Está en la página 1de 61

TRADUCCIN TCNICA

MANUAL de CTEDRA 2013

Traduccin Tcnica - 1

INTRODUCCIN Nueva didctica de la traduccin tcnico-cientfica: enfoque textual

Diferencia entre textos tcnicos y cientficos Prstamos innecesarios


CAPTULO I MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO EDUCATIVO Y DE DIVULGACIN Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales CAPTULO II MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO PUBLICITARIO Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales CAPTULO III MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO INSTRUCTIVO Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales.

TEXTOS PARA ANLISIS TEXTUAL Y PRCTICA DE LA TRADUCCIN

Traduccin Tcnica - 2

INTRODUCCIN Nueva didctica de la traduccin tcnico-cientfica: enfoque textual Como parte de la capacitacin inherente a su carrera, los estudiantes del Traductorado de Ingls, de la Facultad de Lenguas de la Universidad Nacional de Crdoba, debern ser capaces de reconocer distintos gneros textuales, y de traducir en consecuencia. En los textos cientficos, la problemtica se explica en su origen primero, y luego se describe el desarrollo del pensamiento en relacin a ella, generalmente con una finalidad didctica (en ocasiones encubierta) o de difusin, que va desde lo causal hasta las definiciones finales. El estilo impersonal necesariamente refleja un viso de objetividad y formalidad en el texto tcnico y cientfico. Adems de la eleccin de vocablos, este estilo es abonado por elementos tales como el uso frecuente de Passive Voice en ingls y Pasiva con se en espaol (particularmente en Argentina) y como el recurso de nominalizacin, que le proporciona un carcter formal al texto. Algunas veces la longitud de las unidades sintcticas, a travs de coordinacin o subordinacin, se entienden muy cerca de la frontera de la incomprensin en los textos tcnicos y cientficos en ingls. Tanto es as que a menudo debemos los traductores decidir cortes sintcticos en espaol, con el cuidado de que esos cortes no malogren la unidad de coherencia semntica. Idntica precaucin se debe tener con las largas frases sustantivas, sin modificadores, que constituyen en ingls una forma objetiva y fcil de expresar unidades semnticas. Su traduccin al espaol debe respetar el orden jerrquico y la carga semntica de los modificadores, a la vez que resolver sintcticamente la relacin entre los mismos, a travs de preposiciones o partculas conectoras. El traductor tiene ante s la concreta, y a la vez apabullante, tarea de verter ideas de una lengua a otra. Su funcin es tan natural como el inters de los pueblos por comunicarse, y tan compleja como los innumerables escollos que obstaculizan la comprensin entre las diferentes formas de expresarse de diferentes culturas. Proponemos el anlisis textual como punto de partida, y una gran vocacin de bsqueda para lograr la excelencia en nuestra profesin. La capacidad para documentarse ocupa un lugar central en el conjunto de competencias del traductor, ya que le permite adquirir conocimientos sobre el campo temtico, sobre la terminologa y sobre las normas de funcionamiento textual del gnero en cuestin.

Diferencia entre textos tcnicos y cientficos


Estamos de acuerdo con Pinchuck (1977) en que lo que diferencia a una gran parte de los textos cientficos es que tienen la finalidad de difundir ampliamente los resultados de la investigacin entre la comunidad de especialistas; por ejemplo, a travs de artculos, ponencias en congresos, o conferencias. Esta situacin de uso no se presenta nunca en el mbito tcnico. Por supuesto, tambin se escriben artculos de investigacin sobre campos tcnicos, pero aqu se produce un divorcio entre el tema y el mbito comunicativo de uso. La situacin comunicativa en la que se produce un artculo de este tipo no es tcnica, puesto que no surge en el seno de la industria ni estn implicados tcnicos en su emisin, ni su finalidad est relacionada directamente con la

Traduccin Tcnica - 3

aplicacin prctica de conocimientos tericos. Por tanto, un artculo de investigacin sobre el control de la polucin del aire (ingeniera y tecnologa ambiental) es un texto cientfico, mientras que un proyecto de medidas para la rpida descontaminacin del medio ambiente en una determinada zona geogrfica (idntico campo temtico) es un texto tcnico. Otras situaciones comunicativas son compartidas con los textos tcnicos, porque al igual que ellos, los textos cientficos pueden utilizarse para transmitir el conjunto de saberes propios de una disciplina a los especialistas en formacin (manual sobre un campo determinado, cientfico o tecnolgico) o, en algunos casos, para divulgar unos conocimientos bsicos entre el pblico general (monografa divulgativa, artculo divulgativo en la prensa general, documental televisivo, todos ellos sobre temas cientficos o tecnolgicos). Pero aqu acaba el inventario de posibilidades, mientras que el mbito de uso de los textos tcnicos es mucho ms amplio, e incluye la produccin de textos con el fin de contribuir a la organizacin de los procesos industriales (plan de produccin, solicitud de desarrollo del producto, etc.), ofrecer informacin al usuario de los productos (manual de instrucciones, prospecto de medicamento), anunciar productos (publirreportaje, anuncio tcnico, etc.), y otros muchos ms, como veremos ms adelante. La traduccin de textos tcnicos - Silvia Gamero Prez Editorial Ariel, Barcelona, 2001

Prstamos innecesarios
M ngeles Sastre En esta seccin hemos tratado en varias ocasiones de las palabras procedentes de otras lenguas partiendo de la base de que los prstamos (o extranjerismos) no son en absoluto rechazables porque todos los idiomas del mundo se han enriquecido a lo largo de su historia con aportaciones lxicas procedentes de lenguas diversas. Ninguna lengua se ha visto libre de prstamos. En el caso concreto del espaol, muchos hablantes lamentan la invasin de extranjerismos, cuya consecuencia directa dicen es la desaparicin de palabras y expresiones propias de la lengua espaola, y se preguntan cmo es posible que la Real Academia de la Lengua no tome cartas en el asunto, es decir, que no frene esta riada, como si de una invasin se tratara. Para la tranquilidad de muchos de ustedes, puedo asegurarles que a la RAE siempre le han preocupado los extranjerismos, aunque no ha sido hasta el ao 1995, fecha de la publicacin del Diccionario panhispnico de dudas, cuando ha dejado patente su postura (los extranjerismos no son rechazables en s mismos) y sus lneas de actuacin (es importante que su incorporacin responda en lo posible a nuevas necesidades expresivas y, sobre todo, que se haga de forma ordenada y unitaria, acomodndose al mximo a los rasgos grficos y morfolgicos del espaol). En el Diccionario panhispnico de dudas (DPD) figuran como entradas muchas voces extranjeras habitualmente empleadas por los hispanohablantes, bastantes ms de las que se registran en la vigsima segunda edicin del Diccionario acadmico (2001). Los criterios que se tienen en cuenta en el comentario a cada entrada son los siguientes: a) distinguir los extranjerismos superfluos de los necesarios o muy extendidos; b) mostrar la procedencia y el significado de la palabra; c) proponer la adaptacin grficay fnica cuando el caso lo requiera de los prstamos necesarios o muy extendidos; d) ofrecer una mnima informacin gramatical, como, por ejemplo, de

Traduccin Tcnica - 4

gnero y nmero en el caso de los sustantivos. Esta semana nos ocuparemos de algunos extranjerismos innecesarios para los que existen equivalentes con plena vitalidad: pack, kit, password, planning y on line. Para designar el conjunto de artculos iguales o similares que se agrupan, especialmente para su reparto o venta, los hispanohablantes acudimos casi siempre a la voz inglesa pack cuando el espaol posee las palabras vocablo, lote, paquete o envase, dependiendo del contexto. Es, por tanto, un anglicismo evitable. Utilizamos frecuentemente el vocablo kit cuando queremos referirnos a un juego de piezas para armar o montar un objeto o a un conjunto de productos y utensilios que se venden juntos y que van destinados a un mismo fin. La mayora de los hoteles ofrecen un kit de higiene a los clientes, las marcas cosmticas comercializan kits de maquillaje y al comienzo de cada curso acadmico la mayor parte de los alumnos estrenan su kit de artculos de escritorio. Como ustedes podrn comprobar, en la mayora de los casos esta voz (procedente del ingls, que a su vez lo tom del neerlands) es sustituible por las palabras juego, equipo o estuche. Recuerdan los equipos de msica con los que soaban los jvenes de al menos tres dcadas? No es nada infrecuente escuchar la voz password para referirse a la secuencia de caracteres que permite el acceso a un sistema. No creen que es mucho ms apropiado hablar de contrasea o, si se desea mayor precisin, de clave de acceso, de clave personal, de cdigo de seguridad o, simplemente, de clave? Por qu se oye cada vez ms la voz planning en referencia a la organizacin de actividades u operaciones con arreglo a un plan o programa? Es que se alude a algo distinto si se utilizan los vocablos plan, planificacin, programa o programacin? Qu es eso de preguntarle a alguien que si tiene algn planning para el fin de semana? Y, por ltimo, qu necesidad hay de utilizar la expresin inglesa online para referirse a la conexin directa con un sistema a travs de Internet cuando en espaol tenemos el calco en lnea? Podramos seguir con muchos ejemplos de este tipo. Pero tambin quiero dejar constancia de que el uso de estos prstamos innecesarios no tiene por qu empaar la percepcin que los hablantes tengan del prstamo en general. Hay muchsimos prstamos que son necesarios y muchos tambin que son imprescindibles, de los que hablaremos en otra ocasin.

Anlisis textual previo a una tarea de traduccin Items que deben ser identificados: 1. Tipo y gnero textual
Los gneros: esta propiedad textual hace referencia al propsito comunicativo de un acto comunicativo y a su reflejo en la formulacin del mismo (Swales en Bhatia 1993: 13). Esa formulacin est sumamente estructurada y normalizada, lo que permite clasificar los textos en varios gneros, reconocibles por aspectos formales (Gamero Prez 2001: 50-60). Entre otros gneros, podemos nombrar los siguientes: artculos, conferencias, catlogos, manuales de instrucciones, folletos, monografas, diarios de laboratorio, charlas informales, etc. El gnero instructivo o educativo se expresa a travs del texto expositivo y relaciona aspectos del conocimiento en forma cronolgica, organizada y detallada. El texto cientfico de consulta es aquel que presenta organizadas, de manera general o especializada, las diversas reas del conocimiento. A este tipo de textos

Traduccin Tcnica - 5

pertenecen los diccionarios especializados o temticos, las enciclopedias, los catlogos, los resmenes, etc. El texto cientfico didctico es aquel en el que se presentan los conocimientos cientficos explicados de manera gradual y sistemtica para facilitar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Esencialmente lleva al lector a aprender, a desarrollar habilidades o estrategias y a asumir fundamentos axiolgicos o de valores. Se caracteriza por: -utilizacin de mtodos y procedimientos que facilitan el aprendizaje -su condicin (generalmente) de textos escolares -explicacin del conocimiento cientfico de manera gradual -inclusin frecuente de una o varias explicaciones, ejemplos, aplicaciones, ejercicios, resmenes y evaluaciones Aunque su objetivo es igualmente el conocimiento, su propsito no est slo en transmitirlo como el texto divulgativo, sino en fijarlo en el alumno, en darle la posibilidad de analizarlo, reflexionar sobre l y desarrollar as, en ste, habilidades para su aplicacin futura. Este texto se caracteriza por el ajuste del lenguaje a un lector predeterminado por su edad, nivel escolar, caractersticas culturales y perfil que se quiere lograr en l, lo cual lo diferencia del lector hasta cierto punto annimo del texto divulgativo o del lector iniciado y maduro del texto cientfico. De lo anterior se infiere la capacidad del texto didctico de asumir el lenguaje del educando y desarrollar en l otros niveles de significados y sentidos nuevos, pero, eso s, conservando la amenidad que requiere un texto que es ledo con un fuerte componente de obligatoriedad circunstancia subjetiva que no caracteriza los otros tipos de textos cuya lectura es siempre volitiva. El texto informativo y divulgativo comprende tanto a los diarios, revistas y materiales publicitarios y divulgativos ligeros, como a los libros destinados a la divulgacin o difusin amplia de un tema de inters general. Su principal caracterstica formal es la simplicidad de su estructura y el empleo del lenguaje comn del modo ms depurado y correcto posible, con el cuidado de explicar con palabras de dominio comn los trminos y las nociones que no pertenezcan a este mbito. A diferencia del texto didctico, su objeto no es ensear y fijar el conocimiento, sino ser ameno, convincente e informar. Por divulgacin suele entenderse todo intento de comunicacin de los descubrimientos generados en el mbito de la ciencia a un pblico no experto. Se trata, pues, de una traduccin o reformulacin de un mensaje para una nueva audiencia. Dado que el nivel de formacin de los lectores previstos puede variar segn los contextos, podemos hablar de algunos tipos de divulgacin ms llanos que otros. Fundamentalmente, la diferencia est marcada por el medio empleado para la divulgacin (revista, diario, televisin, folleto, libro) y el autor (periodista, docente, cientfico). La divulgacin masiva a menudo muestra seales evidentes de un texto publicitario, sobre todo cuando se trata de una campaa masiva para modificar una conducta, o cuando es, sin ms, una publicidad camuflada como texto cientfico. Si bien en esta

Traduccin Tcnica - 6

ctedra no cubrimos la traduccin de textos publicitarios per se, encontramos que los elementos de carcter publicitario nos llevan a modificar el enfoque del traductor al realizar su trabajo. El objetivo es entonces aprender a identificar esa intencionalidad, a veces encubierta, en un texto descriptivo o instructivo. Es por esto que vamos a revisar las caractersticas de este gnero: Desde un punto de vista comunicativo, la publicidad es una tcnica de carcter complejo, propia de la sociedad de consumo, que utilizan los productores de bienes y servicios, instituciones o asociaciones para dar a conocer algo al pblico y persuadirlo para que realice una accin concreta: comprar, evitar, adoptar determinados comportamientos, votar a un partido poltico, etctera. Clases de publicidad Bajo la denominacin comn de publicidad se recogen actividades comunicativas muy variadas que, aunque comparten los recursos empleados para elaborar sus mensajes, son diferentes en cuanto al fin que persiguen. Segn sea ste pueden distinguirse tres clases: La publicidad comercial, orientada a la venta de productos o a la contratacin de ciertos servicios. La comunicacin social o publicidad institucional, dirigida a modificar las conductas o comportamientos de los ciudadanos. La propaganda poltica, cuyo objetivo es que la opinin pblica asuma determinadas ideas polticas y sociales como propias. El discurso publicitario En los mensajes publicitarios puede distinguirse una estructura textual claramente argumentativa, aunque muchas veces tienen la apariencia de textos expositivos. La organizacin de los contenidos como texto lingstico del mensaje publicitario responde a una estructuracin en tres partes: encabezamiento o titular, cuerpo o desarrollo, y rbrica o cierre. Las partes primera y tercera suelen ser ms concisas y llamativas, pues incluyen la llamada de atencin, la identificacin del producto y el eslogan, mientras que la segunda parte suele ir en letra ms pequea para hacer una descripcin del producto. Anlisis funcional del mensaje publicitario El anuncio se compone de elementos diferentes cuyas principales funciones son:

Implicar al lector (elementos implicativos). Informar sobre el producto (elementos predicativos).

