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TRNG CAO NG CNG NGH THNG TIN

HU NGH VIT-HN
KHOA KHOA HC MY TNH

N MN HC
QUN L H THNG MNG

TI
TM HIU V GIAO THC SNMP V PHN MM
QUN L H THNG MNG CISCOWORKS LAN
MANAGEMENT SOLUTION

GVHD :
SVTH

Ths. ng Quang Hin

: Nguyn c Trung (91)


Trng Vn ng
Nguyn Vn Quc t

Lp

: CCMM03C

Nin kha: 2009 2012

Nng, thng 3 nm 2012

LI M U
Th gii ny nay c nhiu tin b mnh m v cng ngh thng tin (CNTT) t
mt tim nng thng tin tr thnh mt ti nguyn thc s, tr thnh sn phm hng ha
trong x hi to ra mt s thay i to ln trong lc lng sn xut, c s h tng, cu trc
kinh t, tnh cht lao ng v c cch thc qun l cc lnh vc ca x hi.
Trong nhng nm gn y, nn CNTT nc ta cng c nhng bc pht trin
trn mi lnh vc trong cuc sng cng nh trong lnh vc qun l x hi khc. Vi trinh
phat trin nh vy vic ng dung CNTT vao cac cng vic hng ngay c xem nh la
iu bt buc. Tuy nhin vi vic phat trin mt mang li may tinh nhanh nh vy a
gy ra nhng kho khn nht inh trong vic quan ly cac h thng mang nay. Cng vic
quan ly h thng mang co nhng yu cu t ra la lam sao co th tn dung ti a cac
tai nguyn co trong h thng va tng tin cy i vi h thng. Do o, vn quan tri
mang hin nay la khng th thiu c. Trong o quan tri mang theo giao thc SNMP la
phng phap c s dung rng rai nht.
Vi nhng nhu cu thit thc nh vy, v hiu r hn s quan trng ca vic
qun l h thng mng. Em tin hnh tm hiu v giao thc SNMP v Xy dng m
hnh qun l h thng mng v bt bn tin SNMP.
Em xin gi li cm n chn thnh n C Dng Thanh T to mi iu kin
tt nht chng em hon thin n ny. Tuy nhin khng th trnh khi thiu xt.
Mong cc c v cc bn ng gp kin n hon thin hn!

MC LC

LI M U....................................................................................................................ii
MC LC........................................................................................................................... i
DANH MC CC HNH V...........................................................................................iii
CHNG 1. TNG QUAN V GIAO THC SNMP......................................................v
1.1.GII THIU GIAO THC SNMP...........................................................................v
1.1.1.u im trong thit k ca SNMP.....................................................................vi
1.1.2.Nhc im ca SNMP......................................................................................vi
1.1.3.Cc phin bn ca SNMP...................................................................................vi
1.2.IU HNH SNMP...............................................................................................vii
1.2.1.Cc thnh phn trong SNMP.............................................................................vii
1.2.2.B phn qun l (manager) ..............................................................................vii
1.2.3.Agent................................................................................................................ viii
1.2.4.C s thng tin qun l - MIB.........................................................................viii
1.2.5.Cc lnh c bn trong SNMP.............................................................................ix
1.3.QUN L LIN LC GIA MANAGEMENT VI CC AGENT......................x
1.4.C CH VN CHUYN THNG TIN GIA MANAGEMENT V AGENT......x
1.5.BO V TRUYN THNG LIN LC GIA MANAGEMENT V CC
AGENT KHI S C...................................................................................................xi
1.7. CC PHNG THC CA SNMP.....................................................................xii
1.7.1. GetRequest......................................................................................................xiii
1.7.2. GetNextRequest..............................................................................................xiii
1.7.3. SetRequest.......................................................................................................xiii
1.7.4. GetResponse...................................................................................................xiii
i

1.7.5. Trap................................................................................................................. xiv


1.7.CC C CH BO MT CHO SNMP................................................................xvi
1.7.1.Community string.............................................................................................xvi
1.7.2.View................................................................................................................xvii
1.7.3.SNMP access control list.................................................................................xvii
1.8.CU TRC BN TIN SNMP.............................................................................xviii
CHNG 2. Xy dng m hnh qun l mng v bt bn tin SNMP bng Wireshark....xx
2.1. Gii thiu phn mm GNS3 v Wireshark.............................................................xx
2.2. CC CHC NNG QUN TR CA CISCOWORKS LAN MANAGEMENT
SOLUTION...................................................................................................................xx
2.3. CI T V CU HNH CISCOWORKS LAN MANAGEMENT SOLUTION
...................................................................................................................................... xxi
2.3.1. Yu cu cn thit trc khi ci t..................................................................xxi
2.3.2. Ci t............................................................................................................xxii
2.3.3. Cu hnh........................................................................................................xxix
CHNG 3. TRIN KHAI PHN MM QUN L H THNG MNG
CISCOWORKS LAN MANAGEMENT SOLUTION................................................xxxix
3.1. M HNH H THNG TRIN KHAI.............................................................xxxix
3.2. GIAO DIN S DNG CC TNH NNG C BN..........................................xl
KT LUN................................................................................................................... xlvii
DANH MC TI LIU THAM KHO..........................................................................48
NHN XT CA GING VIN HNG DN............................................................49

ii

DANH MC CC HNH V

Hnh 1.3. M hnh giao thc hot ng SNMP...................................................................x


Hnh 1.5. Hnh minh ha cc phng thc SNMPv1........................................................xv
Hnh 1.6. Cu trc bn tin SNMP..................................................................................xviii
Hnh 2.1. Giao din bt u ci t................................................................................xxiii
Hnh 2.2. Mn hnh thng bo cho mng ci t chng trnh...........................xxiii
Hnh 2.3. iu khon s dng chng trnh..................................................................xxiv
Hnh 2.4. Ty chn ci t.............................................................................................xxiv
Hnh 2.5. La chn ng dng.........................................................................................xxv
Hnh 2.6. ng k thng tin ng dng LMS...................................................................xxv
Hnh 2.7. ng k thng tin HUM.................................................................................xxvi
Hnh 2.8. Yu cu cu hnh h thng.............................................................................xxvi
Hnh 2.9. Mt khu cho user Admin.............................................................................xxvii
Hnh 2.10. Mt khu ti khon nh danh h thng......................................................xxvii
Hnh 2.11. Tng hp thng tin.....................................................................................xxviii
Hnh 2.12. Qu trnh ci t.........................................................................................xxviii
Hnh 2.13. Mt s thng tin cn thit..........................................................................xxviii
Hnh 2.14. Chc nng CiscoWorks Assistant................................................................xxix
Hnh 2.15. Danh sch ng dng my ch.......................................................................xxx
Hnh 2.16. Thit lp my ch CiscoWorks.....................................................................xxx
Hnh 2.17. H thng nhn dng hin ti.........................................................................xxxi
Hnh 2.18. To mi h thng nhn dng........................................................................xxxi
Hnh 2.19. Cu hnh ch qun l thit b..................................................................xxxii
Hnh 2.20. Ci t Server..............................................................................................xxxii
iii

Hnh 2.21. Thng tin ng nhp mc nh...................................................................xxxiii


