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Introduction to Algebra Variables Expressions Equations Solution of an equation Simplifying equations Combining like terms Simplifying with addition

and subtraction Simplifying by multiplication Simplifying by division Word problems as equations Sequences Math Contests School League Competitions Contest Problem Books

Variables
A variable is a symbol that represents a number. Usually we use letters such as n, t, or x for variables. For example, we might say that s stands for the side-length of a square. We now treat s as if it were a number we could use. The perimeter of the square is given by 4 × s. The area of the square is given by s × s. When working with variables, it can be helpful to use a letter that will remind you of what the variable stands for: let n be the number of people in a movie theater; let t be the time it takes to travel somewhere; let d be the distance from my house to the park.

Expressions :An expression is a mathematical term or a sum or difference of mathematical terms that may use numbers, variables, or both.

Example: The following are examples of expressions: 2x 3+7 2×y+5 2 + 6 × (4 - 2) z + 3 × (8 - z) Example: Roland weighs 70 kilograms, and Mark weighs k kilograms. Write an expression for their combined weight. The combined weight in kilograms of these two people is the sum of their weights, which is 70 + k. Example:

A car travels down the freeway at 55 kilometers per hour. Write an expression for the distance the car will have traveled after h hours. Distance equals rate times time, so the distance traveled is equal to 55 × h..
Example:

There are 2000 liters of water in a swimming pool. Water is filling the pool at the rate of 100 liters per minute. Write an expression for the amount of water, in liters, in the swimming pool after m minutes. The amount of water added to the pool after m minutes will be 100 liters per minute times m, or 100 × m. Since we started with 2000 liters of water in the pool, we add this to the amount of water added to the pool to get the expression 100 × m + 2000.

To evaluate an expression at some number means we replace a variable in an expression with the number, and simplify the expression. Example: Evaluate the expression 4 × z + 12 when z = 15. We replace each occurrence of z with the number 15, and simplify using the usual rules: parentheses first, then exponents, multiplication and division, then addition and subtraction. 4 × z + 12 becomes 4 × 15 + 12 = 60 + 12 = 72 Example: Evaluate the expression (1 + z) × 2 + 12 ÷ 3 - z when z = 4. We replace each occurrence of z with the number 4, and simplify using the usual rules: parentheses first, then exponents, multiplication and division, then addition and subtraction.

(1 + z) × 2 + 12 ÷ 3 - z becomes (1 + 4) × 2 + 12 ÷ 3 - 4 = 5 × 2 + 12 ÷ 3 - 4 = 10 + 4 - 4 = 10.

Equations
An equation is a statement that two numbers or expressions are equal. Equations are useful for relating variables and numbers. Many word problems can easily be written down as equations with a little practice. Many simple rules exist for simplifying equations. Example: The following are examples of equations: 2=2 17 = 2 + 15 x=7 7=x t+3=8 3 × n +12 = 100 w + 4 = 12 - w y - 1 - 2 - 9.3 = 34 3 × (d + 4) - 11 = 321 - 23 Example: Translate the following word problem into an equation: My age in years y plus 20 is equal to four times my age, minus 10. The first expression stands for "my age in years plus 20", which is y + 20.

Setting these two expressions equal to one another gives us the equation: y + 20 = 4 × y .6) = 30 . minus 10". for replacing each occurrence of y with 3 gives us 4 × 3 + 7 = 19 ==> 12 + 7 = 19 ==> 19 = 19 which is true.40 = 10 z = 12 is a solution to the equation 5 × (z .10. we get 4 × 10 + 7 = 19 ==> 40 + 7 = 19 ==> 47 = 19 not true! Counterexamples: x = 200 is NOT a solution to the equation x ÷ 2 . Example: We say y = 3 is a solution to the equation 4 × y + 7 = 19. When we replace each y with 10.40 = 10 z = 20 is NOT a solution to the equation 5 × (z . which is 4 × y . the solution to the equation is the number that makes the equation true when we replace the variable with its value.6) = 30 Counterexample: y = 10 is NOT a solution to the equation 4 × y + 7 = 19. Examples: x = 100 is a solution to the equation x ÷ 2 .This is equal to the second expression for "four times my age.10 Solution of an Equation When an equation has a variable.

additions. exponents. Solve x . divisions. 2) You may combine like terms. Replacing the -12 with a +(-12). multiplications. and subtractions in the usual order of operations. 3) You may add any value to both sides of the equation.Simplifying Equations To find a solution for an equation. we get x + (-12) + 20 = 37. This means adding or subtracting variables of the same kind.7 + 3 simplifies to 9. The expression 2x + 4x simplifies to 6x. Example: This problem illustrates grouping like terms and dealing with subtraction in an equation. This is best done by adding a negative value to each side of the equation. be careful to use the associative and distributive properties properly. These are as follows: 1) You may evaluate any parentheses. the two like terms (the integers) may be combined. Hint: Since subtracting any number is the same as adding its negative. we can use the basic rules of simplifying equations. 4) You may subtract any value from both sides of the equation. 6) You may divide both sides of the equation by any number except 0. Since addition is associative.12 + 20 = 37. The expression 13 . When evaluating expressions. 5) You may multiply both sides of the equation by any number except 0. it can be helpful to replace subtractions with additions of a negative number. (12) + 20 = 8 The left side of the equation becomes .