Traduccin Tcnica - 7

Ponderar el producto (elementos ponderativos), para tratar de


convencer al pblico de la conveniencia de su adquisicin.

Favorecer la fijacin del mensaje en la memoria (elementos de


extraamiento o retricos).

2. Temtica
La temtica: conocer el tema tratado en el texto supone averiguar el mbito del conocimiento en cuyo seno se ha producido. Cuando los diccionarios bilinges ofrecen varias posibles traducciones a un trmino, especifican la ciencia a la que corresponde cada uno de los equivalentes. Los diccionarios monolinges tambin clasifican los posibles significados de un trmino en funcin del mbito cientfico, lo que es interesante si tratamos de establecer una relacin entre lenguas por comparacin de las definiciones de trminos equivalentes(Arntz y Picht 1995: 196-199). Por absurdo que parezca, hay ocasiones en las que el traductor desconoce o confunde el campo cognitivo al que pertenece el texto que debe traducir. En la prctica, debemos preguntarnos qu es esto? o de qu se trata? para luego indagar sobre el tema y adquirir los conocimientos bsicos necesarios para poder traducir.

3. Destinatario (registro y grado de especializacin)


El traductor generalmente recibe informacin adecuada sobre las caractersticas del destinatario de su traduccin. En los textos cientficos es particularmente importante conocer la franja etrea a la que pertenece el destinatario, as como tambin su nivel educativo y entorno cultural. El grado de especializacin est directamente relacionado con el receptor del texto, en lo que respecta al nivel de conocimientos que tenga del tema tratado y, en consecuencia, de los trminos empleados. De esta manera, se puede clasificar los textos como especializados o divulgativos. En los primeros se har un mayor uso terminolgico que en el segundo y en los divulgativos se incluirn las explicaciones y aclaraciones necesarias sobre los trminos empleados y los conceptos tratados. El conocimiento del destinatario del texto va a determinar los dems aspectos de la traduccin, ya que est ntimamente ligado a la intencionalidad, a la densidad terminolgica, a las caractersticas del encargo y, especialmente, al registro, es decir, al grado de formalidad del texto.

4. Intencionalidad del autor


El traductor ha de tener presente la intencionalidad del autor antes de comenzar su traduccin. Pocas veces tiene el traductor acceso a conversar con el autor o a preguntarle por su verdadera intencionalidad, de manera que generalmente esta caracterstica se deduce a partir del texto y de su

Traduccin Tcnica - 8

destinatario. De todas formas, es saludable hacer una reflexin y aclarar este aspecto de la tarea en forma fehaciente. Debemos tener en cuenta tambin que la intencionalidad del autor no siempre coincide con la intencionalidad del encargo. Un cliente puede tomar un texto determinado para ser traducido con un objetivo distinto al del autor, o en un contexto especial, o para destinatarios especficos que el autor no concibi cuando escribi el artculo. Quienes estamos trabajando o capacitndonos en el mbibto acadmico tendemos a considerar que todo texto cientfico tiene una intencionalidad didctica, es decir, que apunta al aprendizaje o a la adquisicin de conocimiento. La prctica real de la traduccin muchas veces se contrapone a este presupuesto, ya que no todos los pooseedores de conocimiento tienen como meta la enseanza o la divulgacin. Como traductores, debemos ser minuciosos observadores de estos elementos extralingsticos encerrados en los textos antes de traducirlos.

5. Densidad terminolgica
La terminologa se presenta como uno de los problemas que los alumnos encuentran en la traduccin (Sevilla y Sevilla 2004) porque dificultan la comprensin del texto y el establecimiento de equivalentes entre la lengua original y la terminal. De hecho, el dominio de la terminologa y un uso apropiado de la misma es uno de los objetivos pedaggicos que forma parte de varias programaciones didcticas de traduccin (Bdard 1987: 12-15; Durieux 1998: 125-128; Gamero Prez y Hurtado Albir 1999: 142-145). Con el fin de alcanzar el segundo objetivo general de los tres que componen su programacin, Gamero Prez y Hurtado Albir incluyen, entre otros, un objetivo especfico relacionado con la terminologa: 2.3. Dominar la terminologa. Que el alumno sepa cmo llegar a comprender la terminologa del texto original y cmo utilizar la terminologa de la lengua trmino. 2.3.1. Ser crtico ante el vocabulario tcnico y ser consciente de sus limitaciones. 2.3.2. Saber hallar equivalencias, utilizando, en su caso, los recursos terminolgicos apropiados. 2.3.3. Saber crear equivalentes inexistentes. 2.3.4. Utilizar terminologa coherente. 2.3.5. Saber adquirir un bagaje terminolgico. Encontramos un reflejo de esta necesidad de los traductores por dominar la terminologa en la propuesta de Cabr (1996) para formar a los alumnos de traduccin en terminologa.

Traduccin Tcnica - 9

As, conviene que los alumnos de traduccin sean capaces de identificar los trminos en el texto que vayan a traducir y de manejar fuentes de informacin temtica y terminolgica para definir relaciones entre las dos lenguas que hagan posible establecer trminos equivalentes. Los trminos constituyen una parte esencial del discurso, pero adquieren plena significacin como parte integrante de la unidad superior, que es el texto, en la que se engarzan y a la que aportan su carga semntica. De este modo, no se puede concebir un texto especializado sin la participacin de los trminos, ni un trmino sin el contexto que le da la vida. No comprenderemos, por tanto, todo lo que un trmino simboliza si no prestamos antes atencin al discurso del que forma parte. Por ello, el objeto de trabajo del traductor debe ser el texto, entendido como un ente unitario, como la unidad mnima de traduccin. Una vez comprendido y admitido este hecho, trabajemos con los trminos y concedmosles relevancia en funcin del discurso en el que se utilizan (Sevilla y Sevilla 2004a). De este modo, el texto es la primera fuente de informacin temtica y terminolgica para comprender el significado de los trminos que contiene y poder llegar a su correspondencia en la lengua terminal (Sevilla y Sevilla 2004b).

6. Organizacin textual
Miguel Snchez (1993) distingue variados estilos para expresar un texto expositivo: -Secuencia, donde el desarrollo del tema sigue un ordenamiento especfico. -Descripcin, cuyo objetivo es presentar las caractersticas del tema u objeto. -Problema-solucin, como un estilo esclarecedor para presentar un tema. -Causalidad, que es una forma de secuencia con un origen y una accin directa o consecuencia. -Comparacin, que es una forma de descripcin, pero con el agregado de tomar dos o ms aspectos paralelos. Cabe destacar que la mayora de los textos, y en especial aquellos textos que tienen un objetivo didctico, combinan en su composicin dos o ms de estas formas de organizacin textual con la finalidad de hacerlos ms amenos o de aportar a la claridad de expresin.

7. Caractersticas del encargo de traduccin A new proposal


Andrew Chesterman

Traduccin Tcnica - 10

2000b. Translation typology. In A. Veisbergs and I. Zauberga (eds), The Second Riga Symposium on Pragmatic Aspects of Translation. Riga: University of Latvia, 49-62.

I distinguish first between four sets of variables, A-D: A) Equivalence variables (having to do with the relation between source text and target text) B) Target-language variables (having to do with the style of the target text) C) Translator variables D) Special situational variables These variables are ways in which translations can vary, parameters along which clients and translators can make choices. A) Equivalence variables A1) Function: same or different? Is the main function of the target text intended to be the same as that of the source text, or not? If not, what? (Different function leads to an adaptation of some kind.) A2) Content: all, selected, reduced or added, or some combination of these? Does the translation represent all the source content, or select particular parts of it (keyword translation) or reduce the content overall (summary translation, gist translation; subtitling), or add some elements such as explanations (exegetic translation)? A3) Form: what are the formal equivalence priorities, what formal elements of the source text are preserved? The main ones are text-type (same or different? Different genre, e.g. verse to prose, sonnet to lyric?); text structure; sentence divisions (full-stops preserved; a common interpretation of what is meant by literal translation); word/morpheme structure (gloss translation, linguistic translation); other (e.g. sounds phonemic translation, transliteration, transcription; or lip-movements dubbing). A4) Style: evidently intended to be same or different? If different, in what way (another sense of adaptation)? A5) Source-text revision for error correction: evident or not (implicit or explicit)? Minimal or major? Has the translator edited the source text during translation, corrected factual errors, improved awkward style and communication quality, or is the source reproduced without corrections or improvements? This is the cleaning -up transediting mentioned by Stetting (1989). (For cultural transediting, see under B2.) B) Target-language variables

Traduccin Tcnica - 11

B1) Acceptability. A small number of subtypes can be distinguished here. (i) Good native style: fluent and readable, may involve editing (communicative translation). (ii) 100% native style: no signs of translationese, conforms to target text-type norms (covert translation). (iii) Deliberately marked, resistant to target stylistic norms (foreignized translation). (iv) Grammatical: grammatically faultless but clearly a translation, features of translationese (overt translation, whether by intention or not). (v) Intelligible: comprehensible, but with grammatical and stylistic weaknesses. Usually not publishable without native revision. (vi) Machine translation (with or without postediting). (vii) Unintelligible. (Some of these subtypes thus require a competent native speaker of the target language.) B2) Localized or not? Is the translation adapted to local cultural norms (localized translation, yet another sense of adaptation)? Stylistic norms such as British or American English also come in here. B3) Matched or not? Is the translation matched with a defined set of previous texts, e.g. those produced by the clients company, to conform to client-specific norms (e.g. via the use of a translation memory system)? (EU hybrid translations, for instance, or translations that have to be standardized to a particular format.) An extreme form of literary translation might even seek to match the style of a particular individual writer (parody translation). C) Translator variables C1) Visibility. Is the translator visible, e.g. in footnotes, a commentary or preface, via inserted terms from the source text in brackets, via evidence of the translators own particular ideology (learned translation, philological translation, commentary translation, thick translation; feminist translation, polemical translation)? C2) Individual or team? Are there indications suggesting that the text was translated by more than one translator? C3) Native speaker of target or source language, or neither ( inverse translation if the translator is a native speaker of the source language)? D) Special situational variables

Traduccin Tcnica - 12

The number of situational variables is virtually infinite, and many (such as client helpfulness, actual availability of documentation...) may leave no visible traces in the translation. Here are three main ones: D1) Space: constraints of layout, screen space, speech bubbles, total pages... D2) Medium: same (written or spoken) as source text, or not? (E.g. sight translation, from written to oral.) Also: use or presence of other semiotic systems, other media, diagrams... (screen translation, dubbing, Gouadecs (1990) diagrammatic translation...). D3) Time: are there indications suggesting that the translation had to be done in an unusual hurry? A careless translation might (rightly or wrongly) give such an impression, for instance.

Default values Mathematically, the total number of possible combinations of these variables is enormous. Fortunately, by no means all of them are equally likely to occur, and not all the configurations are even logically possible. We might start reducing the number of possible and reasonably likely types to a more manageable size, first, by specifying default values for each of the variables, for example as follows (where same is of course understood to have quotes around it): A1: Same function A2: All content A3: Same text-type and structure A4: Same style A5: Minimal implicit source-text revision B1: Good native B2: Not localized B3: Not matched C1: Invisible translator C2: Individual translator C3: Target language native D1: No special space constraints D2: Same, written, medium

Traduccin Tcnica - 13

D3: Adequate time...

CAPTULO I MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO EDUCATIVO Y DE DIVULGACIN Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales El gnero instructivo o educativo se expresa a travs del texto expositivo y relaciona aspectos del conocimiento en forma cronolgica, organizada y detallada Miguel Snchez (1993) distingue variados estilos para expresar un texto expositivo: - Secuencia, donde el desarrollo del tema sigue un ordenamiento especfico. - Descripcin, cuyo objetivo es presentar las caractersticas del tema u objeto. - Problema-solucin, como un estilo esclarecedor para presentar un tema. - Causalidad, que es una forma de secuencia con un origen y una accin directa o consecuencia. - Comparacin, que es una forma de descripcin, pero con el agregado de tomar dos o ms aspectos paralelos. El texto cientfico de consulta es aquel que presenta organizadas, de manera general o especializada, las diversas reas del conocimiento. Sus caractersticas son: - est destinado a especialistas o al pblico en general - resume conocimientos generales o especializados - su estructura interna consta de introduccin, desarrollo y conclusin - se utiliza para aclarar dudas A este tipo de textos pertenecen los diccionarios especializados o temticos, las enciclopedias, los catlogos, los resmenes, etc. El texto cientfico didctico es aquel en el que se presentan los conocimientos cientficos explicados de manera gradual y sistemtica para facilitar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Esencialmente lleva al lector a aprender, a desarrollar habilidades o estrategias y a asumir fundamentos axiolgicos o de valores. Se caracteriza por: - utilizacin de mtodos y procedimientos que facilitan el aprendizaje - su condicin (generalmente) de textos escolares - explicacin del conocimiento cientfico de manera gradual - asesoramiento a docentes en el proceso enseanza aprendizaje - inclusin frecuente de una o varias explicaciones, ejemplos, aplicaciones, ejercicios, resmenes y evaluaciones Aunque su objetivo es igualmente el conocimiento, su propsito no est slo en transmitirlo como el texto divulgativo, sino en fijarlo en el alumno, en darle la posibilidad de analizarlo, reflexionar sobre l y desarrollar as, en ste, habilidades para su aplicacin futura. Este texto se caracteriza por el ajuste del lenguaje a un lector predeterminado por su edad, nivel escolar, caractersticas culturales y perfil que se quiere lograr en l, lo cual lo diferencia del lector hasta cierto punto annimo del texto divulgativo o del lector iniciado y maduro del texto cientfico. De lo anterior se infiere la capacidad del texto didctico de asumir el lenguaje del educando y desarrollar en l otros niveles de significados y sentidos nuevos, pero, eso s, conservando la amenidad que requiere un

Traduccin Tcnica - 14

texto que es ledo con un fuerte componente de obligatoriedad circunstancia subjetiva que no caracteriza los otros tipos de textos cuya lectura es siempre volitiva. La diferencia entre texto explicativo y texto expositivo: El texto explicativo demuestra, facilita la comprensin, tiene una funcin didctica. El texto expositivo cuenta con una organizacin cuidadosamente planificada, un desarrollo temtico claro, informa con alto grado de organizacin y jerarqua. Ambos tienen un propsito comunicativo. El texto informativo y divulgativo comprende tanto a los diarios, revistas y materiales publicitarios y divulgativos ligeros, como a los libros destinados a la divulgacin o difusin amplia de un tema de inters general. Su principal caracterstica formal es la simplicidad de su estructura y el empleo del lenguaje comn del modo ms depurado y correcto posible, con el cuidado de explicar con palabras de dominio comn los trminos y las nociones que no pertenezcan a este mbito. A diferencia del texto didctico, su objeto no es ensear y fijar el conocimiento, sino ser ameno, convincente e informar. Por divulgacin suele entenderse todo intento de comunicacin de los descubrimientos generados en el mbito de la ciencia a un pblico no experto. Se trata, pues, de una traduccin o reformulacin de un mensaje para una nueva audiencia. Dado que el nivel de formacin de los lectores previstos puede variar segn los contextos, podemos hablar de algunos tipos de divulgacin ms llanos que otros. Fundamentalmente, la diferencia est marcada por el medio empleado para la divulgacin (revista, diario, televisin, folleto, libro) y el autor (periodista, docente, cientfico). CAPTULO II MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO PUBLICITARIO Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales

Desde un punto de vista comunicativo, la publicidad es una tcnica de carcter complejo, propia de la sociedad de consumo, que utilizan los productores de bienes y servicios, instituciones o asociaciones para dar a conocer algo al pblico y persuadirlo para que realice una accin concreta: comprar, evitar, adoptar determinados comportamientos, votar a un partido poltico, etctera. Clases de publicidad Bajo la denominacin comn de publicidad se recogen actividades comunicativas muy variadas que, aunque comparten los recursos empleados para elaborar sus mensajes, son diferentes en cuanto al fin que persiguen. Segn sea ste pueden distinguirse tres clases: La publicidad comercial, orientada a la venta de productos o a la contratacin de ciertos servicios. La comunicacin social o publicidad institucional, dirigida a modificar las conductas o comportamientos de los ciudadanos. La propaganda poltica, cuyo objetivo es que la opinin pblica asuma determinadas ideas polticas y sociales como propias. El discurso publicitario En los mensajes publicitarios puede distinguirse una estructura textual claramente argumentativa, aunque muchas veces tienen la apariencia de textos expositivos.

