and the new monarchs accepted the Declaration of Rights, the Habeas Corpus Act, the Petition of Right, and the English Constitution. Declaration of Rights: o Only parliament can levy taxes o Laws can only be made with consent of Parliament o A standing army can be maintained only with consent of Parliament o People have the right to petition, bear arms, due process, trial by peers, reasonable bail o Parliament has the right of free speech o Parliament is freely elected and dissolved only by its own consent. The Act of Settlement of 1701, ruled that no Catholic could be king of England, but excluding the descendants of James II, who were later called Pretenders In the centuries that followed, monarchs reigned while Parliament ruled. William created the Bank of England and built up good credit.

French Absolutism: Louis XIV (the Sun King) was advised by Cardinal Mazarin, who helped Louiss power during the Wars of the Fronde (1650), by which the nobles (Frondeurs) tried to limit the monarch. The chaos of the Fronde made people turn to a strong monarchy. Mazarin died and Louis declared himself independent and an absolutist monarch. Bishop Bossuet justified this through the divine right theory. Jean Baptiste Colbert, the Father of French Mercantilism, revitalized trade as Louiss finance minister by abolishing internal tariffs and creating a free-trade zone. He stimulated industry through subsidies and building up the military. He also hoped to build a large fleet so France be self-sufficient can get overseas colonies France could not afford both a powerful army and navy; it opted for the army, thus allowing Britain to gain global supremacy. France developed Europes first modern army. Louis was constantly at war. The War of the Devolution (1667) Unsuccessful attempt to seize the Spanish Netherlands; blocked by the Triple Alliance (Dutch, English, and Swedes); Treaty of Nimwegen. o Invasion of the Dutch Rhineland (1672) Unsuccessful. o Seizure of Luxembourg and attempt to take Alsace-Lorraine (1681) most of Louiss ambitions were thwarted by the League of Augsburg (Holland, Spain, HRE, England) o War of Spanish Succession (1702) Threatened the balance of power by trying to take the Spanish throne. The Grand Alliance (England, Holland, Austria) prevented this. Treaty of Utrecht (1713) restored balance of power; no one Bourbon can have both thrones. The war caused poverty and depopulation in France. There were famines and tax increases, provoking peasant uprisings. They stopped trying to get Belgium and didnt recognize the Stuart as king. They gave the American NW to the British. They only kept Alsace and Franche-Comt. But France became the strongest nation on the continent; French became an intl language. He revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Catholicism mandatory. Louiss wars were expensive. The bourgeois and peasantry had to pay all the taxes. o

But the central govt was efficient, the nobles were weak, tax collection was systematized, the bourgeois was given more power, and the economy was successful.

Absolutism in Eastern Europe: The E. Europe empires were in decline: HRE, Poland, and Ottoman. They were huge in territory but weak in central authority. They had vast diversity. E. Europe generally had no middle class, fewer towns, and was much weaker. It was primarily agrarian, built on huge estates, and worked on by serfs. Poland: o It elected a king, so a candidate had to make deals to be popular. Consequently, he ended up with no power, no army, and no money. The nobility paid no taxes. o The diet could pass laws only with unanimous agreement (unlikely), and any member can shut it down. o Because of its weakness, Poland eventually disappeared off the map in the 1750-1800s because it was partitioned by Austria, Prussia, and Russia three times. o Poland ceased to exist til Napoleon reestablished it in 1800s as the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. As the old 3 empires declined, Austria, Prussia, and Russia gained power. Absolutism in Russia: o Ivan the Terrible autocrat who limited the power of the nobles (boyars), expanded Russia, and solidified the role of the tsar. o When he died, Russia fell into a Time of Troubles civil war due to the lack of an heir. The Romanov dynasty was established in 1613. They reinstituted serfdom and gained control over the Orthodox Church. o Peter the Great Built a powerful standing army and educated people in the Western ways. He imposed economic and social restrictions on the peasants to increase his power. Russia became a major European power during his rule. o Fought the Great Northern War (1709) against Sweden for his window to the West at St. Petersburg at the Baltic coastal areas. War ended by the Treaty of Nystadt. Absolutism in Austria: o Apart from the HRE, the Austrian Habsburgs had their own empire in Austria, made of Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary. It was loose and not unified. o A major problem was the vast array of ethnic groups (Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, etc.) o Charles VI of Austria became the Habsburg emperor. He had no male heirs, so he spent much of his reign making deals with other countries to sign the Pragmatic Sanction, by which they agreed to accept Maria Teresa as ruler of all Austrian land. Absolutism in Prussia: o Prussia was ruled by the Hohenzollern family, split into Brandenburg and Prussia. They were united under Brandenburg when the Prussian branch died. o The powerful Prussian landed aristocracy, the Junkers, accepted rule only if they had serfs. o The HRE was weak after the Thirty Years War, so the Hohenzollerns ascended in power. o Frederick William solidified absolutist rule over Brandenburg with a strong army and efficient govt. He weakened the nobles and suppressed the peasants. o His son Frederick used the War of Spanish Succession to gain more authority.

Age of Exploration (1400-1600) Spurred by God, glory, and gold; helped by the magnetic compass, the astrolabe, and better ships. Henry the Navigator Portuguese, explored the South Atlantic.

Diaz, Vasco de Gama Portuguese, explored the coast of Africa and eventually India. Columbus Spanish, discovered the New World Ferdinand Magellan Spanish, circumnavigated the globe Cortez (a conquistador) conquered the Aztecs ; Pizarro conquered the Incas Gold flowed from the New World to the Spanish and to the Netherlands. The Columbian Exchange brought European manufactured goods and alcohol to Africa and the Americas; brought lumber, fur, gold, sugar, potatoes, and corn to Europe. In 1545, large amounts of silver were discovered in the New World. Spain used this to finance the Counter-Reformation, but it also caused inflation in other places. The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1492 divided the world between Spain and Portugal. Spain got most of the New World while Portugal got Brazil and other areas. Large plantations called encomiendas were established, operating with Indian slave labor.

/the Dutch wars/ Englands Navigation Act in 1651 goods imported into England must be transported on English ships or ships belonging to the country sending the goods. This caused a war with the Dutch. The Dutch were again in a war with France in 1667 during the War of Spanish Succession because they didnt want Louis XIV to gain the Spanish Netherlands. The Dutch would then no longer be a power. The Spanish Netherlands went to Austria. The British gained the most form the War of Spanish Succession: o Power in the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar o They united with Scotland o The asiento (allowed them to provide African slaves to the Spanish Americas) France and Great Britain became the 2 powers in Europe.

The 18th Century: Expansion of Europe Food production increased dramatically with nitrogen-fixing plants and enclosure. This, more food from the New World and a disappearance of the plague led to a huge population growth. Mercantilism competition over colonies Seven Years War (Fr. vs. GB) o France lost its N. American colonies; the N. American colonies grew more independent. Mercantilism was discredited by Adam Smith.

The Scientific Revolution Caused by Renaissance individualism: the tendency to question and rebel against traditions. Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton used inductive reasoning and skepticism against the theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy. Rationalism human reason could uncover natural laws of the universe; Deism/secularism Thinkers were no longer swayed by superstition, miracles, or blind acceptance. Francis Bacon advocated inductive reasoning/scientific method. Rene Descartes Discourse on Method, if something is real, it must be proven. Existence is proven by thought I think, therefore I am. Cartesian Dualism the universe is divided between the spiritual and the material; the former is subject to deductive reasoning. Tried to reconcile religion and science. Copernicus rejected Ptolemys geocentric theory with his heliocentric theory. Kepler calculated the elliptical orbits of the planets ; Tycho Brache 20 yrs observation

Galileo used telescope to validate Copernicuss heliocentric theo ry; condemned by Inquisition because the heliocentric view contradicted the primacy of humanity in Gods creation. He was supported in Protestant N. Europe, where the Reformation had questioned all orthodoxy. Isaac Newton gravity accounted for the movement of planets. These universal laws were unchangeable so God was not actively participating. Development of probability and calculus; Leeuwenhoek - microscope Vesalius anatomy; Harvey blood circulation; Jenner smallpox vaccination was huge. Still, medicine was very crude. (no anesthesia, belief in superstition, no knowledge of germs) The Royal Society in England (1662) and the Royal Academy of Science in France (1666) were established. Women were generally excluded, but some female scientists worked on their own. Science benefited navigation/sailing, the military, and by the early 1700s the steam engine was beginning to be developed. Lockes tabula rasa humans are influence by what theyre taught. He rejected the Churchs idea of original sin. It was possible to make society better through education. The concept of natural law was developed some things were inherently right or wrong. Naturalism humans were at the mercy of chance. Marked the end of the Age of Religion and the beginning of 18th century Age of Reason.