(we will actually add a -8 to each side).x + 8 = 37. x + 8 + (-8) = 37 + (-8) x + 0 = 29 x = 29 We can check this solution in the original equation: 29 . Now we may subtract 8 from each side of the equation. Using the distributive property. 2 × x + 2 × 5 ==> to 2x + 10. Carrying out multiplications. Example: This problem illustrates the proper use of the distributive property.12 + 20 = 37x + 0 = 29 17 + 20 = 37 37 = 37 so our solution is correct. Solve 2 × (x + 1 + 4) = 20. 2 × (x + 5) ==> 2 × x + 2 × 5. the left side of the equation becomes 2 × (x + 1 + 4) ==> 2 × (x + 5). Grouping like terms in the parentheses. Subtracting a 10 (adding a -10) to each side gives us 2x + 10 + (-10) = 20 + (-10) ==> . The equation now becomes 2x + 10 = 20.

12. so the expression 2 + 7x + 12 .5 = 14 .5 simplifies to 9 + 4x. we have 7x . Combining the numeric like terms. we divide both sides by 2 to solve for x: 2x = 10 ==> 2x ÷ 2 = 10 ÷ 2 ==> (2x)/2 = 5 ==> x = 5. Combining like terms One of the most common ways to simplify an expression is to combine like terms.2x + (10 + (-10)) = 20 .5 = 9. and all the numeric terms on the other.10 ==> 2x + 0 = 10 ==> 2x = 10.5. Example: Consider the expression 2 + 7x + 12 .3x . Since the x is multiplied by 2.3x = 4x. The numeric like terms are the numbers 2. and any terms with the same variable part may be combined. Numeric terms may be combined. we have 2 + 12 . . The variable like terms are 7x and 3x. Combining the variable like terms.3x . Simplifying with addition and subtraction We can use addition and subtraction to get all the terms with variables on one side of an equation. and 5. We can check this solution in the original equation: 2 × (5 + 1 + 4) = 20 ==> 2 × 10 = 20 ==> 20 = 20 so our solution is correct.

We usually do this after simplifying each side using the distributive rules. 8 + z . eliminating parentheses. the 200 and -200 will cancel each other: 7y + (-200) + 200 = 10 + 200 ==> 7y = 210.z + z ==> 8 + z = 20. and a number on the other. 21 = y. it can be helpful to add a negative number to each side instead of subtracting to avoid mistakes. For the equation 8 = 20 . we can add z to both sides to get 8 + z = 20 . subtracting the 200 on the left side is the same as adding a -200: 7y + (-200) = 10. If we add 200 to both sides of the equation. 21 = 30 .4 = 12 .y.8 ==> z = 12.200 = 10. and z/12 = 24 each have a variable term on one side of the = sign. For the equation 7y . and combining like terms.8 = 20 . The equations x + 3 = 12.4 ==> 3x = 8. Now subtracting 8 from both sides. and (z + 2) × 4 = 10 do not. Simplfying by multiplication . Since addition is associative. so we get a solution for z.z. we can isolate the variable term on the left by subtracting a 4 from both sides: 3x + 4 . Examples: For the equation 3x + 4 = 12.The equations 3x = 17.

When a variable is multiplied by some number. we can use division on both sides to solve for the variable. Note that dividing by 7 is the same as multiplying both sides by 1/7. we can divide both sides by 7 to solve for x: 7x ÷ 7 = 133 ÷ 7 ==> (7x)/7 = 133 ÷ 7 ==> x/1 = 19 ==> x = 19.When solving for a variable. we want to get a solution like x = 3 or z = 2001. we can use multiplication on both sides to solve for the variable. Multiplying both sides by 12 will cancel the 1/12 on the left side: x × 1/12 × 12 = 5 × 12 ==> x × 1 = 60 ==> x = 60. Since the x on the left side is being multiplied by 7. Simplifying by division When solving for a variable. Example: Solve for x in the equation x ÷ 12 = 5. the equation is the same as x × 1/12 = 5. Example: Solve for x in the equation 7x = 133. When a variable is divided by some number. we want to get a solution like x = 3 or z = 2001. Since the x on the left side is being divided by 12. Word problems as equations .

