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Destroyers and Frigates Image Gallery - Naval Technology

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Destroyers and Frigates

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Admiral Gorshkov Class Frigates

BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile developed by the BrahMos Aerospace, a collaboration between Russia and India.

The frigates will carry Ka-26/27 series helicopters.

The Admiral Gorshkov class frigates (project 22350) are being built by Severnaya Verf OJSC for the Russian Navy.

Al Riyadh (F3000S Sawari II) Class

Three Al Riyadh (F3000S) class multipurpose anti-air warfare frigates have been built for the Royal Saudi Navy.

The first of class, HMS Al Riyadh (812), was commissioned in July 2002.

Stealth features have been included in the design to reduce the radar cross section and infrared, acoustic and electromagnetic signatures.

The second of class, HMS Makkah (814), was launched in July 2001 and delivered in April 2004.

The ship is built to carry two eight-cell Sylver vertical launch systems for the Aster 15 surface-to-air missile, which has a range up to 30km.

HMS Al Damman (816) was launched in September 2002 and will be commissioned in 2005.

The frigate's stealth design is based on the La Fayette class frigate in service with the French Navy.

The frigate is armed with eight Exocet MM40 Block II surface-to-surface missiles. The anti-ship missile has a range of 70km.

Anzac Class


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HMAS Anzac deployed on manoeuvres. HMAS Anzac.

The Anzac's combat system includes a BAE Systems (formerly United Defense) 127mm mk45 mod 2 naval gun.

HMAS Anzac operations room.

Anzac will be retrofitted with the evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) which entered service with the Australian Navy in June 2004.

An SH-2F naval helicopter on HMNZS Te Kaha F77.

HMNZS Te Kaha (F77) on exercise in the Southern Ocean.

Arleigh Burke Class (Aegis),

The Flight IIA vessel, USS Bulkeley, was commissioned in December 2001.

After being crippled in a terrorist attack in Yemen in October 2000, USS Cole (DDG 67) was returned to the fleet in April 2002. The picture shows the Cole being returned to Northrop Grumman's Pascagoula yard (where she was built), by the Norwegian heavy lift ship Blue Marlin in December 2000.

USS Roosevelt (DDG 80) was commissioned in November 2000.


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The Arleigh Burke class incorporates both RCS reduction and a fully integrated combat system. USS Arleigh Burke (DDG51).

USS Paul Hamilton (DDG-60).

USS Ramage Arleigh Burke class launched July 1995.

Arleigh Burke destroyer deployed on manoeuvres.

USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) shown from the stern.

A US Warship launching a Tomahawk cruise missile. The Arleigh Burke destroyers are armed with 56 Tomahawk cruise missiles.

The Phalanx 1B CIWS upgrade increases the rate of fire to 4,500rpm.

Artigliere Class

The Artigliere Class ships were initially built for Iraq. New weapons and communications systems were fitted to meet the requirements of the Italian Navy.

The ship's main gun installed on the bow deck is the Oto Melara 127mm. The helicopter deck at the stern has a single landing spot for an Agusta Bell AB 212 helicopter.


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The Fleet Patrol Ship incorporates low infrared signature, reliability and maintainability in the design.

The Artigliere class Fleet Patrol is one of a range of Fincantieri light advanced frigates. The Artigliere class frigates operational with the Italian Navy were built by Fincantieri.

The Artigliere class ships are equipped with a combined diesel or gas (CODOG) propulsion system.

Brandenburg Class (Type 123)

FGS Schleswig-Holstein deployed on manoeuvres. FGS Brandenburg. The bridge includes advanced communications and navigation equipment.

FGS Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (F218), last of the Brandenburg Class. The Brandenburg Class has two SCLAR decoy dispensers for chaff and infrared flares.

The control centre of MecklenburgVorpommern F218.

FGS Brandenburg first of class. The Oto Melara 76mm / 62 mk75 main gun.

The Brandenburg Class frigates can fire torpedoes from tubes or from its helicopters. Shown are mk46 mod 2 and DM4 lightweight torpedoes.

Bremen Class (F122)

FGS Koln on patrol. The lead ship FGS Bremen. FGS Niedersachsen on manoeuvres.


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GE LM 2500 Gas Turbine prior to encapsulation. The bridge layout showing the central console with positions for steering, propulsion, radar and message handling. The DA 08 radar has proven an effective air search radar which can detect high and low flying aircraft at maximum range.

The ship accommodates two 4.5t class helicopters, the Sea Lynx Mark 88 from AgustaWestland. Here is the newer variant Super Lynx.

Cassard Class

The French Navy Cassard Class antiaircraft frigates are assigned to the Force d'Action Navale.

Cassard Class can also execute presence, search, identification and contact missions.

The DRBV 26 surveillance radar.

The Tartar medium-range surface-to-air weapon system.

The MM40 block II sea-skimming missiles.

The Cassard D 614 and the Jean Bart D 615, built at the Lorient naval Dockyard of DCNS, were commissioned in 1988 and 1991.

The Cassard Class has a flight deck at the stern with a single helicopter landing spot.

DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class - Multimission Destroyer:


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DDG 1000 will have a 'tumblehome' hull form, in which the hull slopes inward from above the waterline to provide a significantly reduced radar cross section.

DDG 1000 design features and systems. The Zumwalt Class will be multi-mission vessels tailored for land attack and littoral dominance.

DDG 1000 Zumwalt has a Peripheral Vertical Launch System (PVLS), which consists of 20 four-cell PVLS situated round the perimeter of the deck.

The Zumwalt Class vessels have two landing spots for helicopters. DDG 1000 will have a sensor and weapons suite optimised for littoral warfare and for network-centric warfare. The DDG 1000 is planned to have a displacement of around 14,800t, with a sustained speed of around 30kt.

DDG 1000 will have a crew of 142. This is a major reduction compared to crew levels of 330 on Spruance destroyers and 200 on Oliver Hazard Perry frigates.

The DDG 1000 will be armed with Tactical Tomahawk, Standard Missile SM-3 and the Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM).

BAE Systems Land and Armaments is developing the ship's Advanced Gun System (AGS), which will be able to fire advanced munitions including the GPSguided Long-Range Land Attack Projectile (LRLAP).

De Zeven Provincien Class (LCF)

The De Zeven Provincien air defence and command (LCF) frigate. The first of class was commissioned in April 2002. The Thales APAR (active phased array) multi-function radar provides air and surface search and weapon fire control.

The evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) has a new rocket motor and tail control to provide increased speed, range and manoeuvrability.

Four De Zeven Provincien (LCF) frigates have been commissioned into the Royal Netherlands Navy. The Thales Smart-L three-dimensional radar operating in D band provides air search.


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The Harpoon surface-to-surface missile system. The Mirador electro-optic surveillance, tracking and fire control system. The Scout low-probability-of-intercept radar provides surface search.

The ship has a hangar and helicopter deck for one NH 90 helicopter.

Delhi Class

INS Delhi was commissioned in 1997, INS Mysore in June 1999 and INS Mumbai in January 2001.

The MR-145 fire control radar for the 100mm gun (top) and the MR-123 for the 30mm guns (bottom). INS Delhi, the first of class.

The Delhi class is the largest warship to be built in India.

Two Sea King helicopters provide additional offensive capability. The Uran system launches the Kh-35 antiship cruise missile which is known by the Nato designation SS-N-25.

Duke Class (Type 23)


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The CACS-1 combat system prototype.

The last Type 23 frigate was commissioned in June 2002. Shown is HMS Lancaster.

HMS Marlborough (F233), with the Harpoon missile launch tubes visible behind the main gun.

HMS Norfolk firing a vertical launch Seawolf surface-to-air missile.

A Type 23 frigate launching a Stingray torpedo from one of its four 324mm torpedo tubes. The Merlin helicopter.

HMS Iron Duke (F234), commissioned in 1993.

HMS Monmouth (F235) sailing under the Forth Rail Bridge, in Edinburgh.

16 Type 23 frigates were commissioned between 1990 and 2002.

The Type 23 was originally designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW), but has expanded its role to include anti-surface warfare (ASuW).

Durand de la Penne Class

The ships are able to perform anti-air defence essential for protecting task forces and convoys. The Durand De La Penne destroyers are 5000t multi-role warships. MM Luigi Durand De La Penne (D560).


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The first-of-class ship, MM Luigi Durand De La Penne (D560).