Hnh 2.22. To thng tin ng nhp.............................................................................xxxiii
Hnh 2.23. Thng tin ng nhp chun........................................................................xxxiv
Hnh 2.24. Thng tin ng nhp SNMP mc nh.......................................................xxxiv
Hnh 2.25. Cu hnh chnh sch thng tin ng nhp mc nh...................................xxxiv
Hnh 2.26. Ch khm ph.........................................................................................xxxv
Hnh 2.27. M-un khm ph.......................................................................................xxxv
Hnh 2.28. Thit b ht ging khm ph..................................................................xxxvi
Hnh 2.29. Thit lp SNMP khm ph....................................................................xxxvi
Hnh 2.30. Thit lp b lc khm ph.........................................................................xxxvii
Hnh 2.31. Thit lp khm ph ton cu.....................................................................xxxvii
Hnh 2.32. Hon thnh qu trnh khm ph...............................................................xxxviii
Hnh 3.1. M hnh trin khai........................................................................................xxxix
Hnh 3.2. ng nhp chng trnh.....................................................................................xl
Hnh 3.3. Giao din chnh ca chng trnh.....................................................................xli
Hnh 3.4. Ca s System.................................................................................................xlii
Hnh 3.5. Ca s Network...............................................................................................xlii
Hnh 3.6. Ca s CM......................................................................................................xliii
Hnh 3.8. Ca s DFM....................................................................................................xliv
Hnh 3.9. Ca s IPM.....................................................................................................xliv
Hnh 3.10. Ca s RME...................................................................................................xlv
Hnh 3.12. Tnh trng ca cc thit b trong mng..........................................................xlvi
Hnh 3.13. Hin trng ca cc port.................................................................................xlvi

iv

CHNG 1. TNG QUAN V GIAO THC SNMP


1.1.

GII THIU GIAO THC SNMP


SNMP l giao thc qun l mng n gin, dch t cm t Simple Network

Management Protocol.
Th no l giao thc qun l mng n gin? Giao thc l mt tp hp cc th tc
m cc bn tham gia cn tun theo c th giao tip c vi nhau. Trong lnh vc
thng tin, mt giao thc quy nh cu trc, nh dng (format) ca dng d liu trao i
vi nhau v quy nh trnh t, th tc trao i dng d liu . Nu mt bn tham gia
gi d liu khng ng nh dng hoc khng theo trnh t th cc bn khc s khng hiu
hoc t chi trao i thng tin. SNMP l mt giao thc, do n c nhng quy nh ring
m cc thnh phn trong mng phi tun theo.
Mt thit b hiu c v hot ng tun theo giao thc SNMP c gi l c
h tr SNMP (SNMP supported) hoc tng thch SNMP (SNMP compartible).
SNMP dng qun l, ngha l c th theo di, c th ly thng tin, c th c
thng bo, v c th tc ng h thng hot ng nh mun. VD mt s kh nng
ca phn mm SNMP :
+

Theo di tc ng truyn ca mt router, bit c tng s byte

truyn/nhn.
+

Ly thng tin my ch ang c bao nhiu cng, mi cng cn trng bao

T ng nhn cnh bo khi switch c mt port b down.

iu khin tt (shutdown) cc port trn switch.

nhiu.

SNMP dng qun l mng, ngha l n c thit k chy trn nn TCP/IP


v qun l cc thit b c ni mng TCP/IP. Cc thit b mng khng nht thit phi l
my tnh m c th l switch, router, firewall, adsl gateway, v c mt s phn mm cho
php qun tr bng SNMP. Gi s bn c mt ci my git c th ni mng IP v n h
tr SNMP th bn c th qun l n t xa bng SNMP.
SNMP l giao thc n gin, do n c thit k n gin trong cu trc bn tin
v th tc hot ng, v cn n gin trong bo mt (ngoi tr SNMP version 3). S dng
v

phn mm SNMP, ngi qun tr mng c th qun l, gim st tp trung t xa ton mng
ca mnh.
1.1.1. u im trong thit k ca SNMP
SNMP c thit k n gin ha qu trnh qun l cc thnh phn trong mng.
Nh cc phn mm SNMP c th c pht trin nhanh v tn t chi ph.
SNMP c thit k c th m rng cc chc nng qun l, gim st. Khng c
gii hn rng SNMP c th qun l c ci g. Khi c mt thit b mi vi cc thuc
tnh, tnh nng mi th ngi ta c th thit k custom SNMP phc v cho ring
mnh (trong chng 3 tc gi s trnh by file cu trc d liu ca SNMP).
SNMP c thit k c th hot ng c lp vi cc kin trc v c ch ca
cc thit b h tr SNMP.
Cc thit b khc nhau c hot ng khc nhau nhng p ng SNMP l ging
nhau. VD bn c th dng 1 phn mm theo di dung lng cng cn trng ca cc
my ch chy HH Windows v Linux; trong khi nu khng dng SNMP m lm trc
tip trn cc HH ny th bn phi thc hin theo cc cch khc nhau.
1.1.2. Nhc im ca SNMP
Lm tng lu lng ng k.
Khng cho php phn b tc ng trc tip cho cc i l.
Khng c s iu khin tng hp ca nhiu ni qun l.
1.1.3. Cc phin bn ca SNMP
SNMP c 4 phin bn: SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, SNMPv2u v SNMPv3. Cc phin
bn ny khc nhau mt cht nh dng bn tin v phng thc hot ng. Hin ti
SNMPv1 l ph bin nht do c nhiu thit b tng thch nht v c nhiu phn mm h
tr nht. Trong khi ch c mt s thit b v phn mm h tr SNMPv3.
Nm 1993, SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2) c IETF a ra vi mc ch gii quyt
vn tn ti trong SNMPv1 l c ch m bo bo mt. SNMPv2 c nhiu thay i so
vi SNMPv1 nh h tr cc mng trung tm cp cao, mng phn tn, c ch bo mt, lm
vic vi khi d liu ln... Tuy nhin SNMPv2 khng c chp nhn hon ton bi v
SNMPv2 cha tho mn vn bo mt v qun tr bi vy nm 1996 nhng phn bo

vi

mt trong SNMPv2 b b qua v SNMPv2 c gi l SNMPv2 trn c s truyn thng


hay SNMPv2c.
Nm 1998, IETF bt u a ra SNMPv3 c nh ngha trong RFCs 2571-2575.
V bn cht, SNMPv3 m rng t c c hai mc ch l bo mt v qun tr.
SNMPv3 h tr kin trc theo kiu module c th d dng m rng. Nh th nu cc
giao thc bo mt c m rng chng c th c h tr bi SNMPv3 bng cch nh
ngha nh l cc module ring.
1.2.

IU HNH SNMP

1.2.1. Cc thnh phn trong SNMP


H thng qun l mng da trn SNMP gm ba thnh phn: b phn qun l
(manager), i l (agent) v c s d liu gi l C s thng tin qun l (MIB). Mc d
SNMP l mt giao thc qun l vic chuyn giao thng tin gia ba thc th trn, song n
cng nh ngha mi quan h client-server (ch t). y, nhng chng trnh client l b
phn qun l, trong khi client thc hin cc thit b t xa c th c coi l server. Khi
, c s d liu do agent SNMP qun l l i din cho MIP ca SNMP.
1.2.2. B phn qun l (manager)
B phn qun l l mt chng trnh vn hnh trn mt hoc nhiu my tnh trm.
Ty thuc vo cu hnh, mi b phn qun l c th c dng qun l mt mng con,
hoc nhiu b phn qun l c th c dng qun l cng mt mng con hay mt
mng chung. Tng tc thc s gia mt ngi s dng cui (end-user) v b phn qun
l c duy tr qua vic s dng mt hoc nhiu chng trnh ng dng m cng vi b
phn qun l, bin mt bng phn cng thnh Trm qun l mng (NMS). Ngy nay,
trong thi k cc chng trnh giao din ngi s dng ha (GUI), hu ht nhng
chng trnh ng dng cung cp mi trng ca s ch v click chut, thc hin lin vn
hnh vi b phn qun l to ra nhng bn ha v biu cung cp nhng tng kt
hot ng ca mng di dng thy c.
Qua b phn qun l, nhng yu cu c chuyn ti mt hoc nhiu thit b chu
s qun l. Ban u SNMP c pht trin s dng trn mng TCP/IP v nhng mng
ny tip tc lm mng vn chuyn cho phn ln cc sn phm qun l mng da trn