The Enlightenment Newton convinced European thinkers that human reason could uncover the natural laws. The philosophes argued that society can be discovered in the same way and progress was inevitable. They flooded Europe with radically optimistic ideas about how people should live and govern. These ideas destroyed the old order and built the democratic, humanistic Western World. Lockes concepts of consent of the governed, the social contract, and the right of revolution spearheaded the philosophes criticism of the ancien regime. The Philosophes: o Voltaire personified the Age of Reason. He preached against injustice and bigotry and advocated human rights and science. He cried against rigid religion, govt abuse, and medievalism. He visited Frederick the Great of Prussia; advocated Deism. Not democratic. o Rousseau developed the idea of a noble savage: that civilization corrupted mankind and that nature was better. He hated the uneven class structure of the ancien regime. Individuals should tear away society and achieve self-determination, which fueled the Fr. Rev. He advocated the general will, that a consensus of the majority should rule a nation. He distrusted civilization; in his Emile, he wrote that children should be treated as individuals and with care. This helped change education & child-rearing practices of the 18th C. Montesquieu believed the powers of govt should be separated; checks and balances. Diderot published the philosophes ideas in his Encyclopedia, a collection of political and social critiques. Francois Quesnay led the physiocrats who embraced laissez-faire Adam Smith expanded the laissez-faire philosophy in his Wealth of Nations, which defined capitalism; the economy is controlled by the natural laws of supply and demand.

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Literacy greatly expanded. The middle class was growing and getting more educated. Salons. Free Masons began in England; promoted faith in progress and toleration.

Feminist ideas emerged for the first time. Women like Mary Wollstonecraft and Madame Geoffrin (salon) made it clear that women could do what men could mentally. Women graduated from many European universities for the first time, and intellectuals discussed the idea of female equality. Enlightenment values of natural/just laws made people reexamine gender roles. This also made people question how they treated slaves. England outlawed slavery in all their land, with France and Great Britain following suit. Religious intolerance was also reduced. In opposition, pietism developed; emphasized inner experience; emotion > reason. Faded. John Wesleys Great Awakening Strict religious revival; Methodists. Frederick II of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia were considered philosophes. Joseph of Austria was the ultimate philosophe.

Enlightened Despotism An enlightened despot tries to improve society with education, helping the economy, and promoting social justice. Voltaire and most of the philosophers believed self-govt was impossible, so enlightened despots stayed in power while promoting the good of their people. Enlightened Despotism held most sway in the East. Prussia o Frederick II (Frederick the Great) was the first servant of the state. He made Prussia a major power in Europe, supported Voltaire, improved education, codified laws, fostered industry, invited immigration, and extended religious toleration to all except Jews. o He improved agriculture by giving peasants tools and seeds. o He encouraged manufacturing in textiles and metals. He abolished serfdom on his own property but didnt for the country. o 2 years after Fredericks death, Napoleons army easily conquered Prussia. Austria o Maria Teresa inherited a weakened Hapsburg Dynasty, but she strengthened it by centralizing the govt, limiting the nobles, and promoting comm erce by limiting monopolies. o Joseph II furthered these reforms by guaranteeing freedom of the press and of religion, reforming the judicial system, equalizing taxation, making German the official language, and abolishing serfdom. o He promoted education and supported hospitals, which began Vien nas reputation as the center of medicine. o He tried to force his reforms on everyone which alienated many. The peasants disliked the lack of religion. Joseph died, and most of his reforms were repealed. o His successor, Leopold, ignored the pleas of his sister Marie Antoinette during the Rev. His son, Francis II, was not as smart and soon Austria was at war with France. Russia o Catherine tried to codify many of the laws. She tried to introduce some religious toleration and restriction of the use of torture, but this was ended by Pugachevs Rebellion in 1773.

The Agricultural Revolution In the 1700s in England, farmers began planting nitrogen-fixing crops. The introduction of the potato from N. America was extremely helpful as it could be stored through the winter. Fertilizer was used and there were better animal breeding practices. England and the Continent had common land, on which peasants could pick berries or graze their animals. England first enclosed this land by Parliamentary degree.

This allowed more land to be cultivated by the skilled farmers, and landless peasants now had to work as laborers on the large farmers, work at home in the cottage system, or move to cities. This thus developed the workforce needed for factory jobs in the Industrial Revolution. Also, England produced better so they had a surplus, meaning more money to be invested in manufacturing. On the Continent, most farming was subsistence. In the East, the serfs didnt own their land so they were less incentivized to increase production.

Mid-18th Century Wars In the 18th century, soldiers were sometimes mercenaries and had little patriotism except in Eng. Frederick II became King of Prussia in 1740. Despite the Pragmatic Sanction, he invaded Silesia, the most prosperous part of the Austrian empire. Plus it would double Prussias population. Other countries also disregarded the Pragmatic Sanction and joined Prussia. Only the Dutch and English supported Austria. After bloody battles, Maria Teresa gave Silesia to Prussia by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle. Still, Austria was wary of Prussias growing power and still wanted Silesia back. 8 years later, in 1756, another war began. All nations switched sides. France and England fought each other in America, called the French and Indian War. GB won. The successful American Revolution made people believe enlightenment values were possible. Furthermore, the French supported the Americans, but the French were already almost bankrupt.

Change of the Family: Most people did not marry young in the 1600s or 1700s; an average age of 27 or later, mostly because couples couldnt marry until they could support themselves financially. The peasant son needed to inherit land while the peasant daughter had to accumulate a dowry. For women, service in the household was the most common job. Daughters were often sent to be a servant for a few years. They had little independence and were preyed on by masters. During the 1700s-1800s, there was an explosion of illegitimate children. Women married late but began bearing children rapidly, like 6+ children. Infant mortality was high. Many children never learned to read. Young children were of little concern to parents in the 1700s, especially since they might die. Medical care was not used on them. They were neglected and even abused with changing attitudes. This practice came under criticism in 1750-, led by Rousseaus Emile. Children were given more freedom. Parents loved their children. Came from enlightenment ideals about human potential. Education also grew more important. Schools separated by age. Catholic vs. Protestant promoted popular literacy by pushing reading as a form of teaching more efficiently. There was a remarkable growth in literacy.

The French Revolution In 1789, France had a productive economy and a dominant culture. It was the center of the Enlightenment. But the govt was corrupt, inefficient, and in debt. The class structure was unjust. With Louis XV, the nobility begin gaining a lot of power. Through parlements, they often blocked taxes. Taxation was also a broken system. The 3rd Estate, mainly the peasants, had many harsh taxes, like the taille (land tax), tithe, income tax, poll tax, head tax, salt tax, etc. The 1st and 2nd were tax-exempt.

