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Carrier Component Identification

TRAINING INSTITUTE

Traditional Carrier

Suspension System
Conventional axle & hydrogas suspension

Hydrogas Suspension Principle


Accumulator

Suspension control valve Pump

P Axle blocking valve

Megatrak Design
Automatic gearbox

Hydraulic system

Drive Suspension cylinder Differential Engine Steering Transfer case Outrigger Pump drive box

Megatrak System
Suspension struts & no axles

Introduced in 1989

Early Suspension Struts


Early Magatrak models 3045 - 4070 (4071 technical) all used small suspension struts Identification by double mounting blocks Stroke = 240 mm/9.44 inches

Large Suspension Struts


Large struts used from 4070 (4072 technical) and on all current models single mounting block Cylinder stroke is now 300 mm/12 inches

Large Suspension Struts


Detail of top fixing band

Large struts have a single weldment mounting with a frame dowel retained by a steel band & plastic insert

Large Suspension Struts


Lubricating oil chamber Hydraulic cylinder Housing fixed to carrier Support tube turns in housing

Suspension Systems
Megatrak
2 1

1. Differential 2. Suspension cylinder 3. Wheel head 4. Wheel 5. Drive shaft


4

Suspension System Control


On various models suspension levelling control solenoid valves are remote mounted, typically above the outrigger boxes Axle blocking valves are typically adjacent to the suspension cylinders

Suspension Control System


Accumulators

Typical system layout


Blocking valve

Blocking valve

Direction valves

Suspension cylinder assemblies

Suspension System Control


Integrated suspension levelling and axle blocking control valves are being used on some current, and new models

Suspension Control System


On some current, and new models Axle blocking is controlled by pneumatically operated valves Suspension levelling is controlled by integrated solenoid valves

Large Suspension Struts


Large struts also have integrated proximity switches for suspension control

Suspension Proximity Switches


Proximity switches They look identical, but one is normally open and the other normally closed Upper switch = N/O Lower switch = N/C

Suspension Proximity Switches


All small and some early large struts have external proximity switches between the steering linkage within a vertical tube

Steering Geometry
Steering levers. Known by other terms - Wishbone or compulsion levers. They transfer steering control to the wheels

Steering Geometry
Steering levers are now fitted with Swiss cheese bushings in place of hard steel bushings

Steering Geometry
Typical standard drive steer configuration

Steering Geometry
The steering idler allows the rear axle to steer on highway or the rear two axles to steer independently of the front axles View of all wheel steer & all wheel drive option

Steering idler

Steering Geometry
Rear steering idler assembly Used from KMK 4070 (4072 technical) - GMK 5160 It allows highway rear wheel steering when locked and independent rear wheel steering when unlocked

Steering Geometry
Rear steering idler assembly Proximity switch for locking control Mechanical switches for transmission and hydraulic control

Power Train
Kessler transfer case They may look identical, but the ratio may differ!
Transfer case

Power Train
A transfer case manufactured by MAN was used on all GMT models with more than three axles All KMK & GMK models use a separate Kessler transfer case on models with more than three axles

Power Train
Kessler transfer case

Drive from transmission

Drive to front axles Drive to rear axles

Power Train
Kessler transfer case It divides the drive power to the axles It has two speeds It also drives the emergency steering pump

Power Train
All conventional drive axles are manufactured by Kessler Early Megatrak -KMK 3040 - KMK 4060 used differentials & wheel heads manufactured by ZF KMK 4070 and current models all use differentials & wheel heads from Kessler

Power Train
Conventional axle with disk or drum brakes

Megatrak axle, only with drum brakes

Power Train
Megatrak, Kessler differential assembly With internal air actuated differential cross locks

Power Train
Megatrack, Kessler differential with inter-axle differential

Power Train
Inter-axle differential gives equal power split to axles

Power Train
Electric retarder shown installed on the rear differential. It is also known as an eddy current brake. Manufacturers Kloft & Telma are used

Power Train
Double and single joint cardan (half shafts) are used depending on application The assembly part number can be found here

Power Train
Fixed ring gear

Principle of reduction hub 3 & 4 planet gear versions are used

Power Train
View of reduction hub & wheel drive This casing is driven by internal sun & planet gears

Power Train
It is a general rule that when replacing a broken wheel stud also replace the wheel stud on either side of the broken one and fit new wheel nuts

POWER TRAIN
Wheel studs vary in length depending on application Drive axles = 96 mm = 3.77 inches Non drive axles = 88 mm = 3.46 inches Double wheel drive axles = 110 mm = 4.33 inches

