Perfect Modal sentence
could have _____ couldn't have _____
past ability The boy could have done the dishes himself, but his father decided to help.
should have ____ shouldn't have ____
You did or didn't do something that was a good idea.
The girl shouldn't have spun around so many times. She fell down. spin: turn around many times. spin / spun / spun
would have ____ wouldn't have ____
past condition / past situation This house of cards would have fallen over if the person who built it hadn't been so careful.
may have _____ may not have _____
past possibility My grandfather may have used this camera when he was a young man, but I'm not sure.
might have ______ might not have _____
past possibility Her mother might have put mustard on her sandwich. She hopes not.
must have ____ must not have ___
past probability. This indicates that something probably happened in the past. They must have practiced a lot because they're very good musicians.
The primary perfect modals used in English are Could have, Must have, and Should have. Could have (or might have) is used to express a event that could have occurred but didn't. Mike could have had an accident. Jane could have gotten hurt. Mike didn't have an accident, and Jane didn't get hurt. But because of some prevailing circumstances it could have happened, but didn't. Must have is used to express an opinion that we believe is true. He must have forgotten. Maria must have come late. When we say He must have forgotten, we are not sure he forgot.
7. 8. 7.
Gap-fill Exercise Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. (lose) it on the bus. you downtown and explore the waterfront. 9.
be dangerous if you are not well prepared for research the route a little more before you
4. I can't.
(build) their house anywhere. I didn't do very well on the test.Type the correct perfect modal and verb form for the following sentences.
Lucy shouldn't have stood on the broken chair. He has been hungry all day. (do) the laundry. Sometimes negative forms are used.
(study) a lot. 3.
5. 3. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It have cost a fortune. I You
(practice) a lot. Why did he choose here? (wear) a heavy sweater today. 4. Dave: you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No. then click the "Check" button to check your answers. She I don't have anything to wear today. 6. If they don't get enough water. He You did very well on the exam. 6. walk
2. You The Smiths It's hot in here today. I am almost out.
1. She I (buy) more milk. I Jack lost his wallet on the way to work. 5.
(spend) more time studying. they die. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out. 2. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. When you have a small child in the house. can could have to must might should
1. you around. click on the Get score button at the bottom of the page to see your score and the correct answers.
(feed) your dog. Such objects
leave small objects lying
be swallowed. Hiking the trail to the peak dramatic weather changes. Don't forget to capitalize when necessary.
. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. When you have answered all the questions. (fall). He
be exhausted after
prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.
Gloria has won every game she's played today. causing serious injury or even death. He such a long flight. You attempt the ascent.I Modal Verbs Exercise 1
15. perhaps she is just nervous. After all.
take your umbrella along with you today. causing
. Mrs. Or. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. Actually. I 9. He night. the big day is tomorrow.
we pull over at the next rest stop? I really hold it until we get to Chicago.
18. I never took it out of this room. My professor said we But we read it if we don't want to. you smoking. use the bathroom and
said there's a storm north of here and it 12. Pamela: It have been what you said about her brother. and it's still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening. She salad if she didn't like the meal. The book is optional. Where serious injury or even death. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. so the killer It be any one of us!!! be someone in this room.
have just said she was full or had some
16. I believe she said that to Megan! She
keep it if you want to. it's making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza. you always say the first thing that pops into your head? once in awhile before you speak? you think
20. You be. I've given up
insult her cooking in front
of everyone at the party last night. That's the only other place it 11. Now. 17. just say a few things in the language. it be? be swallowed.8. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. The weatherman on the news rain later on this afternoon.
I don't know if I
10. no problem. I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. It be lying around here somewhere. But after we moved back to Canada. Ned: I borrow your lighter for a minute?
have left it here last
Stephen: Sure. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It be in there. 14. Do you chew with your mouth open like that? Geez. read it if we needed extra credit. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding.