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# Venturi Meter

Introduction............................................................................................................2 Aim.........................................................................................................................3 Theory....................................................................................................................3 Results....................................................................................................................4 Discussion..............................................................................................................8 Conclusion .............................................................................................................9 References .............................................................................................................9 Foundations of Mechanical Engineering; Anthony Johnson, Keith Sherwin........9 Fluid Mechanics with engineering applications; E. John Finnemore, Joseph B. Franzini...................................................................................................................9

Introduction The Bernoulli equation is a very important concept when dealing with problems in Fluid Mechanics. The equation gives rise to the idea that when the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure decreases and when the velocity decreases the pressure will increase. This can be shown experimentally simply by the use of a ping-pong ball and a funnel. If a person blows through the funnel with the ball in the open ended side then it will be impossible for the person to blow the ball up and out of the funnel.

Figure 1a: simple experiment used to prove that pressure decreases when velocity increases

The reason why the ball will not move is that the neck of the funnel has a smaller cross-sectional area thus having a higher velocity than the mouth of the funnel which will in turn have a higher pressure that will force the ball down. The result of this still rings true even if the funnel is turned upside down.

The Bernoulli Equation has four limiting factors in which it assumes that 1. The fluid is in steady flow 2. It is an incompressible fluid 3. The fluid flows along a streamline 4. There are no frictional losses In an incompressible fluid flow, the Bernoulli equation represents energy conservation. The Venturi meter is named after an Italian physicist called Giovanni Venturi (1746-1822). The Venturi tube has a constricted throat which when a fluid flows through produces a drop in pressure with an increase in pressure. The fluid is then moves through a section of the tube that gradually diverges thus turning the velocity back into pressure. The tube can be used as the device for measuring as there is a relation between the rate of flow and the difference in pressure.

## Figure 1B: Venturi Meter

Aim The Venturi Meter is used to determine the volume flow rate in a pipe. The Bernoulli Equation is then used to relate this volume flow rate measured from the Venturi meter to pressure measurements along a pipe contraction. Theory The formulae that will be used in connection with the experiment are:

P + gh +

1 U 2 = c 2 2 gh

Q th = A

A1 A 1 2

With regards to the conservation of energy which will be used in conjunction with this experiment the Bernoulli equation states: Energy per unit volume before = Energy per unit volume after In terms of the formula used P stands for the pressure energy.
1 U 2 = the 2

gh = the potential energy per unit volume. kinetic energy per unit volume and

The fluid in the case of this experiment (water) is considered incompressible, so that the in respect of the volumetric flow rate equation the density ( ) and the temperature (T ) are constant thus eliminating them from the equation. The flow rate of the water through to the venture meter is manipulated by the use of a rotameter.

Results Pipe Number 10 9 8 7 6 1 25 10 50 45 20 2 105 80 110 95 60 6 315 250 255 220 155 7 320 295 290 240 175

pressure in system when rotameter = 10mm p = gh p = 1000 9.81 10 10 3 = 98.1 Pa Between points 1 and 7 1 p + gh + U 2 = constant 2 1 98.1 + ( 1000 9.81 0.295 ) + (1000 0.18 ) = 3082.05 2 Between points 2 and 6 1 p + gh + U 2 = constant 2 1 98.1 + ( 1000 9.81 0.210 ) + (1000 0.18) = 2248.2 2

Pressure in system when rotameter = 9mm p = 1000 9.81 9 10 3 = 88.29 Pa Between points 1 and 7 1 p + gh + U 2 = constant 2 1 88.29 + (1000 9.81 0.285 ) + (1000 0.16 ) = 2964.14 2 Between points 2 and 6 1 88.29 + (1000 9.81 0.170 ) + (1000 0.16 ) = 1835.99 2

Pressure in system when rotameter = 8mm p = 1000 9.81 8 10 3 = 78.48 Between points 1 and 7 1 p + gh + U 2 = constant 2 1 78.48 + (1000 9.81 0.240 ) + (1000 0.15 ) = 2507.88 2 Between points 2 and 6 1 78.48 + (1000 9.81 0.145 ) + (1000 0.15 ) = 1575.93 2

