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DOPED CHx CAPSULE FABRICATION FOR CRYOGENIC LMJ TARGETS

20th Target Fabrication Meeting

C. CHICANNE, J. BRAY, E. PECHE, O. BRETON, M. THEOBALD, V. BRUNET CEA, Commissariat l'Energie Atomique, 21120 Is sur Tille, France.

LMJ nominal ablator : doped CHx

SiO2

CHx CHx CHx

Fusion preparation
Non cryogenic target : Gas-retentive shells
SiO2 by GDP
Cf. S. LeTacons poster

Au

Cf. E. Bruns poster

Fusion
R = 943 m

105 m CH 10 m CHGe0,4 42 m CHGe0,75 10 m CH R = 943 m

162 m CHSi 4%

Cryogenic target : development on new nominal A943 design


Graded Ge doped capsule Si doped capsule

Graded germanium doped GDP capsule


Outline : Developments on A943 design allow to improve average batch yield
100% 90% 80% 70% 60%

Yield

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Rev.3 ~ 0% Rev. 5 !!

Thickness

Ge doping

AFM modes

Local defects

Main improvement in thickness and Ge doping control But in spite of specific effort on GDP process, local defects on surface remain an issue for a consistent average yield production Development of a polishing process is in progress

Graded germanium doped GDP capsule


Thickness Control Each layer thickness is controlled by interrupting coating run (OCT measurement and thickness adjustment to fit spec.)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Yield 50% 40%
Photodiode Source (SLD) Bras de mesure (chantillon)

1.5 m

3 m

1.5 m

3 m

30% 20% 10% 0%


Layer 1: 10 m Layer 2: 42 m Layer 3: 10 m Wall: 167 m

Bras de rfrence contenant la ligne de retard

OCT principle

No more major improvement is expected, excepted an in-situ measurement device to minimize environment exposure time

Graded germanium doped GDP capsule


Ge Doping Control Closed-loop process: To compensate for mass flow controller deviation, X-ray fluorescence measurement on witness sample is realized before each doped layer coating run improvement of repeatability
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Yield 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

0.1%at.

0.2%at.

RBS measurement for feedback CEA / GA measurement comparison in 2010 indicate a systematic error on our RBS experimental data analysis : energy loss by probing ions due to H was not properly simulate error solved (new simulation software)

0% 0,4%at. 0,75%at.

Graded germanium doped GDP capsule


Surface roughness AFM modes (local defects extracted) : RMS(2) < 70 nm RMS(2-10) < 80 nm RMS(>10) < 20 nm ~ 50% yield DHM local defects : ~ 20% yield (Rev.3)
3000
Aucun dfaut au del <20 dfauts au del <100 dfauts au del Bumps

Rev. 3 spec
2000

Height (nm)
1000 0 0 25 50 75 100

Defect width (m)

Most capsules have a mix-mass > 100 ng a mix-mass < 10 ng (Rev. 5) specification leads to almost null yield No GDP process optimization is expected to consistently meet this specification Polishing process has been developed

Graded germanium doped GDP capsule


Polishing process: results AFM Spheremapper analysis (all defects included):

Polishing run

Low modes (2-10) are not affected by polishing process due to optimized parameters High frequency roughness is drastically improved by removal of local defects

Graded germanium doped GDP capsule


Polishing process: results DHM isolated defects:
Rev. 3
3000
Aucun dfaut au del <20 dfauts au del <100 dfauts au del Bumps Trous

Rev. 5
1250,00
Mix Mass 20

1000,00 750,00 Hauteur (nm) 500,00 250,00 0,00 -250,00 -500,00 -750,00

Mixed Mass 0

2000

1000 Heig ht (nm)

0 0 -1000 25 50 75 100

Polishing run

-2000

-1000,00 -1250,00
Defect width (m)

-3000

20 Largeur mi-hauteur (m)

40

Removal of isolated bumps is demonstrated to meet the mix mass specification Rev.5 Still have to be solved: - polishing process can create isolated features (i.e. scratches, ripping), mainly dependant of polishing tool material, abrasive particles - scratches size already reduced (<50nm deep) but can be more optimized
Scratches optimization

100 m

Silicon doped GDP capsule


Deposition process:
Tetramethylgermane (Ge(CH3)4) is replaced with tetramethylsilane (Si(CH3)4) Material structure (CHx) was previously optimized for low doping rate (<1%at), no structural modification is observed for doping rate ~ 4%at, TMS flow is significant increase of deposition rate increase of surface roughness increase of stress

Example: CHSi 3.3%

Polishing run

CHSi surface roughness decreased by polishing outer surface


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Silicon doped GDP capsule


But for Si doping rate > 3.5%, a systematical capsule cracking is observed due to internal stress (during deposition run or delayed cracking by ambient exposure) Producing CHSi capsule with 4% doping rate require specific deposition parameters total gas flow and precursor flow (T2B, TMS) ratio in the mix have to be decreased Example: CHSi 3.95%

Polishing run

With these deposition conditions, surface roughness is quite similar to non-doped ablator and isolated surface defects can be eliminated by polishing
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SUMMARY
Graded Ge doped CHx capsule: Improvement of average yield on new A943 design capsule mainly due to thickness and doping control
Yield
100% 90% 80% 70%

GDP process Post polishing process

Isolated defects remain the major issue of GDP process and require polishing capsules with mix mass < 10 ng produced polishing process has to be developed to minimize scratch formation

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Thickness

Ge doping AFM modes

Local defects Rev.5

Global

Si doped CHx capsule: Versatility of GDP process allows to modify the doping element Depending of Si doping rate, significant internal stress can appear First CHSi 4% capsules has been produced

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