11 + y = 43 addition Sequences A sequence is a list of items.When converting word problems to equations. second. certain "key" words tell you what kind of operations to use: addition. A finite sequence is a list made up of a finite number of items. 15. third. y + 20 Eleven more than my age equals 43. Many useful lists have patterns so we know what items occur in each place in the list. An infinite sequence is a list that continues without end. 17. 19 is the sequence of the first 10 odd numbers. The sequence 1. Word Operation sum addition Example The sum of my age and 10 equals 27. There are 2 kinds of sequences. multiplication. fourth. and division.subtraction total addition = 22. Seven less than my age equals 32. As an equation y + 10 = 27 difference subtraction The difference between my age and my younger sister's age. and so on. 9. . 5. subtraction. who is 11 years old. is 5 years. y × 14 = 168 3 × y = 60 y . Examples: The following are examples of finite sequences. 11.7 = 32 times multiplication less than .11 = 5 product multiplication The product of my age and 14 is 168. The table below shows some common phrases and the operation to use. The total of my pocket change and 20 dollars is $22. y .43. 3.43 more than Three times my age is 60. We can specify any item in the list by its place in the list: first. 7. 13.

The sequence 2. 2. m. The sequence m. . c. is the sequence of the letters a. repeating in this pattern forever. 12...The sequence a. The 100th place in this sequence is the number 200. 1. b. 0 is the sequence of 12 alternating 1's and 0's. 1. . 4. 4. 16. 10000 is the sequence of the first ten thousand integers. o. b. The sequence 0. a.. a. m is the sequence of 6 m's. 49 is the sequence of the squares of the first 8 whole numbers. Examples: The following are examples of infinite sequences. The sequence 1. 0.. 6. 16. b. 0. 10. m. m. . 36. 4.. 1. 0.. is the sequence of vowels in the alphabet. 9998. is the sequence of even whole numbers. 25. 14.. 9. a. 1. i. . c. 1. 9999. The sequence a. 0. c. c. u. b. 8. 3. 1. e. m. The sequence 1. b. 0.

2. 45. 8. 0. 4. then 2 zeros. The 101st place in this sequence is -101. 28. 0. 0. is the sequence of integers with alternating signs. The 105th place in this sequence is a 1. . 6.. -9. 10. 0. 1. 0. The sequence 1.. 0.The 100th place in this sequence is the letter a. The sequence -1.6 = 4 15 . -3. The sequence 1. 15. 0.. note the difference between pairs of numbers next to one another: 3-1=2 6-3=3 10 . 0. 21. 1. 1. then 3 zeros. 6.. -5. The 100th place in this sequence is a 0.10 = 5 21 . is a sequence of 1's separated by 1 zero. 0. The 100th place in this sequence is 100. The 300th place in this sequence is the letter c. 1... . The 10th place in this sequence is 10. -7. is the sequence of places the 1 occurs in the sequence of 1's and 0's above! If this sequence seems strange. and so on. 0. . 36.15 = 6 . 3.

i. a. o. . u. 7. 1. u. 1.21 = 7 Checking these differences makes the pattern clearer. e. b. 4. 2. 1/1. and each number in the list is 3 more than the number before it. is the repeating sequence of vowels in the alphabet. 1/6. 1. o.. . 1/3.. 1/7. 10. 25. 64. 1. 6. 9. The a's occur in odd-numbered places. 36. and the b's occur in the even-numbered places.. b. .. 1. 22. b. 1. 4. is the sequence of squares of the whole numbers. . e. 16. 19.. is the sequence of reciprocals of the whole numbers. Each item in the list is its place number in the list.28 . 5. 1. 1/4.. ... 1/2. a.. 1/5. 4. is the sequence where every item in the list is the number 1.. 1. Visit the Math League . 49. is the sequence of numbers beginning with the number 4. i. a. a. 25. a. 81. b. . is the sequence of counting numbers. e. a. 13. 7. . a.. 3.. 16. is the sequence of alternating letters a and b...

com Self Study Course From IIT Alumni Online Coaching & Video Lectures . 12 & IIT Prep www.topIITcoaching. Get Free IIT JAM Solved Mock Paper.© 1997-2006 by Math League Press This page may not be mirrored or reproduced on any other internet site. Class 11. Last updated August 2006 by Steve Conrad and Dan Flegler. 2014 & 2015 www. HubPages explore sign in join now flag Explore »Education and Science (66. 32 in top 100.vpmclasses.958) »Physics (868) by AliciaC 431 Followers How to Pass a Physics Exam See all 3 photos A calculator and a pencil: essential tools for passing a physics exam Source: AliciaC Ads by Google IIT JAM 2013.com JAM 2012 -128 ranks.