Power Train
Brake design can be wedge or S cam - the latter is not used on KMK or GMK models
Wedge S cam

Power Train
Brake drums and brake linings also vary in width depending on axle location The term simplex or duplex is used to indicate single or double air actuators on wedge brake applications Disk brakes were only used on preMegatrak AT models up to 70 tonnes

Pneumatic Systems
View of Wabco air dryer. The desicant cartridge should be changed at least every two years

Pneumatic Systems
Pneumatic solenoids are often assembled in a sandwich block

Pneumatic Systems
The cooling coil between the compressor & air dryer is copper pipe Coloured plastic air pipes are not used, they are all black plastic In addition to the olive (compression ring) plastic pipes need an internal reinforcing sleeve

Hydraulic Pumps
Various pump drive methods are used Engine crankshaft Engine auxiliary drive Drive box between engine & transmission PTO from transmission Drive from transfer case for steering backup pumps

Hydraulic System
Principle of carrier remote pump drive box Superstructure hyd motor/pump Hyd swivel Pump drive box

Engine

Transmission

Hydraulic Systems
View of hydraulic pump drive box for GMK 4070 (4072 technical)

Hydraulic System
View of remote hydraulic pump drive box
Hydraulic pump

Through drive

Engine to transmission Hydraulic pump

Hydraulic Pumps
View of Chelsea transmission mounted PTO for hydraulic pump drive & live pump drive on a GMK 3050 - both are left & right mounted to the Allison world series

Swivel - Hydraulic
Multi port hydraulic swivels are used on current models upto 70 tonnes

Hydraulic Systems
Outriggers are H configuration and controlled by electric solenoid direction valves

Swivel - Electric
The electric swivel (if used) is mounted directly to the carrier or mounted on top of the hydraulic swivel as shown Cannon plug connections

Electrical System
Any model with plastic junction boxes no longer has a traditional chassis harness. It has now been replaced with multi core cables & junction boxes

Electrical Systems
Electrical Relay Suppliers: Bosch - single & double leg (standard). Single leg (micro) Siemens - multi leg (stacking). Double or triple leg (clear plastic) Telemecanique - multi leg

Electrical Systems
Relay versions
SIEMENS stacking relay BOSCH standard micro SIEMENS clear plastic

Electrical Systems
15 pin AMP plugs are the most common interface/bulkhead plug

Electrical Systems
View of multi-pin plugs used for boom & transmission connections

GMK Superstructures
Precision by Design

Hydraulic Systems
The typical open circuit system consists of : 1. A separate reservoir 2. A gear or piston hydraulic pump 3. A direction control block 4. An actuator - cylinder or motor

Hydraulic Reservoir
Typical view Gate valves Temperature sensor Drain point

Hydraulic Reservoir
The reservoir is open to atmosphere via a breather element The return line hydraulic filter is integrated into the reservoir Suction filters are not used

Hydraulic Reservoir
Typical view of return line filters

Hydraulic Systems
All models 50 tonnes & below use the carrier engine to drive the hydraulic pumps GMT 60/70 & some KMK 70 tonne models (preMegatrak) used a superstructure engine All Megatrak & current GMK models up to 70 tonnes use the carrier engine All larger models use a superstructure engine

Hydraulic Systems
All models 50 tonnes & below use a transmission power take off for the pump drive KMK 60/70 (Megatrak) and current GMK 70 tonne models use a remote mounted pump drive box between the engine & transmission for pump drive

Hydraulic Systems
GMT & KMK models up to 35 tonnes used gear pumps for all functions Larger models used axial piston pumps for primary crane functions All current GMK models use axial piston pumps for primary crane functions

Hydraulic Pumps
There are two basic types of piston pumps used for crane functions 1. Swash plate, this can have through drive and be in combination (piggy back). 2. Bent axis, this can not have through drive and is only a single unit or double side by side unit in a common housing

Hydraulic Pumps
View of A10VO swash plate piston pump

Hydraulic Pumps
View of A7VO bent axis piston pump

Hydraulic Pumps
Typical view of A8VO bent axis piston pump This has two bent axis pumps in one housing

Hydraulic Pumps
Installed view of A8VO bent axis piston pump Mounted directly to engine Auxiliary drive for gear pumps

Hydraulic Pumps
The hydraulic pumps are controlled by pilot pressure from the hydraulic control joysticks in the operators cab Current GMK models from 5160 - 6200 use electric pump control via electric joy stick controls and amplifier boards

