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# Correlation Analysis for Scale Variables

## Concepts of Correlations for Scale Variables

Correlation analysis (CA) is a group of statistical techniques used to measure the strength and the direction of the association between continuous variables. variables Three questions involved in CA:
Shape p of the relationship: p linear or curvilinear Direction of the association: - or + Strength of the association: 0 to 1 a measure of the strength (0 to 1) and direction (- or +) of the p between 2 continuous variables. Ex. r=-.56. This is called relationship the coefficient of correlation. not measuring the shape symmetric Unitless (see excel computation)

## (Bi i ) Correlation (Bivariate) C l i is: i

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Poch Bunnak

Understanding Correlations
Perfect P f t Negative correlation Perfect Positive correlation

## No correlation Strong positive correlation

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Poch Bunnak

Pearson Correlation, r
r is a measure of linear association. Assumptions & conditions:
Linear relationship between scale variables (must check this) Normal distribution -1 r +1 Symmetric and Unitless Strongly affected by outliers (Use scatter plot to check this) t-test is used to test H0 that the correlation in the p population p is equal q 0 (See ( the formula on page 272). SPSS reports the p-value. Interpretation: the correlation B/w fathers EDU and sons EDU is found to be r = .65, 65 p < .000. 000 This means that there is a very strong positive relationship between father and son in terms of EDU attainment. The higher the EDU attainment of the father, the higher the EDU attainment of th son! the ! The square of r, R2, (or R2 = SSR/SStotal in ANOVA), is called the coefficient of determination and have PRE interpretation.
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Other Consideration
Use Scatter plot to check the linearity assumption and the presence of outliers
If these assumptions are violated, use Spearman Rho Practice using SPSS

## Spearman Correlation Rho, rs:

Both variables are at least ordinal (or interval that not meet the normality assumption) RQ: How are the rank orders of ordinal variables related? Monotonic relationship: Values of one variable increase, the other should increase or decrease, but not necessarily in either a linear fashion or as in a U or J shape. shape SPSS analyze correlation bivariate check the Spearman box
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Poch Bunnak

Formula for r
The coefficient of correlation is calculated as:
r= = ( X X )(Y Y ) (n 1)sx sy

[n(X ) (X ) ][n(Y ) (Y ) ]
2 2 2 2

n(XY) (X )(Y )

## Its test of significance coefficient is calculated as:

t = n2
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r 1 r2
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Example p
RQ: Do men who feel confident in one life domain t d to tend t feel f l confident fid t in i other th domain d i of f life? lif ? Data on self-concepts of men on:
Intimate: Hi score = self-confident in intimate relationship Friend: Hi score = self-confident in relationships among friends Common: Hi score = self-confident in use of common-sense reasoning Academic: Hi score = self-confident in use of academic knowledge in reasoning General: G l Hi score = self-confident lf fid in i the h way Rs R live li their h i lives li

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Poch Bunnak

Example, p , cont.
Use Lesson 30 Data file 1 for this exercise Check for normal distribution assumption Check for linear association assumption SPSS: Analyze Correlation Bivariate Select all five variables and move to variables box check on Pearson, , two-tailed, , Flag g significant Options (then child means and S D continue) OK or Paste S.D. Paste.

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Poch Bunnak

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Poch Bunnak

## Bonferroni test to control for Type I error

Idea: In hypothesis testing with multiple correlations, we need to minimize chance of making g Type yp I error (rejecting Ho with it is true) Bonferroni test is used for this purpose by correcting level of significance Method:
1. Use .05 divided by the number of correlations computed (in the example, example we have 10 correlations .05/10 05/10 = .005) 005) 2. A correlation is significant if its p-value is less than the value obtained in 1 above (which is < .005)

Result: 7 out of 10 correlations are sifnificant, after adjusting for change of alpha error
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## Example, p , cont.: Interpretation p

correlation coefficients were computed among the fi self-concept five lf t variables. i bl The Th principle i i l assumptions ti are metBonferroni approach was used to minimize chance h of f making ki Type T I Error. E The Th result lt shows h that th t 7 of 10 correlations are statistical significant (direction of correlation)(effect significant(direction correlation) (effect size).In general, if men say they are confident in one area area, they tend to state they are self-confident self confident in other areas, except for scholarly knowledge You need to prepare a good table for the report, not SPSS t table. bl
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Class Practice
A researcher is interested in relating quality of teaching to quality of research. research His research question is whether professors who are good at teaching are also g good researchers. Use Lesson 30 Exercise File 1 to answer this RQ.

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Note:
** correlation between all variables . CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=intimate friend common academic with general /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /MISSING=PAIRWISE. ** correlation between variables from different sets: the first 4 with the last one var. var CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=intimate friend common g academic with general /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /MISSING PAIRWISE. /MISSING=PAIRWISE.
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Homework
Problem 1
Ha: If HC is likely to be in a populated area as designated by a market, there would be a positive correlation between the distance to HC and the distance to a market. H0: There is no positive correlation Use CSES village data and run a bivariate correlation between these variables. What do you find? Interpret the finding.

Problem P bl 2
Literature has consistently showed that education is one main factor that lowers the fertility in western society. Use CDHS 2000 data to verify if this was true for Cambodian society or not. Is age at marriage a factor, too? Do the above correlations differ by residential location? Interpret your findings.

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