The students who do best in physics use an organized filing system for their assignments and study materials. but your preparation for the exam should begin when you’re buying your school supplies before you attend your first physics class. Preparation www. your lab reports. study regularly and solve many practice problems. take notes even when they’re not asked to.IIT-JEE.exponenteducation. Each year I help senior students prepare for their graduation exams. including ones that I assign. ask me lots of questions to make sure that they understand everything. your practice problems and your practice exam questions? Are these all going into the same binder. a to-do list and your study schedule? (You are going to make a study schedule. When they answer questions on exams they make sure that they work carefully.com is Effective-Better-Easy-Affordable With Exponent Education VDOs & Test Writing a physics exam doesn’t have to be a daunting experience! I’m a high school science teacher and I've taught physics. I’ve found that my students do well in their physics exams If they prepare for the examination throughout their physics course and follow a few important strategies when they’re actually writing the exam. Time and Study Area Your physics exam will last for just a few hours on one particular day. the handouts that your teacher gives you. do all their assigned work. Where are you going to store your notes. Usually the students who get the best exam marks are the ones who don't leave the exam room early but stay in the room until they are required to hand in their exams. chemistry and biology for many years. and test and exam hints? Do you have an agenda or planner to record important dates. aren’t you?!) . Use an Agenda or Planner Organize Your Information. or will it be more efficient to separate them into more than one binder or notebook? Do you need dividers? Where will you store miscellaneous information like useful web addresses. show their reasoning clearly when solving problems and check their work before handing in the exam. There are a number of decisions that you need to make before purchasing school supplies. ones that I recommend and ones that they find themselves. names of other resources that your teacher recommends. your assignments. facts.

CC BY-SA 3. Source: Oguraclutch. get the information or assignment that you missed from your teacher. Here are some tips for gathering information. or check a reference source. If you don't have a computer at home. In this photo a magnet is attracting iron filings. podcasts. Magnetism is a topic in many physics courses. including facts. binder or paper. make sure that you look at physics resources on a school or public library computer. Back up your data if you do this. experiment demonstrations. via Wikimedia Commons Work Effectively During Your Physics Course Even if you use good exam-writing strategies during your physics examination you’re unlikely to get a good result if you haven’t gathered information during the physics course and studied effectively. explanations. and your agenda and study schedule. When your receive your marked assignments. Your desk or table needs to have enough space for your writing supplies and calculator. Bookmark useful sites when you find them and organize your bookmarks folder on your computer so that you can quickly visit a specific site again. white board or overhead projector. . You'll find that there are many physics resources online. your notebook. Copy example problems that are shown on the blackboard. and only turn on the computer or iPod while you're studying if you're self disciplined. ask your teacher or another knowledgeable person for help. with adequate lighting and no distractions. but do this outside of your scheduled study time. In addition. Use a Computer as a Learning Tool A computer can be a very useful learning resource. If you have to miss a class due to unavoidable circumstances. some people use an agenda on their computer or iPod and create their study schedule on one on these devices too. example problems and practice problems.0. your open textbook. correct any errors that you made. Complete all your assignments during the course. Attend all of your physics classes. If you don't understand something. It’s very easy to get distracted by the entertainment that computers offer! Searching for physics information and practice problems on the Internet is an excellent idea.You also need to create a neat and organized study area at home. videos.

If a teacher is showing you a web page write down the address so that you can visit the site later. If a practice exam contains multiple choice questions. as well as your backup calculator if you are allowed to take it into the exam room. Look in your textbook for problems. but active studying is essential if you want to do well on your physics exam. writing down just the key points. Most physics exams contain a lot of word problems. and correct your solutions. Working with harder problems is excellent training for your brain and gives you confidence that you can deal with whatever problems appear on the real exam.Make notes about the information that your teacher presents. You won't be able to write down everything that the teacher says or shows. clarifying them and rewriting them. File all the information that you collect in the appropriate place and keep it organized in order to make studying efficient. Simply reading through problem solutions (passive studying) is useful. Always take a quick moment to decide if the answer seems reasonable. Check your notes on the same day as the lecture. Collect practice problems to solve. filling in any gaps. Create and follow a study schedule. You need to solve problems. once you have studied all the material write mock exams with the same time limit as the real exam. Teach and Learn! Use Good Study Techniques Study frequently for short periods instead of occasionally for long periods. then check an answer key to see what your errors are. so use point form and abbreviations. If you are able to get copies of previous exams. Become very familiar with how to use your calculator. search on the Internet and ask your teacher where you can get extra problems. It's therefore very important to do active studying in physics. don't simply circle the correct answers but write down the solution method or relevant facts beside the questions so that the exam becomes a study resource. . Don't forget to solve complex problems as well as easy ones. If it's a ridiculous answer then you've know that either you've used the calculator incorrectly or the calculator is damaged. Don't simply copy answers from your calculator. if any.