vii

SNMP. Tuy nhin SNMP cng c th c chuyn qua NetWare IPX v nhng c cu
vn chuyn khc.
1.2.3. Agent
Thit b chu s qun l (Managed device): L mt nt mng h tr giao thc
SNMP v thuc v mng b qun l. Thit b c nhim v thu thp thng tin qun l v
luu tr phc v cho h thng qun l mng. Nhng thit b chu s qun l, i khi
c gi l nhng phn t mng, c th l nhng b nh tuyn v my ch truy cpAccess Server, switch v bridge, hub, my tnh hay l nhng my in trong mng.
Mi thit b chu s qun l bao gm phn mm hoc phn sn (firmware) di
dng m phin dch nhng yu cu SNMP v p ng ca nhng yu cu . Phn mm
hoc phn sn ny c coi l mt agent. Mc d mi thit b bt buc bao gm mt
agent chu qun l trc tip, nhng thit b tng thch khng theo SNMP cng c th
qun l c nu nh chng h tr mt giao thc qun l c quyn. thc hin c
iu ny, phi ginh c mt agent y nhim (proxy agent). Proxy agent ny c th
c xt nh mt b chuyn i giao thc v n phin dch nhng yu cu SNMP thnh
giao thc qun l c quyn ca thit b khng hot ng theo giao thc SNMP.
Mc d SNMP ch yu l giao thc p ng thm d (poll-respond) vi nhng yu
cu do b phn qun l to ra dn n nhng p ng trong agent, agent cng c kh
nng xng ra mt p ng t nguyn. p ng t nguyn ny l iu kin cnh bo
t vic gim st agent vi hot ng c nh ngha trc v ch ra rng ti
ngng nh trc. Di s iu khin ca SNMP, vic truyn cnh bo ny c coi l
ci by (trap).
1.2.4. C s thng tin qun l - MIB
Mi thit b chu s qun l c th c cu hnh, trng thi v thng tin thng k rt
a dng, nh ngha chc nng v kh nng vn hnh ca thit b. Thng tin ny c th
bao gm vic thit lp chuyn mch phn cng, nhng gi tr khc nhau lu tr trong cc
bng ghi nh d liu, b h s hoc cc trng thng tin trong h s lu tr cc file v
nhng bin hoc thnh phn d liu tng t. Nhn chung, nhng thnh phn d liu ny
c coi l c s thng tin qun l ca thit b chu s qun l. Xt ring, mi thnh phn
d liu bin i c coi l mt i tng b qun l v bao gm tn, mt hoc nhiu
viii

thuc tnh, v mt tp cc hot ng (operation) thc hin trn i tng . V vy MIB


nh ngha loi thng tin c th khi phc t mt thit b chu s qun l v nhng b tr
(settings) thit b m c th iu khin t h thng qun l.
1.2.5. Cc lnh c bn trong SNMP
SNMP s dng cc dch v chuyn ti d liu c cung cp bi cc giao thc
UDP/IP. Mt ng dng ca Manager phi nhn dng c Agent cn thng tin vi n.
Mt ng dng ca Agent c nhn dng bi da ch IP ca n v mt cng UDP. Mt
ng dng Manager ng gi yu cu SNMP trong mt UDP/IP, UDP/IP cha m nhn
dng cng ngun, a ch IP ch v m nhn dng cng UDP ca n. Khung UDP s
c gi i thng qua thc th IP ti h thng c qun l, ti khung UDP s c
phn phi bi thc th UDP ti Agent. Tuong t cc bn tin TRAP phi c nhn dng
bi cc Manager. Cc bn tin s dng a ch IP v m nhn dng cng UDP ca
Manager SNMP.
+

SNMP s dng 3 lnh c bn l Read, Write, Trap v mt s lnh ty bin

qun l thit b.
Lnh Read: c SNMP dng dc thng tin t thit b. Cc thng tin
ny c
cung cp qua cc bin SNMP luu tr trn thit b v c cp nht bi
thit b.
Lnh Write: c SNMP dng ghi cc thng tin iu khin ln thit b
bng cch thay i gi tr cc bin SNMP.
Lnh Trap: Dng nhn cc s kin gi t thit b n SNMP. Mi khi
c mt s kin xy ra trn thit b mt lnh Trap s c gi ti NMS.
SNMP iu khin, theo di thit b bng cch thay i hoc thu thp thng tin qua
cc bin gi tr lu trn thit b. Cc Agent ci t trn thit b tng tc vi nhng chip
iu khin h tr SNMP ly ni dung hoc vit li ni dung.

ix

Hnh 1.3. M hnh giao thc hot ng SNMP


1.3.

QUN L LIN LC GIA MANAGEMENT VI CC AGENT


Nhn trn phng din truyn thng, nh qun l (manager) v cc tc nhn (agent)

cng l nhng ngi s dng, s dng mt giao thc ng dng. Giao thc qun l yu
cu c ch vn ti h tr tng tc gia cc tc nhn v nh qun l.
Management trc ht phi xc nh c cc agent m n mun lin lc. c th
xc nh c ng dng tc nhn bng a ch IP ca n v cng UDP c gn cho n.
Cng UDP 161 c dnh ring cho cc agent SNMP. Management gi lnh SNMP vo
mt phong b UDP/IP. Phong b ny cha cng ngun, a ch IP ch v cng 161. Mt
thc th IP ti ch s chuyn giao khung UDP ti h thng b qun l. Tip , mt thc
th UDP ti ch s chuyn pht n ti cc agent. Tng t nh vy, lnh TRAP cng cn
xc nh nhng management m n cn lin h. Chng s dng a ch IP cng nh cng
UDP dnh cho mamagement SNMP, l cng 162.
1.4.

C CH VN CHUYN THNG TIN GIA MANAGEMENT V AGENT


Vic la chn c ch vn chuyn c tnh trc giao vi giao thc truyn thng .

SNMP ch i hi c ch truyn ti khng tin cy d liu (datagram) truyn a cc


PDU (n v d liu giao thc) gia management v cc agent. iu ny cho php s nh
x ca SNMP ti nhiu nhm giao thc. M hnh vn chuyn datagram gim c
phc tp ca nh x tng vn chuyn. Tuy nhin, vn phi nhn thc thy s tham gia ca
mt s la chn tng vn chuyn. Cc tng vn chuyn khc nhau c th s dng nhiu
k thut nh a ch khc nhau. Cc tng vn chuyn khc nhau c th ua ra nhng hn
x

ch quy m ca PDU. nh x tng vn chuyn c trch nhim phi x l cc vn nh


a ch, hn ch quy m PDU v mt s tham s tng vn chuyn khc.
Trong phin bn th hai ca SNMP, ngi ta s dng kinh nghim lm sc nt
v n gin ha qu trnh nh x ti cc chun vn chuyn khc nhau. Giao thc qun l
c tch khi mi trng vn chuyn mt cch trc giao, iu ny cng c khuyn
khch s dng cho bt c nhm giao thc no.
1.5.