The ship's main gun, the OTOBreda 127mm 54-calibre gun installed on the bow deck.

The ship is equipped with a helicopter deck and a hangar with facilities for two helicopters.

Three OTOBreda 76mm 62-calibre Super Rapide guns are installed.

The Durand de la Penne Class destroyers can accommodate helicopters such as the EH-101 shown.

F100 Alvaro de Bazan

The Alvaro de Bazan is the first of five multipurpose frigates for the Spanish Navy.

The Alvaro de Bazan Class are the first European ships to be fitted with the Aegis weapon system.

For air defence, the vessels are armed with the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM).

The Lockheed Martin AN/SPY-1D threedimensional fixed-phased array radar provides targeting and tracking data for the Aegis system.

The vessels are powered by a CODAG propulsion system, with two GE LM 2500 gas turbines (34.8MW) and two Izar diesel engines (9MW).

The 150km air defence frigate, the F100, was commissioned into the Spanish Navy in September 2002.


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The VLS Launcher is installed below deck into a compartment prepared by the shipbuilder.

Mk 41 Launcher TACMS demonstration firing.

F125 Frigate

The German Navy's new F125 frigate will have the capability to be deployed worldwide for up to two years before returning to the home base and can be operated up to 5,000 hours a year, including under tropical conditions.

The F125 frigates will be armed with the Oto Melara 127/64 LW Alleggerito lightweight naval guns which have a rate of fire of 34 rounds a minute and a range of 23km against surface targets and 8.6km against airborne targets.

The F125 frigate has a 490m aft helicopter deck and a hangar for two NH90 helicopters, which have a range of 790km.

Two quadruple missile launchers for the Boeing RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile are installed amidship on the missile deck forward of the funnel.


Six Formidable Class multi-role frigates have been built for the Republic of Singapore Navy. The first, RSS Formidable, was commissioned in May 2007.

DCNS in France was responsible for the design of the frigates. The first frigate was built in France and the remainder in Singapore by Singapore Technology Marine (STM).

The frigates were declared fully operational in January 2009 and replace six Sea Wolf class missile gunboats.


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Drawing of the Formidable Class showing weapon systems and main sensors. The Project Delta design is a smaller derivative of the La Fayette class stealth frigate in service with the French Navy, which features low radar, acoustic, infrared and electromagnetic signatures. The MBDA Aster 15 surface-to-air missile provides defence against missiles to a range of 15km and against manned and unmanned aircraft to a range of 30km.

The Boeing Harpoon surface-to-surface anti-ship missile has a range of 130km.

FREMM - European Multi-Mission Frigate, France / Italy

27 FREMM European multi-mission frigates will be built: 17 for the French Navy and ten for the Italian Navy.

The FREMM frigates are 137m in overall length and 19m wide with a displacement of 5,800t.

Both the French and Italian frigates will be armed with the MBDA Aster 15 missile system, which uses the Sylver launcher.

French frigates will be equipped with the MBDA SCALP naval land attack missile. The FREMM hybrid propulsion system. Italian FREMM frigates will have the Teseo mk2 (called Otomat mk2 in the export version) sea-skimming anti-ship missiles supplied by MBDA.

Avio will supply the LM2500+ gas turbine, licensed-built from General Electric, which provides 32MW of power.

MBDA's Exocet MM40 block 3 anti-ship missiles which have longer range and an enhanced navigation system will give the French frigates a littoral attack capability.

MBDA's Milas anti-submarine warfare weapon system will be fitted on Italian FREMM frigates.


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Italian FREMM frigates will be able to fire lightweight torpedoes such as the Eurotorp MU-90.

Computer-generated image of the bridge of the French FREMM.

Halifax Class

HMCS Halifax (FFH 330) first of class.

The ship has a helicopter deck with a single landing spot.

The ship's guided-missile vertical-launch system (Nato Sea Sparrow 7M/P).

HMCS Toronto (FFH 333). The multi-purpose frigates were commissioned between 1992 and 1997. HMCS Montreal (FFH 336). The main gun on the bow deck is a 57mm 70 mk2 gun from Bofors.

Three Canadian warships, including HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331) and HMCS Toronto (FFH 333). The ship's decoy system comprises four BAE Systems Shield mk2 decoy launchers.

Hobart Class Air Warfare Destroyers

An artist's impression of the Hobart Class air warfare destroyer (AWD).

The Hobart Class AWDs will be the first RAN warships to be equipped with the Aegis combat system.

A side view of Hobart Class AWD.

The Hobart Class will be fitted with a BAE Systems Mk 45 5" 62 calibre gun and a Phalanx Block 1B close-in weapons system (CIWS).


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Horizon Class

The Horizon anti-air warfare (AAW) frigate.

Two Horizon frigates are being built for the French Navy and two for the Italian Navy.

The Horizon is designed for rapid deployment and extended range and endurance and, at a cruising speed of 18kt, has a range of over 7,000nm.

The PAAMS principal anti-air missile system fires both the Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles.

The EMPAR multi-function phased array radar provides fire control for the PAAMS missile system.

The Aster 30 missile has a range up to 100km, the Aster 15 missile has a range of 30km.

The Eurotorp MU 90 lightweight torpedo has a directed energy warhead and a range of 12,000m at maximum speed.

Hydra Class

Hydra Class frigates are based on the MEKO 200 design. An artist's impression of the Hydra frigate. Four Hydra Class frigates have been in service with the Hellenic Navy of Greece since 1998.

Line drawing of the Hydra showing position of the ships systems. Diagram of the propulsion plant.

Main mast of the Hydra, with the conical


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antenna of the Thales Nederland STIR fire control radar visible.

Hyuga Class Destroyer

The Hyuga Class destroyers will now be the largest combat ships operated by Japan.

Female crew will operate on the DDH181 for the first time on a JMSDF destroyer.

As an important part of Japan's 16DDH project, the Hyuga Class destroyer will carry helicopters.

Kang Ding Class

Three Kang Ding class ASW frigates at sea.

Kang Ding La Fayette deployed on manouevres.

The La Fayette during shock testing.

MM 40 surface-to-surface missile firing

The ship is armed with eight Taiwanesedesigned Hsiung Feng II (2 quad) surfaceto-surface missiles.

The La Fayette TR 100 MM naval gun and turret mounted on Kang Ding.

The weapons and sensors schematic.

Karel Doorman Class


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HNLMS Karel Doorman first of class.

The Karel Doorman Class M-Frigates are equipped for anti-submarine and surface warfare, the frigate in this picture is HNLMS Van Galen.

HNLMS Tjerk Hiddes third of class.

HNLMS Van Amstel. HNLMS Willem van der Zaan.

Karel Doorman Class main gun is a 76mm OTO Melara mk100 with a range of 16km anti-surface and 12km anti-air.

Kirov Class (Type 1144.2) (Peter the Great)

The Admiral Nakhimov Kirov battle cruiser. A Kirov Class (Peter the Great) cruiser at St Petersburg.

Kirov Class (Peter the Great) project 1144.2 heavy missile cruisers are designed to engage large surface targets.

The Pyotr Velikiy (Peter the Great) Kirov Class project 1144.2 heavy missile cruiser. The OSA-MA autonomous shipborne air defence missile system.

A dual Kashstan air-defence missile gun system.


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The 130mm AK-130-MR-184 universal automated shipboard artillery system.

The KA-27 helicopter.

La Fayette Class

La Fayette is fitted with a fully integrated communications system. The French Navy's La Fayette Class multipurpose stealth frigates.

The La Fayette stealth frigate offers superior sea-keeping.

The MM40 block 2 sea-skimming missiles.

The combat data system is the Thales TAVITAC 2000.

The La Fayette Class Courbet frigate.

Anti-air warfare weapons include the 24 VT1 Crotale missile system. La Fayette frigates can accommodate 10t helicopters.

Lekiu Class

The ship can attain a speed of 28kt and has a range of over 5,000 miles.

The first ship, the Lekiu (30), was launched in December 1994. Kapal DiRaja Jebat at Yarrow Shipbuilders.


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Kapal DiRaja Jebat was launched in May 1995.

The Alenia Marconi Nautis II command system.

The Seawolf short-range missile provides protection against supersonic aircraft and anti-ship missiles to a range of 6km.

The ship's main gun is the Bofors 57mm gun that fires 2.4kg shells at a rate of 220 rounds a minute.

Nansen Class Anti-Submarine Warfare Frigates

Navantia is building five Nansen Class anti -submarine warfare frigates for the Royal Norwegian Navy.

The Fridtjof Nansen Class frigates have an integrated weapon system based on the Aegis command system in service on US Navy Ticonderoga cruisers and Arleigh Burke destroyers.

The welded steel 132m monohull has 13 watertight compartments for enhanced survivability.

The vessel's CODAG propulsion has one GE LM 2500 19.2MW gas turbine and two Navantia Bravo 12V 4.5MW diesel engines. The Nansen Class frigates can support one medium-sized helicopter, such as the NH90 naval helicopter.

ASW systems include the MSI 2005F combat system, CAPTAS Mk 2 V1 Combined Active / Passive Towed Array Sonar and Spherion MRS 2000 hullmounted sonar.

The Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM), developed by Raytheon with an international co-operative of ten NATO countries, has a new rocket motor.

The integrated weapon system is based on the Aegis combat system with AN/SPY-1F radar and will support inter-operability of Norwegian Navy.


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Neustrashimy Class (Type 11540)

The Neustrashimy frigate.

The design is a slightly larger derivative of the successful Krivak Project 1135 ships.

The primary mission of Neustrashimy Class frigates is to combat submarines and surface ships.

The ship has a helicopter landing deck and a hangar which accommodates a single Ka -27 helicopter. The Kashtan Air Defence Gun and Missile System.

The Klinok shipboard multi-channel selfdefence system.

The Uran system launches the Kh-35 antiship cruise missile.

Oliver Hazard Perry Class Frigates

USS Kauffman (FFG 59) at sea in November 2002 part of the Abraham Lincoln Carrier Battle Group deployed in support of operation Enduring Freedom.

USS Vandegrift (FFG 48) on a cultural port visit to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in November 2003. This was the first US Navy ship to visit to Vietnam in 30 years.

USS Doyle (FFG 39) on a visit to Souda Bay in Crete, Greece, in December 2003, during Operation Active Endeavour.


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USS Samuel B Roberts (FFG 58) in the Caribbean in April 2007, taking part in a Partnership of America exercise.

USS Doyle (FFG 39) en route to Colombia, South America to take part in the 43rd annual UNITAS exercise with countries from South and Central America in February 2002.

SH-60B Seahawk helicopter lifts off from USS Stephen W Groves (FFG 29) in the Caribbean in December 2003.

One of two triple-tube 324mm torpedo launchers on the USS Curts (FFG 38).

Protecteur Class Auxiliary Vessels

Protecteur class ships are deployed to supply fuel, food and ammunitions to Canadian and allied warships at sea. The Protecteur class auxiliary oiler replenishment ships are in service with the Canadian Navy.

Protecteur class vessels have covered hangars to accommodate helicopters.

The vessels allow warships to be at sea for longer periods without returning to port for fuel, supplies and maintenance.

Sachsen Class (F124)

The Sachsen Class (F124) air defence frigate for the German Navy. FGS Sachsen (F219) was delivered at the end of October 2002 and commissioned in November 2004. The Sachsen frigates are armed with evolved Sea Sparrow (ESSM) and Standard SM-2 missiles.

Artist's impression of Sachsen Class (F124) air defence frigate. The frigates were built by a consortium of three companies - Blohm and Voss (as the

Harpoon missile launcher.


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leading yard), Howaldtwerke-Deutsche Werft and Thyssen Nordseewerke.

A model of the Sachsen Class (F124) frigate. Topside arrangement schematic.

Propulsion flow diagram.

Plan view of the boxgirders and doubleskin bulkheads.

Shivalik Class Frigates

The Shivalik Class frigates are the first Indian warships to be built with stealth features and will be the lead frigates of the country's navy during the first quarter of the 21st century.

Map showing the locations of Indian naval bases. An Indian naval officer in Mumbai, where the Shivalik was commissioned.

Sovremenny Class (Type 956)

The Sovremenny Class Project 965 destroyer.

A Sovremenny Class Type 956 (405) at sea. The Besstrashny Sovremenny Class Type 956.

The Nastoychivy Sovremenny Class Type 956. The operations centre.

A Sovremenny Class Type 956E firing its Mosquito anti-ship missile.

The Shtil missile system.

One of two Russian-built Sovremenny Class Destroyers delivered to China in 2000.

The ship's helicopter pad accommodates one Ka-27.


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The AK-630 Gun and control consoles.

Sword / F-22P Class Frigates

The F-22P or Sword class frigate is a 2,500t frigate built for the Pakistan Navy.

The F-22P frigate is an updated model of the type 053H3 or Jiangwei-class frigate built by China since the 1990s.

F-22P frigates are equipped with a 76.2mm main gun.

The anti-ship C-802 subsonic surface-tosurface missiles are carried in two containers with four cells each.

The main roles of the frigates will include air defence of a force operating at sea or in convoy and commerce raiding.

The FM-90N SAM system is installed between the main deck and main gun.

Thetis Class

The Thetis (F357) and Triton (F358) were commissioned in 1991. The machinery is controlled by a highly advanced and comprehensive integrated ship control and surveillance system.

Four Thetis class frigates have been built for the Royal Danish Navy by the Svendborg Shipyard.

The hangar is equipped for helicopter maintenance and has capacity to hold a Lynx helicopter.

The frigates are ice-strengthened and are able to proceed through 80cm of solid ice. The variable depth sonar is installed and operated from under the deck.

Consoles for controlling and supervising the propulsion machinery.


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Ticonderoga Class

USS Lake Eerie (CG 70).

11 Ticonderoga class ships are operational in the US Navy Atlantic Fleet, with 11 in the Pacific Fleet.

The Ticonderoga Guided Missile Cruisers have a maximum speed in excess of 30kt.

The Ticonderoga class cruiser USS Shiloh (CG 67) firing a cruise missile.

The ship supports two Sikorsky SH-60B Seahawk helicopters fitted with the LAMPS mission avionics.

USS Mobile Bay (CG 53) demonstrating a high-speed turn.

USS Shiloh (CG 67) fires a Tomahawk Land Attack Missile. The Ticonderoga class, like the Arleigh Burke class guided missile destroyers, are equipped with the Aegis Combat System.

Triton Trimaran

The Triton Trimaran Research Ship.

Triton tested technology for the Royal Navy's Future Surface Combatant (FSC) frigate requirement.

The Triton trials programme tested the suitability of the trimaran hullform.

Artists impression of Triton alongside an auxiliary vessel. Artist's impression of the Trimaran Frigate variant. The United States has a keen interest in monitoring the development of the Trimaran FE.


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RV Triton enters the water equipped with 300 sensors to record hull stresses. The demonstrator is two thirds the size of a full-scale warship. Trimaran demonstrator vessel under construction at Southampton.

Type 052B / Guangzhou Class Destroyer

The Type 052B was the first Chinese-built destroyer to demonstrate air defence capabilities.

The destroyer was launched in May 2002 and commissioned in July 2004.

The vessel can support the operations of a Ka-28 ASW helicopter.

Type 45 Daring Class

HMS Daring in dry dock.

The first-of-class ship, HMS Daring, was launched on 1 February 2006, and will enter service in 2009.

The launch of HMS Daring at BAE Systems Marine, Scotstoun.

Construction of HMS Daring.

Six Type 45 Daring Class destroyers will be built for the UK Royal Navy.

The Type 45 has a range of 7000nm at 18kts.

The BAE Systems Sampson multi-function, dual-face active array radar provides targeting data for the missile system.

The Type 45 Sylver vertical launch system for the Aster missile.

The Type 45 will accommodate one Royal Navy HM mk 1 Merlin helicopter.

The primary weapon system of the Type 45 will be the Principal Anti-Aircraft Missile System (PAAMS).

Computer graphic of the Type 45. Top and side view of the frigate.


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Aerial view of the Type 45.

Udaloy-Class Anti-Submarine Destroyers

Udaloy class anti-submarine destroyer Admiral Vinogradov.

The Udaloy class is based on the Krivakclass anti-submarine ship.

The ship class is armed with SS-N-14 antisubmarine missile launchers.

A side ciew of Udaloy-class destroyer Marshal Shaposhnikov.

The ship has an aft flight deck and two helicopter hangars to support the operations of two Ka-27 Helix-A ASW helicopters.

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