There wasnt serfdom, but the noble of a manor had much control. They had the right of eminent property; lesser owners could buy and sell land but had to pay the noble to do so. The growing bourgeoisie also had little power. They became dissatisfied. They had land, so they were affected by the heavy land taxes, but were upset that they had hardly any influence in this system. *The Revolution was so bourgeois could revolutionize property so that manorial fees, eminent property rights, and church tithes would be abolished.* The Revolution defined the institution of private property and therefore most benefited the bourgeoisie. Louis 16ths finance managers wanted to put an equal land tax (instead of the taille) on the nobility and churches. However, this threatened the social hierarchy. The Parlement of Paris declared that new taxes can only be approved by the Estates General. Louis 16th then called the Estates General. Many people cried for the abolishment of the Estate system because it was unfair. However, the Parlement ruled that the system would stay. The nobles were okay with the taxes, but they wanted power in return. The 3 rd Estate did not want to be governed by nobles. They wanted Enlightened/American Revolutionary rule. Abbe Sieyes wrote What is the Third Estate? promoting Third Estate rights. The Estates submitted a grievance list, called cahiers, which showed a desire for a constitutional monarchy. People wanted freedom, better economic conditions, and free trade. When the Estates General met, the 3rd Estate stormed out and declared itself the National Assembly. They wrote the Tennis Court Oath by which they swore to make a constitution. At this time economic conditions were very bad. Wheat production was down. People were stealing and mobbing. A mob in Paris stormed the Bastille to get weapons to defend themselves. Louis XVI accepted the National Assembly. The National Assembly abolished feudalism, manorialism, eminent property, and tax privileges. They wrote the Declaration of Rights of Man in 1789, which stated: o Rule of law, equal citizenship, and sovereignty of the people o Freedom of thought and religion. o No one can be arrested except by process of law o Equality of law for all citizens. o Taxes could be raised only with common consent. o The state could confiscate property, but only with fair compensation. o The separation of govt power into branches The Great Fear spread through rural areas as peasants rose up against the nobility & feudalism. The Womens March on Versailles forced the king to live in Tuileries in Paris. The National Assembly also moved there, where it was influenced by radicalism. Seeing this happen, even the more conservative revolutionaries emigrated. The Chapelier Law banned unions and strikes. The Jacobin club formed. There was a fee to join so most members were bourgeoisie. The National Assembly created an elected Legislative Assembly and gave the king executive power. The govt decentralized the country in reaction to the old regime. The royal family tried to flee in the Flight to Varennes and raise a counterrevolutionary army. They were stopped and made prisoners. Louis was forced to accept a constitutional monarchy. A new French identity was born, with a new flag, clothing, monuments, and art. Economic policies favored the middle rather than the lower classes. Frances debt was mostly owed to the bourgeois. To pay it and fund the govt, the Assembly took away all church properties. To maintain the churches after taking away its income, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was enacted, which abolished convents and monasteries, made all clergymen get salary from the

state, and forbade the clergy from obeying the pope. This alienated many priests. The Pope condemned the revolution. French priests split over this issue. The new regime took power in 1791 as a constitutional monarchy with a unicameral Legislative Assembly. Poland, Hungarian landlords, and Belgium praised the revolution or even rebelled themselves. Conservative Edmund Burke condemned it in his Reflections on the Revolution in France. Swedish king Gustavus III and Catherine the Great also condemned it. migrs called for a war against France. Leopold of Austria (Marie Antoinettes brother) and the King of Prussia and made a Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which said that if Leopold took military steps to restore order in France, all other powers would join him. This was mainly done so Leopold could rid himself of the migrs. It was an empty threat, but the French took it seriously. This gave an advantage to the Girondins who declared that the Revolution couldnt be secure in France unless it was spread. They encouraged war. The Assembly declared war on Austria. Prussia joined Austria and made the Brunswick Manifesto, which said that if the king and queen of France were harmed at all, Prussia would attack. A wave of patriotism swept the country La Marseillaise Jacobin leaders like Danton, Marat, and Robespierre turned against the king because he was associated with the countries that were fighting France. The working class of Paris imprisoned the king. hysteria and terror took place in Paris. They executed counterrevolutionaries in the September Massacres. A revolutionary govt was set up. It ended the constitutional monarchy and Legislative assembly and set up a Constitutional Convention. France was proclaimed a republic, the first.

The Terror The National Conventions army stopped the Prussian advance. The French soon occupied the Austrian Netherlands, angering the British and the Dutch. The two began working with Prussia and Austria, and the French declared war on them all. The French annexed Belgium and much of the German Rhineland. Meanwhile, Russia and Prussia took the 2nd Partition, excluding Austria, making them anxious. Britain and Holland had no land force, and Austria was now jealous of Prussia, so the Coalition didnt really exert force against France. The Jacobins split and a new group emerged, the radical Mountain. They worked outside of the Convention and called themselves the sans-culottes, representing workmen. The Convention voted to execute Louis XVI. The ones who voted against it were the Girondins, the counterrevolutionaries. The Mountain now led the way. The Coalition pushed France out of Belgium and threatened to invade. In France, prices rose, currency fell, food became rarer, and the working class grew restless. The enrags (radical working-class leaders of Paris) arrested Girondins in the National Convention. Robespierre became the leader of the Convention. Robespierre created the Committee of Public Safety and launched the Reign of Terror. It was a political police that attacked counterrevolutionaries. It passed the levee en masse, calling all people to rally for France. The Committee of Public Safety proclaimed the Republic of Virtue, which was an attempt to de-Christianize France. It alienated the Catholic majority of France. In June 1794, the French set up a republic in Belgium.

Both Danton and Robespierre were executed by the National Convention when public opinion turned against them.

The Thermidorian Reaction The Terror subsided. The Convention reduced the Committee of Public Safety and closed the Jacobin club. Price regulations were removed and the working class suffered. The poor felt betrayed. The bourgeois were triumphant. They were still determined to establish a constitutional govt.

The Directory Men could vote for electors, who then chose members of the new bicameral legislature. The National Assembly chose the executive branch, called the Directory. When a Paris mob tried threatened it, Napoleon Bonaparte put down the riot and was rewarded the command of the French armies fighting the Austrians in Italy.

Women played a major role in the Revolution with the Womens March on Versailles. Women started to participate in political clubs and womens rights became a topic of discussion. Condorcet promoted womens rights. His ideas were supported by Mary Wollstonecraft. ; Olympe de Gouges The National Assembly had declared marriage a civil contract and legalized divorce. Women received the right of equal inheritance of property. The Assembly also restricted womens rights of petition and closed all womens political clubs. /results/ Feudalism and privileges of the nobles were completely gone. The Church lost much power.

Napoleon Bonaparte In Italy, Napoleon drove out the Austrians and set up the Cisalpine Republic. France was supposed to have elections in 1797, but the candidates were all royalists who favored a return of Louis XVIs brother and wanted peace with Austria and England. The Directory turned to Napoleon, who sent military protection and cancelled the elections. France signed the Treaty of Campo Formio with Austria, keeping both Belgium and Italy. The Directory repudiated the assignats and govt debt, creating more financial chaos. Napoleon returned from Italy and invaded the British through Egypt. He was defeated, but Napoleon still went back to France and with the help of Sieyes, seized control. Called the coup of Brumaire, Napoleon became First Consul. Things he did: o Created peace, but installed a secret police and censorship. Increased propaganda. o Signed a Concordat with the papacy, acknowledging France as Catholic. o The Concordat made the pope give up seized church lands, so the French peasants that received those lands were now loyal to the govt. o Kept the metric system, awarded people based on ability, & no more tax exemptions. o Established the Napoleonic Code, declaring people equal in the law; freedom of religion o Took away all the gains that women got during the Rev; no more property rights.


Lowered the taxes on farmers, gave them church land. This created an independent peasantry that would be the backbone of French democracy. The great artist Jacques Louis David painted Napoleon Crossing the Alps, and more. o

He reinstated slavery in the French colonies (Haiti) and gave up Louisiana. Napoleon lost to England in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805). He won against Austria and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz (1805). He dissolved the HRE and created the Confederation of the Rhine after defeating Aus; Prus o At first, the Germans welcomed the efficiency and unity. Alexander of Russia took back his armies, leaving Prussia alone to face Napoleon. Prussia suffered a huge defeat at the Battles of Jena and Auerstadt. Napoleon created Poland as the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. He signed the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) a nonaggression pact, with Russia. In the Treaty of Pressburg, he allied with Austria. Continental System: o Napoleon was left without a navy, since it was destroyed at Trafalgar. He could not invade England, so he tried to destroy it economically Berlin Decrees. o This required that all French allies boycott British goods. In Spain, Napoleon tried to put his brother Joseph on the throne. This resulted in the Peninsular War. This was a drain on France. Everywhere Napoleon conquered, he gave them: the metric system, abolition of the manorial system, restriction of religious authority, end to internal tariffs, and more efficient taxation. But as time passed, France was increasingly resented as nationalism grew, especially in the German states. Alexander objected to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and dropped out of the Continental System. Napoleon, furious, invaded Russia. He lost terribly at the Battle of Borodino. Napoleon rushed back and formed another army. Prussia and Russia allied and the British supported them. They defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig (1813). Napoleon abdicated, and was exiled to Elba. Louis XVIII was put back as a constitutional monarch. All conquered lands were given up. But everything else (Code Napoleon, concordat, abolition of feudalism) was kept. Napoleon came back from Elba, raised a new army, but was finally defeated at Waterloo by the Duke of Wellington.