BO V TRUYN THNG LIN LC GIA MANAGEMENT V CC

AGENT KHI S C
Trong iu kin mng thiu n nh v thiu tin cy th s lin lc qun l cng
tr nn quan trng. Lm th no cc management lin lc vi cc agent mt cch tin
cy? Vic SNMP s dng c ch UDP lin lc c ngha l thiu i tin cy.
SNMP hon ton li cho chng trnh management chu trch nhim v x l vic mt
thng tin. Cc lnh GET, GET-NEXT, v SET u c phc p bng mt lnh GETRESPONSE. H thng c th d dng pht hin ra vic b mt mt lnh khi khng nhn
c lnh tr li. N c th lp li yu cu mt ln na hoc c nhng hnh ng
khc. Tuy nhin, cc bn tin TRAP do agent to ra v khng c phc p khng nh.
Khi lnh TRAP b tht lc, cc chng trnh agent s khng bit v iu (tt nhin l
management cng khng hay bit v iu ny). Thng thng cc bn tin TRAP mang
nhng thng tin ht sc quan trng cho management, do vy management cn ch v
cn bo m vic chuyn pht chng mt cch tin cy.
Mt cu hi t ra l lm th no chuyn pht cc bn tin TRAP trnh mt mt,
tht lc? Ta c th thit k cho cc agent lp li bn tin TRAP. Bin s MIB c th c s
ln lp li theo yu cu. Lnh SET ca management c th t cu hnh cho bin s ny.
C mt cch khc l agent c th lp li lnh TRAP cho n khi management t bin s
MIB chm dt s c. Hy ghi nh rng, c hai phng php trn u ch cho ta nhng
gii php tng phn. Trong trng hp th nht, s ln lp li c th khng m
bo lin lc mt cch tin cy. Trong trng hp th hai, mt s c mng c th dn n
vic hng lot bn tin TRAP b mt ty thuc vo tc m cc agent to ra chng. iu
ny lm cho s c mng tr nn trm trng hn. Trong c hai trng hp, nu ta cn
chuyn pht nhng bn tin TRAP ti nhiu management, th c th xy ra tnh trng
xi

khng nht qun gia cc management hoc xy ra hin tng tht lc thng tin rt phc
tp. Nu cc agent phi chu trch nhim v thit k cho vic phc hi nhng bn tin
TRAP th cng lm tng thm phc tp trong vic qun l cc agent trong mi trng
a nh ch to.
Ngi ta cng theo ui ci tin c ch x l bn tin s c cho phin bn th
hai ca SNMP. Th nht l n nguyn TRAP c b i v thay th n bng mt lnh
GET/RESPONSE khng yu cu. Lnh ny do agent to ra v chuyn n cho
management by ti cng UDP-162. iu ny phn nh mt quan im l nh qun l
s c c th thng nht cc bn tin s c ri tr li cho cc yu cu o. Bng cch b i
mt n th, giao thc c n gin ha. Ngi ta cng b sung thm mt c s thng
tin qun l c bit TRAP MIB thng nht vic x l s c, cc management nhn bn
tin v cc s c ny v vic lp li ci thin tin cy trong chuyn pht thng tin.
1.7.

CC PHNG THC CA SNMP

Giao thc SNMPv1 c 5 phng thc hot ng, tng ng vi 5 loi bn tin nh sau:
Bn tin/phng thc
GetRequest

M t tc dng
Manager gi GetRequets cho agent yu cu agent cung cp
thng tin no da vo ObjectID (trong GetRequest c cha

GetNextRequest

OID).
Manager gi GetNextRequest c cha mt ObjectID cho
agent yu cu cung cp thng tin nm k tip ObjectID

SetRequest

trong MIB.
Manager gi SetRequest cho agent t gi tr cho i tng

GetRespone

ca agent da vo ObjectID.
Agent gi GetRespone cho Manager tr li khi nhn c

Trap

GetRequest/GetNextRequest.
Agent t ng gi Trap cho Manager khi c mt s kin xy
ra i vi mt object no trong agent.

Mi bn tin u c cha OID cho bit object mang trong n l g. OID trong
GetRequest cho bit n mun ly thng tin ca object no. OID trong GetResponse cho
bit n mang gi tr ca object no. OID trong SetRequest ch ra n mun thit lp gi tr
cho object no. OID trong Trap ch ra n thng bo s kin xy ra i vi object no.

xii

1.7.1. GetRequest
Bn tin GetRequest c manager gi n agent ly mt thng tin no .
Trong GetRequest c cha OID ca object mun ly. VD : Mun ly thng tin tn ca
Device1 th manager gi bn tin GetRequest OID=1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5 n Device1, tin trnh
SNMP agent trn Device1 s nhn c bn tin v to bn tin tr li.
Trong mt bn tin GetRequest c th cha nhiu OID, ngha l dng mt
GetRequest c th ly v cng lc nhiu thng tin.
1.7.2. GetNextRequest
Bn tin GetNextRequest cng dng ly thng tin v cng c cha OID, tuy
nhin n dng ly thng tin ca object nm k tip object c ch ra trong bn tin.
Ti sao phi c phng thc GetNextRequest ? Nh bn bit khi c qua nhng
phn trn : mt MIB bao gm nhiu OID c sp xp th t nhng khng lin tc, nu
bit mt OID th khng xc nh c OID k tip. Do ta cn GetNextRequest ly
v gi tr ca OID k tip. Nu thc hin GetNextRequest lin tc th ta s ly c ton
b thng tin ca agent.
1.7.3. SetRequest
Bn tin SetRequest c manager gi cho agent thit lp gi tr cho mt object
no .
V d :
C th t li tn ca mt my tnh hay router bng phn mm SNMP
manager, bng cch gi bn tin SetRequest c OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0 (sysName.0) v
c gi tr l tn mi cn t.
C th shutdown mt port trn switch bng phn mm SNMP manager, bng
cch gi bn tin c OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7 (ifAdminStatus) v c gi tr l 2 7. Ch
nhng object c quyn READ_WRITE mi c th thay i c gi tr.
1.7.4. GetResponse
Mi khi SNMP agent nhn c cc bn tin GetRequest, GetNextRequest hay
SetRequest th n s gi li bn tin GetResponse tr li. Trong bn tin GetResponse c
cha OID ca object c request v gi tr ca object .

xiii

1.7.5. Trap
Bn tin Trap c agent t ng gi cho manager mi khi c s kin xy ra bn
trong agent, cc s kin ny khng phi l cc hot ng thng xuyn ca agent m l
cc s kin mang tnh bin c. V d : Khi c mt port down, khi c mt ngi dng
login khng thnh cng, hoc khi thit b khi ng li, agent s gi trap cho manager.
Tuy nhin khng phi mi bin c u c agent gi trap, cng khng phi mi
agent u gi trap khi xy ra cng mt bin c. Vic agent gi hay khng gi trap cho
bin c no l do hng sn xut device/agent quy nh.
Phng thc trap l c lp vi cc phng thc request/response. SNMP
request/response dng qun l cn SNMP trap dng cnh bo. Ngun gi trap gi l
Trap Sender v ni nhn trap gi l Trap Receiver. Mt trap sender c th c cu hnh
gi trap n nhiu trap receiver cng lc. C 2 loi trap : trap ph bin (generic trap)
v trap c th (specific trap). Generic trap c quy nh trong cc chun SNMP, cn
specific trap do ngi dng t nh ngha (ngi dng y l hng sn xut SNMP
device). Loi trap l mt s nguyn cha trong bn tin trap, da vo m pha nhn trap
bit bn tin trap c ngha g. Theo SNMPv1, generic trap c 7 loi sau:coldStart(0),
warmStart(1), linkDown(2), linkUp(3), authenticationFailure(4), egpNeighborloss(5),
enterpriseSpecific(6).
Gi tr trong ngoc l m s ca cc loi trap. ngha ca cc bn tin generic-trap
nh sau :
+ ColdStart: thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny ang khi ng li
(reinitialize) v cu hnh ca n c th b thay i sau khi khi ng.
+ WarmStart: thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny ang khi ng li v gi
nguyn cu hnh c.
+ LinkDown: thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny pht hin c mt trong
nhng kt ni truyn thng (communication link) ca n gp li. Trong bn tin trap c
tham s ch ra ifIndex ca kt ni b li.
+ LinkUp: thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny pht hin c mt trong
nhng kt ni truyn thng ca n khi phc tr li. Trong bn tin trap c tham s ch
ra ifIndex ca kt ni c khi phc.
xiv