Traduccin Tcnica - 15

La organizacin de los contenidos como texto lingstico del mensaje publicitario responde a una estructuracin en tres partes: encabezamiento o titular, cuerpo o desarrollo, y rbrica o cierre. Las partes primera y tercera suelen ser ms concisas y llamativas, pues incluyen la llamada de atencin, la identificacin del producto y el eslogan, mientras que la segunda parte suele ir en letra ms pequea para hacer una descripcin del producto. El lenguaje de la publicidad Se distinguen tres niveles dentro de este tipo de lenguaje: Niveles grfico y fnico Destaca la variedad tipogrfica. Adems, los textos adoptan disposiciones libres o formas determinadas que imitan el producto (semantizacin del significante). Se ven con frecuencia transgresiones ortogrficas que aseguran la atencin del lector y juegos fnicos con el fin de que el mensaje se fije en la memoria del receptor: Qu bien, qu bien, hoy comemos con Isabel! Nivel morfosintctico El estilo del mensaje lingstico en publicidad se caracteriza por la condensacin, la concisin y la economa. Se perciben los textos como conjuntos de unidades informativas mnimas (frases breves), de fcil lectura y memorizacin, que buscan involucrar al receptor (implicacin), transmitir rpida y eficazmente el mensaje (economa y condensacin) y destacar las cualidades del producto que se anuncia (ponderacin). Algunos ejemplos son: Galicia, prtico de la gloria; Cuba, la alegra de vivir. Nivel lxico-semntico Existe preferencia por el lxico connotativo, referido a campos semnticos que pertenecen a los valores simblicos que pueden ser atractivos para el receptor, segn su edad, nivel social, modas, etctera: lo natural, lo tecnolgico, lo tranquilo, la aventura, lo exclusivo... Por ejemplo: El sabor de lo autntico; Pura leche de vaca. El lxico utilizado, adems de evocador, ha de ser innovador. Esto lleva a la creacin lxica, lograda por medio de la derivacin y la composicin de lenguas clsicas, la alteracin o descomposicin de palabras, las grafas extranjerizantes y la abreviacin. Un ejemplo claro de creacin lxica sera: Te falta, TEFAL. Anlisis funcional del mensaje publicitario El anuncio se compone de elementos diferentes cuyas principales funciones son: Implicar al lector (elementos implicativos). Informar sobre el producto (elementos predicativos). Ponderar el producto (elementos ponderativos), para tratar de convencer al pblico de la conveniencia de su adquisicin. Favorecer la fijacin del mensaje en la memoria (elementos de extraamiento o retricos). Nota de aclaracin:

Traduccin Tcnica - 16

Si bien en esta ctedra no cubrimos la traduccin de textos publicitarios per se, encontramos que en la descripcin de artefactos o equipos tcnicos hay a menudo elementos de carcter publicitario que nos llevan a modificar el enfoque del traductor al realizar su trabajo. El objetivo de esta Unidad es aprender a identificar esa intencionalidad, a veces encubierta, en un texto descriptivo o instructivo.

CAPTULO III MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO INSTRUCTIVO Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales. El manual de instrucciones es un tipo de texto exhortativo segn Silvia Gamero (2001) porque trata de provocar una accin en el receptor: la correcta utilizacin del producto. Los objetivos de aprendizaje son: Conocer la estructura tpica del manual de instrucciones general Conocer las convenciones del gnero y sus subgneros en las 2 lenguas Identificar los problemas de traduccin que presenta este gnero tcnico Distincin segn el Receptor

RECEPTOR GENERAL
(USO EXTERNO)

RECEPTOR ESPECIALIZADO
(USO INTERNO)

manual de instrucciones general


= son instrucciones que acompaan a los productos de consumo generalizado y que estn dirigidas al pblico general.

manual de instrucciones especializado


= son instrucciones especializadas y de cumplimiento interno dentro de la empresa.

Caracterizacin del manual de instrucciones general El manual de instrucciones general es un prototipo de texto que se refiere a una clase de productos de uso habitual y cotidiano. Est dirigido al usuario o consumidor general, al gran pblico, de cualquier edad, no especialista en el tema del producto. Segn la complejidad del campo temtico -tipo de producto o aparato- se pueden identificar variedades o subgneros.

Traduccin Tcnica - 17

Subgneros del manual de instrucciones general

Subgnero 1: pequeos electrodomsticos afeitadora aspiradora auriculares secador pelo ventilador

Subgnero 2: grandes electrodomsticos cocina heladera horno lavarropas microondas

Subgnero 3: imagen y sonido cmara fotos radio reproductor televisor video casetera

Subgnero 4: telefona

Subgnero 5: informtica

Subgnero 6: sistemas complejos automvil embarcacin motocicleta maquinarias

fax lectora telfono con monitor contestador mdem telfono mvil software t. inalmbrico hardware

Descripcin de los subgneros Los subgneros son 6 y estn agrupados por orden ascendente de complejidad, desde los productos ms sencillos (Sg1) hasta los ms sofisticados (Sg6). Los parmetros de clasificacin son los siguientes: 1. complejidad del producto 2. frecuencia de uso o de consulta por parte del usuario 3. grado en que es necesario leerlo

Factores pragmticos del MIG El manual de instrucciones general (MIG) tiene 3 propsitos: 1. Explicar al usuario cmo funciona el aparato adquirido, cmo sacarle el mximo provecho y cmo resolver los posibles problemas en el manejo. 2. Avisar al consumidor de los riesgos y accidentes que pudieran producirse durante la instalacin o utilizacin. 3. Constituir un elemento publicitario, lo que confirma al usuario que ha realizado una buena compra y le motiva a adquirir productos de la misma empresa, o a recomendarlos. Factores comunicativos del MIG El autor del texto es un redactor tcnico, ingeniero, empleado del departamento de publicidad o relaciones pblicas, que trabaja directa o indirectamente para la empresa, y cuya identidad no aparece en el texto. (C.Nord, 1998)

Traduccin Tcnica - 18

Es parte de la documentacin tcnica que acompaa a un producto. Contienen informacin sobre la estructura y el modo de hacer funcionar el producto. La situacin es de tipo formal e implica una comunicacin de tipo externo. El modo es por lo general escrito por la necesidad de disponer de la informacin para consultarla cuando convenga.

Factores normativos del MIG En el mbito nacional e internacional existen organismos oficiales que emiten disposiciones denominadas normas tcnicas con la finalidad de proteger los derechos del consumidor. 1.1 Normas argentinas 1.2. Normas internacionales Superestructura del MIG La superestructura de un gnero est compuesta por una serie de fragmentos textuales, que se encuentran ordenados jerrquicamente y que reciben el nombre de bloques, secciones y subsecciones. Los Bloques son aquellas partes del manual que tienen una determinada funcin especfica; por ej., hacer que el usuario maneje correctamente el producto (Bloque Instrucciones). Los bloques se dividen en Secciones que poseen una finalidad concreta respecto de la funcin del bloque; por ej., inducir al usuario a que realice correctamente la instalacin del producto (Seccin Instrucciones de instalacin).

Traduccin Tcnica - 19

Traduccin Tcnica - 20

Traduccin Tcnica - 21

Bibliografa: Gamero Prez, S. (2001) La traduccin de textos tcnicos. Ariel: Barcelona. TEXTOS PARA ANLISIS TEXTUAL Y PRCTICA DE LA TRADUCCIN Texto 1 Multiplication of decimals. Multiply as with whole numbers. The number of decimal places in the product is the sum of the number of decimal places in both the multiplier and multiplicand. 416 x .25 = 101.00 .4016 x .025 = .01001 Division of decimals. Divide as with whole numbers. Rules for pointing off in the quotient: Rule 1. The number of decimal places in the quotient is equal to the number of places in the dividend minus the number of places in the divisor. If there are more places in the divisor than in the quotient, add enough zeros to make the number of places equal to the number of places in the divisor. Rule 2. If the divisor is a whole number, insert the decimal point in the quotient when it is reached in the dividend. If the divisor is not an integer, multiply both divisor and dividend by the least power of ten that will make the divisor a whole number and proceed as described before. If there is a remainder in the division of decimals, zeros may be added and the division carried to as many places in the quotient as is desired.

Texto 2

Reduction of Fractions
To change a fraction to its lowest terms, divide its numerator and its denominator by the largest whole number which will divide both exactly. When you do not at once see the largest number which can be divided exactly into a large numerator and denominator, reduce the fraction by repeated steps. When a fraction has been reduced to its lowest terms, the numerator and the denominator of the fraction are said to be prime to each other. Numbers are prime to each other when there is no other whole number that is contained exactly in both of them. Thus 8 and 15 are prime to each other because there is no number that will divide both of them without a remainder. A number that cannot be divided by any other number at all except 1, is called a prime number. A number that is contained exactly in two or more other numbers is called a common divisor of these numbers.

Texto 3

Geometry: Surface Measurements


The area of a rectangular surface is the number of square units which it contains. When finding an area the unit of measure is a square each side of which is a unit of the same denomination as the given dimensions. Hence to find the area of a rectangular surface 8 feet long and 5 feet wide, the measuring unit will be 1 square foot, since the denomination of the length and width is feet. To find the area of a rectangular surface multiply the two dimensions.

Traduccin Tcnica - 22

To find either dimension of a rectangular surface when the other dimension and the area are given, divide the area by the given dimension.

Texto 4

Angles
A straight angle is one of 180. Its two sides lie in the same straight line. A right angle is one of 90. Hence, it is half a straight angle. An acute angle is any angle that is less than a right angle. Thus, it must be less than 90. An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle but less than a straight angle. Hence, it must be between 90 and 180. Measuring angles. Angles are measured by determining the part of a circle that the sides intersect. Therefore one measures the opening between the sides of an angle rather than the length of the sides. To measure or lay off angles one uses a protractor as shown in the illustration. To measure an angle with the protractor: Place the center of the protractor at the vertex of the angle, and the straight side on a line with one side of the angle. Read the degrees where the other side of the angle crosses the scale of the protractor. To draw an angle with a protractor: Draw a straight line for one side of the angle. Place the center of the protractor at the point of the line that is to be the vertex of the angle, and make the straight side of the protractor coincide with the line. Place a dot on your paper at the point on the scale of the protractor that corresponds to the size of the angle to be drawn. Connect this dot and the vertex to obtain the desired angle. Texto 5

The Atom
Atomic nuclei consist of combinations of protons, or positively-charged particles, and neutrons, or uncharged particles. The number of protons and neutrons in each element can vary, but only certain combinations are stable. For example, Calcium-48, having 20 protons and 28 neutrons, is a stable isotope of Calcium. But if there is an excess or deficiency of neutrons in any combination, the isotope will be unstable. A nucleus is more likely to be unstable if it is a heavy one that is, if it contains a large number of protons and neutrons. Unstable nuclei attempt to achieve stability by emitting some form of radiation, until they transform themselves into stable isotopes.

Isotopes
All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons in the nuclei. However, not all the atoms of some elements contain the same number of neutrons, and in nature, a given element will have various forms each with a different number of neutrons. Additional neutrons do not add any charge to the nucleus of an atom, but rather increase its atomic mass, leaving the atom with the same atomic number. Such forms of the same element are known as isotopes. Sometimes an isotope of an element has a further characteristic. It is unstable and decays into another isotope. In the case of the heavier elements especially, an isotope of one element decays into another element altogether. For example, an atom of the radioactive element uranium-238 decays first into an atom of thorium-234 with the release of an alpha particle (2 protons and 2 neutrons is generally called an alphaparticle), which has a mass of 4. The decay of one isotope into another takes a constant amount of time for each element. The time it takes for half of the isotope to break down is called its half-life. One elements half life may be a few seconds while anothers may be a million of years.

Traduccin Tcnica - 23

Texto 6

Nuclear Energy
Once men thought that atoms never broke or split. About 1900, however, the French scientists Pierre and Marie Curie discovered that the atoms of the heavy metal radium do split of their own accord, throwing out smaller particles and changing into new elements. Then it was found that the nucleus, or central part of an atom, is made up of a number of particles called protons and neutrons. Each of these particles is about 1,850 times as heavy as one of the electrons that orbit around the nucleus. The atoms of radium and several other heavy elements, called radioactive elements, break down from time to time, throwing out particles consisting of protons and neutrons at one stage and electrons at another. Radium, in fact, is but one of many forms through which atoms of the metal uranium pass as they break down into lead. During the 1930s it was discovered that the breakdown of some elements could release tremendous amounts of energy. A ton of uranium, for instance, could release about three million times as much energy during fission or splitting as a ton of coal releases while burning.

Texto 7

Aristotle
Aristotle believed that the rate of falling of objects from any height was proportional to their weights. It was Galileo (1564-1642) who showed that two objects, even if one was much heavier than the other, fall at the sae rate if air resistance is not taken into account. Galileo found that a body falling from rest has a velocity at the end of the first second of 32 feet/sec. At the end of the next second, it has a velocity of 64 feet/sec., and at the end of the third second a velocity of 96 ft/sec. He concluded that is gains a velocity of 32 ft/sec. for every second that it falls. The acceleration of a falling body varies with the elevation above the earths surface and from point to point on the earths surface. Its smallest value is at the equator (32.09 ft/sec/sec.) and its greatest is at the poles (32.26 ft/sec/sec.). A useful formula relating the distance (s) an object falls in time (t) is s= a t2 Texto 8

The Properties and uses of Metals


Name Aluminum Properties Low density. Soft and ductile. High electrical and thermal conductivity. Ductile and malleable. Medium tensile strength. High electrical and thermal conductivity. High heat capacity. Corrosion Some uses Lightweight electrical conductors. Electrical conductors and heat exchangers.