The Congress of Vienna Metternich (Austria), Castlereagh (England), Alexander I (Russia), Prince Hardenberg (Prussia), and Talleyrand (France). The rule of legitimacy returning the rightful rulers back on their thrones. The *balance of power*, and peace. The Peace Settlement: o France was surrounded by strong states to keep them from expanding: o Newly united Holland and Belgium called the Kingdom of the Netherlands o A Prussian satellite area on the Rhine o Austrian buffer states in Northern Italy o Poland was created as Congress Poland (Alexander was actually king) o (The HRE was not reestablished)

The Concert of Europe (Quadruple Alliance) was signed by Russia, Prussia, Austria, and England on March 1814, Alexander created the Holy Alliance, signed by Austria and Prussia; not England. Conservative. Its aim was to keep the status quo established by the Congress of Vienna, upholding territorial boundaries, and protecting the monarchies from things like republicanism. Created a long-lasting balance of power.

Commercial Revolution The inflation from silver from the New World created an inflation-stimulated production, because craftsmen, merchants, and manufacturers could get good prices for their products. The middle class acquired much wealth by trading and manufacturing, increasing their power. Peasant farmers benefited when they had a surplus of goods cash crops. The nobility suffered a diminishing standard of living in an inflationary economy.

Capitalism and Mercantilism: Capital was money for investment. The bourgeoisie, with more money than needed, used money to invest. This created prosperity, advanced science and technology, and supported the growth of the nation-state. Mercantilism: o Prevailed in the 17th century because it was a way for monarchs to consolidate their authority. o Favorable balance of trade o Colonies supply raw materials to the mother country o Important industries were subsidized by the state o The goal: economic self-sufficiency Overseas colonization (Old Imperialism) was encouraged by mercantilism. 16th century power: Spain, Portugal. 17th century power: Dutch, French, English. The English had the most powerful colonial empire because many of English citizens were willing to settle in the colonies and because many of them became powerful independent states.

The Industrial Revolution (1780-1830) Machines, powered from coal/fossil fuels now did work rather than muscles, water, or wind.

England: Agricultural revolution increased yields dramatically. Enclosure Movement: o Large landowners grew rich. They invested in technology (machines, breeding, better planting). Production soared. o More production more people more cities. o Small farmers moved to cities and became factory workers (industrial proletariat). Technology: o Large-scale production in coal and textiles. o England had a fuel crisis because it depleted its forests and had no more wood. They had coal, but it was bad for the environment. o The steam engine (Newcomen...Watt) was used and was much more efficient. Textiles. o Flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water frame, power loom, steam engine, steamship, railroad engine, etc.

Results of the Industrial Revolution: Increased production and more manufactured goods material prosperity; more jobs. Factory workers lived in poverty in tenements with long hours and little wages. The Saddler Commission and Robert Peels Factory Act helped improve conditions.

Effects on Class and Gender: 2 new classes developed: capitalists and factory workers. It wasnt until the 1850s that the standard of living improves for the average worker. Child labor laws were enacted. A gender divide emerged: men became the breadwinners; women stayed at home. Jobs available to women were low-pay. Attempts of workers to organize were thwarted. Jeremy Bentham utilitarianism caused cities to initiate public health movements and improve urban life. The standard of living improved from 1850s-1920s. Disparities between classes led to political radicalism. The lesser opportunities for women led to a womens rights movement: the first wave feminism, which wanted equality in opportunity, legal rights, and voting.

Economic Theories: Adam Smith first economic theorist; classical liberalism; laissez-faire Thomas Malthus poverty existed b/c population increases exponentially; food, arithmetically. David Ricardo iron law of wages; when wages are high, families grow, more workers, wages go back down, starvation. Thus, keep wages at a subsistence level. Robert Owen Utopian socialist; humane working conditions, shorter hours, free education, etc. St. Simon Utopian socialist; advocated public ownership of property, planned economy.

Theories of Marx: Hegelian dialectic thesis antithesis synthesis thesis, and so on. Dialectical materialism history progresses from agrarian communalism, to slaveholding, to feudalism, to commercialism, to capitalism, to socialism, and finally Communism (a class-less society in which workers own the means of production) Inevitable Revolution when capitalists keep lowering wages to gain profits that the proletariat cant afford to buy products (surplus-value theory). The proletariat will rebel and will establish a dictatorship of the proletariat.

1859 Darwins Origin of Species evolution; Nobel- dynamite; Morse telegraph. Reforms: The early 1800s brought some reforms, many of them initiated by the Tories. (The Whigs worked more for electoral reform. Prime Minister Robert Peel preferred free trade. He ended the Navigation Acts and tariffs. Catholics received equal civil rights. Parliament reduced the number of crimes punishable by death and established professional police forces (Bobbies). In 1833, Parliament abolished slavery.

In 1842, by the Mines Act, women, girls, and boys under 10 were forbidden to work in mines. In 1847, the Ten Hours Act limited workers to 10-hr shifts. The Poor Laws tried to put all citizens to work, making relief more horrible than working. The poorhouses established were horrendous.

Industrialism of the Continent: Belgium becomes independent in 1831 and industrialized massively. It had a lot of coal. France, though more prosperous, industrialized more slowly. It had less coal for iron. The Chapelier Laws forbidding unions remained in place until 1846. In Germany, industry slowly emerged, especially in the Ruhr Basin, which was rich in coal and iron ore. The Zollverein of Friedrich List produced a free-trade union. In E. and S. Europe, (Spain, S. Italy, Russia), there was little development.

The Growth of Democracy Democracy in England: After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, Parliament represented the wealthy aristocrats. The Corn Laws of 1815 raised prices when Europe was war-torn because the importation of foreign grain was prohibited, helping the landowners who ran Parliament. This led to the Peterloo Massacres. The govt responded by passing the Six Acts; censorship, restricted rights, higher taxes. Corn Laws were repealed in 1846 by Tory PM Robert Peel in response to the Irish potato famine. By the 1820s, though, the Tories reformed by restructuring the penal code, providing a modern police force, allowing labor unions, and granting Catholics rights. By 1830, many boroughs that no longer existed still had representation, while new growing industrial towns did not have any. The Great Reform Bill (1832) abolished the rotten boroughs and empowered the industrial middle class. The Chartist Movement wanted universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, one man, one vote, and public education. It failed in its time but its goals wer e eventually incorporated. In 1848, on the Continent, the working class exploded with discontent, but in England, the proletariat was able to trust the govts to make gradual reforms. In 1866, Whig PM William Gladstone tried to expand the voting base but failed. A new govt under Tory PM Benjamin Disraeli enacted the Second Reform Bill (1867), which doubled the size of the eligible voters, many of whom were industrial workers. Gladstone returned to power and enacted sweeping reforms. o Legalized labor unions, secret ballot, free public education. o Third Reform Bill (1885) largely granted universal manhood suffrage. In the 10 years before WWI, Britain laid the foundations for its welfare state. o Unions could strike. o Insurance was given to those injured on the job, unemployment insurance, old-age pension o Compulsory school attendance law.

Democracy in France: During the Age of Metternich (period of reaction after Congress of Vienna 1815 until the 1848 Revolutions), France was ruled by Bourbon reactionaries who loosened the constitution.