laws and rules. More Hints For Solving Word Problems Prepare for Your Physics Exam . If your school offers academic help time. In addition. try explaining some information that you have just read without looking at the information. Create diagrams to help you study. in order for group study to be successful you need to make sure that the group works on physics problems instead of socializing. Solving Physics Word Problems More Study Skills Add group study time with your friends to your individual study time. Active studying is more helpful than passive studying when learning factual information. Draw sketches to represent facts. draw flow charts that show the sequence of events in solving specific types of problems. Talk aloud even if you are on your own. Try teaching a topic to your friends.There will be some facts to memorize even in a problem-solving course. Make notes about these facts based upon what you learn in class or what you read in your textbook. make sure you attend these events if you need help with physics. Teaching something is another great way to learn. Practice drawing graphs that show relationships. tutorial classes or homework classes. Sometimes a teacher may let you bring one sheet of information into a physics exam. Study this sheet even though you're allowed to have it with you during the exam. make sure that you can use each formula not only as it's written on the sheet but also in its rearranged forms. Try making up questions about the information in your notes and then answering the questions without looking at the notes. If you will be given a formula sheet on your exam. For example. Helping each other solve physics problems is a great learning strategy! However. Start preparing material for this sheet well in advance of the exam date so that it can be changed and fine-tuned before you enter the exam room. and study these notes.

don’t eat or drink anything that will make you want to visit the washroom frequently. Preparing for a Multiple Choice Exam Taking Multiple Choice Exams Physics Practice Problems Physics Exam Questions and Keys Multiple Choice Questions College Board Physics B College Board Physics C Writing the Physics Exam Make sure that you only take approved electronic devices into the exam room. Put out the comfortable clothes and shoes that you’ll wear the next day. For example. You need to arrive at school with enough time to go the washroom and gather your thoughts before the exam starts. Make sure that your calculator is in good working order and has a fresh battery if it needs one. You will most likely be tired and mentally confused when you enter the exam room if you do this. Don’t try a new food or drink right before the exam. Pack other things that you might need during the exam and are allowed to bring into the exam room. but don’t eat or drink anything that you know will cause problems while you are writing the exam.Pack what you will need during the exam (such as writing utensils. Don't get up very early on the exam day to cram. especially if you're used to carrying it around in a pocket! . a ruler. or take a spare battery with you. Try to get a good night's sleep before the exam and for several nights leading up to the exam. a geometry set and a calculator) the night before the exam. Eat your usual breakfast or lunch. On the day of the exam make sure that you leave home early in case you face a traffic jam or an unforeseen transportation problem. Don't forget to leave your cell phone or iPod outside the room. an eraser. such as a water bottle.

Leave the question and come back to it later after you have completed the rest of the exam. decide what information you are being asked to find. and writing the start of the solution may help you to think of the rest of the solution! If you are given blank paper to use for rough work.Read the exam instructions carefully before starting the examination so that you don't make procedural errors. via Wikimedia Commons More Tips For Writing Physics Exams . "play" with data.0. CC BY-3. or use brainstorming techniques. By then you may have realized how to answer the question that seemed difficult when you first read it. This image shows polydactyly. substitute the data in the formula or formulas. formulas and facts. If you're having trouble deciding on the correct answer to a multiple choice question. Answer the questions that you can do first. it will increase the likelihood that you will get at least partial marks for the problem if you get stuck half way through the answer. label the diagram with the data given in the problem. If you can't think of how to solve a problem. a condition in which a person has extra fingers or toes. This will aid you in several ways: it will help you obtain the maximum number of marks for the problem if you complete the answer. try eliminating the wrong answers. Source: Drgnu23. show all your calculation steps clearly and in the order in which they're performed so that the marker can follow your reasoning. Some exams give suggested time limits for each section. Try to answer multiple choice questions in your mind before looking at the list of possible answers. This will also give you time to organize your thoughts and calm you down if you're nervous. For word problems that require a written response. make use of it. X-rays are studied in many physics courses. but keep track of the time so that you know when you're taking too long to complete a section of the exam. Remember the basic steps for solving word problems: draw a diagram to represent the situation whenever possible. Work carefully as you answer the exam questions. Be aware of these limits. If you're spending a long time trying to answer one particular question. or list the data if you haven't drawn a diagram. choose an appropriate formula or formulas to find the required information based on the given data. don't get discouraged. and solve for the required information. and then choose the answer from the list that best matches yours. These steps may help you to think of a solution for the problem.

