Perfect Modals

Perfect Modal sentence

could have _____ couldn't have _____
past ability The boy could have done the dishes himself, but his father decided to help.

should have ____ shouldn't have ____
You did or didn't do something that was a good idea.

The girl shouldn't have spun around so many times. She fell down. spin: turn around many times. spin / spun / spun

would have ____ wouldn't have ____
past condition / past situation This house of cards would have fallen over if the person who built it hadn't been so careful.

may have _____ may not have _____
past possibility My grandfather may have used this camera when he was a young man, but I'm not sure.

might have ______ might not have _____
past possibility Her mother might have put mustard on her sandwich. She hopes not.

must have ____ must not have ___
past probability. This indicates that something probably happened in the past. They must have practiced a lot because they're very good musicians.

The primary perfect modals used in English are Could have, Must have, and Should have. Could have (or might have) is used to express a event that could have occurred but didn't. Mike could have had an accident. Jane could have gotten hurt. Mike didn't have an accident, and Jane didn't get hurt. But because of some prevailing circumstances it could have happened, but didn't. Must have is used to express an opinion that we believe is true. He must have forgotten. Maria must have come late. When we say He must have forgotten, we are not sure he forgot.

Don't forget to capitalize when necessary. You attempt the ascent. (build) their house anywhere. I You (practice) a lot. be dangerous if you are not well prepared for research the route a little more before you 4. they die. Gap-fill Exercise Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. 1. Such objects leave small objects lying be swallowed. I Jack lost his wallet on the way to work. you downtown and explore the waterfront. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. She I don't have anything to wear today. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out. 2. (feed) your dog. When you have answered all the questions. causing serious injury or even death. can could have to must might should 1. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It have cost a fortune. 8. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. I am almost out. (lose) it on the bus. 7. then click the "Check" button to check your answers. 6. Sometimes negative forms are used. 7. I can't. (do) the laundry. 6. You The Smiths It's hot in here today.Type the correct perfect modal and verb form for the following sentences. He such a long flight. 3. (spend) more time studying. She I (buy) more milk. 5. 3. I didn't do very well on the test. 9. Why did he choose here? (wear) a heavy sweater today. (study) a lot. Hiking the trail to the peak dramatic weather changes. 4. . He You did very well on the exam. you around. walk 2.I Modal Verbs Exercise 1 10. If they don't get enough water. He has been hungry all day. Dave: you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No. (fall). Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. 5. click on the Get score button at the bottom of the page to see your score and the correct answers. Gloria has won every game she's played today. When you have a small child in the house. Lucy shouldn't have stood on the broken chair. He be exhausted after prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.

we pull over at the next rest stop? I really hold it until we get to Chicago. so the killer It be any one of us!!! be someone in this room. the big day is tomorrow. 14. I don't know if I 13. Or. That's the only other place it 11. causing . have just said she was full or had some 16. I 9. It be in there. perhaps she is just nervous. Actually. My professor said we But we read it if we don't want to. it's making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza. I've given up insult her cooking in front of everyone at the party last night. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago. 19. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. Now. use the bathroom and said there's a storm north of here and it 12. just say a few things in the language. 15. I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child.8. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. no problem. 17. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada. Mrs. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. Do you chew with your mouth open like that? Geez. Pamela: It have been what you said about her brother. 10. It be lying around here somewhere. read it if we needed extra credit. Ned: I borrow your lighter for a minute? have left it here last Stephen: Sure. and it's still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening. She salad if she didn't like the meal. He night. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I believe she said that to Megan! She keep it if you want to. it be? be swallowed. you always say the first thing that pops into your head? once in awhile before you speak? you think 20. Where serious injury or even death. I never took it out of this room. The book is optional. After all. 18. take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the news rain later on this afternoon. you smoking. You be.

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