Louis XVIII had a constitution but only gave power to landowners and bourgeois. Absolutism showed with his successor, Charles X, who passed the July Ordinances (censorship, less freedom, less voting) which led to rioting in 1830. Charles X abdicated. His successor, Louis Phillippe, became the bourgeois king by agreeing to the Constitution of 1814. He empowered the bourgeois but not the proletariat. Corruption in his rule led to protests. He abdicated in Feb. 1848. A republic was proclaimed; violence occurred. A Legislative Assembly with a strong president was estd, both to be elected by universal male suffrage. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became president of the Second Republic. He was dedicated to law and order, eradication of socialism, and interests of the conservative classes (property owners, Church, business). With plotting, he won the next election and in 1852 proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III of the Second French Empire. This was an autocracy. He improved highways, canals, railroads, and subsidized industries. The bourgeois was grateful for the general prosperity; the proletariat for employment & legal unions. During the Liberal Empire (1860-1870), he eased censorship. But the Crimean War (1853), in which the French and English fought to prevent Russia from taking the Black Sea, was very costly. The Franco-Prussian War was a disaster to the French and Napoleon III. The French defeat in this war ended the Second Empire and began the Third Republic. Controlled by monarchists and bourgeois, the National Assembly brutally suppressed a radical socialist counter-government, the Paris Commune. In 1875, the Assembly set up a Chamber of Deputies, elected by universal male suffrage, a Senate, which was indirectly elected, a weak president, and a premier. From the establishment of the 3rd Republic (1871) - WWI, the French govt fell dozens of times. The govt was unstable because there were too many political parties in a multiparty system. None could win a clear majority and they fell apart during crises. The Dreyfus Affair a Jewish Army captain was falsely accused of spying by anti-republican conservatives. This deepened the political split and paralyzed the govt. But, by WWI, France had universal male suffrage and a social welfare system like Britains. GB & Fr. had by 1900s become 2/3 of the worlds most powerful democracies. The old liberalism of laissez-faire was replaced by a new liberalism that supported suffrage & improving conditions.

The Suppression of Democracy Germany through the Age of Metternich (1815-1848): The Congress of Vienna had set up a Germanic Confederation of independent German states. Radical student organizations, Burschenschafts, wanted to create a unified Germany governed by a constitution. In 1819, Metternich issued the Carlsbad Decrees, trying to suppress liberalism and nationalism in the press and universities. He had a secret state police and censored speech. The Prussian king Frederick William IV reacted to the 1848 revolutions by calling a legislative assembly. He granted a constitution elected by universal male suffrage but ruled by the wealthy. The Frankfurt Assembly tried unification, but only Bismarcks war could accomplish it. Resulted in the end of serfdom in Prussia.

Austria from the Age of Metternich to WWI (1815-1914) Russia: Alexander I modernized the govt and gave more rights to Jews. But Napoleons invasion caused him to reverse this, start censorship, and force adherence to the Russian Orthodox Church. When Alexander died, the Decembrist Revolt (1825) started. Nicholas I crushed the revolt and gained power. Created a secret police. Failed in Crimean War. Alexander II ended serfdom. This caused a huge explosion of ideas. Populists thought Alexander wasnt going far enough and killed him. In Austria, the ethnic mix (Germans, Hungarians, Slavs, Czechs, Italians, Serbs, Croats, etc.) brought a revolution in 1848. After a rebellion in Paris, Louis Kossuth, a Hungarian nationalist, aroused separatist sentiment. Riots broke out in Vienna. Metternich fled. The Hungarians, Czechs, and N. Italian provinces declared independence. The empire collapsed. But later, the Hapsburgs regained power. Franz Joseph became emperor. Conservative forces in the govt centralized power and suppressed all opposition. The Revolutions of 1848 failed in Austria because the empires ethnic minorities disagreed amongst themselves instead of making a united front against the empire. Austrias defeat in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) led to some reform. The Compromise of 1867 set up a constitutional govt with some voting, grant ed the Hungarians internal autonomy, and created a dual monarchy, the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Pan-Slavic movement emerged when the govt excluded their voice.

The Isms Conservatism: The Congress of Vienna (Holy Alliance, Concert of Europe) Troppau Protocol Austria, Prussia, Russia. Collective action against liberalism/rebellions. Congress System: o Congress of Verona A Greek uprising under Ypsilanti had arose, Metternich feared a Greek independence because Russia would have influence there. Alexander agreed not to support Ypsilanti, the Greek uprising was suppressed. The French asked for authorization to send armies into Spain to stop an uprising. They agreed. The revolution was quelled. The Congress system failed; the British no longer cooperated with Continental powers after 1818.

Liberalism: Liberalism was the product of the Enlightenment. Believed in constitutions, representative govt, freedom of expression, human rights, rights of religion, and equality before the law. English liberals favored constitutional monarchy; on the Continent, they wanted written constitutions. They were not democrats. They didnt trust democracy and at first did not favor universal male suffrage. They were strongly opposed to revolution. Economic liberals preferred laissez-faire and disapproved of tariffs. Liberals were secular. They dislike the Church and war. They trusted science and education. England- Reform Bills, Chartist Movement

Nationalism Greece: o After Ypsilantis failure, Western writers supported the Greeks, like Percy Shelley and Lord Byron. o The Turks killed many Greeks, a scene captured by French Romantic painter Delacroix. The Turks then executed the Christian leader of Constantinople. o Eventually, England fought for an independent Greece and persuaded France and Russia to join. In 1827, they signed the Treaty of London, which threatened Turkey unless it gave the Greeks freedom. o The Turks rejected this, so the allies sent a naval force which destroyed the Turks. The Greeks won independence in 1832. Belgium: o The Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic were now united. It was a constitutional monarchy ruled by the House of Orange. o Economically, this was very successful. Belgium was industry; Dutch was agriculture/trade. o Politically, this was not successful. The Dutch king was an absolutist while the Belgians were used to freedom. o The Belgians were Catholic; the Dutch were Calvinist. Belgians didnt want to speak Dutch. o Belgium asked for self-govt. The Dutch refused and fought, but later withdrew. Belgium then proclaimed its independence. o Nicholas I strongly opposed this, but in 1831, Poland declared independence from Russia and Nicholas invaded, quashing the revolution. o France and England conferred and agreed to set up Belgium as perpetually neutral. Thus, Belgium was an independent constitutional monarchy. Germany o J.G. Herder in 1784 praised the volksgeist, a spirit of the common people. It stressed differences among people and cultures. Germans resisted the view that universal rules applied. o J.G. Fichte declared the German volksgeist was superior to other cultures. o Grimm brothers traveled around Germany, studying different cultures and dialects. o Hegel argued the Enlightenment idea of universal, unchanging rules. He said that all history comes from series of changes; the dialectic. o Friedrich List nationalist economics. Unified Germany economically. Zollverein. o German unification was barred because each state valued its independence and didnt want to sacrifice power, especially Austria and Prussia (especially the Junkers of Prussia) o The Frankfurt Assembly created the Declaration of the Rights of the German People, which emphasized rights not for all men, but just Germans. o The Assembly also asked for unification under Prussia, but Frederick William didnt want a constitutional monarchy or to fight Austria. Plus, the Junkers didnt want it, and Frederick William was mostly supported by the Junkers. Unification failed. Italy o Carbonari; Giuseppe Mazzini; Young Italy

Romanticism Gothics mysterious, supernatural; Mary Shelley, Emily Bronte. Writers Victor Hugo, Pushkin, George Sand, poets, etc. Art/Music action/emotion. Delacroix (Liberty Leading the People July Rev 1830), Beethoven.