Hydraulic Pumps

Pump identification codes e.g. A8VO107LR3CH A = Axial. 8 = Series. V = Variable O = Open circuit. 107 = displacement LR = Constant horsepower. 3 = 3rd input C = Cross sensing H = Pilot pressure dependent

Hydraulic Pumps
Pump identification codes e.g. A8VO107EP The last two letters (EP) indicate that this pump is (E) electric (P) proportional and would only be used on a GMK 5160

Hydraulic Pump Control


Cabin electric joystick with pancake potentiometer The potentiometer type & value will differ on model type

View of amplifiers & horsepower control circuit board installation - Located in operators cab behind drop down flap - Applicable to Megatrack models 5160 - 6200

Hydraulic Pump Control

PVR

RVR

GLR

Hydraulic Pump Control



There are two amplifier types: PVR for open circuits (smallest boards) RVR for closed loop control (swing) The amplifiers convert the joystick signal voltage into a milliamp output to control the hydraulic pump output

Hydraulic Pump Control


The GLR board is used to regulate the hydraulic pumps output according to the available engine power Replacement PVR, RVR & GLR boards must all be calibrated on the crane - contact Service Department

The control block is used to control the direction of the oil flow to the actuator The block is of modular design spool switching control is by integrated electric solenoids Spool switching control by pilot pressure was used on pre-Megatrak models - except the KMK 5100 AT

Control Block

Control Block
Typical view of modular control block

Control Block
Logic valves are similar to direction valves They are integrated within the control block and are controlled by solenoids

Control Block
Main pressure and circuit relief valves are often integrated into the control block Direction control solenoid valves

Hydraulic motors
Most motors are bent axis piston motors used on hoist & swing box drives Some vane motors are used on swing box drives Orbital motors are used on some 3050 PTJ applications for extending the jib Gear motors are not used

Hydraulic motors
Typical view of A2F bent axis piston motor

Hydraulic Motors
Two A2F bent axis motors in parallel drive - GMK 5130 application

Hydraulic Motors
A2F bent axis piston motor - application in main hoist drive Brake release solenoids Motor control valve Brake/motor control synchronising valve

Hydraulic Motors
Detail view of brake/motor control synchronising valve

Hydraulic Motors
A2F bent axis motor being used to drive an A8VOLRCH bent axis pump - GMK 4070

Hydraulic Oil Coolers


View of oil cooler installation with electric fan motors

GMK Crane Configurations



Current models may use: Main boom Fixed & offset jib Power tilt jib Luffing jib

GMK Crane Configurations


Main boom

GMK Crane Configurations


Fixed jib The jib may also be manually offset

GMK Crane Configurations


Fixed jib two lengths are possible offset position is obtained by mechanical links

GMK Crane Configurations


Power tilt jib The jib angle is altered from controls in the operators cab by a hydraulic cylinder on the base of the jib

GMK Crane Configurations


Power tilt jib in stowed position

Crane Configurations
Luffing Jib
Pendent - Steel links

A Frames or Back masts

Main hoist controls hook Auxiliary hoist controls jib angle via bridle

GMK booms
The boom lift/derricking cylinder is often referred to as a luffing cylinder

GMK Booms
Boom telescoping sections are identified by numerical reference counting from the base section The base section is not included in the numerical reference

GMK Booms
Telescope sections 3 2 1

GMK Booms
On current models from KMK//GMK 4080 and higher, one or more boom telescope sections are mechanically pinned All models that only pin the first telescope section are hydraulic control All other models are pneumatic control

GMK Booms
On large cranes - GMK 6200, the right hand side of the boom carries pneumatic hose reels

GMK Booms
On various models boom sections are locked by mechanical pins - View of KMK 6140

GMK Booms
Several models use hydraulic boom pinning, only on the first telescope section

GMK Booms
Several models from 70 to 130 tonnes all use a retaining clamp to hold the head section Belville washers provide the clamping force

GMK Booms
For safety, the boom and locking pin positions are monitored by either proximity or micro switches Locking pin micro switches Boom proximity switches

GMK Booms
The left hand side of the boom base section carries electrical recoil drums for the LMI/SLI/RCI and boom pinning functions if applicable

GMK Booms
Large cranes with a luffing jib also carry an electrical recoil drum on the right side of the boom base section

GMK Booms
Skymaster & 6250 booms also have internal cable drums to monitor cylinder position and control solenoids

BoomWear Pads
Top rear wear pads are often machined to suit the particular boom section New top pads may need machining to specification from the machine file