+ AuthenticationFailure: thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny nhn c


mt bn tin khng c chng thc thnh cng (bn tin b chng thc khng thnh cng
c th thuc nhiu giao thc khc nhau nh telnet, ssh, snmp, ftp, ). Thng thng trap
loi ny xy ra l do user ng nhp khng thnh cng vo thit b.
+ EgpNeighborloss: thng bo rng mt trong s nhng EGP neighbor 8 ca
thit b gi trap b coi l down v quan h i tc (peer relationship) gia 2 bn khng
cn c duy tr.
+ EnterpriseSpecific : thng bo rng bn tin trap ny khng thuc cc kiu
generic nh trn m n l mt loi bn tin do ngi dng t nh ngha.
Ngi dng c th t nh ngha thm cc loi trap lm phong ph thm kh
nng cnh bo ca thit b nh : boardFailed, configChanged, powerLoss, cpuTooHigh,
v.v. Ngi dng t quy nh ngha v gi tr ca cc specific trap ny, v d nhin ch
nhng trap receiver v trap sender h tr cng mt MIB mi c th hiu ngha ca
specific trap. Do nu bn dng mt phn mm trap receiver bt k nhn trap ca cc
trap sender bt k, bn c th c v hiu cc generic trap khi chng xy ra; nhng bn s
khng hiu ngha cc specific trap khi chng hin ln mn hnh v bn tin trap ch cha
nhng con s.

Hnh 1.5. Hnh minh ha cc phng thc SNMPv1


i vi cc phng thc Get/Set/Response th SNMP Agent lng nghe port UDP
161, cn phng thc trap th SNMP Trap Receiver lng nghe port UDP 162.

xv

1.7.

CC C CH BO MT CHO SNMP
Mt SNMP management station c th qun l/gim st nhiu SNMP element,

thng qua hot ng gi request v nhn trap. Tuy nhin mt SNMP element c th c
cu hnh ch cho php cc SNMP management station no c php qun l/gim
st mnh.
Cc c ch bo mt n gin ny gm c: community string, view v SNMP
access control list.
1.7.1. Community string
Community string l mt chui k t c ci t ging nhau trn c SNMP
manager v SNMP agent, ng vai tr nh mt khu gia 2 bn khi trao i d liu.
Community string c 3 loi : Read-community, Write-Community v Trap-Community.
Khi manager gi GetRequest, GetNextRequest n agent th trong bn tin gi i c
cha Read-Community. Khi agent nhn c bn tin request th n s so snh Readcommunity do manager gi v Read-community m n c ci t. Nu 2 chui ny
ging nhau, agent s tr li; nu 2 chui ny khc nhau, agent s khng tr li.
+ Write-Community c dng trong bn tin SetRequest. Agent ch chp nhn
thay i d liu khi write-community 2 bn ging nhau.
+ Trap-community nm trong bn tin trap ca trap sender gi cho trap receiver.
Trap receiver ch nhn v lu tr bn tin trap ch khi trap-community 2 bn ging nhau,
tuy nhin cng c nhiu trap receiver c cu hnh nhn tt c bn tin trap m khng
quan tm n trap-community.
+ Community string c 3 loi nh trn nhng cng mt loi c th c nhiu
string khc nhau. Ngha l mt agent c th khai bo nhiu read-community, nhiu writecommunity.
Trn hu ht h thng, read-community mc nh l public, write-community
mc nh l private v trap-community mc nh l public.
Community string ch l chui k t dng cleartext, do hon ton c th b nghe
ln khi truyn trn mng. Hn na, cc community mc nh thng l public v
private nn nu ngi qun tr khng thay i th chng c th d dng b d ra. Khi
community string trong mng b l, mt ngi dng bnh thng ti mt my tnh no
xvi

trong mng c th qun l/gim st ton b cc device c cng community m khng


c s cho php ca ngi qun tr.
1.7.2. View
Khi manager c read-community th n c th c ton b OID ca agent. Tuy
nhin agent c th quy nh ch cho php c mt s OID c lin quan nhau, tc l ch
c c mt phn ca MIB. Tp con ca MIB ny gi l view, trn agent c th nh
ngha nhiu view. V d : agent c th nh ngha view interfaceView bao gm cc OID
lin quan n interface, storageView bao gm cc OID lin quan n lu tr, hay
AllView bao gm tt c cc OID.
Mt view phi gn lin vi mt community string. Ty vo community string nhn
c l g m agent x l trn view tng ng. V d : agent nh ngha read-community
inf trn view interfaceView, v sto trn storageView; khi manager gi request ly
OID ifNumber vi community l inf th s c p ng do ifNumber nm trong
interfaceView; nu manager request OID hrStorageSize vi community inf th agent s
khng tr li do hrStorageSize khng nm trong interfaceView; nhng nu manager
request hrStorageSize vi community sto th s c tr li do hrStorageSize nm trong
storageView.
Vic nh ngha cc view nh th no ty thuc vo tng SNMP agent khc nhau.
C nhiu h thng khng h tr tnh nng view.
1.7.3. SNMP access control list
Khi manager gi khng ng community hoc khi OID cn ly li khng nm
trong view cho php th agent s khng tr li. Tuy nhin khi community b l th mt
manager no vn request c thng tin.
ngn chn hon ton cc SNMP manager khng c php, ngi qun tr c
th dng n SNMP access control list (ACL). SNMP ACL l mt danh sch cc a ch
IP c php qun l/gim st agent, n ch p dng ring cho giao thc SNMP v c
ci trn agent. Nu mt manager c IP khng c php trong ACL gi request th agent
s khng x l, d request c community string l ng.
a s cc thit b tng thch SNMP u cho php thit lp SNMP ACL.

xvii

1.8.

CU TRC BN TIN SNMP


SNMP chy trn nn UDP. Cu trc ca mt bn tin SNMP bao gm : version,

community v data.

Hnh 1.6. Cu trc bn tin SNMP


+ Version : v1 = 0, v2c = 1, v2u = 2, v3 = 3.
Phn Data trong bn tin SNMP gi l PDU (Protocol Data Unit). SNMPv1 c 5
phng thc hot ng tng ng 5 loi PDU. Tuy nhin ch c 2 loi nh dng bn tin
l PDU v Trap-PDU; trong cc bn tin Get, GetNext, Set, GetResponse c cng nh
dng l PDU, cn bn tin Trap c nh dng l Trap-PDU.

xviii

xix

CHNG 2. Xy dng m hnh qun l mng v bt bn tin


SNMP bng Wireshark

2.1.

Gii thiu phn mm GNS3 v Wireshark

LMS l mt phn ca gii php qun tr mng CiscoWorks, cung cp cc cng c


ci t, qun tr, gim st, pht hin li, v khc phc s c c th xy ra trong mng. Cc
cng c ny c th p dng cho hu ht cc thit b mng, bao gm Switch, Router, PIX
Firewall.
B phn mm LMS c vit trn cc giao thc chun ca Internet v thm cc
chc nng m rng cho cc thit b v phn mm ca Cisco, to nn mt cng c mnh
m gip nh qun tr mng c th qun l mng ni b ca mnh mt cch hiu qu. LMS
c giao din web nn nh qun tr c th d dng xem cc s mng, xem cc cu hnh
v thng tin v tnh trng ca thit b t bt k mt v tr no trong mng thng qua trnh
duyn web.
2.2.