Realism literary movement replacing romanticism; belief that human nature is formed by heredity and the environment instead of free will. o Emile Zola, George Eliot, Tolstoy o Focused on the here and now; factories, cities, slums. Impressionism - the artist captures the image of an object as someone would see it if they just caught a glimpse of it. Bright colors but little detail. Manet, Monet, Pissaro, Degas, Renoir. Positivism if science says its true, its true. Led to sociology. Pure science developed finding out how things worked. o Louis Pasteur preserving food and improving medical procedures o Chemistry; medicine, dyes. Electricity; transportation and lighting. o Charles Darwin evolution. Friedrich Nietzsche German philosopher; unconsciousness is the best state. People need to care more about glory than about compassion. Herbert Spencer social Darwinism Italian Unification The separate states: o The Kingdom of Naples (Two Sicilies) o The Papal States o Lombardy-Venetia, ruled by Austria. o The Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont Sardinia was ruled by Victor Emmanuel II, and it was the only independent state in Italy. In 1854, Cavour became PM during the Revolutions of 1848. He rejected the romantic nationalism of Giuseppe Mazzini and thought that Italy could only be united through war. He weakened the influence of the papacy, invested in railroads and improvements, abolished internal tariffs, encouraging industry, ending manorialism, and instituting constitutionalism. During the Crimean War of 1856, Cavour joined France, Britain, and Austria against Russia so that they might help with Italian unification. He signed the Treaty of Plombieres in 1858, asking Napoleon III to aid Italy in case of a war with Austria. France was promised Nice & Savoy if they helped Sardinia annex N. Italy. Austria declares war after French troops go into Sardinia. Napoleon suddenly pulled out of the war, but Sardinia won Lombardy. Austria kept Venetia. Giuseppe Garibaldi invaded Sicily in 1860 when encouraged by Cavour. His Red Shirts won. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies joined Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Italy was pronounced. In the Austro-Prussian War, Sardinia attacks Austria. When Austria is defeated, Venetia is given to Italy. Sardinia wins Rome when French troops had to leave there during the Franco-Prussian War. There was still the irredenta.

German Unification During this time, German wealth, population, and productivity soared. Bismarck, a conservative Junker, trampled the Parliament and killed democracy in Prussia. The Zollverein had opened the states to trade, and Germany became a single economic unit. Prussia had a booming industry and powerful army. It led the N. German states against Austria. The Erfurt Union proposed that Prussia leads unification without Austria. Bismarck pushes the Treaty of Olmutz, where Prussia refused the Erfurt Union to protect Germany from Fr., Aust.

The Poles rebel in 1848. Many Poles enter Prussia. Bismarck lets Nicholas I enter Prussia to keep Russia on their good side. In the Crimean War, Bismarck declares neutrality. Bismarck allies Prussia with Austria against Denmark in 1864, hoping to get Schleswig and Holstein. Denmark quickly loses. Prussia gets Schleswig; Austria gets Holstein. Holstein is near Prussia so there is unrest in Holstein. Prussia declares war on Austria in the Austro-Prussian War (1866). Prussia wins, but keeps the peace treaty lenient to avoid alienating Austria. Bismarck established the North German Confederation ruled by the Prussian king to replace the German Confederation (loose union set up by Napoleon and affirmed by Congress of

The Queen of Spain is exiled. Bismarck offends France by trying to put a Prussian on the throne. Ems Dispatch (1870) insults Napoleon III, French get mad, declare war. Prussia wins within weeks. The Napoleon III is taken prisoner. The Treaty of Frankfurt (1871): o France must pay indemnities o France must give Germany Alsace-Lorraine o German armies will stay until the indemnities are paid o France has to recognize the Second Reich, a united Germany. There was the elected Reichstag, but Bismarck kept autocracy. He tried to undermine the socialist party by sponsoring social reforms workmens compensation, old-age pensions, and medical protection. This created one of the worlds most advanced social welfare systems.

The Changing Family The family stabilized. The home became more important for both men and women. The role of women and attitudes toward children went through change, and adolescence became a distinct stage in life. Premarital Sex and Marriage: o By 1850 the pattern of lengthy courtship and mercenary marriage was dead among the working classes. Couples were likely to come from different towns and to be the same age, thus showing romantic sentiment was replacing financial considerations. o Economic considerations were more important to the middle class than the working class. Dowries and contracts were very common. This preoccupation with money led many middle-class men to marry late and choose a young wife. o After marriage, middle-class morality demanded fidelity. Gender Roles and Family Life: o After 1850, womens work became more different from mens work. Husbands worked in factories or offices; women stayed at home. o The system before industrialization where men and women divided up all tasks declined. o Factory employment for women declined. Most men expected married women to work outside the home only in poor families. o This rigid gender division made married women face great injustice when they needed/wanted a job outside of the home. Womens wages were always less than mens. o Married women were also subordinate to their husbands and lacked basic rights. A wife had no legal identity and hence no right to own property. Even wages belonged to her husband.

Following women like Mary Wollstonecraft, many women fought for equal legal rights, higher education, and professional jobs. o In 1882, English married women could have full property rights. But progress was always slow and hard won. o In the years before 1914, middle-class feminists increasingly fought for political rights/vote. o In a different path, working-class feminists argued that the liberation of women could come only with the liberation of the entire working force, inspired by Marx and socialism. o But also, since women stayed at home, her influence grew stronger. Many times she managed the funds and wages of her husband. She controlled her childrens instruction. o Working at home was a full-time job for women; many did not wish for one outside it. o Married couples also developed stronger emotional ties for each other. Marriages were based, even in the upper-classes, on attraction than earlier. Child Rearing: o One sign of the deeper emotional ties was the growing love that mothers gave to their infants in the 1700s and 1800s. Fewer illegitimate children were abandoned. o There was also a greater concern for older children/adolescents. Women began to have less children to care more for the ones they had. o Furthermore, the rigid gender roles made people believe that father-child relationships were more difficult. o

Imperialism (1870-1914) Old imperialism didnt set up overseas territories as much as they set up trading stations. They respected and cooperated with local rulers in India, China, Japan, Indonesia, etc. New imperialism colonized Asia and Africa with military force to control local govts, exploit local economies, and imposing Western values. Areas were carved up into economic spheres of influence. Causes of Imperialism: 1. Raw materials and markets 2. Missionaries (from a burst of religious revival in the 1850s) 3. Military/naval bases (competition developed to acquire colonies in order to maintain the balance of power) 4. Ideology the white mans burden. Africa: o British Egypt (Suez Canal), helped Egypt take control of the Sudan o France Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco o Italy Libya o South Africa was terra incognita until the 1870s, when Belgian, German, and French explorers began to lay claims. Belgium ruled the Congo brutally, with cruel masters, whips, and threats. o The Berlin Conference (1885) set up rules to partition the entire country. Asia China, Indochina, Korea, India, etc.

The End of Colonialism Before WWI, basically the entire non-Western world was controlled by the Western powers. Colonialism, the control of overseas colonies, was shaken by WWI and collapsed in the decades after WWII. Long term causes include:

Westernized education systems that preached democracy and awakened nationalism in the colonies. o The concept of self-determination created by the Allies after WWI. o The ideals of the Russian Revolution and the anti-imperialism of Communism o The decline of Europe after WWII o The example of Japans resistance to Western domination The British Empire: o India attained independence in 1948 by the nonviolence of Mahatma Gandhi, but there was violence between the Hindu and Muslims. India was split into India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim). o When the former British territory, Palestine, was created as a Jewish State by the UN in 1948, rivalries between Jews and Arabs arose. o Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, a vital waterway for British trade, which caused a war in 1956 between Egypt and Britain, France, and Israel. Area is still unstable today. The Dutch Empire: o In WWII, Japan drove out the Dutch from the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). The Dutch tried to reconquer Indonesia, but Indonesia fought back and gained independence in 1954. The French Empire: o After WWII, the French in Indochina (Vietnam) also tried to take back territory from the Japanese, but after a costly war, Communist Ho Chi Minh won independence. o The Geneva Accords recognized the independence of Indochina and partitioned Vietnam into a north and south. This partitioning broke down in civil war between the Communist north and the Western-led south. o In N. Africa, Morocco and Tunisia were granted independence in 1956, but Algeria, considered to be very important to the French, was not. The bitter French-Algerian War led to independence and heavily drained the French. African Independence o In sub-Saharan Africa, independence came in the 1950s-1960s. o The former British colonies were best prepared for self-rule since the British had gradually transferred more power to locals. Impact of Imperialism: o The collapse of the colonial empires was one of the modern worlds most revolutionary and sudden events. Within 20 yrs. after WWII, the European colonies disappeared. o Still, most of the newly independent states dont have full freedom or democratic rule. They often started out with democracies but poverty, ethnic conflicts, and inexperience often led to military dictatorships or one-party rule. o

The Four MAIN Causes of WWI: 1. Militarism: o European states saw that big military was necessary for survival. They kept huge armies in times of peace. o A naval and regular arms race emerged between Britain and Germany. 2. Alliances: o No one declared war because they knew the alliances would make it too costly. 1. Dual Alliance Bismarck allies Germany with Austria-Hungary. 2. Three Emperors Alliance Bismarck asks Russia to join the Dual Alliance. This Alliance defended the 3 from Ottomans and France.