If you discover that you've made an error in a multiple choice question. This Hub was last updated on May 13. draw a graph or a diagram that you think might be relevant or write a formula or fact that you think might be related to the problem. especially if the answer is written on a computer scan sheet. If you're not completely certain about how to answer a multiple choice question. A physics exam will be much less intimidating if you prepare for it throughout the course instead of thinking about it shortly before the exam date! Working conscientiously and efficiently from the start of the course will give you the best possible chance of understanding your physics curriculum and having a good exam experience. Erase any stray marks on the answer sheet. If you can't solve a word problem. 2012 . make sure that you've marked the circles that correspond with your intended answers. Make sure that you use significant figures if they are required. and don't forget to label the axes and state the measurement scale that you are using. You might get partial marks for your answer. plus if you write in all the units you are more likely to notice when you have to do a unit conversion in order to get the correct answer. When you're writing the exam. list the data. change the answer very clearly. circle any of the answers. Never leave blank spaces on your answer sheet. not only in the final answer but in the calculations steps too.Write in all measurement units. If you have to answer multiple choice questions by shading in circles on a computer scan sheet. If there are four possible answers you have a 25% chance of being right! If you can eliminate the obviously wrong answers your chance of choosing the right answer increases. it's probably a good idea to go with the first answer that you chose instead of second guessing yourself. using your ruler for the axes. Draw graphs neatly. If time is running out and you have no idea what the correct answer for a multiple choice question is. Check all your answers before you hand in your exam. While many people feel a little tense when they start an exam. if you've prepared properly your nervousness should soon fade and you will be able to not only pass your physics exam but also get a good mark to reward your efforts throughout the course. make a note beside problems that you leave out so that you know you have to come back to them at the end. You will likely lose marks if you don't do this.

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reference.dictionary. electricity and magnetism. and heat. optics.com states: The branch of science concerned with the properties of matter and energy and the relationships between them. particle. which is done in order to work out how the universe behaves. acoustics. based on quantum theory.HubPages explore sign in join now flag Explore »Education and Science (66. It is a study and analysis of nature. Modern physics. and solid-state studies. It is based on mathematics and traditionally includes mechanics.958) »Physics (868) by dipless 230 Followers Science: What is Physics? Ads by Google What is Physics: By definition Firstly let's take a look at the definitions of physics. . includes atomic. nuclear. It can also embrace applied fields such as geophysics and meteorology Physical properties of behaviour: the physics of the electron Archaic natural science or natural philosophy If we break down from the definition and look at it in a broader sense.

This was a time that mathematical descriptive schemes were adopted for such fields. It was during the first part of the 5th Century that the theory of atomisation was developed.cam. A famous example of this is the heliocentric theory which put the Sun at the centre of the solar system and not the Earth which at the time was seen as close to blasphemy.newton. William Gilbert. Robert Hooke and of course Galileo Galilei. What is Physics: A History We will now look at the history of physics in broad strokes. which talked about everything being made of inadvisable elements called 'atoms'. who was christened by Stephen Hawkins the father of modern physics. The 17th Century saw a major advancement with many famous names such as Francis Bacon. during this time it was known as natural philosophy. Isaac Newton published the iconic Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy which described the motion with . such as mechanics and astronomy which could actually model universally valid characterizations of motion Galileo Sun Centred model Isaac Newton One of the most famous physicists of all time! Source: http://www. Aristotle was the first credited with calling the study of natural laws 'physics'. It is one of the oldest scientific disciplines. were seen as the leading scholars.uk From the late 17th into the early 18th century a famous Cambridge university physicist. It developed into a very contentious subject and often contradicted the church which at the time.What is physics? See all 3 photos A chalkboard with physics equations and doodles.ac. It was first formally studied in archaic Greece between 650BC and 480BC.

Later in the 18th century when Newtons work was applied to rotational mechanics it became known as 'classical physics.beautiful mathematical proofs. There are so many moreI could have mentioned including Bohr. Moving into the later 18th and early 19th Century we reach an era where experimental physics took a front foot looking at prisms. Hawkins. and electromagnetic theory were developed. Heisenburg What is Quantum Physics . As we move further into the 19th century branches of physics including Thermodynamics.it was a change of rapid developments and challenges on classical ideas. electricity and f rational mechanics began to be applied to experimental phenomena. Famous Physicists Physicist Aristotle Archimedes BC384–322 BC287–212 Date Biggest Contribution Physicae Auscultationes On Floating Bodies Alhazen 965–1040 Copernicus Book of Optics 1543 On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres 1473–1543 Galilei 1564–1642 Newton1643–1727 Maxwell 632 Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism 1831–1879 Einstein 1879–1955 1905 On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies These are just some of the famous physicists through time. mathematical analysis of many phenomenon were applied the most famous of which the introduction of a new concept of the 'field' and the publication of Maxwell’s 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Also the branches of quantum physics have been and continue to be developed. From here we move into modern physics and famous scientists which most of the world have heard of including Einstein who is credited with the special and general theories of relativity which fixed the anomalies in Newtons classical physics models. statistical mechanics.

