Perfect Modals

Perfect Modal sentence

could have _____ couldn't have _____
past ability The boy could have done the dishes himself, but his father decided to help.

should have ____ shouldn't have ____
You did or didn't do something that was a good idea.

The girl shouldn't have spun around so many times. She fell down. spin: turn around many times. spin / spun / spun

would have ____ wouldn't have ____
past condition / past situation This house of cards would have fallen over if the person who built it hadn't been so careful.

may have _____ may not have _____
past possibility My grandfather may have used this camera when he was a young man, but I'm not sure.

might have ______ might not have _____
past possibility Her mother might have put mustard on her sandwich. She hopes not.

must have ____ must not have ___
past probability. This indicates that something probably happened in the past. They must have practiced a lot because they're very good musicians.

The primary perfect modals used in English are Could have, Must have, and Should have. Could have (or might have) is used to express a event that could have occurred but didn't. Mike could have had an accident. Jane could have gotten hurt. Mike didn't have an accident, and Jane didn't get hurt. But because of some prevailing circumstances it could have happened, but didn't. Must have is used to express an opinion that we believe is true. He must have forgotten. Maria must have come late. When we say He must have forgotten, we are not sure he forgot.

Why did he choose here? (wear) a heavy sweater today. 9. He You did very well on the exam. 7. Dave: you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It have cost a fortune. can could have to must might should 1. 8. When you have a small child in the house. (fall). I didn't do very well on the test. 6. they die.I Modal Verbs Exercise 1 10. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. 5. you around. I You (practice) a lot. (build) their house anywhere. 7. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out. 2. 1. He such a long flight. Sometimes negative forms are used. I Jack lost his wallet on the way to work. He be exhausted after prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest. then click the "Check" button to check your answers. causing serious injury or even death. 3. Gloria has won every game she's played today. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. I am almost out. 6. She I don't have anything to wear today. . 3. 5. Hiking the trail to the peak dramatic weather changes. you downtown and explore the waterfront. Lucy shouldn't have stood on the broken chair. When you have answered all the questions. (study) a lot. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. I can't. You attempt the ascent. 4. If they don't get enough water. Gap-fill Exercise Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below. She I (buy) more milk. (feed) your dog. click on the Get score button at the bottom of the page to see your score and the correct answers. You The Smiths It's hot in here today. be dangerous if you are not well prepared for research the route a little more before you 4. Don't forget to capitalize when necessary. (do) the laundry. Such objects leave small objects lying be swallowed. He has been hungry all day. (lose) it on the bus. (spend) more time studying.Type the correct perfect modal and verb form for the following sentences. walk 2.

have just said she was full or had some 16. She salad if she didn't like the meal. 18. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. it's making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza. no problem. 14. it be? be swallowed. and it's still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening. we pull over at the next rest stop? I really hold it until we get to Chicago. perhaps she is just nervous. 19. Or. causing . 15. I don't know if I 13. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. It be in there. After all. I've given up insult her cooking in front of everyone at the party last night. 17. use the bathroom and said there's a storm north of here and it 12. The weatherman on the news rain later on this afternoon. Where serious injury or even death. Pamela: It have been what you said about her brother. I 9. That's the only other place it 11. I believe she said that to Megan! She keep it if you want to. Mrs. But after we moved back to Canada.8. 10. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. He night. I never took it out of this room. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. My professor said we But we read it if we don't want to. Do you chew with your mouth open like that? Geez. you smoking. just say a few things in the language. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. the big day is tomorrow. you always say the first thing that pops into your head? once in awhile before you speak? you think 20. You be. take your umbrella along with you today. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago. Actually. The book is optional. so the killer It be any one of us!!! be someone in this room. read it if we needed extra credit. Ned: I borrow your lighter for a minute? have left it here last Stephen: Sure. It be lying around here somewhere. Now.

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