3. Triple Alliance Bismarck allied with Austria and Italy. They were known as the Central Powers during WWI. Italy switched sides in 1915. 4. Reinsurance Treaty Russia didnt renew the Three Emperors Alliance, so Bismarck proposed this treaty. Kaiser Wilhelm II didnt like this so he refused it. o As a result, Russia allied with France in the Franco-Russian Alliance. o England and Japan were firmly allied in the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. o After the Boer War, other countries felt threatened by British expansion and wanted to create an alliance against Britain. England wanted to prevent this. o England and France were thus loosely allied in the Entente Cordiale. (Splendid Isolation). o At the Algeciras Conference, Germany tried to lure France against Britain, but it failed. Britain and France came closer together; other countries turned hostile towards Germany. o Russia, recently defeated by Japan, allied with Britain. o This created the Triple Entente with France, Britain, and Russia. They were called the Allied powers in WWI. 3. Imperialism o The Kruger Telegram in 1902 made the British angry at the Germans for supporting the Boers against the British. o The Moroccan Crisis of 1911 made the French angry at the Germans for supporting Morocco against the French. Britain supported France and Germany backed down. 4. Nationalism o Wilhelm II of Germany was building his navy to build up Germanys influence. T his forced Britain to do the same. Germany wanted a victory to give it a spot in the sun. This challenged Britain and raised anxiety in France. o In the First Balkan Crisis, Bosnia and Herzegovina rebelled against Ottoman rule, so Serbia declared war on the Ottomans. Russia, needing to support the Balkans to keep hegemony, also declared war on the Ottomans. Britain supported the Ottomans. Turkey lost so Greece and Bulgaria took Macedonia. o This led to the Second Balkan Crisis where Serbia fought Bulgaria for territory. Russia supported Serbia, Austria-Hungary supported Bulgaria, and Germany supported Austria. This pressure ended the Three Emperors Alliance. o In the Third Balkan Crisis, Italy fought the Ottoman Empire over land. o Serbs were enraged at Austria-Hungary for supporting Bulgaria and for continuing to occupy Bosnia-Herzegovina. This nationalism directly led to WWI. Events Leading Up to the War: Germany at this time was highly industrializing. It became a rival to England and France. The French at this time were still upset about Alsace-Lorraine and the Treaty of Frankfurt. Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Serbian officials planned this, so Austria asked Germany for support in crushing Serbia. Kaiser Wilhelm gave them a blank check, promising to support them no matter what. Serbia turned to big brother Slav Russia, which in turn got a similar blank check from France, who was terrified of being caught alone in a war with Germany. Austria gives Serbia an ultimatum that would basically put Austria in control of Serbia. Serbia refused. Austria declares war on Serbia. Russia mobilized. Germany declares war on Russia. France declares war on Germany. Britain declares war on Germany after their Schlieffen Plan violated Belgiums neutrality.

World War I: The Allies: The Central Powers: Britain, France, Russia (1914) Germany, Austria-Hungary Italy joins (1915) United States joins (1917) Russia leaves (1918) This was a war of attrition, a war that wears down the resources and morale of the enemy. Germany had vast land mass, resources, and population, so it expected a quick victory. The Schlieffen Plan: o Defeat France in 6 weeks like they did in the Franco-Prussian War o Hold off Russia, which they assumed would take 6 months to fully mobilize o Invade France through Belgium The Schlieffen Plan failed because: o The Belgians protested and put up an unexpectedly stiff resistance o Russia mobilized at great speed which made Germany split its troops o The French heroically counterattacked at the Battle of the Marne to prevent the Germans reaching Paris. o A stalemate developed, leading into trench warfare, which caused huge casualties without any real gain for either side. o Technological developments (machine guns, poison gas, tanks, and aircraft) were more advanced so many more people were slaughtered, mostly in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Germany won many victories on the Eastern Front against Russia. Germany invaded Russia, which was much less technologically advanced. Millions of Russians died. The tsar was now personally responsible for continuing to fight. Nicholas II abdicated and a provisional govt under Alexander Kerensky continued the war. The Bolsheviks seized power and pulled Russia out, to the dismay of the Allies, since it took away Germanys 2nd front. WWI was the first total war. Everything was geared towards war. Britain used its superior fleet to cut the Central Powers off from overseas trade. Germany used unrestricted marine warfare to prevent the British from accessing its colonies. Italy in 1915 joined the war against the Central Powers with the promise of getting its irredenta. Then, the U.S. joined the war, and Germany was defeated.

Results of the War: Wilsons Fourteen Points End to secret treaties Freedom of the seas Free trade Arms reduction

Evacuation of occupied territories National self-determination Fair settlement of colonial claims Establishment of a League of Nations

The Paris Peace Conference: o Wilson of the U.S., David Lloyd George of Britain, Clemenceau of France, and Orlando of Italy made all the decisions o The Treaty of Versailles: Germany had to give Alsace and the mineral-rich Saar Basin to France and Schleswig to Demark Germany had total responsibility for the war (War guilt)

The German military was severely cut back The Rhineland (between France and Germany) was to be demilitarized and occupied Germany had to pay huge indemnities. The German, Austrian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires ended. The Weimar Republic was established in Germany, not from genuine democratic sentiment but as a result of war. The war led to more govt involvement in society and the economy and womens liberation. There was a rapid development of new technology. The economy was greatly hurt by the war. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Hungary were given independence. There was heavy inflation in the economies.

The Russian Revolution: Why it started: o Devastating defeats by the Central Powers, dissatisfaction with the war, no patriotism. o Corruption and ineptitude of the tsarist govt, unwillingness to reform. o Poor economic conditions (freeing of the serfs) Russian Revolution Resulted in deep underlying causes Claimed to fight against capitalism and imperialism Gained followers in all countries Terror, then a small minority takes over (Bolsheviks) Strength came from the peasants Opposition effectively wiped out

French Revolution Resulted in deep underlying causes Claimed to fight against feudalism Gained followers in all countries Terror, then a small minority takes over (Jacobins) Strength came from the middle class Bourbon ended up being restored

The Soviet Union, once established, faced both the West and the East. The Revolution thus not only produced communism and fascism in Europe but also strengthened emerging anticolonial movements. Russia before the war industrialized, but it was still mostly rural peasants who had an extremely poor quality of life. The French gave them loans that helped them modernize (build factories, railroads, etc.) because they were desperate for Russian support against Germany. Witte and Stolypin were advisors to Nicholas II. Witte was pro-Western and wanted Russia to industrialize. Stolypin was a conservative and wanted t o protect the tsars power. He was involved in the October Manifesto (a deception). The rising business classes formed the liberal Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets) in 1905. They were liberal progressives who wanted a nationally elected parliament and gradual reform more than fixing the conditions of factory workers and peasants. When serfs were freed, they sunk into deeper economic depression. Peasants paid high taxes and carried the weight of industrialization. This made them want more land. Russia was humiliated with a defeat by Japan. Father Gapon led a peaceful protest in St. Petersburg, but troops fired on the crowd, killing hundreds on Bloody Sunday, which provoked general strikes, uprisings, and the formation of soviets, or workers revolutionary councils. After a general strike was called by the Soviet of Petersburg, the tsar promised reform. He gave a constitution, civil liberties, and a Duma to represent all classes.