physics. you being able to put your hand straight through a table and speeds which make the Bugatti veyron look like a snail. Can you imagine a cat which is both dead and alive. Physics is a fascinating subject and one which I encourage you to read up on.com homepage physicsworld. M-brane theory many of which only work if we are in a universe of 10 or 11 dimensions. you can read about quantum physics in my series of hubs on the subject.com is a unique new online service that which provides a searchable library of 1500 great interactive resources for teaching physics. Currently we are looking at string theory. Below are some links where you can find out much more about the wonderful world of physics. There is also a very active area in GUT (grand unified theory) which is trying to bring together the theories of quantum mechanics and relativity this is a very hotly anticipated development as it will potentially give us a more complete understanding of nature and the universe. physicsworld. Further information physics.news. AS-level and GCSE Physics | Physics-online.It is the physics of the very small. views and information for the global physics community from Institute of Physics Publishing This Hub was last updated on June 12. what happens on atomic and smaller scales.com for A-level.org is the place to be if you have a burning physics question. or if you just want to browse articles and interactive features about physics Physics-online. 2012 . Often the reality is a lot stranger than you can imagine.com Physics-online.org | Home Your guide to what is physics on the web.com/ What is Physics today? At the present time the main areas of development are quantum physics which is the physics of the very small.com . Fact is stranger than fiction! Source: http://sandraoles.

Useful {3} • Funny • Awesome • Beautiful • Interesting {1} Ads by Google The Theory of Everything NewPhysicsAndTheMind.Subatomic particles Quantum Physics Follow (4) Comments 8 comments Go to last comment Ibrahim Hany 12 days ago from Alexandria.Niels Bohr atomic theory Quantum Physics . but how can a cat be dead and alive. Pendant+Bracelet+NanoCard www.particle duality) Quantum Physics .The Double Slit Experiment (wave .Werner Heisenberg: Uncertainty Principle Quantum Physics .edu Ranked first for Placements.Erwin Schrodinger and his equation Quantum Physics . Egypt That was useful.09300310671 India's Top Engg College www.scalarpendantindia.com Scalar Energy Pendant Rs60+MstRs200 Bracelet Rs300.net Some physicists think the mind is at the heart of modern physics.Rs15Card.amity. I did not get that part? . Faculty credited with 150 patents Discover What Other People Are Reading Quantum Physics .

Egypt As far as I understood it. I have always loved the 'small' compared to my brother who loves the 'big' as in Space and the Universe. I must admit to a smile when I read the title. I try and follow the latest news as much as I can.com/hub/Quantum-Physics--- I may rework that section though. really interesting. it reminded me of that classic sketch with sheldon (big bang) when he was trying to teach Penny about physics.dipless 12 days ago from Manchester Hub Author Sorry itw as a bit abstract. it is just an equations-trick! But it's amazing how a simple sentence that you put at the end of your article "Can you imagine a cat which is both dead and alive". made me know an interesting "thought" experiment as Schrodinger's cat! Good job! :) Nell Rose 12 days ago Level 8 Commenter Good old Schrodinger! lol! I love physics. You can see on my hub http://dipless. I was referring to Schrodingers famous thought experiment 'Schrodingers Cat'.hubpages. 'it was a warm summers evening in ancient greece'! lol! . Ibrahim Hany 12 days ago from Alexandria.

Mind blowing. minnesota Level 1 Commenter very fascinating! My favorite form of physics is quantum but I suppose that is a whole other ball game.Karmallama 12 days ago from minneapolis. @karmallama thanks for your comments. Again. thanks for commenting. Great job dipless 12 days ago from Manchester Hub Author @Nell indeed good old Schrodinger. indeed it is mine too. him and his crazy thoughts :p I too am rather partial to the quantum world as you have probably noted from my other hubs. but I have now. Haha oh yeah never made that connection. I love it when reality is stranger than fiction :) Green Lotus 11 days ago Level 6 Commenter I'm fascinated by Quantum Physics and seem to get my head around it quicker than I ever did with vanilla Physics back when I was in school! Schrodinger's cat is a bit of a quandary until you accept the fact (?) that nothing really exists until we observe it. dipless 11 days ago from Manchester Hub Author .

It is pretty mind blowing. Post Comment No HTML is allowed in comments. :) Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages account. I think often when you are e a kid they try and spoon feed you information and as you get older you develop an affinity with things you find interesting which makes the learning and understanding process a lot easier. Comments are not for promoting your Hubs or other sites. HubPages . Like This Hub? Over 50 Million people discover HubPages every month. but URLs will be hyperlinked.

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The value of each variable must remain the same in each problem. The idea is that an equation represents a scale such as the one shown on the right. These symbols are listed and explained below. For example the number 47 always represents 47 units or 47 multiplied by an unknown number. numbers. unlike arithmetic which is based entirely on known number values. Algebra is based on the concept of unknown values called variables. These numbers are called constants because they constantly have the same value. NY $45/hr Powered by WyzAnt Tutors Basics of Algebra Algebra is a division of mathematics designed to help solve certain types of problems quicker and easier. This lesson introduces an important algebraic concept known as the Equation. It never represents another value. or constants are used. The equation may also be balanced by a device called a variable. A variable is an an unknown number represented by any letter in the alphabet (often x).Leonard T. ??? Multiply * / Multiply Divide . New York. Several symbols are used to relate all of the variables and constants together. Instead of keeping the scale balanced with weights.