Copper

Traduccin Tcnica - 24

Lead Mild Steel Iron Tin Zinc Wrought iron Medium carbon steel (hardened and tempered)

resistant. Soft and ductile. Low tensile strength. Corrosion resistant. Elastic, ductile and soft. Magnetic, ductile and malleable. Corrosion resistant. Soft and ductile. Corrosion resistant. Ductile and malleable. Fairly high tensile strength. Tough and relatively hard.

Electric cable sheaths. Structural material. Used in the manufacture of steel and tools. Coating of mild steel sheet to give tin plate. Coating of steel sheet to give galvanized steel. Chains. Crane hooks. Cold chisels. Motor car crankshafts. Springs.

Texto 9

Heat Transfer
In the foregoing discussion of the process of turning water into steam, we referred constantly to the addition of heat. Lets look now at some of the basics of transferring that heat to water to make steam. We can distinguish three types of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of heat from one part of a material to another or to a contiguous material. Heat is visualized as molecular activity crudely speaking, as the vibration of the molecules of a material. When one part of a material is heated, the molecular vibration increases. This excites increased activity in adjacent molecules, and a heat flow is set up from the hot part of the material to the cooler parts. In any one material, if energy flow rates remain constant, temperature decreases uniformly from the hottest to the coolest points. Texto 10

Entropy
Since heat always flows downhill, within a closed system everything will eventually reach the same temperature. For example, a warm mug of tea set on a cold table will pass heat to the table. Once the mug and table are the same temperature, no more work can be extracted from the mug. The molecules of the system (mug and table) are more disordered than initially and cannot be made more orderly without an injection of energy from the outside. In mathematical and physical terms, a system in which everything is at the same temperature is considered orderly, and higher temperature introduce disorder. The term entropy is the quantitative measure of the relative disorder of a system. When work is done, the total entropy of the system increases. This principle applies to all kinds of energy. Some scientists believe that the energy in the universe will eventually be distributed evenly and irrevocably, creating a condition of universal entropy or the heat death of the universe.

Texto 11

Efficiency and power


Like most other engines, the human engine is a wasteful user of fuel.

Traduccin Tcnica - 25

If you are pedalling hard on a bike, for every 100 joules of energy released from your food, only about 15 joules is used to work: the rest is turned into heat you sweat to get rid of it. The efficiency of an engine is calculated as follows: Work output Efficiency = _________________________ Energy input So the efficiency of a cyclist = 15 / 100 This can be written as a percentage: 15%. Why are engines such poor energy converters? It isnt the fault of the manufacturers. They constantly seek new ways of reducing engine friction and improving fuel burning. The problem lies with the law which governs how molecules behave. Once molecules absorb heat, it is impossible to use some of that energy for work. Texto 12

Erosion
EROSION of a solid surface can take place in a liquid medium even without the presence of solid abrasive particles in that medium. Cavitation, one mechanism of liquid erosion, involves the formation and subsequent collapse of bubbles within the liquid. The process by which material is removed from a surface is called cavitation erosion and the resulting damage is termed cavitation damage. The collision at high speed of liquid droplets with a solid surface results in a form of liquid erosion called liquid-impingement erosion. Cavitation damage has been observed on ship propellers and hydrofoils, on dams, spillways and other hydraulic structures and in hydraulic pumps and turbines. High speed flow of liquid in these devices causes local hydrodynamic pressures to vary widely and rapidly. In mechanical devices, severe restrictions in fluid passages have produced cavitation damage downstream of orifices and in valves, seals, bearings, heat-exchanger tubes and venturis. Cavitation erosion has also damaged water-cooled diesel-engine cylinder liners. Liquid-impingement erosion has been observed on many components exposed to high velocity steam containing moisture droplets, such as blades in the low-pressure end of large steam turbines. Rain erosion, one form of liquid impingement erosion, frequently damages the aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft and missiles when they fly through rainstorms at high subsound or supersonic speeds. Liquid impingement and cavitation erosion are of concern in nuclear-power systems, which operate at lower steam quality than conventional steam systems, and in systems using liquid metals as the working fluid, where the corrosiveness of the liquid metal can promote rapid erosion of components. Texto 13

Ampere
The ampere is the most commonly used unit for measuring the strength of an electric current. It is the amount of current that one volt of electron-moving force can send through a resistance of one OHM. It gets its name from the French scientist ANDRE AMPERE, who lived from 1775 to 1836. The strength of the current in a television set is about one and one-half amperes. En ordinary electric bulb uses about one-half an ampere. An electric iron requires about ten amperes. An ampere is equal to a flow of one COULOMB per second, where the coulomb is a quantity of ELECTRICITY equal to the charge on 6.25 x 10 18 electrons. The ampere

Traduccin Tcnica - 26

has been standardized so that it is the steady current which deposits silver at the rate of 0.01118 grams per second when passed through a silver nitrate solution. It is helpful to distinguish between a quantity itself and its flow or rate. A container may be filled with ten gallons of water (quantity) but a faucet may deliver a gallon of water per minute (rate). Similarly, there is a coulomb of electricity (quantity) and an ampere (rate). An ammeter is a sensitive electrical instrument which measures the amount of an electrical current (amperes) flowing through an electrical circuit. The word ammeter is a contraction of the two words AMPERE (amount of a current) and meter (measuring instrument). The operation of a common ammeter is based on magnetic attraction and repulsion. The movable part of an ammeter is a small coil of wire wound around a soft iron core and suspended on jewel bearings between the poles of a permanent MAGNET. The coil rotates against two spiral springs that retard the swing of the coil and also serve to carry the current into and away from the coil. When a current flows through the coil, a magnetic field is created within the coil which is perpendicular to that of the fixed magnet. The coil turns until its magnetic field is parallel to that of the permanent magnet. The pointer attached to the coil indicates the amount of current flowing through the coil. Most ammeters are arranged so that the amount of deflection (movement of the pointer) is proportional to the amount of current. Texto 14

Iron and Steel


The earth contains a large number of metals which are useful to man. One of the most important of these is iron. Modern industry needs considerable quantities of this metal, either in the form of iron or in the form of steel. A certain number of non-ferrous metals, including aluminum and zinc, are also important, but even today the majority of our engineering products are made of iron or steel. Moreover, iron possesses magnetic properties, which have made the development of electrical power possible. The iron ore which we find in the earth is not pure. It contains some impurities which we must remove by melting. The process of melting consists of heating the ore in a blast furnace with coke and limestone, and reducing it to metal. Blasts of hot air enter the furnace from the bottom and provide the oxygen which is necessary for the reduction of the ore. The ore becomes molten, and its oxides combine with carbon from the coke. The non-metallic constituents of the ore combine with the limestone to form a liquid slag, which floats on top of the molten iron and passes out of the furnace through a tap. We can melt this down again in another furnace a cupola- with more coke and limestone, and tap it out into a ladle or directly into moulds. The resulting cast iron does have the strength of steel. It is brittle and may fracture under tension. But it possesses certain properties that make it very useful in the manufacture of machinery. In the molten state it is very fluid, and therefore it is easily cast into intricate shapes. It is also easily machined. Cast iron contains small proportions of other substances. These non-metallic constituents of cast-iron include carbon, silicon and sulphur, and the presence of these substances affects the behavior of the metal. Iron which contains a negligible amount of carbon, for example wrought iron, behaves differently in relation to iron which contains a great proportion of carbon. The carbon in cast iron is present partly as free graphite and partly as a chemical combination of iron and carbon, which we call cementite. It is a very hard substance and it makes the iron hard, too. However, iron can only hold about 1 % of cementite. Any carbon content above that percentage is present in the form of a flaky graphite. Steel contains no free graphite and its carbon content ranges from almost nothing to 1 %. We make wiring and tubing out of mild steel with a very low carbon content, and drills and cutting tools from high carbon steel.

Texto 15

The kinetic theory Traduccin Tcnica - 27

According to this theory, solids, liquids and gases are made up of tiny particles called molecules. These are far too small to see. They are constantly on the move. When close, they attract each other strongly, and may even stick together. A solid, such as rock, has a fixed shape and volume. Its molecules are held close together by strong forces of attraction. They vibrate to and fro, but cant change positions. A liquid, such as water, has a fixed volume, but can flow to fill any shape. Its molecules are still close together. But they vibrate so vigorously that the forces of attraction cant hold them in fixed positions. A gas, such as air, has no fixed shape or volume. It quickly fills any space available. Its molecules move about at high speeds colliding with each other and the walls of their container. Texto 16

Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate at which the velocity of an object changes. As a runner starts to sprint toward the end of his run, his speed accelerates. When an airplane starts taxiing down the runway and the passengers are jolted backward in their seats, the speed of the plane is accelerating. Acceleration may be variable as in the case of a rocket after take off or fairly steady as in the case of a freely falling body. It may be negative as in the case of a car whose driver suddenly steps on the brakes. Acceleration, velocity and time are all related by the formula v = a t , where v stands for the velocity, t for the time and a for the acceleration of the object. The speed of an object is the rate at which it travels. It is not necessary to know the direction of travel only how fast the object is moving. Velocity, however, is speed in a given direction. A change in speed means only a change in the rate at which a body moves. A change in velocity implies a change in speed or a change in direction, or both. Velocity is thus defined as the time rate of change of position of an object. This means it can be computed by dividing the distance d by the time t. Texto 17

Acoustics
Acoustics is that branch of science which deals with the production, behavior and reception of sound. In common practice Acoustics deals chiefly with the design and control of sound within a limited and confined area, such as a room.When the source of a sound has ceased, in most rooms the effect of the sound will continue. This is the result of sound waves bouncing back and forth in a closed space. Such a lingering sound is called a reverberation. For singing and orchestral design, the reverberation time should be two and one-half seconds. A lecture hall functions best when the reverberation time is close to one second. Careful planning and engineering will, in general, make an auditorium usable for both, music and speech. Sounds may reflect off curved interior surfaces in such a way that in some areas the sound will be louder than desirable and in other areas barely audible. Classrooms, libraries, hospitals and other establishments need to be designed so that noise will be at a minimum. If ceilings, walls and doors of a room are covered with sound-absorbing surfaces, noise levels are considerably lowered. Texto 18 Kinds of Solutions

Traduccin Tcnica - 28

Solutions in which the solvent is water are known as aqueous solutions. When the solvent is alcohol, the solution is known as a tincture. Solutions are not limited to liquids. Gas solutions include air, which is made up primarily of oxygen and nitrogen; solid solutions also exist, in which one solid is mixed with another on the molecular level, such as in alloys of metals. Kinds of solutions
Solid in solid Liquid in solid Gas in solid Solid in liquid Liquid in liquid Gas in liquid Liquid in gas

Examples
Steel (carbon in iron) Rubber cement Alloy of palladium and hydrogen Saltwater Vinegar (acetic acid in water) Carbonated drink Humid air

Minimum Work of Separation The separation of a solution by distillation or by any other process will require the expenditure of a certain amount of energy in the form of heat or work. In the great majority of distillation processes, heat rather than work has been used. From an economic standpoint, it would have to be considered important to discover the least possible amount of heat or work to be used to achieve a given separation. This value could be used as a measure of thermodynamic efficiency and thermal controlling step of any actual process.

Texto 19 Sodium Chloride Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most important chloride of all. 1. It occurs naturally as rock salt, and in sea water. 2. It is the starting point for many other chemicals. For example electrolysis of molten sodium chloride gives sodium and chlorine. Electrolysis of a concentrated solution (brine) gives sodium hydroxide, chlorine, and hydrogen. Sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen are also made by sodium chloride. 3. It improves the flavour of food. But more important, it provides you with sodium ions, which are essential for body fluids. However, doctors think that too much salt can cause high blood pressure. 4. It is used to melt ice on the roads in winter. But this can have a harmful effect on things like cars, trucks and lamp posts, because sodium chloride makes iron rust faster. Test for chlorides Only silver and lead chlorides are insoluble in water. All the others are soluble. This is the basis of the test for chlorides. To see if an unknown solution contains a chloride, this is what to do: 1 First add a few drops of nitric acid, to acidify the solution. 2 Then add a little silver nitrate solution. 3 If a chloride is present, a white precipitate of silver chloride will form. Texto 20

Chemical Kinetics and Gas Laws


Chemical kinetics is especially important in the study of gases and is based on the principle that all gases respond similarly to specific volume, temperature, and pressure.

Traduccin Tcnica - 29

All the laws about the behavior of gases are consequences of the kinetic molecular theory, which explains the physical properties of gases in terms of the motion of molecules, under the assumption that all gases are composed of discrete molecules that are relatively far apart and are in continuous random motion, exerting pressure on the walls of the containing vessel. It also assumes the molecules collide with the walls of their container and with each other with perfect elasticity. The composition of the gas is not of concern in chemical kinetics. When the temperature either for any natural or artificial process-is raised, the speed of the molecules increases, and so does the pressure against the container. If more particles are introduces or if the volume is reduced, there are more particles bombarding per unit area of the walls and the pressure also increases. When a particle collides with the wall, it experiences a rate of change of momentum, which is proportional to the force exerted. Texto 21

Organic Chemistry: Organic Chemistry is the branch of Chemistry that specializes in


the composition, properties, and reactions of hydrocarbon compounds.

Hydrocarbons
Compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. The principal source of hydrocarbons is crude oil, which is distilled to produce its many components. Hydrocarbons are classified into several series, depending on the types of bonds. The alkanes have open chains (known as aliphatic chains) in which hydrogen attaches to carbon atoms in all of the available bonding sites. The alkenes are also aliphatic but contain one pair of carbon atoms connected by a double bond. The alkynes are also aliphatic but contain one pair of carbon atoms connected with a triple bond. The alkadienes are aliphatic and contain two pairs of carbon atoms connected with a double bond. The fifth series is called the aromatics because they each have a strong characteristic odor. Aromatics have six carbons arranged in a closed ring. Benzene is a typical aromatic hydrocarbon; its carbon ring is usually referred to as a benzene ring.

A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. Methane is part of a homologous series known as alkanes, which are forms of hydrocarbons that comprise single bonds.
Texto 22

The processing of orange juice Orange juice is defined in the United States Code of Federal Regulations as the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of Traduccin Tcnica - 30

the citrus hybrid commonly called Ambersweet. True fresh squeezed juice is difficult to market commercially because it requires special processing to preserve it. Orange juice is commonly marketed in three forms: as a frozen concentrate, which is diluted with water after purchase; as a reconstituted liquid, which has been concentrated and then diluted prior to sale; or as a single strength, unconcentrated beverage called NFC or Not From Concentrate. The latter two types are also known as Ready To Drink (RTD) juices.