CC CHC NNG QUN TR CA CISCOWORKS LAN

MANAGEMENT SOLUTION
LMS c thit k linh hot, c th ci t ring hoc dng chung vi cc phn mm
qun tr mng khc ca HP, Sun gip cho nh qun tr c nhiu la chn ph hp vi
kinh nghim ca mnh.
B phn mm CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution bao gm cc thnh phn
sau:
- Campus Manager (CM) l phn mm qun l cc thit b Switch ca Cisco qua
giao din web, cung cp thng tin v cc thit b lp 2, m hnh kt ni chi tit, cu hnh
WLAN, ATM LANE, qun l cc thit b ca ngi dng, in thoi IP
- Device Fault Manager (DFM) l phn mm gim st hot ng v kim li ca
cc thit b mng Cisco hot ng thi gian thc, thng bo li qua cc thng bo li,
qua email, hoc kt hp vi cc thng bo ca cc chng trnh khc.
- Resource Manager Essentials (RME) Gip qun l danh sch cc thit b mng,
cu hnh phn cng, phn mm, cc s c xy ra S dng phn mm ny ch yu nhm
mc ch thng k, lp bo co, lu h s v mng.
xx

- eGenius Real-Time Monitor(RTM) y l phn mm mi c a vo b


CiscoWorks LMS, hot ng da vo giao thc RMON nhm qun l, gim st hot ng
v khc phc s c ca mng. Cc kt qu phn tch, bo co u a ln mn hnh web
trc quan vi y thng tin.
- CiscoView(CV) y l phn mm ph bin nht ca Cisco dng truy cp xem
thng tin trng thi v ci t cu hnh ca thit b mng.
Vi tp hp cc phn mm trn, gii php LMS cung cp gim st t mi gc cnh
trong hot ng ca mng LAN, t nhng g xy ra cho n hin ti nhm pht hin,
phng v khc phc s c mng c th xy ra, gim thi gian gin on mng xung
mc thp nht Do tp trung vo qun l, gim st cc hot ng ca cc thit b mng,
b phn mm LSM gip nh qun tr mng lun yn tm v thi gian hot dng ca mng
ni b.
2.3.

CI T V CU HNH CISCOWORKS LAN MANAGEMENT

SOLUTION
2.3.1. Yu cu cn thit trc khi ci t
- Yu cu v h thng my ch
Yu cu

B x l CPU

Dung lng vt

B nh chnh

H iu hnh

Qun l <= 100

1 CPU li kp

l
4 GB

60 GB

32 hoc 64 bit

i tng

hoc 2 CPU li

(khng h tr

100 < i tng

n
1 CPU li kp

<= 300

hoc 2 CPU li

300 < i tng

n
2 CPU li kp

<= 750

hoc 4 CPU li

750 < i tng

n
2 CPU li kp

<= 1500

hoc 4 CPU li

1500< i tng

n
2 CPU li t

<= 2500

hoc 4 CPU li

4 GB

60 GB

Solaris)
32 hoc 64 bit

8 GB

60 GB

32 hoc 64 bit

8 GB

60 GB

64 bit

16 GB

60 GB

64 bit

xxi

2500<i tng

kp
2 CPU 8 li

<= 10000

hoc 4 CPU li

16 GB

120 GB

64 bit

t
- Yu cu cu hnh my khch
Yu cu
B nh vt l
Phn cng v phn mm

Chi tit
2 GB
CPU li n tc 2.33 GHz hoc cao
hn.
H tr Windows 2k3 Standard v
Enterprise SP2 (32 v 64 bit), Windows
2k3 Standard R2 v Enterprise R2 SP2
(32 v 64 bit),Windows XP
SP3,Windows 2k8 Standard v
Enterprise SP1, SP2 (32 v 64 bit),

Trnh duyt
Plug-in Java

Windows 7 (32 v 64 bit


IE 7.0 trn win7, IE 8, Firefox 3.6
Java Plug-in version 1.6.0_19 hoc cao
hn

2.3.2. Ci t
Vic ci t CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution 3.2 cng ging nh ci t
mt s phn mm khc. Hon ton bng giao din, tng i d dng cho nhng ngi
mi s dng ln u.
Chng trnh h tr h iu hnh l Solaris v Windows. Tuy nhin vi h iu
hnh Windows, n ch chy c trn phin bn Windows Server 2003 v Windows
Server 2008. y nhm trin khai trn mi trng Windows Server 2003 SP2.
Qu trnh ci t CiscoWorks LMS:

Tm n tp tin thc thi double click hoc right click Open.

xxii

Hnh 2.1. Giao din bt u ci t

Xut hin mn hnh thng bo, nhn Next tip tc qu trnh ci t

Hnh 2.2. Mn hnh thng bo cho mng ci t chng trnh

iu khon s dng chng trnh. Chn I accept v Next tip tc

xxiii

Hnh 2.3. iu khon s dng chng trnh

Ty chn ci t:
+ Typical Installation: Ci t theo cu hnh mc nh ca nh sn xut

(khuyn co s dng vi ngi mi bt u)


+ Custom Installation: Ci t theo ty chnh ca ngi s dng.

Hnh 2.4. Ty chn ci t

Ty chn cc ng dng s c ci t. i vi mt h thng mng ln nn

la chn tt c cc ng dng t hiu qu qun tr cao nht hoc la chn ph hp vi


nhu cu qun tr h thng ca mnh.

xxiv

Hnh 2.5. La chn ng dng


ng k thng tin cc ng dng LMS. La chn Evalution Only s dng th
nghim trong 90 ngy.

Hnh 2.6. ng k thng tin ng dng LMS

ng k thng tin cho HUM add-in. La chn Evalution Only s dng

trong 90 ngy

xxv

Hnh 2.7. ng k thng tin HUM

Yu cu cu hnh h thng. V nhm thc hin trn m hnh o nn cu hnh

my ch khng cao do c mt s thng s khng p ng c cu hnh ngh. Nu


nh bn trin khai vi m hnh thc t th h thng ca bn phi p ng c cu hnh
ngh tr ln.

Hnh 2.8. Yu cu cu hnh h thng

Nhp mu khu cho user Admin. Mt khu c di ti thiu l 5 k t.

xxvi

Hnh 2.9. Mt khu cho user Admin

Nhp mt khu ti khon nhn dng h thng. N gip cho bn c th

truyn thng vi mt s my ch l mt phn ca mt min (ci t nhiu server). di


ti thiu l 5 k t

Hnh 2.10. Mt khu ti khon nh danh h thng.

Tng hp cc thng tin m bn la chn ci t. Kim tra li tht k

chc chn rng bn khng la chn sai mt thnh phn no . Nu nh pht hin c mt
hoc mt vi la chn nhm bn chn Change Settings cu hnh li. Nu khng chn
Install ci t vo bn trong h thng

xxvii

Hnh 2.11. Tng hp thng tin

Qu trnh ci t ang din ra

Hnh 2.12. Qu trnh ci t


Qu trnh ci t s din ra trong mt thi gian tng i lu c th mt t 30 45
pht ty thuc vo cu hnh my ch ci t.
Sau khi hon thnh chng trnh s a ra mt thng bo cho bn bit mt s thng
tin cn thit. Chn Next kt thc qu trnh ci t

Hnh 2.13. Mt s thng tin cn thit


xxviii

2.3.3. Cu hnh
S dng chc nng CiscoWorks Assistant cu hnh ban u. Chn Workflows s
thy ba chc nng chnh:

Hnh 2.14. Chc nng CiscoWorks Assistant


Cc quy trnh Setup Server s hng dn ngi dng thit lp my ch c bn bao
gm:
Cu hnh ci t my ch nh nh dang h thng (System Identity), mt khu
qun tr, SMTP
Cu hnh ch qun l thit b.
Cu hnh cc thng tin mc nh cho cc thit b mng.
Thm bng tay hoc t ng pht hin thit b trn mng ca bn.
B tr cc thit b c qun l bi cc ng dng nh RME, CM, DFM v IPM.
Tch hp ACS (khng bt buc nhng c khuyn khch s dng).
Sau khi tung ra quy trnh lm vic thit lp my ch CWA, n cho thy cc my ch
LMS cc b v trnh trng kt ni.

xxix

Hnh 2.15. Danh sch ng dng my ch


Click nt Start Setup

bt u cng vic, hoc tip tc thit lp

trc cha c hon thnh.


cho my ch mi, ngi dng cn phi cu hnh my ch thit lp nh th hin
trong hnh.