Telescope Cylinder arrangements



1. Telescope cylinders & manual section 2. Telescope cylinders for all sections 3. Telescope cylinders & power pin section 4. Telescope cylinders & cable synchronized sections 5. Travelling telescope cylinder for all sections 6. Static, pin & push telescope cylinder for all sections

Telescope Cylinder Arrangement


Shown below is a skymaster telescope system

Telescope Cylinder Arrangement


View of skymaster telescope cylinder Internal cylinder to section locking pins

Telescope Cylinder Arrangement


View of 70 tonne model telescope cylinders
SSi i nnggle ee le ss cc ooppee cc yyli nnddee rr le t t le li

C nnddee rr bbooxx Cyyli li

D ee le ss cc ooppi i nngg cc yyli nnddee rr Doouubble le t t le li B ee Baass SSee cc tt ii oonn 11 SSee cc tt ii oonn 22 S e c t i o n 3 S e c tio n 3

Telescope cylinders
The cylinders have internal transfer tubes to supply oil to themselves and other cylinders - a power -track arrangement is used on travelling cylinders Hydraulic hose reels are not used

Telescope Cylinders
Single stage and two stage cylinders are often used in combination Shown is a two stage cylinder with integrated solenoid valve control Cable routing is up body of cylinder

Telescope cylinders
View of cylinder head with control by integrated solenoid valves The solenoids are mounted at the head of the cylinder along with the holding/logic valves

EKS LMI/SLI/RCI Indicators


There are four types of system in current use 1. EKS 83 uses a Kruger transducer box & single boom recoil drum 2. EKS 83 new generation uses Dynisco transducers & has multiple boom recoil drums 3. EKS 3 with softpad interactive faceplate - This system also uses Dynisco transducers & multiple recoil drums 4. EKS 4 with softpad interactive faceplate - This system is being used ECOS technology.

EKS 83
EKS 83 uses digital switches on the faceplate This is known as the central unit

EKS 83
There are several central unit software versions that may be fitted to early cranes Only one type (D) is now available as a replacement Please seek Service Department advice for correct configuration

EKS 83
View of central unit with cover removed showing location of main fuse = 3.15 amps NOTE: a larger fuse will destroy the unit

EKS 83
View of central unit with cover removed showing location of Data Bus fuse = 1.25 amps NOTE: a larger fuse will destroy the unit

EKS 83
View inside Kruger transducer box, it is mounted on the lift cylinder Two transducers are left & right behind compensation board

EKS 83
Compensation board resistors must be changed to suit model type

EKS 83
View with compensation board removed Transducers By-pass solenoid

EKS 83
NOTE: the compensation board part number is for a standard board The standard board may need some resistors changed to suit the particular model Please contact the Service Department for advice

EKS 83
Cranes that have Kruger transducers only have a single boom length recoil drum on the left side of the boom The single recoil drum is a very good way to identify the original version of EKS 83 & only applies to pre-Megatrak models

EKS 83
View of boom length/angle drum on left side of main boom There are two length cable sizes up to 70 tonnes = 2.5 mm. All larger cranes = 4.0 mm

EKS 83

It is very important to supply the correct diamater boom length cable 2.5 mm part no = 0553323 4.0 mm part no = 1374345

EKS 83 New Generation


View showing location of piston transducer on the boom lift cylinder

EKS 83 New Generation


View of transducer on the rod side of the lift cylinder

EKS all versions


A load pin or load strap is used on luffing jibs to measure the load signal View of load pin - This is fitted in the centre of the hoist rope top sheave on the boom head The load strap is used in the rope anchor

EKS 83 New Generation


View of multiple recoil drums on left side of boom

EKS 83 New Generation


Many of the models now use 8 core cable on the recoil drums = part no 1924065 The correct diamater & length is critical Housed inside & driven by the drum are potentiometers, these give a length signal to the data transmitters

EKS 83 New Generation


The data transmitters are enclosed in boxes as close as possible to the potentiometers/transducers

EKS 83 New Generation


View inside angle/length transmitter box showing: angle potentiometer and data transmitters

EKS 83 New Generation


The boom length potentiometers are inside these housings

EKS 83 New Generation


View of recoil drum potentiometer drive & slip rings

EKS 3

EKS 3 uses softpad switches on the interactive faceplate This is known as the central unit

EKS 3
Rear view of central unit showing fuse locations F1. Main fuse = 3.15 amps F2. Data bus fuse = 1.25 amps F3. Data bus fuse = 1.25 amps

EKS Generic Compatability


All models use the same: Boom length potentiometers Boom angle potentiometers Data transmitters

End of Superstructure Presentation