Texto 23

Car safety is the avoidance of car accidents or the minimization of harmful effects of
accidents, in particular as pertaining to human life and health. Special safety features have been built into cars for years, some for the safety of car's occupants only, and some for the safety of others. Every year tens of thousands of people are killed in road accidents. Major factors in accidents include driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, inattentive driving, driving while fatigued, reckless driving, or encounters with road hazards such as snow, potholes and crossing animals. Car safety became an issue almost immediately after the invention of the automobile, when Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot crashed his steam-powered "Fardier" against a wall in 1771. The first recorded automobile fatality was Bridget Driscoll on August 17, 1896 in London. The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) was established by the United States Congress on October 15, 1966 with automobile safety one of its purposes. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) was created as an independent organization on April 1, 1967, but was reliant on the DOT for administration and funding. However, in 1975 the organization was made completely independent by the Independent Safety Board Act. The NTSB and its European equivalent, EuroNCAP have issued standard safety tests for all new automobiles. In June, 2004 the NTSB released new tests designed to test the rollover risk of new cars and SUVs. Only the Mazda RX-8 got a 5-star rating. However, the correlation between official crash test results and road deaths in vehicles is not exact. An alternative method of assessing vehicle safety is to study the road accident statistics on a model-by-model basis. Despite technological advances, the death toll of car accidents remains high: about 40,000 people die every year in the US. While this number increases annually in line with rising population and increased travel, the rate per capita and per vehicle miles travelled decreases. In 1996 the US has about 2 deaths per 10,000 motor vehicles, comparable to 1.9 in Germany, 2.6 in France, and 1.5 in the UK. In 1998 there were 3,421 fatal accidents in the UK, the fewest since 1926. These numbers are not higher thanks to tech. advances that place various systems working together inside the car to minimize the damage to the cars occupants. When an accident occurs, various systems work together to minimize damage to those involved. Much research has been done using crash test dummies to make modern cars safer than ever. Recently, attention has also been given to the cars design regarding the safety of pedestrians in car-pedestrian collisions. Controversial proposals

Traduccin Tcnica - 31

in Europe would require cars sold there to have a minimum/maximum hood height. This has caused automakers to complain that the requirements will restrict their design choices, resulting in ugly cars. Others have pointed out that a notable percentage of pedestrians in these accidents are drunk. From 2006 the use of "bull bars"' (known as "roo bars" in Australia), in fashion on 4x4s and SUVs will be illegal. Seatbelts (or safety belts) keep a person from being thrown forward or ejected from the vehicle Seat belt is a harness designed to hold the occupant of an car or other vehicle in place if a collision occurs. Seat belts are intended to reduce injuries by stopping the wearer from hitting hard interior elements of the vehicle or from being thrown from the vehicle. In cars seat belts also prevent rear-seat passengers from crashing into those in the front seats. Lap belts are seat belts that go over the wearer's hips. These were an earlier style of belt and are today less common in the developed world, being found mostly in passenger aircraft. In early SAABs a different kind of two-point belt similar to a threepoint belt, but without the lap part was used. Shoulder belts, or three-point belts, include a lap belt and a second belt going from one anchor point on the lap belt to a point over and behind the occupant's shoulder. Three point harnesses were first made readily available in mass-produced vehicles by Volvo. It was Swedish engineer Nils Bohlin who patented the modern three-point belt design along with Volvo. This design is crucial in aiding a person in the event of a crash. The three-point design greatly reduces the effects of secondary collisions. A secondary collision is the impact between a person and the interior of the automobile. The three-point innovation helps spread out the energy of the moving body inside of the car during a wreck. It spreads that energy out over the stronger parts of the body. This includes the chest, pelvis, and shoulders. Until recently shoulder belts were only available in the front seats of the cars, the back seats having only lap belts. Evidence of the potential for lap belts to cause separation of the lumbar vertebrae and the sometimes associated paralysis, or "seat belt syndrome", has led to a revision of safety regulations in nearly all of the developed world requiring that all seats in a vehicle be equipped with three-point belts. Five-point harnesses are safer but more restrictive seat belts, typically found in child safety seats, and also in racing cars. The lap portion is connected to a belt between the legs and there are two shoulder belts, making a total of five points of attachment to the seat. Seat belts were first invented by George Cayley in the 1800's. Seat belts were introduced in aircraft in the 1930s. The automotive seat belt was introduced into the United States by William Myron Noe, whose patented quick release seat belt, the AutoCrat Safety Belt, was the first seat belt installed as original equipment in the US by Ford in its 1956 model year. However, they were not required by law in the US on passenger vehicles until the 1968 model year. Airbags Front airbags inflate in a medium speed head on collisions to cushion the blow of a head on the dashboard or steering wheel. Side airbags inflate in a side (T-bone) collision to cusion the torso Curtain airbags protect the heads of passengers in a side collision

o o o

An airbag is a flexible membrane or envelope, inflatable to contain air or some other gas. Air bags are most commonly used for cushioning, in particular after very rapid inflation in the case of an automobile collision. It was marketed for automobiles first by

Traduccin Tcnica - 32

Allen Breed in 1967, to Chrysler, after his invention of the ball-in-tube sensor for crash detection. Automobile airbags There have been airbag-like devices for aeroplanes as early as the 1940s, though the first actual example in a production car was in 1974, when dual airbags were an option on several full-sized Cadillacs, Oldsmobiles, and Buicks. The design is conceptually simple accelerometers trigger the ignition of a gas generator propellant to very rapidly inflate a nylon fabric bag, which reduces the deceleration experienced by the passenger as they come to a stop in the crash situation. The bag has small vent holes to allow the propellant gas to be (relatively) slowly expelled from the bag as the occupant pushes against it. On July 11, 1984, the U.S. government required cars to have driver's side air bags or automatic seat belts by 1989. 15,000 lives have been saved by air bags in last 20 years since. Initially, most vehicles featured a single airbag, mounted in the steering wheel and protecting the driver of the car (who is the most at risk of injury). During the 1990s, airbags for front seat passengers, then separate side impact airbags placed between the door and occupants, became common. Most jurisdictions now explicitly require at least driver airbags in all cars, or set passenger safety standards that can only be met by their use. Statistics show that passengers in cars fitted with airbags have approximately 30% less chance of dying in an accident than in comparable cars without airbags fitted. Despite this, airbags have occasionally caused controversy, as the initial expansion of the bag is in itself a violent event, and if an individual is too close to the airbag when it is initially triggered they can be seriously injured or killed. This was partly due to American airbag designs triggering much more quickly than airbags designed for other countries, to protect occupants not wearing seat belts. Newer airbags trigger slightly less violently; nonetheless, passengers must remain at least 25 centimetres (10 in) from the bag to avoid injury from the bag in a crash. Smoking a pipe in a seat protected with an airbag should be avoided: if it inflates and hits the pipe while it is in the mouth this may well be deadly. Automobile airbags are supplemental restraints, and operate best when the occupant is also using a seat belt. Air bags supplement the safety belt by reducing the chance that the occupant's head and upper body will strike some part of the vehicle's interior. They also help reduce the risk of serious injury by distributing crash forces more evenly across the occupant's body. Other systems that work together to minimize damage to those involved are: Crumple zones to absorb the energy of an impact when the car hits something Cage construction designed to protect vehicle occupants. Some racing vehicles have a tubular roll cage Reinforced side door structural members Fuel pump shutoff devices turn off gas flow in the event of a collision for the purpose of preventing gasoline fires. Safety Features

Traduccin Tcnica - 33

To make driving safer and prevent accidents from occurring, cars have the following safety features: Turn signals and brake lights, including Center High Mounted Stop Lamps (CHMSL) A Center High-Mounted Stop Lamp (usually seen abbreviated as CHMSL) is a third stop lamp, or brake light, mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It is usually placed above the rear window, or is affixed inside the window and projects through it. In some creative arrangements, the CHMSL is integrated into a spoiler. A CHMSL is usually thought of as a car safety feature. The stop lamps on vehicles are traditionally placed in the same housing as the tail lights and turn signals. This may confuse other drivers, and reduce their reaction time while they determine if a vehicle is actually braking. This effect is worse in North America, where the same red lights are often used for all three functions. There was a need to place an additional stop lamp on vehicles to supplement the two traditional lamps. One of the greatest advantages to CHMSL is the ability to see that the vehicle two vehicles ahead are braking through the windows of the vehicle immediately ahead. Traditional lamps are nearly always obscured by the vehicle directly in front. The 19681971 Ford Thunderbird could be ordered with additional high-mounted brake and turn signal lights. These were fitted in strips on either side of its small rear window. This option was rarely specified. The Oldsmobile Toronado from 1971 had highmounted supplemental brake lights as standard. These innovations were not widely adopted at the time. In the early 1980s, a study involving taxicabs and other fleet vehicles found that a third stop lamp reduced rear-end collisions by about 50%. The lamp's novelty probably played a role, since today the lamp only reduces collisions by about 5%. It is possible that today, familiarity with the third stop lamp has reached the extent that drivers may indeed not respond quickly enough if an older vehicle without such a lamp decelerates in front of them, since the familiar cue is absent. In 1986, the United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration mandated that all new passenger cars have a CHMSL installed. Light trucks were required to have the lamps installed in 1994. CHMSLs are so inexpensive to incorporate into a vehicle that even if the lamps prevent only a few percent of rear end collisions they will pay for themselves in reduced damages. CHMSLs, unlike most other automotive lamps, often employ light-emitting diodes. CHMSLs are often difficult to access or are manufactured in irregular shapes. The longevity and versatility of LEDs leads to their use in these situations. Anti-lock braking system (ABS) with EBV (Electronic brake pressure distribution), which prevents the brakes from locking and losing traction while braking. This shortens stopping distances in almost all cases. An anti-lock braking system (commonly known as ABS, from the German name "Antiblockiersystem" given to it by its inventors at Bosch) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. The purpose of this is twofold: to allow the driver to maintain steering control and to shorten braking distances. Effectiveness

Traduccin Tcnica - 34

On high-traction surfaces such as bitumen, whether wet or dry, most ABS-equipped cars are able to attain braking distances better (i.e. shorter) than those that would be possible without the benefit of ABS. A moderately-skilled driver without ABS might be able, through the use of cadence-braking, to match the performance of a novice driver with an ABS-equipped vehicle. However, for a significant number of drivers, ABS will improve their braking distances in a wide variety of conditions. The recommended technique for non-expert drivers in an ABS-equipped car, in a typical full-braking emergency, is to press the brake pedal as firmly as possible and, where appropriate, to steer around obstructions. In such situations, ABS will significantly reduce the chances of a skid and subsequent loss of controlparticularly with heavy vehicles. In gravel and snow, ABS tends to increase braking distances. On these surfaces, locked wheels dig in and stop the vehicle more quickly. ABS prevents this from occurring. Some ABS controllers reduce this problem by slowing the cycling time, thus letting the wheels repeatedly briefly lock and unlock. The primary benefit of ABS on such surfaces is to increase the ability of the driver to maintain control of the car rather than go into a skidthough loss of control remains more likely on soft surfaces like gravel or slippery surfaces like snow or ice. When activated, the ABS causes the brake pedal to pulse noticeably. As most drivers rarely or never brake hard enough to cause brake lockup, and a significant number rarely bother to read the car's manual, this may not be discovered until an emergency. When drivers do encounter an emergency that causes them to brake hard and thus encounter this pulsing for the first time, many are believed to reduce pedal pressure and thus lengthen braking distances, contributing to a higher level of accidents than the superior emergency stopping capabilities of ABS would otherwise promise. Some manufacturers have therefore implemented "brake assist" systems that determine the driver is attempting a crash stop and maintain braking force in this situation. Nevertheless, ABS significantly improves safety and control for drivers in on-road situations if they know not to release the brakes when they feel the pulsing of ABS. It is worth noting that the heavier a vehicle is, the more it will benefit from ABS. This is particularly true of vehicles with less-sophisticated hydraulic braking systems where fine control is not as easy as with the more developed braking systems. Conversely, lighter vehicles, especially sports cars with highly-developed braking systems without ABS can outbrake comparable vehicles even with ABS. Traction control (TCS) Traction control and Vehicle Stability Control systems, on current production vehicles, are typically (but not necessarily) electro-hydraulic systems designed to prevent loss of control when excessive throttle or steering is applied by the driver. The intervention can consist of any, or all, of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Retard or suppress the spark to one or more cylinders Reduce fuel supply to one or more cylinders Brake one or more wheels Close the throttle, if the vehicle is fitted with drive by wire throttle.

The brake actuator, and the wheel speed sensors are the same as that used for Antilock braking system.

Traduccin Tcnica - 35

Traction Control is usually considered as a performance enhancement, allowing maximum traction under acceleration without wheel spin. It is particularly advantageous to 4x4 vehicles when driven off road on a loose surface. Conversely Vehicle Stability Control is considered a safety feature preventing operation of a vehicle at the edge of the safety envelope. It is widely thought that TC removes some skill and control from the driver. As such it is unpopular with many motorsports fans. Some motorsports series have given up trying to outlaw traction control, either because the general function is so hard to detect, eg F1, or, as in many U.S. stock car series, because it is possible to incorporate an effective traction control device in the wiring, invisible to scrutineers. Electronic Skid Prevention (ESP), with Acceleration Slip Regulation (ASR) and Electronic differential lock (EDL). Electronic Stability Program (ESP) is a registered trademark of the Robert Bosch GmbH and used originally for Mercedes-Benz. ESP compares the driver's intended direction in steering and braking inputs, to the vehicle's response, via lateral acceleration, rotation (yaw) and individual wheel speeds. ESP then brakes individual front or rear wheels and/or reduces excess engine power as needed to help correct understeer (plowing) or oversteer (fishtailing). ESP also integrates all-speed traction control, which senses drive-wheel slip under acceleration and individually brakes the slipping wheel or wheels, and/or reduces excess engine power, until control is regained. ESP cannot override a car's physical limits. If a driver pushes the possibilities of the car's chassis and ESP too far, ESP cannot prevent an accident. Stability control equipment is now generally know as electronic stability control or ESC, a category recognized by the Society of Automotive Engineers. Electronic stability control combines anti-lock brakes, traction control and yaw control (yaw is spin around a vertical axis). To grasp how it works, think of steering a canoe. If you want the canoe to turn or rotate to the right, you plant the paddle in the water on the right to provide a braking moment on the right side. The canoe pivots or rotates to the right. ESC fundamentally does the same to assist the driver. Numerous international studies have confirmed the effectiveness of ESC in helping the driver maintain control of the car, help save lives and reduce the severity of crashes. In the fall of 2004 in the U.S., the National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration confirmed the international studies, releasing results of a field study in the U.S. of ESC effectiveness. NHTSA concluded that ESC reduces crashes by 35%. The prestigious Insurance Institute for Highway Safety later issued their own study that concluded the widespread application of ESC could save 7,000 lives a year. That makes ESC the greatest safety equipment development since seat belts, according to some experts. Other manufacturers use electronic stability control systems under different marketing names:
Audi: shares the Mercedes-Benz ESP - Electronic Stabilization Program BMW: Dynamic Stability Control(DSC), inluding Dynamic Traction Control Cadillac: All-Speed Traction Control & StabiliTrak Jaguar: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) Lexus: Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) and Traction Control (TRAC) systems Volvo: Stability and Traction Control (STC), Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC), & Traction Control (TRACS) Ford: AdvanceTrac GM: StabiliTrac Toyota: Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) VW: ESP

Traduccin Tcnica - 36

Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) The Lane Departure Warning System is designed to function on motorways or main roads, where the system warns the driver if the car crosses a continuous or broken line unless the indicator is activated. A vibrating mechanism mounted in the car seat is triggered on the side corresponding to the direction of vehicle drift to alert the driver who may, for example, be feeling drowsy Texto 24

Satellites that serve us


By Thomas Y. Canby NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SENIOR WRITER
They dwell in the dark heavens in growing legions, silently circling like swarms of small moons. They are the ingenious spacefarers we call satellites, doing our bidding in ways that enrich the lives of virtually all of us. How many objects, exactly, are orbiting out there? Todays count is 4,914, responded Lt. Col. Terry ORourke as we explored the fortified lair or NORAD, the North American Aerospace Defense Command, hidden 1,700 feet inside Cheyenne Mountain near Colorado Springs. Enough stuff that we have to worry about things banging into one another. We track everything in orbit, though four fifths of its junk spewed into space with satellite launches rocket bodies, nose cones, spent fuel containers. And by watching them as they fall from orbit, we can spot what shouldnt be there, such as enemy missiles. I examined NORADs catalog, a record of hardware shot into space since the Soviet Unions stunning launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957. It tallied more than 14,000 man-made objects, two-thirds of which have since fallen back into earths atmosphere and burned up, including that first Sputnik. Oddly, no one is quite sure how many of these orbiting objects are active, performing missions for mankind. For the best estimate I turned to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the agency that guides the United States satellite effort. We count about 290 operable spacecraft at the moment, said Robert Vostreys of NASAs National Space Science Data Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Some 180 belong to the United States, and another hundred or so are Soviet. Japan, Canada, Indonesia, India, China, Australia, and 13 European nations own the rest. But the numbers change almost daily; anything can happen to satellites. How true. For life in space is no picnic, even for a bunch of unfeeling machines.