Pressure in system when rotameter = 8mm p = 1000 9.81 8 10 3 = 78.48 Between points 1 and 7 1 p + gh + U 2 = constant 2 1 78.48 + (1000 9.81 0.240 ) + (1000 0.15 ) = 2507.88 2 Between points 2 and 6 1 78.48 + (1000 9.81 0.145 ) + (1000 0.15 ) = 1575 2

Pressure in system when rotameter = 7mm p = 1000 9.81 7 10 3 = 768.67 Between points 1 and 7 1 p + gh + U 2 = constant 2 68.67 + ( 1000 9.81 0.195 ) + Between points 2 and 6 68.67 + ( 1000 9.81 0.125 ) + 1 (1000 0.13) = 1359.92 2 1 (1000 0.13) = 2046.62 2

Pressure in system when rotameter = 6mm p = 1000 9.81 6 10 3 = 58.86 Between points 1 and 7 p + gh + 1 U 2 = constant 2 1 (1000 0.12 ) = 1639.41 2 1 (1000 0.12 ) = 1050.81 2

58.86 + ( 1000 9.81 0.155 ) + Between points 2 and 6 58.86 + ( 1000 9.81 0.095 ) +

## 2 gh A1 A 2 1 ( 2 9.81 0.210 ) 2 3.8 1 2.13

2

When Rotameter = 10mm 1.74 10 3 = 4.1l / min ( 2 9.81 0.295 ) + 1.74 10 3 2 5.067 1 1.98

## 2 gh A1 A 2 1 ( 2 9.81 0.170 ) 2 3.8 1 2 . 13

2

When Rotameter = 9mm 1.74 10 3 = 4.3l / min ( 2 9.81 0.285 ) + 1.74 10 3 2 5.067 1 1 . 98

## 2 gh A1 A 2 1 ( 2 9.81 0.145 ) 2 3.8 1 2.13

2

When Rotameter = 8mm 1.74 10 3 = 3.6l / min ( 2 9.81 0.240 ) + 1.74 10 3 2 5.067 1 1.98

## 2 gh A1 A 2 1 ( 2 9.81 0.135) 2 3.8 1 2.13

2

When Rotameter = 7mm 1.74 10 3 = 3.3l / min ( 2 9.81 0.195) 3 + 1.74 10 2 5.067 1 1.98

## 2 gh A1 A 2 1 ( 2 9.81 0.095) 2 3.8 1 2 . 13

2

When Rotameter = 6mm 1.74 10 3 = 2.88l / min ( 2 9.81 0.155) + 1.74 10 3 2 5.067 1 1 . 98

## Actual flow rate v theoretical

5 4.5 4 actual flow rate (l/min) 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 theoretical flow rate (l/min) 15 20

Discussion

Although the results that we managed to achieve seem slightly off from what the theoretical values expected I believe that this could be explained away by a couple of reasons. Firstly the theoretical values that I have compared the actual values to were measured with a water temperature of 20C. Unfortunately we did not measure the temperature of the water so it would be highly unlikely that the water would have been at 20C. Secondly familiarisation with the equipment for out team more than likely contributed to there being a discrepancy as at first it was hard for us to get to terms with how to use the apparatus. The error for this could be eliminated slightly by having more practice attempts at the experiment before going ahead and concluding results. We also found there was a slight problem with the rotameter the day we were using the machine which more than likely caused further discrepancies.

Conclusion The Venturi meter seems to be a very reliable way of checking differences in pressure in pipelines. The principal of the Bernoulli equation is particularly useful once the heights of the water in the different tubes have been measured. The equation allows people to quickly, effectively and easily calculate pressure differences between two pipes.

References Foundations of Mechanical Engineering; Anthony Johnson, Keith Sherwin Fluid Mechanics with engineering applications; E. John Finnemore, Joseph B. Franzini