16 to find that __ equals 14. In this problem __ stood for an unknown number. This equation is similar to problems which you may have done in ordinary mathematics such as: __ + 16 = 30 You could easily guess that __ equals 14 or do 30 . in an equation we use variables. or any letter in the alphabet. When written algebraically the problem would be: x + 16 = 30 and the answer should be written: .+ - Add or Positive Subtract or Negative () Calculate what is inside of the parentheses first. (also called grouping symbols) Basics of the Equation The diagram on the right shows a basic equation.

x + 45 Subtract 45 from each side Result-22 = 2x Switch the left and right sides of the equation 2x = -22 This means that the unknown number multiplied by two. Solving Equations Take a look at the equation below. Since the weight(amount of pennies) on both sides of the scale are still equal and the unknown amount is alone. Initial Equation / Problem x + 23 = 3x + 45 Subtract x from each side Result23 = 2x + 45 23 . multiplication. remove 23 pennies from each side of the scale. equals -22. therefore.x = 14 Solving Equations These equations can be solved relatively easy and without any formal method. you will want an easier way to solve them.45 x .45 = 2x + 45 . as you use equations to solve more complex problems. we know that there must be an equal amount of weight on each side. This action keeps the scale balanced and isolates the unknown amount. As long as the same operation (addition. On the right side there are 45 pennies and on the left side are 23 pennies and an unknown amount of pennies. use the process "dividing by the coefficient" described on the next page. To find the value of x. it will remain balanced. subtraction. you are still left with 2x on one side. But. . etc.x + 23 = 3x . after the variable is subtracted from the left and the constants are subtracted from the right. we now know that the unknown amount of pennies on the left side is the same as the remaining amount (22 pennies) on the right side.) is done to both sides of the scale. To find the unknown amount of pennies of the left side. As you can see. Pretend you have a scale like the one shown. The scale is balanced.

Equation Basics Worksheet Enter an answer in each box. You may also check your answers manually by referring to the Answer Sheet.24x x -x 1 -1 2 0. then it has an implied coefficient of -1. then it has an implied coefficient of 1. click the " step-by-step" link for an in depth solution. In this equation. Some additional examples of coefficients: Term Coefficient of x 2x 0.Identifying and Using Coefficients The coefficient of a variable is the number which the variable is being multiplied by.24 Note that in the last two examples. S1 x+1=9 x= step-by-step . the following rules are applied If the variable has no visible coefficient. If you need assistance with a particular problem. 2 is the coefficient of x because 2x is present in the equation. If the variable only has a negative sign. then click the "Check Worksheet" button at the bottom of the page to automatically check each answer.

-3 + 2x = 11 x= 12. 12 = -1x + 1 x= 7. x + -6 = 9 x= 3 . x + 3 = 5 x= 2. 46 = 47 + -1x x= 6. 29 + -1x = 13 x= 5. 14 = -2x x= 11. 2x = 10 x= 9. -32 = x + 3 x= 4.1.4x + 6 = -10 . 4x = 16 x= 8. 10x = 130 x= 10.

-10x + -19 = 19 + -8x x= Prime Numbers Chart . 15 + 5x = 0 x= 17. -1x + -1 = 221 + 2x x= 16.x + 9 = 18 + -2x x= 14. 17x + -12 = 114 + 3x x= 18.x= 13. 12x + 0 = 144 x= 20. 2x + 6 = 4x + -2 x= 15. 2x + -10 = 10 + -3x x= 19.

Display the first primes progressing with columns. 2 3 19 23 29 31 73 127 179 233 283 353 419 467 37 79 131 181 239 293 359 421 479 41 83 137 191 241 307 367 431 487 43 89 139 193 251 311 373 433 491 47 97 149 197 257 313 379 439 499 53 101 151 199 263 317 383 443 503 59 103 157 211 269 331 389 449 509 61 107 163 223 271 337 397 457 521 5 7 11 13 17 67 109 167 227 277 347 401 461 523 71 113 173 229 281 349 409 463 Perfect Squares Chart Display the first perfect squares progressing with columns. n n2 n n2 n n2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 25 100 225 400 625 900 1225 1600 2025 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 1 36 121 256 441 676 961 1296 1681 2116 2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 4 49 144 289 484 729 1024 1369 1764 2209 3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 9 64 169 324 529 784 1089 1444 1849 2304 4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 n n2 n n2 16 81 196 361 576 841 1156 1521 1936 2401 .

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