Now, the moderate Cadets were satisfied, but the radicals were not. This divided the opposition. The govt was now able to arrest the radicals and the Revolution of 1905 ended. But in 1917, people were fed up with corruption. The Duma had been a faade. Food riots broke out in Petrograd and grew into a political movement. A Petrograd Soviet was established. Mainly the industrial workers supported the Revolution. The Duma created a provisional govt under Alexander Kerensky, a moderate. The tsar abdicated. Russia became a republic, but people were very unsatisfied that the g ovt continued the war. In the October (Bolshevik) Revolution (1917) the Bolsheviks came into power. Lenin wanted: o Russia to leave the war o The Petrograd Soviet to rule the govt o Land redistribution to the peasants (winning peasant support) o Factories to be controlled by the workers. Lenin ended the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. Instances of Lenins Dictatorship during the Civil War: o Refused to obey the Constituent Assembly and instituted party-rule instead. o Establishment of the Cheka, a secret police. o Foundation of the Red Army with Trotsky as leader. There was a huge food shortage. People began hoarding food. The govt took food by force and accused the kulaks of starving the people because they had food surpluses. A civil war started over control for the country. The Bolsheviks were opposed by the tsarists, the middle class, many peasants, and some socialist factions. The Red Army under Trotsky won. The USSR was created. Cultural identity was encouraged and there was ethnic toleration. As the economy and production deteriorated, Lenin decided to step back and enacted the NEP, which allowed for more private market and profit. Damages were repaired. Women were given more rights, like divorce, abortion, and voting. When Lenin died, Stalin took control. He enacted the Five Year Plan, aimed at rapid industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture without loans. This started the centrally planned economy. Collectivization failed. The kulaks were eliminated when they tried to resist. Farmers killed their livestock and refused to work on land that wasnt theirs, killing incentive. This led to a deadly famine in Ukraine. Stalin refused to cut back on food exports because he needed them to pay for industrialization. It developed the Comintern to fight for Communist revolution around the world. The rise of Communism produced the rise of fascism.

The 1920s: Womens rights movements gained; Britain, Germany, and Austria gave women the right to vote since they had played a huge part in production/factories during the war. In most European countries, socialism gained strength. Labor unions grew in power. The welfare state was more firmly established. Progressive democracy spread through Europe, with the exception of Italy. England o England did not recover from the economic losses suffered during the war. Its merchant fleet had been destroyed by German submarines and its foreign trade declined greatly. o It was saddled with war debts and social programs. o Neville Chamberlain ruled until the start of WWII as a leader of appeasement policy.

France o The economy almost collapsed. o Many plans relieved Germany from paying their full reparations. o French troops were sent by Raymond Poincare to occupy the Ruhr Valley in Germany. o French foreign policy was aimed at neutralizing Germany: Allying with buffer states Belgium and Poland Locarno Pact settling territory disputes. Kellogg-Briand Pact aimed at outlawing war. Italy - Mussolini took power as a fascist and the first dictator of postwar Europe. Germany o The Weimar Republic was highly democratic, but with little supporting sentiment because most were still upset about the treaty of Versailles. o The Weimar govt looked to the Soviets. Despite political differences, they signed the Treaty of Rapallo. Their armies and industries supported each other. o The French occupied the Ruhr Valley in 1922. The Germans responded with passive resistance and strikes, and the govt began printing out a lot of money to sustain the workers. This led to huge inflation. The middle class was wiped out. o The U.S. stepped in and told France to leave and cut down Germanys bills (Dawes Plan, Young Plan, and Lausanne Settlement). Americans invested in Germany and it gradually steadied. o These disasters of the Weimar Republic led to the rise of Hitler. The Great Depression led to the countries trying to isolate themselves and repair themselves. In countries with a weakly established democracy, like many countries after WWI, dictatorship spread with the coming of the depression.

Age of Anxiety Traditional ideas about the perfectibility of mankind through reason collapsed. Philosophy o Friedrich Nietzsche unconsciousness is the best state. People need to care more about glory than about compassion, people had a slave morality to Christian ethics. o Henri Bergson intuition and experience are just as powerful as science and reason o Soren Kierkegaard- existentialism (popularized by Jean-Paul Sartre, emphasized individual responsibility for giving meaning to a meaningless world) Psychology o Sigmund Freud unconscious. Physics o Werner Heisenberg uncertainty principle; a particles speed or position can be calculated, but not both. This fundamental uncertainty about matter is common of the Age of Anxiety. o Albert Einstein theories of relativity; further disrupted the comfortable assumptions of an orderly, rational world that was pushed by Newton. Literature o Stream of consciousness portrayal of an individuals random thoughts and feelings; James Joyce and Virginia Woolf; showed prevailing view of humanity as irrational/chaotic. Art o Expressionism abstract and nonrepresentational. Replaced impressionism (emotion; reaction to realism and photography), included artists like van Gogh. o Cubism invented by Pablo Picasso.

o o

Dadaism and surrealism abstract styles. Functionalism buildings designed with practicality and clean lines, not grandeur.

The Great Depression: Farm prices dropped disastrously. The command economy of the USSR was not interdependent, and thus, not affected. France: o The depression in France created a radical right. Pro-Fascist riots broke out. A coalition of socialists, communists, etc. reacted by organizing the Popular Front, which opposed fascism, supported reforms, and upheld the republic. o In 1936, Leon Blum, became PM under the Popular Front. He instituted a French New Deal, offering labor and agricultural reforms. But, they were ineffective. o Blum was replaced by conservative Edouard Daladier who practiced appeasement.

Dictatorship Italy: o Italians really disliked the peace settlements ending WWI. They didnt get the land that they were promised. Furthermore, they were hit by the depression. o Terrified of Communism, the propertied classes looked to a strong leader. o Benito Mussolini seized power on the March on Rome with his blackshirts. Victor Emmanuel granted him dictatorial powers for 1 year. o Fascism: Labor unions manage and control the industry. The unions then set the national political agenda. A govt in which the state and big business partners eli minate worker rights and an resistance to govt or corporate power. o Mussolini rigged elections, limiting the right to vote, and making all candidates Fascist. o An organization of corporations, led by Mussolini, replaced parliamentary govt. The totalitarian state was created. o Lateran Pact gave the papacy money for seized church lands in return for the popes recognition of the new Italian State. Germany o Hitlers Mein Kampf Germany was never really defeated in WWI, but betrayed by Jews and socialists. The Treaty of Versailles was a humiliation The German race was a master race and to eliminate inferior races. o Many conservatives (landowners, industrialists) supported Hitler to avoid Communism. In 1933, Paul von Hindenburg gave Hitler power. o The Enabling Act gave Hitler 4 years of dictatorial power. o The Gestapo, a secret police, was set up for the SS (Schustzstaffel). o A policy of autarchy, economic self-sufficiency, was developed. o

Causes of World War II: Germany, Italy, Japan, and the USSR werent content with the treaties ending WWI. The first 3 were willing to go to war to change it.


The Allies were satisfied, but they felt it unfair and werent willing to risk war to uphold it. They turned increasingly towards pacifism and appeasement. (Munich Conference) One cause was Hitlers personal ambition. The policy of appeasement led to more and more aggression.

Japan invaded Manchuria and the League of Nations did nothing. Hitler took Germany out of the League. Hitler openly violated the Treaty of Versailles by building up an army. The West was too absorbed in economic problems to act. The Saar Plebiscite returned the Saar Valley back to Germany. Mussolini attacked Ethiopia. Hitler occupied the Rhineland, supposedly a demilitarized zone. France and England failed to act, starting the policy of appeasement. 1936- Francisco Franco, a Fascist, took power in Spain. The brutal Spanish Civil War became a practice for the dictators. The Japanese committed huge atrocities in China, but the League did nothing. 1937 Germany, Italy, and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact; the Axis. Hitler started the Anshluss, the forced union of Germany and Austria. The West did nothing. Hitler prepared to annex the Sudetenland. Munich Conference; pinnacle of appeasement. 1939 Hitler absorbs Czechoslovakia. West does nothing. 1939 Hitler and Stalin sign the Nonaggression Pact. Wannsee Conference the Final Solution 1939 Hitler invades Poland; uses blitzkrieg. Einsatzgruppen special Jew-killing group The French sat behind their supposedly-impenetrable Maginot Line; sitzkrieg The Germans invaded France. It fell within 6 weeks. The Vichy Regime was set up under Marshall Petain. Charles de Gaulle led the Free French, who continued to fight the Nazis. 1941- the USSR and US joined the war.