Traduccin Tcnica - 37

Texto 25

NASAs Projects
The Mercury Program was the first United States manned space program, conducted from 1961 to 1963. Named for the fleet-footed messenger of Greek mythology, the Mercury program was intended to put a manned spacecraft into the earth's orbit and to investigate a human being's ability to survive and work effectively in the harsh environment of space. During the program's two-year span, six astronauts were launched into space and safely returned to earth. The program employed more than 2 million people from government agencies and the aerospace industry. The Mercury program marked the beginning of the United States' entry into the space race with the former Soviet Union to send a person to the moon. The Soviets had already moved ahead in the race by sending a dog named Laika into orbit aboard Sputnik 2 in 1957 and had launched the first manned spacecraft in 1958. On May 5, 1961, 23 days after the Russian cosmonaut Yury A. Gagarin became the first human being to be launched into space, Alan B. Shepard, Jr., a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy, became the first American astronaut to fly in space. A Redstone rocket launched the Freedom 7 capsule containing Shepard to a height of 187 km above the surface of the earth. The mission ended with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean 15 minutes 22 seconds later.

Texto 26

Assembly Lines
The assembly line in factories is an arrangement in which each worker performs a specific operation in assembling the piece as it passes along on a moving belt or track. Right up to the present day, the trend of industrial development has been to replace skill by technology. This use of machines and robots in the workplace is called Automation. The assembly line is the sequence of operations involved in the positioning of parts in some fixed arrangement and then securing them together, carried out by workers and sometimes by robots. The overall assembly process is made up of various elements, such as the supply and transfer of parts, their assembly, and the resulting mass production of goods. Within this overall process, the design of the parts has a considerable influence on the assembly operations. For example, he shape should be such that it does not need support from the assembly worker until the next process, and that it cannot come off position or collapse during transfer to the next process. In an assembly line, the setting of parts and assembly work are designed to be carried out in one direction to avoid wasteful processes, such as reverse direction transfer and loading of parts. The main means of transportation used in the assembly plant are AGV conveyor, hand transportation, pallet transporter and crane. In view of the present-day technical advances, the company follows two policies: either hires more qualified manpower or invests in the training of the personnel. Among the people we find working on assembly lines, we can mention: engineers, electricians, block assemblers, small parts assemblers, welders, sheet metal workers, mechanics, assembly designers, part designers, painters, etc.

Traduccin Tcnica - 38

Automation is a manufacturing system designed to extend the capacity of machines to perform certain tasks formerly done by humans, and to control operation sequences without human intervention. Automated manufacture arouse out of the intimate relationship of such economic forces and technical innovations as the division of labor, power transfer and the mechanization of the factory, and the development of transfer machines and feedback systems. Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now extremely dexterous and are being used to transfer and manipulate both light and heavy workpieces. The introduction of microprocessors and computer combinations have made possible the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology. The development of the feedback principle has been very useful for automation in factories. It enables a designer to endow a machine with a capacity for self-correction, by means of a feedback loop (a device which can measure, compare and test magnitudes). In this way, machines are able to start, stop, speed up, slow down, test and measure. These activities are applied in a variety of operations such as welding, bottling and refining. It is important to consider that feedback loops require that acceptable limits be established in order to carry on the process of manufacturing. To maintain the quality of the automated process it has become necessary for manufacturers to develop machines equipped with electronic brains for process control automated instruments capable of making 100% inspection, based on superior quality planning and which eliminates much human error machines capable of performing difficult operations traditionally performed by human workers. The quality of tooling is being aided by modern computer methods. Texto 27

Volumetric feeding methods


Volumetric feeding is based on an invention more than 2,300 years old: Archimedes screw. Though developed to move water, Archimedes screw was adapted in the late 19th century to move dry materials; later the screw was also used to feed dry materials by controlling their flow. Today, several volumetric feeding methods are used. This article discusses volumetric feeding basics, then describes six common volumetric feeding methods and how to select a volumetric feeder. Other information discusses minimizing speed control and feed rate errors in volumetric feeding. A feeder is a mechanical device that controls material flow from one point to another at some required rate. The device controls flow by weight (called a gravimetric feeder or weigh feeder) or by volume (called a volumetric feeder). A gravimetric feeder feeds by directly measuring the materials weight (facilitated by sensing variations in the materials density) and then controlling the feedrate around the desired rate, or setpoint, in units of weight per units of time. A volumetric feeder feeds a certain volume of material per unit of time at a given motor speed, and its feedrate can be stated in units of volume per unit of time (such as cubic meters per hour). The feeders material feedrate by weight (such as kilograms per hour) must be inferred from motor speed assuming a constant bulk density.

Traduccin Tcnica - 39

Texto 28

TEXTILE INDUSTRY Historical development


From a historical perspective, the textile industry evolved from being a domestic small-scale industry, to the status of supremacy it currently holds. The cottage stage was the first stage in its history where textiles were produced on a domestic basis. During this period cloth was made from materials including wool, flax and cotton. The material depended on the area where the cloth was being produced, and the time they were being made. In the later half of the medieval period, in the northern parts of Europe, cotton came to be regarded as an imported fibre. During the later phases of the 16th century, cotton was grown in the warmer climes of America and Asia. When the Romans ruled, wool, leather and linen were the materials used for making clothing in Europe, while flax was the primary material used in the northern parts of Europe. The cotton of India was a curiosity that only naturalists had heard of, and silk, imported along the Silk Road from China, was an extravagant luxury. During this era, excess cloth was bought by the merchants who visited various areas to obtain these left-over pieces. A variety of processes and innovations were implemented for the purpose of making clothing during this time. These processes were dependent on the material being used, but there were three basic steps commonly employed in making clothing. These steps included preparing the fibres for the purpose of spinning, knitting and weaving. The preparation of the fibres differed depending on the fibre used. Flax requires retting and dressing, while wool requires carding and washing. The spinning and weaving processes are very similar between fibres though. Spinning evolved from twisting the fibres by hand, to use of a drop spindle, to a spinning wheel. Spindles or parts of them have been found in very, very old archaeological sites; they may represent one of the earliest pieces of technology available to humankind. During the Industrial Revolution, new machines such as spinning wheels and handlooms came into the picture. Making clothing material quickly became an organized industry, as compared to the domesticated activity it had been associated with before. A number of new innovations led to the industrialization of the textile industry in Great Britain. At the beginning of the 18th century, the textile industry was still primitive. The processing of wool was made by individual artisans, who worked at their own premises. The primary tools they used for processing textiles were handlooms and spinning wheels brought from Rome. The processes of weaving, spinning and carding took a lot of time and they were not profitable for the workers. Artisans had problems to make cloth in a different way from the typical one especially when they were asked for a wider piece of cloth because two workers were needed for that. The production of textiles was made of wool from the large sheepfarming areas in the Midlands and across the country as a result of land-clearance and enclosure. It became a labour-intense activity that provided employment throughout the country. Clothing manufactured during the Industrial Revolution formed a big part of the exports made by Great Britain. They accounted for almost 25% of the total exports made at that time, doubling in the period between 1701 and 1770.

Traduccin Tcnica - 40

The centre of the cotton industry in Great Britain was Lancashire - and the amount exported from 1701 to 1770 had grown ten times. However, wool was the major export item at this point of time. The Industrial Revolution era brought about qualitative changes to the textile industry. The processes of weaving, spinning, willowing and carding became automatic processes fulfilled by machines controlled by people. A lot of effort was made to increase the speed of the production through inventions such as the flying shuttle in 1733, the flyer-and-bobbin system, and the Roller Spinning machine by John Wyatt and Lewis Paul in 1738. Lewis Paul later came up with the carding machine in 1748 and in 1764 the spinning jenny was also developed. The water frame was invented in 1771 by Richard Arkwright. The power loom was invented in 1784 by Edmund Cartwright. In the initial phases, textile mills were located in and around the rivers since they were powered by water wheels. After the steam engine was invented, the dependence on the rivers ceased to a great extent. In the later phases of the 20th century, shuttles that were used in the textile industry were developed and became faster and thus more efficient. This led to the replacement of the older shuttles with the new ones. So far, cotton mills were full of the loud clanking of the looms, as well as lint and cotton fiber. However, in the Post Industrial Revolution era, the loom design improved so that it stopped itself whenever a thread broke, and automatically refilled the shuttle, the number of machines a worker could work increased to up to 50. Originally, power looms were shuttle-operated but in the early part of the 20th century the faster and more efficient shuttleless loom came into use. Today, advances in technology have produced a variety of looms designed to maximize production for specific types of material. The most common of these are air-jet looms and water-jet looms. Industrial looms can weave at speeds of six rows per second and faster. By the later 20th Century, the industry in the developed world had developed a bad reputation, often involving immigrants in illegal "sweat shops" full of people working on textile manufacturing and sewing machines being paid less than minimum wages. This trend has resulted due to attempts to protect existing industries which are being challenged by developing countries in South East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and more recently, Central America. Whilst globalization has seen the manufacturing outsourced to overseas labor markets, there has been a trend for the areas historically associated with the trade to shift focus to the more white collar associated industries of fashion design, fashion modeling and retail. Areas historically involved heavily in the "rag trade" include London and Milan in Europe, Soho district in New York City and the Flinders Lane and Richmond districts in Melbourne and Surry Hills in Sydney Today, modern techniques, electronics and innovation have led to a competitive, low-priced textile industry offering almost any type of cloth or design a person could desire. With its low cost labour base, China has come to dominate the global textile industry. CURRENT GLOBAL TEXTILE INDUSTRY SCENARIO The global textile market is worth more than $400 billion at present and it is predicted that the global textile production will grow up to 25% by the year 2010 and 50% by 2014. It is expected that China will represent around 45% of the global trade by 2010 and India 20%. Fabric manufacture is the most important part of textile industry. The manufacture of textiles can be divided into three segments: Apparel, Home Textile and Industrial/Technical textile. In recent years, intense research and development have taken place in Technical Textiles and Innovative Apparel Fabrics. Technical textile is high performance textile that is based on special functionality. Its market is expanding and it is used in various industries like agriculture, clothing, construction, health care, transportation, packaging, sports, environmental protection, protective wear and many more.

Traduccin Tcnica - 41

In the last years, many innovations have been made in the field of textile manufacturing such as fire resistant textiles, smart and electronic textiles, nano fibres, abrasion resistant fabrics, anti-magnetic and anti-radiation fabrics, insulating textiles among others. As regards textile machinery, there is a great variety available nowadays and it can be divided in two groups: textile processing machinery and textile working machinery. Within these two groups they can be further classified into: fibre-fabric machinery (cleaning and opening machinery, carding and combing machinery, drawing and rowing frames, yarn winding machines and yarn preparing machines), fabric machinery (weaving machinery, knitting machinery), and other textile machinery (bleaching, mercerizing and dyeing machinery, textile printing machinery and textile finishing machinery). The major global producers of textile machinery are Italy, Germany, Japan and Switzerland. The countries from the Far East particularly China have managed to increase their export market share in the recent years. The world textile machinery market is growing fast, primarily due to the removal of quotas and growing domestic demand from emerging economies such as China and India. One of the new trends in textile machinery production is the increasing use of electronics and the development of automation and robotics.

Texto 29

MICROWAVES 1. Definition: The term microwaves refers to alternating current signals with frequencies between 300 MHz (3 x 108 Hz) and 300 GHz (3 x 1011 ) with a corresponding electrical wavelength between = c / f = i m and = 1 mm. respectively. (Microwave Engin eering 2nd Ed David Pozar (OCRed).