Hnh 2.16. Thit lp my ch CiscoWorks


xxx

Bc tip theo s hin th nh danh h thng hin ti. Thit lp h thng nhn dng
s gip cho bn to mt ngi s dng ng tin cy trn cc my ch thuc v mt phn
ca h thng nhiu my ch LMS hoc hi nhp ACS. iu ny to iu kin cho ngi
s dng giao tip gia cc my ch c th l mt phn ca mt qun l tn min. C th
ch c mt h thng nhn dng ngi s dng cho mi my ch.
ch khng ACS, ngi s dng nhn dng h thng m bn to phi l mt
ngi cc b, vi tt c cc quyn.
ch ACS, ngi s dng nhn dng h thng nn c cu hnh trong ACS,
vi cc c quyn cao nht, trong tt c cc ng dng ng k ti ACS. Hoc l bn c
th cu hnh h thng nhn dng ngi s dng vi vai tr Super Admin c xc nh
trc hoc vi vai tr ty chnh to ra vi tt c cc quyn trong ACS.

Hnh 2.17. H thng nhn dng hin ti

Hnh 2.18. To mi h thng nhn dng


Bc tip theo l cu hnh ch qun l thit b. Ban u cc thit b b sung
hoc pht hin ra DCR ca Common Services. Theo mc nh, tt c cc thit b c
qun l t ng do Campus Manager and RME, nhng khng c DFM v IPM. Ch
qun l thit b s xc nh cho d cc thit b mi s t ng c qun l bi cc ng
dng CiscoWorks. Hin c ba ch qun l thit b.
xxxi

Ch qun l thit b
Auto Allocation Off

M t
Trong ch ny, t ng b sung cc thit b cho cc
thit b cho cc ng dng LMS b tt. Bn c th s
dng ty chn ny :
C chn lc thm thit b vo cc ng dng t DCR.
Thm thit b trc b xa tr li ng dng.
Bn c th t thm cc thit b cho cc ng dng LMS
ngay c khi bn la chn cc ch khc cho qun

Auto Allocation All Devices

l thit b.
Trong ch ny, tt c cc thit b trong DCR c
b sung vo cc ng dng LMS c chn. iu ny

cng c gii hn bi LMS giy php bn mua.


Auto Allocation Allocate by Trong ch ny, cc thit b thuc v mt nhm c
Groups

th chung dch v c b sung vo cc ng dng


LMS. iu ny cng c gii hn bi LMS gip php
bn mua. Bn phi chn tn nhm cho tt c cc ng

dng c ci t trn cc b v my ch ngang hng.


La chn ch qun l thit b

Hnh 2.19. Cu hnh ch qun l thit b


CWA s kt thc phn u ca vic thit lp my ch v bo co tnh trng.

Hnh 2.20. Ci t Server


xxxii

Tip theo CWA s hng dn bn cu hnh thng tin ng nhp mc nh v b


thng tin ng nhp mc nh. Thng tin ng nhp mc nh l tnh nng mi t LMS
3.0. N cho php ngi dng thit lp cc thng tin ng nhp (mc nh) ph bin cho
cc thit b ngi dng khng cn phi ch r thng tin ng nhp tng thit b mt.
Ti LMS 3.2, mt tnh nng mi c thm vo h tr cc b thng tin ng nhp.
By gi bn c th to ra nhiu tp ca thng tin ng nhp v ch nh cc b da trn
cc chnh sch, c ngha l a ch IP, tn my ch hoc tn hin th.
Trong hnh cho thy lm th no to ra thng tin ng nhp mt nh.

Hnh 2.21. Thng tin ng nhp mc nh

Hnh 2.22. To thng tin ng nhp


Ti y chng ti to ra thng tin ng nhp l Qlhethong. Click Apply v in vo
standard credentials v SNMP credentials.
Standard default bao gm cc thnh phn thng tin ng nhp chnh ph (tn ngi
dng, mt khu, v cho php mt khu Telnet hoc SSH).

xxxiii

Hnh 2.23. Thng tin ng nhp chun


Thng tin SNMP hin nay h tr c hai giao thc SNMPv2, v SNMPv3 cho c hai
ch AuthNoPriv v AuthPrive.

Hnh 2.24. Thng tin ng nhp SNMP mc nh


Sau khi lu li thng tin ng nhp mc nh, ngi dng c nhc nh thm
cu hnh chnh sch i vi cc thit lp thng tin mc nh c to ra. Bn c th gn
cc b da trn IP phm vi, tn my hoc tn hin th.

Hnh 2.25. Cu hnh chnh sch thng tin ng nhp mc nh

xxxiv

Hnh di cho thy giao din thit b thm. Bn c th t thm cc thit b vo DCR
bi s lng ln nhp t mt tp tin (gi tr bng du phy [CSV] hoc XML) hoc h
thng qun l mng (HP OpenView, IBM NetView hoc Cisco Secure ACS).
Hoc bn c th chy trnh khm ph trn my ch tm cc thit b trn mng ca
bn.

Hnh 2.26. Ch khm ph


Vic khm ph ra thit b th h tip theo (next- generation) t ng ca LMS 3.2 h
tr c hai Lp 2 (Cisco Discovery Protocol) v giao thc lp 3. Bn cng c th l mt
qu trnh qut ping trn mng hoc s dng cc ty chn khc nh Cluster Discovery
Module and Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP).
Bi v mc nh Cisco Discovery Protocol c s dng pht hin ra cc thit b.
Hnh di cho thy lm th no la chn cc m-un khm ph.

Hnh 2.27. M-un khm ph


xxxv

s dng Cisco Discovery Protocol l gio thc khm ph, u tin phi thm cc
thit b ht ging (seed devices). Cc thit b ht ging thng l cc thit b chuyn mch
li c cc kt ni n cc thit b mng khc. Cc my ch CiscoWorks s i n cc thit
b ht ging v tm thy hng xm (neighbor) ca n, sau tm thy hng xm ca hng
xm. Qu trnh ny s lan truyn trn mng cho n khi tt c cc thit b c tm thy.

Hnh 2.28. Thit b ht ging khm ph


Tip theo chng ta cu hnh cc thit lp SNMP, bao gm my ch, cc chui k t
cng ng (string community), thi gian tm ngng, v th li.

Hnh 2.29. Thit lp SNMP khm ph


Nu bn mun gii hn phm vi khm ph, cu hnh cc thit lp b lc bao gm
hoc loi tr cc thit b da trn a ch IP, tn min DNS, sysObjectID, hoc
sysLocation.
xxxvi

Hnh 2.30. Thit lp b lc khm ph


Trn cc thit lp ton cu, ngi dng c th c th cu hnh tn DCR hin th u
tin v qun l u thch v la chn cc thng tin mc nh. Nu bn mun qu trnh
khm ph gii quyt a ch IP cho tn my ch, m bo rng DNS c cu hnh
ng trn my ch LMS.