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines microwaves as high frequency radio waves (radiofrequency fields) which, like visible radiation (light), are part of the electromagnetic spectrum which are reflected, transmitted or absorbed by materials in their path, in a similar manner to light. Metallic materials totally reflect microwaves while non-metallic materials such as glass and some plastics are mostly transparent to microwaves. Materials containing water, for example foods, fluids or tissues, readily absorb microwave energy, which is then converted into heat. Microwaves and RF (Radio Frequency) Modern microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering are two relevant and interconnected concepts. The symbiosis that exists between both concepts is the result of recent advances in modern electronic device technology and the current explosion in demand for voice, data, and video communication capacity. Prior to this revolution in communications, microwave technology was the nearly exclusive domain of the defence industry; the recent and dramatic increase in demand for communication systems has led it to be used in such applications as wireless paging, mobile telephony, broadcast video, and tethered as well as untethered computer networks, which are revolutionizing the industry. These systems are being employed across a broad range of environments including corporate offices, industrial and manufacturing facilities, and infrastructure for municipalities, as well as private homes. It is a certainty as well that

Traduccin Tcnica - 42

the diversity of applications and operational environments has led, through the accompanying high production volumes, to tremendous advances in cost-efficient manufacturing capabilities of microwave and RF products. This, in turn, has lowered the implementation cost of a host of new and cost-effective wireless as well as wired RF and microwave services. Loosely speaking, the fields of microwave and RF engineering together encompass the design and implementation of electronic systems utilizing frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from approximately 300 KHz to over 100 GHz. The term RF engineering is typically used to refer to circuits and systems having frequencies in a range from approximately 300 KHz at the low end to between 300 MHz and 1 GHz at the high end. The term microwave engineering, meanwhile, is used rather loosely to refer to design and implementation of electronic systems with operating frequencies in the range of from 300 MHz to 1 GHz on the low end to upward of 100 GHz. The most fundamental characteristic that distinguishes RF engineering from microwave engineering is directly related to the frequency (and thus the wavelength) of the electronic signals being processed. 2. Microwave applications The field of microwave engineering is currently experiencing a radical transformation. Historically, the field has been driven by applications requiring the utmost in performance with little concern for cost or manufacturability. These systems have been primarily for military applications, where performance at nearly any cost could be justified. The current transformation of the field involves a dramatic shift from defence applications to those driven by the commercial and consumer sector, with an attendant shift in focus from design to performance and from design to manufacturability. This transformation also entails a shift from small production volumes to mass production for the commercial market, and from a focus on performance without regard to cost to a focus on minimum cost while maintaining acceptable performance. For wireless applications, an additional shift from broadband systems to systems having very tightly regulated spectral characteristics also accompanies this transformation. In addition to these traditional microwave applications, other fields of electronics are increasingly encroaching into the microwave frequency range. Examples include wired data networks based on coaxial cable or twisted-pair transmission lines with bit rates of over 1 Gb/s, fiber-optic communication systems with data rates well in excess of 10 Gb/s, and inexpensive personal computers and other digital systems with clock rates of over 1 GHz. The continuing advances in the speed and capability of conventional microelectronics are pushing traditional circuit design ever further into the microwave frequency regime. These trends promise to both invigorate and reshape the field of microwave engineering in new and exciting ways.
Texto 30

Sanyo DP15647 15-inch LCD HDTV


Sanyo LCD high-definition television will be the centerpiece of your home theater system Delivers 1024- x 768-pixel resolution at a 720p scan for clearest possible picture

Traduccin Tcnica - 43

15-inch monitor accommodates DVD players, camcorders, surround sound systems and other gear Receives ATSC signal formats (including 480i/p, 720p and 1080i) converted to 720p display 15-inch LCD screen Built-in ATSC digital / NTSC analog tuners receive conventional analog and digital broadcasts, including HDTV Ensures dark blacks and bright whites along with a smoother picture during fast movements on screen 4-watt stereo amplifier, two built-in speakers and coaxial digital audio output for sound as good as the view Detachable stand; mounts on a wall with optional VESA-compatible 100 x 100mm kit (sold separately) 500:1 contrast ratio 16-ms. response time Component video, S-video, composite video and audio connections Receives 181 analog / 99 digital RF channels 3D Y/C Digital Comb Filter MTS/SAP Stereo & Digital Audio Two 5 x 9 cm speakers XDS-Extended Data Service capability V-chip Parental Control Picture Shapes: 1-4 (with remote control PIX Shape Key) Trilingual Menus: English, Spanish, French Sleep Timer: 1/2 to 3 hours Closed Caption Compliant: NTSC-608, ATSC-708CC Auto Channel Search 2 sets of Component video (Y-Pb-Pr with R/L audio) inputs S-video input (overrides composite input) Composite video input (V, L/R) Coaxial Digital Audio output Fixed Analog Audio out (R/L) RF input (Analog/Digital Antenna In) Energy Star compliant
This high-quality item has been factory reconditioned. Please click on the icon above for more information on quality factory-reconditioned merchandise.

Texto 31

USE & CARE


Bamboo is a natural product. Some surface imperfections are normal and enhance the natural beauty of the product. Not recommended for use in excessively damp locations. If the rug becomes saturated with moisture, it is best to wipe off the excess moisture with a soft towel and lift the rug to allow the surface underneath to dry. Bamboo is an extremely hard material. However, as with most woods, the surface can be nicked or cut with sharp or pointed objects. The pliable backing can also easily be cut by sharp objects. The bamboo rug surface is varnished. Further application of wax is not recommended.

CLEANING
The bamboo surface can be kept clean by wiping with a soft dust cloth, towel or soft bristle broom/brush. Beater bar type vacuum heads are not recommended. Light surface stains can be cleaned with a soft cloth moistened with water or a mild soap solution such as those used to clean typical hardwood or laminate floors.

Traduccin Tcnica - 44

Heavy surface stains and scuff marks can be cleaned with non-abrasive household cleaners. Citrus based cleaners are recommended, but others can be used. It is best to test the cleaning liquid on a small area first to determine its suitability. After cleaning, the surface should be wiped off with a clean damp cloth to remove any excess cleaner. Minor stains and dirt on the polyester hem can be cleaned with a solution of laundry detergent and water. In severe cases, a color safe fabric stain remover can be used.

Texto 32 How Insulation Works Weather Protection for Residing How Insulation Works Trapped air is an excellent insulatoras long as the air is not moving. Good examples of trapped air acting as an insulator, keeping whats inside warm or cool, are the double pane windows in your home or the two container construction of a Thermos bottle. Wall insulation works in the same way. As long as the air inside the insulation stays still and dry, the insulation works to its rated R-value. The result is a comfortable home. An average 2500 square foot home has more than a half mile of cracks and crevices in the wall cavity, and if the wind blows even a little (and it blows, on average, 8 mph across the U.S.), air is forced into your home. Your heater or air conditioner will run more often to keep you comfortable, resulting in higher energy bills. How Tyvek HomeWrap Works For 20 years, DuPont Tyvek has helped make over 2 million homes more energy efficient and more comfortable. Tyvek helps reduce the movement of air into your home and also helps keep water (from driving rain, for example) out of your walls. Tyvek HomeWrap can breathe, too (like Gore-Tex clothing). This means that, if moisture does get inside your walls, Tyvek lets it pass through to the outside. Helping to keep air and water out; letting moisture vapor pass through- its the ideal way to keep you comfortable year round.
insulation can lose up to 60% of its installed R -value.

Traduccin Tcnica - 45

Installation Details Heres a quick, reference guide to help you properly install any of the DuPont Tyvek family of products. (Use it on the jobsite to help ensure effective protection in different types of applications.)

9 Apply a continuous bead of caulk along sides

1 The best time to install Tyvek is after

sheathing is installed and prior to windows being installed. 2 When unrolling Tyvek, leave 6 to 12 inch overlap. 3 Upper rolls overlap bottom rolls of Tyvek by 6 inches. 4 Bottom edge should extend over the seam between the sill plate and foundation. 5 Staples with 1 inch minimum crown can be used, but cap nails provide the optimum protection. 6 Secure Tyvek every 12 to 18 inches on vertical stud line. 7 Cut a modified I in the Tyvek. Fold side and bottom flaps into opening and secure. Cut head flap and flip up to expose sheathing. 8 Use DuPont FlexWrap to provide seamless protection at sill. Continued on back

and across top of rough opening. Position such that window flange will contact caulk. Do not caulk across bottom of rough opening. Install window per manufacturers instructions. 10 Protect jambs and heads with DuPont StraightFlash for square windows or DuPont FlexWrap for roundtop or custom shaped windows. Flip head flap down and secure with tape. Caulk rear window sill. 11 Tape all vertical and horizontal seams as best practice. For maximum protection against air and water leaks, tape around all electrical and plumbing extrusions. Start taping at bottom of protrusions, shingling upper tape over bottom edge. 12 When using DuPont StuccoWrap, shingle it over the upper back edge of the weep screed for proper drainage. 13 StuccoWrap should be applied with grooved surface pattern in vertical position to allow any water to drain down to the weep screed.

Traduccin Tcnica - 46

Texto 33 Thank you for purchasing the Digi-X Dance Pad. The Digi-X Dance Pad has a fully featured digital controller. This product is made for dancing and entertainment purposes in conjunction with your XBOX system only.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE


1. Please power off the console when you install the Dance Pad. 2. Insert controller connector into powered off console. 3. Power on console and you are ready to go.

The Dance Pad includes Adhesive stickers to help secure the Dance Pad to the floor. Please follow the instructions below for application of stickers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wipe off any dust on the surface of the product with a cloth. Peel off the white paper to expose the sticky surface. Attach to the four corners on the underside of the Dance Pad. Peel off the cellophane paper from the attached surface. If the surface to place the Dance Pad is dusty, wipe it off using a soft cloth.

Texto 34

LW160 Wheel Loader


LW160 Wheel loader is a medium-sized engineering machinery and specially designed for loading & unloading, lifting and drawing slack materials in Mines. Hydraulic mechanism transmission & four wheels driven system are adopted to enable the loader to operate with automatic transmission and big drawing and lifting capacity. Articulated steering frame, fully hydraulic operating system, hydraulic

apparatus make the loader having the features of small turning radius, easy to handle, reliable & safe performance and high productivity.

LW160 Wheel loader main specification:

Traduccin Tcnica - 47

Texto 35

YC6108G is adopted as its power system, with power improved up to 92Kw, which will add more spare power to the machine. Radiation system is also improved by enlarging the fan and water tank area, which will better the machine performance. The front and rear frame structure has been optimizely designed, so as to improve the frame yielding-proof performance and weld cracking resistance. The optimizely-designed large-capacity bucket, the welded bucket teeth and thicker cutting edge improves the wear resistance and cracking-proof performance. The optimizely-designed hydraulic system prolongs the service life of hydraulic circuit, and also increases the working pressure up to 15MPa, by which to better the working efficiency. The structure strength of working mechanism has been improved, which greatly improves the machine performance in term of unloading height. The more rational axle load distribution enlarges the wheel-base of the driving wheel, by which improving the traction and reliability performance of the machine for the machine. The integrated machine housing of compound material is featured in nice ventilation and shock absorbing, which better the radiation performance of the machine. The machine housing could be lockable pneumatically, so it is much easy and safe to carry out any service and maintenance. Uniquely-designed operation cab is featured in wide vision, with Korea Green" glass and nice out-looking shape.

Brief Introduction

Description Model Rated power/speed Max. Torque Rated load Rated bucket capacity Bucket width Overall dimension Wheelbase Wheel-tread Unloading height Unloading distance Operating weight Max. Traction force Max. Breakout force Total cycling time Articulation angle Min. Turning radius Grade-ability Tire I/II/III/IV -gear ( F ) I/II-gear ( R )

Unit

Specification YC6108G 92kw/2300r/min 450N.m/14001600r/min

t mm mm mm mm mm mm kn kn s mm

3.2 1.8 2470 6800*2470*3025 2600 1850 2900 960 10 90 105 9.8 35 5160 28 17.5-25 10/16/21/35km/h 14/25km/h

Traduccin Tcnica - 48

Texto 36

XT870 Backhoe Loader


Advanced static hydraulic transmission and popular overseas integral structure. High power and good performance, key parts such as the engine, case, bridge, and hydraulic system adopt imported components, which have improved the dependability of the complete machine. Rationally distributed and compact, attractive in appearance and easy to handle. The cab with air conditioner, ROPs system, safe and comfortable, the visual field is broad. Sound insulation, heat insulation and shock attenuation.

XT870 Backhoe loader main specification:


Model Engine Model Rated power/speed Operating weight Overall dimension Total cycling time Bucket capacity Rated load Dumping clearance Dumping reach Breakout force Digger capacity Max. Digging depth Max. Digging radium Wheel base Max. Travel speed(F/R) Tyre(F/R) kg mm s M3 Ton mm mm KN M3 mm mm mm Km/h Unit XT870 Cummins B4.5 74kw, 2200r/min 7,300 7173 x 2366 x 3437 11 1.0 2 2825 727 42 0.30 4495 5471 2152 40.2/48.6 15.5-25/8.25-15

(All specification subject to change with continuous improvement)

Traduccin Tcnica - 49

Texto 37
LW420F Wheel loader is mainly for loading of loose materials, it is widely applied to construction, mining, railway and highway building, iron and steel industry, hydraulic power etc. It can be used for loading, dozing, scraping, lifting, tracting and so on. It is a kind of construction equipment with high production effectiveness. With flexible-shaft control, this makes gear-shifting operation easier and stable. Optimized design for bucket, strengthened teeth, reliable and durable for use. Integral engine hood made of glass fiber which lessens vibration and noise. And there is a lock on the side door, which is activated pneumatically, much safer and reliable and also being easier to make maintenance for the diesel engine. Uniquely-designed operation cab, with "Korean Green" glass, nice-looking appearance and harmonious color matching. Multiple optional with various kinds of working device, and the bucket is also optional in term of bucket capacity, which can match with different working condition. Warning mechanism for reverse moving, much safer during work.

LW420F Wheel loader main specification:


Item Overall dimension: LXWXH Rated load Operating weight Max. Tractive force Static side rolling-off load Min. ground clearance Steering angle Min. turning radius Speed Forward 1st(F) / 2nd(F) Reverse Engine model Rated power/speed Cylinder/bore/stroke Bucket capacity Max. breakout force Raising capacity Total cycling time Dumping reach Dumping distance Tools for option Tires 0-11 / 0-35 0-15 Shanghai diesel engine6135K-13b 128/2000 6/135/140 2.2 110 61 11.5 2990 1040 Cramp, side tilting bucket 20.5-25 KW/r/min mm m3 KN KN s mm mm km/h km/h Parameter 6950*2750*3162 4 13 100 8000 485 35 Left and right each 5415 Unit mm t t kN kg mm mm

Traduccin Tcnica - 50

Texto 38

Optimum design of working device, dumping clearance, dumping reach, breakout force, raising capacity, short total cycling time, automatic leveling at high position, and greater productivity. Center-point frame articulated, small turning radius and front and rear wheels track reduce resistance and tyre wear and improve the going-through capability of the whole machine. Fully hydraulic steering, power shift transmission, flexible operation. Key-block type propeller shaft, resistance against strike is strong, Power transmitting is reliable. Air-valve control band type emergency brake system, safety and reliability. Integrated hood made of compound material, right and left open, auto-lock, reduce sound. Operation and maintenance easy. Finely designed cab, excellent sight. Operational air conditioner provides operator with a comfortable job environment.

Description Engine Model Rated power/speed Max. Torque Rated load Rated bucket capacity Bucket width Overall dimension Wheelbase Wheel-tread Unloading height Unloading distance Operating weight Max. Traction force Max. Breakout force Total cycling time Articulation angle Min. Turning radius Grade-ability Tire Traveling speed: I/II/III/IV -gear ( F ) I/II-gear ( R )

Unit

Specification YC6108G 92kw/2300r/min 450N.m/1400-1600r/min 3 1.7 2460 6830*2460*3170 2700 1850 2800 1030 10.5 90 110 10 38 4800 28 17.5-25 7.8/13/25/35 9.5/28

t mm mm mm mm mm mm kn kn s mm

Traduccin Tcnica - 51

Texto 39 New Ford Turbodiesel Engine


Ford has developed a three-cylinder, 1.3 liter turbo diesel engine with four valves per cylinder (two admission and two exhaust) and gas-oil direct injection. Installed in an ultralight compact car such as the Ka prototype it consumes no more than three liters of fuel per 100 km. Specialists predict that by the year 2010 a large proportion of the worlds cars will contain such economic and ecologically friendly engines. Fords turbo diesel provides maximum power of 50 HP at 4,400 RPM and a 100 Nm torque at a low 2,200 RPM. At least 90 percent of this torque is available between 1500 and 3500 RPM. Ford is the first car manufacturer to utilize magnesium for the block engine. This extremely light metal means valuable weight reduction. The four-valve cylinders are activated by a single, overhead camshaft and the improved engine aids combustion and reduces the quantity of carbon particles produced. Restricted consumption is in part due to the electronic injection system that employs a Ford EEC-V electronic motor. The gas-oil injector is centrally positioned in the combustion chamber in order to reduce noise it operates in two steps. In the first, the injector needle barely shifts, injecting a small amount of gas-oil inside the combustion chamber. This pre-injection process significantly reduces the noise level. In stage two the injector needle opens fully. Contrary to conventional diesels, the combustion chamber is operated at the piston head, improving thermodynamic efficiency and with it fuel consumption.