Hnh 2.31. Thit lp khm ph ton cu


Mt ci mi trong LMS 3.2, nhiu thng tin ng nhp mc nh c th c cu
hnh v p dng khi thm, chnh sa, hoc nhp cc thit b. Chnh sch da trn thng tin
ng nhp cho php ngi s dng p dng cc thng tin ng nhp cho cc thit b da
trn phm vi a ch IP, tn hin th, hoc tn my ch.
Sau khi vic pht hin ra c thc hin, mt tin nhn c hin th bo co
thnh cng.
xxxvii

Hnh 2.32. Hon thnh qu trnh khm ph


Ngi dng c th kim tra cc thit b c pht hin bng cch vo Common
Service -> Device and Credentials -> Device Management kim tra cc bn tm tt
thit b.

xxxviii

CHNG 3. TRIN KHAI PHN MM QUN L H


THNG MNG CISCOWORKS LAN MANAGEMENT
SOLUTION
3.1.

M HNH H THNG TRIN KHAI

CiscoWorks LMS l mt phn mm mnh vi y nhng tnh nng v cng c,


h tr qun l mt h thng mng t nh n v cng ln, s thit b ti a m
CiscoWorks LMS c th qun l ln n 10.000 thit b.
Tuy nhin CiscoWorks LMS l mt phn mm thng mi, nhm ch ti v c
phin bn dng th ca n v b hn ch mt s tnh nng, cng c do v l do khch
quan ny nn nhm xin a ra mt m hnh nh trin khai bao gm cc thit b nh
switch, router, server v cc my PC.

Hnh 3.1. M hnh trin khai

xxxix

3.2.

GIAO DIN S DNG CC TNH NNG C BN

Sau khi ci t thnh cng ta kch hot chng trnh. Chng trnh gim st mng
CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution l mt chng trnh c giao din chy hon ton
trn ng dng web, s dng giao thc HTTP hoc HTTPS ty theo yu cu cng vic m
ta c th ty chn. Nu la chn HTTP th chng trnh s hot ng nhanh nhng km
bo mt, ngc li HTTPS li cho ta tnh bo mt cao nhng li lm cho h thng b
chm i.
Ta ng nhp vo chng trnh bng User v Password in vo trc lc ci t
login vo chng trnh.

Hnh 3.2. ng nhp chng trnh


Sau khi ng nhp thnh cng chng trnh s a cho chng ta mt giao din gm
cc tnh nng iu khin, xem xt, qun l.

xl

Hnh 3.3. Giao din chnh ca chng trnh.


Giao din chnh ca chng trnh l tng th cc iu khin nm trong tab
Functional bao gm cc tnh nng nh:

Common service: cho ta bit v tnh trng server, trung tm phn mn, cc

Setup Centrer: Ni ta cu hnh cho ton b chng trnh nh to user, thm,

thit b
sa thng tin, xa cc thit b, cc kt ni

Campus Manager: l trung tm iu khin, hin th cc user ang lm vic,

xem thng bo, cu hnh.

Cisco View : Ni chng ta c th xem xt tng quan cc thit b, dng Mini

Rmon sa li cho cc thit b, s c mng


Ngoi ra cn c cc Report gip din gii nhng hng dn cho ngi dng bng
cc Clip ngn gip ngi dng d dng s dng.

xli

Hnh 3.4. Ca s System


Ca s System cho ta bit v cc cng vic no ang hot ng, cng vic no
ang b ngng, cng vic no hon thnh hay cha.
Trong phn Log space Usage cn cho ta bit tnh trng cc file log ghi li cc s
kin ca h thng.
Ngoi ra chng trnh cn h tr chc nng tm kim xem cc cng vic, thit b,
cng hot ng

Hnh 3.5. Ca s Network


xlii

Ca s Network cho ta thy cc thng tin v h thng mng ang hot ng bao
gm cc thit b ang hot ng, tnh trng ca thit b mng, cc tc t lin quan

Hnh 3.6. Ca s CM
Campus Manager (CM) l phn mm qun l cc thit b switch ca Cisco qua
giao din web, cung cp thng tin v cc thit b lp 2, m hnh kt ni chi tit, cu hnh
VLAN, ATM LANE, qun l cc thit b ca ngi dng, in thoi IP

Hnh 3.7. Ca s CS
CS l ca s hin th cc dch v c ci t v chy trn h thng mng, cc ch
Backup ca h thng v tnh trng hot ng ca cc ng dng cc ca s khc.
xliii

Hnh 3.8. Ca s DFM


DFM l phn mm gim st hot ng v kim tra li ca cc thit b mng Cisco
hot ng thi gian thc, thng bo li qua cc thng bo li, qua email, hoc kt hp
vi cc thng bo ca cc chng trnh khc.

Hnh 3.9. Ca s IPM


IPM cung cp cho chng ta cc thng tin v cc hot ng qua li gia cc mng
khc nhau trong h thng m chng ta qun l.

xliv

Hnh 3.10. Ca s RME


Resource Manager Essentials (RME) Gip qun l danh sch cc thit b mng,
cu hnh phn cng, phn mm, cc s c xy ra S dng phn mm ny ch yu nhm
mc ch thng k, lp bo co, lu h s v mng.
Ngoi ra phn mn cn cung cp cc thng k nh sc khe ca h thng, tnh
trng thit b, h thng mng

Hnh 3.11. Thng tin v thit b trong mng

xlv

Hnh 3.12. Tnh trng ca cc thit b trong mng

Hnh 3.13. Hin trng ca cc port

xlvi

KT LUN

Qua n ny gip cho chng em c k nng lm vic nhm. Cng c li cc kin


thc hc trong b mn qun l h thng mng, gip cho chng em c thm kinh
nghim khi ra trng khng gp kh khn khi tip xc vi cc cng ngh mi. Nhng y
mi ch l mt n mn hc nn qu trnh tm hiu, lng kin thc cn t, cn nhiu
hn ch trong cch trnh by
V phn nhm, tuy c rt nhiu c gng cng nhau chia s cng vic, tm kim,
trao i ti liu c mt n tt nht c th. Song do kin thc cn hn hp v kinh
nghim thc t cn rt thiu nn cng kh trnh khi nhng sai st trong n. Mc khc
phn mm CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution l mt phn mm qun l h thng
mng cc k mnh v y tnh nng, i hi cu hnh my ch kh cao, c bn quyn
s dng Mc d c gng tm c bn dng th nhng li b hn ch nhiu tnh
nng cng thm trin khai trn m hnh gi lp vi my ch c cu hnh khng mnh
lm cho nhm gp nhiu kh khn trong vic tm hiu v trin khai phn mm.
Nhm rt mong nhn c nhng nh gi v gp t pha qu Thy (c) v cc
bn nhm c th hon thin n ny v c th p dng n ra trin khai vi h thng
ngoi thc t.

xlvii

Tm hiu v giao thc SNMP v phn mm qun l h thng mng CiscoWorks LMS

DANH MC TI LIU THAM KHO

Ting Vit
[1]

Dip Thanh Nguyn (2010), SNMP ton tp

[2]

Trn Duy Minh (2008), Gii php an ninh trong kin trc qun tr mng

SNMP
Ting Anh
[3]

CiscoWorks LAN Management Soution 3.2 Deployment Guide

[4]

Installing and Getting Started With CiscoWorks LAN Management

Solution
Ngun t Internet
[5]

http://vi.wikipedia.org

[6]

http://vnpro.org

[7]

http://nhatnghe.com

[8]

http://en.wikipedia.org

[9]

http://cisco.com

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Tm hiu v giao thc SNMP v phn mm qun l h thng mng CiscoWorks LMS

NHN XT CA GING VIN HNG DN


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