Texto 40

Car Engines: The Latest Developments HYBRID VEHICLES


The limited supplies of fossil fuels and the strong necessity to reduce emissions have driven auto manufacturers to look for different alternatives to propel cars. One of these alternatives is the Hybrid power system, which is the motoring of the future and the most ecological solution. Hybrids are a combination of an internal combustion engine of a conventional car with an electric propulsion that helps improve the efficiency in fuel consumption and lessen car emissions. Due to this fact, many car industries have tested and launched into the market hybrid electric cars, which are now at the forefront of transportation technology development. The Beginnings. Hybrid power systems were conceived as a way to compensate for the shortfall in battery technology when electric vehicles were introduced. Because batteries could supply only enough energy for short trips, an onboard generator, powered by an internal combustion engine, could be installed and used for longer trips. In the old days, researchers thought that by biasing the system toward battery-electric power and operating on wall-plug electricity as much as possible, efficiency and emissions would then be optimized until better batteries came along. The natural conclusion of this concept was that, with better batteries, we probably would not need hybrids at all. But after 20 years of study, it seems that hybrids are taking center stage and electric vehicles are only being used in niche market applications where fewer miles are traveled. More efficient cars can make a big difference to society in terms of environmental benefits, and the serious deterioration of urban air has motivated regulators to require cleaner cars. The use of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) will reduce smog-forming pollutants over the current national average. Hybrids will never be true zero-emission vehicles, however, because of their internal combustion engine. But the first hybrids on the market cut emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half, and later models may cut emissions by even more. Today, all major auto manufacturers are working on producing HEVs and fuel cell vehicles. They are looking to create various versions of hybrids. Some using diesel engines and a battery pack, others with a "mild hybrid" system where the battery pack gently assists the conventional engine, and still others where fuel cells would be integrated into the hybrid system. There are many ways to configure an HEV and many different approaches to fueling the vehicles as well. Hybrids have the potential to allow continued growth in the automotive

Traduccin Tcnica - 52

sector, while also reducing critical resource consumption, dependence on foreign oil, air pollution, and traffic congestion. Hybrids are one of the latest developments in car propelling and they are beginning to show up on the roads and highways across the United States and Japan. The Basics of Hybrid Technology. Petroleum fuels have many advantages for automobiles. Their energy-dense, liquid composition works well with internal combustion engine (ICE) technology, which has driven most cars and trucks for more than a century. Vehicles propelled by electric motors also bring some clear benefits: they have low emissions and lessen our dependence on petroleum. Both technologies come together in hybrid electric vehicles which are equipped with ICEs and electric motors. A hybrids ICE engine, as in any ICE -powered car, produces power through continuous, controlled explosions that push down pistons connected to a rotating crankshaft. That rotating force (torque) is ultimately transmitted to the vehicles wheels. A hybrids electric motor is energized by a battery, which produces power through a chemical reaction. The battery is continuously recharged by a generator that like the alternator of a conventional caris driven by the ICE. Hybrids can have different configurations: they can have a parallel design, a series design, or a combination of both:
In a parallel design, the vehicle has a direct mechanical connection between the hybrid power unit and the wheels, as in a conventional vehicle, but also has an electric motor that drives the wheels. For example, a parallel vehicle could use the power created by an internal combustion engine for highway driving while using both the engine and electric motor power for accelerating. Then, a smaller engine provides more efficient operation and therefore better fuel economy without sacrificing acceleration power. The vehicle has more power because both the engine and the motor supply power simultaneously. Besides, most parallel vehicles do not need a separate generator because the motor regenerates the batteries and power does not need to be redirected through the batteries, therefore it can be more efficient. In a series design, the vehicle uses the heat engine or fuel cell with a generator to produce electricity for the battery pack and electric motor. Series HEVs have no mechanical connection between the hybrid power unit and the wheels; this means that all motive power is transferred from chemical energy to mechanical energy to electrical energy, and back to mechanical energy to drive the wheels. One of the benefits of this configuration is that the engine never idles, which reduces vehicle emissions, besides, it drives a generator to run at optimum performance. The design also allows for a variety of options when mounting the engine and vehicle components. The downside is that series HEVs require larger, and therefore, heavier battery packs than parallel vehicles. In addition, the engine works hard to maintain battery charge because the system is not operating in parallel.

The Components of an Hybrid Vehicle. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is an optimized mix of various components. HEV drivetrain components are: Electric traction motors/controllers Electric energy storage systems, such as batteries and ultracapacitors Hybrid power units such as spark ignition engines, compression ignition direct injection (diesel) engines, gas turbines and fuel cells. Fuel systems for hybrid power units Transmissions Other components that help reduce emissions and improve vehicle efficiencies are: Emisin control systems Energy management and systems control Thermal management of components Lightweight and aerodynamic body/chassis Low rolling resistance (including body design and tires) Reduction of accessory loads

Traduccin Tcnica - 53

Texto 41

Safety Instructions
WATER AND MOISTURE- The appliance should not be used near water, for example, near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, swimming pool or in a wet basement. NON-USE PERIODS- The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when the appliance is to be left unused for a long period of time. GROUNDING AND POLARIZATION- Precautions should be taken to insure that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated.

Guarantee and service


This product is guaranteed by Philips for a period of one year after the date of purchase against defects due to faulty workmanship or materials. The guarantee covers both piece parts and labour. Service under guarantee is only provided upon presentation of reasonable evidence (e.g. completed guarantee card or purchase receipt) that the date of the claim is within the guarantee period. The guarantee is not valid if the defect is due to accidental damage, misuse or neglect and in case of alterations or repair carried out by unauthorized persons. Texto 42

INSTALLATION MANUAL
Warning: Please read this instruction manual carefully before installing and using your Plug N Play. Table of contents Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Plug N Play Components and Installation Plug N Play Operation Troubleshooting

SECTION 1 PLUG N PLAY COMPONENTS AND INSTALLATION Thank you for purchasing the Plug N Play. This product consists of a joypad console with built-in software and an attached A/V cable. EUROPEAN VERSION INCLUDES A SCART ADAPTER FOR HOOKUP. Please read the setup instructions and precautions before attempting to connect the Plug N Play. Attention: Program selections can only be made when in Player 1 mode. Legend with regard to games: For Alternate Play Games, select Two Player mode from the screen before entering into the game.

Traduccin Tcnica - 54

1) The first turn started by the first player, the 1 Play/2 Play button on the joypad is set to 1 Play. 2) When it comes to the second players turn, set the 1 Play/2 Play button on the joypad to 2 Play before playing. 3) Remember to switch back to 1 Play when it is the first players turn again. Installing Batteries Remove the cover on the back of the Plug N Play and insert three AA size batteries as shown to the right. For best results, use four fresh, high quality alkaline batteries. Caution: When inserting the batteries, make sure that the positive (+) and negative (-) ends are facing in the correct directions (See illustration to the right). Use Size AA batteries x 3 (Not included) Note: 1) When the batteries begin to lose its power, the Power indicator LED will begin to dim, and the Plug N Play will turn itself off. 2) Remember to take out the batteries when the Plug N Play is not going to be used for a long time. CAUTION: * All batteries should be replaced by an adult. * Do not mix old and new batteries. * Do not mix alkaline, standard (carbon-zinc) or rechargeable (nickel-cadmium) batteries. * Different types of batteries or new and used batteries should not be mixed. * Only batteries of the same or equivalent type are to be used. * Batteries are to be inserted with the correct polarity. * Exhausted batteries should be removed from the product. * Do not use rechargeable batteries. SECTION 2 PLUG N PLAY OPERATION How to turn on the Plug N Play: 1. Make sure the Plug N Play is turned OFF before connecting it to the television; 2. Turn your television on and switch to the appropriate input; 3. Slide the power switch to the ON position. After a moment, the Menu Screen should appear on the TV; 4. Once the game is selected, press the "START" button to begin the game. How to turn off the Plug N Play:
1. After you have finished playing, slide the power switch to the OFF position; 2. Disconnect the Plug N Play from the television.

How to change the game on the Plug N Play: 1. When you want to play another game, press the reset button and the main menu screen will appear.

Traduccin Tcnica - 55

SECTION 3 TROUBLESHOOTING (for A/V input system)

Problem

Before requesting repair, check the following items:

No picture on the screen

* Is the Plug N Play turned on? * Is the TV turned on? * Is the TV on the appropriate AV selection? * Is the AV output connected properly? * Check whether the battery capacity is too low. * Are the batteries properly installed?

Screen flickers or no color

* Are the TV color controls set properly? * Are the TV channel fine adjustments set properly? * Is the TV volume too low or off? * Has any of the cables become loose or disconnected? * Adjust the vertical and horizontal hold controls on your television until the picture becomes steady * Is the Audio cable connected properly? * Is the battery capacity too low? * Adjust the manual fine tuning adjustment controls on the TV. * Try pushing the reset button, if there is no improvement, power off the Plug N Play and try again. * Check whether the batteries are installed correctly.

No game sound

Picture on TV screen is unsteady Fringes appear on TV during a broadcast Picture is blinking or distorted No power

If you still have a problem, please follow the instructions given in this manual and re-connect the system step by step. * Information contained in this leaflet is subject to change without prior notice

Texto 43 To set the Home Time 1. Display the current Home Time. 2. Press FUNC once to display the function menu for the HOME TIME SET operation. 3. Press 1 to select HOME TIME SET. * The current hour setting on the display flashes because it is selected. 4. Use the < and > cursor keys or TIME DATE to move the flashing selection around the Home Time display. When any number is selected (flashing), you can change it by entering a new value.

Traduccin Tcnica - 56

* Use 12-hour format if the Home Time is set for 12-hour format, or 24-hour format if the Home Time is set for 24-hour format. * If you are using 12-hour time format, press A to specify AM or P tp specify PM while the hour or minutes are flashing on the display. *All illegal input (26 for the hour, 65 for the minutes) is ignored.

Texto 44

Instruction Manual: Risograph Photocopier Basic operation.


Turn the power switch on. The power switch is located on the far side on the top of the machine. Check the settings on the control panel. When the power is connected, the control panel indicators show the initial settings. Open the sub control panel cover and make any necessary changes, such as reproduction size and processing mode. Holding down the R (ALL RESET) key longer than one second returns the control panel to the initial settings. Open the original feed tray. Place an original on the original feed tray. Adjust the original guides to the width of the original. Then insert the originals face down into the ADF unit until it stops. The original is automatically fed and set in place. A maximum of ten originals can be set in place at one time. Press the START key. After an original is scanned, a master is created. A test print is automatically printed to allow you to check the print quality, position and density.
NOTE: When an original is in place, processing automatically changes to Master-Making from Printing. The MASTER-MAKING indicator on the control panel lights.

Texto 45

PVi 4B 100-WATT 4-CHANNEL MIXER AMPLIFIER Operating Manual


IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
WARNING: When using electrical products, basic cautions should always be followed, including the following:
1. Read these instructions. 2. Keep these instructions. 3. Heed all warnings. 4. Follow all instructions. 5. Do not use this apparatus near water. 6. Clean only with a dry cloth. 7. Do not block any of the ventilation openings. Install in accordance with manufacturers instructions. 8. Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat. 9. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding type plug has two blades and a third grounding plug. The wide blade or third prong is provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet. 10. Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point they exit from the apparatus. 11. Only use attachments/accessories provided by the manufacturer.

Traduccin Tcnica - 57

12. Use only with a cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution when moving the cart/apparatus combination to avoid injury from tip-over. 13. Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time. 14. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped. 15. Never break off the ground pin. Write for our free booklet Shock Hazard and Grounding. Connect only to a power supply of the type marked on the unit adjacent to the power supply cord. 16. If this product is to be mounted in an equipment rack, rear support should be provided. 17. Note for UK only: If the colors of the wires in the mains lead of this unit do not correspond with the terminals in your plug proceed as follows: a) The wire that is colored green and yellow must be connected to the terminal that is marked by the letter E the earth symbol colored green or colored green and yellow. b) The wire that is colored blue must be connected to the terminal that is marked with the letter N or the color black. c) The wire that is colored brown must be connected to the terminal that is marked with the letter L or the color red. 18. This electrical apparatus should not be exposed to dripping or splashing and care should be taken not to place objects containing liquids, such as vases, upon the apparatus. 19. Exposure to extremely high noise levels may cause a permanent hearing loss. Individuals vary considerably in susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss, but nearly everyone will lose some hearing if exposed to sufficiently intense noise for a sufficient time.
According to OSHA, any exposure in excess of the above permissible limits could result in some hearing loss. Ear plugs or protectors to the ear canals or over the ears must be worn when operating this amplification system in order to prevent a permanent hearing loss, if exposure is in excess of the limits as set forth above. To ensure against potentially dangerous exposure to high sound pressure levels, it is recommended that all persons exposed to equipment capable of producing high sound pressure levels such as this amplification system be protected by hearing protectors while this unit is in operation.

Texto 46

Outdoor Power Equipment Safety Manual


Respect The Power
Be safe. Follow the operators manual. Each tool performs a specific task like cutting, trimming, chopping, collecting or blowing. Only use the equipment for what it is designed to do. Carelessness may cause serious injury to the operator or anyone in the work area.

Table of Contents
General Safety Reminders Lawn Mowers Riding Mowers Leaf Blowers Chain Saws Garden Tillers Shredder/Grinders Log Splitters Snow Throwers Edgers/Trimmers Outdoor Power Equipment & The Environment Take Pride In Your Home More Information 4, 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 11 12, 13 14, 15 16

Traduccin Tcnica - 58

Texto 47 Mechanical Engineering Service Recommendations for Flat Face O Ring Seal Fittings

1. 2. 3. 4.

Inspect the fitting sealing surfaces. They must be free of dirt or defects. Inspect the O-ring. It must be free of damage or defects. Lubricate O-rings and install into groove using petroleum jelly to hold in place. Push O-ring into the groove with plenty of petroleum jelly so O-ring is not displaced during assembly. 5. Index angle fittings and tighten by hand pressing joint together to insure O-ring remains in place. Tighten fitting or nut to torque value shown on the chart per dash size stamped on the fitting.

Texto 48

OPERATION MANUAL Langston Model 154 Preconditioner


LANGSTON A MEMBER OF THE MOLINS GROUP 1930 SOUTH SIXTH STREET CAMDEN NEW JERSEY 08104 (609) 964-6430

SECTION 1

DESCRIPTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION This manual contains instructions for setup, operation and routine maintenance of the Langston Model 157 Preconditioner (Figure 1-1). The information is arranged as follows. Section 1 Description of equipment and general operating principles. Section 2 Illustration of the equipment showing locations of operating controls and descriptions of control functions. Section 3 Starting, operating and stopping procedures. Section 4 Operators troubleshooting. Section 5 Routine maintenance. Section 6 Parts ordering information. Any additional information may be obtained from Langston, Field Service Department, 1930 South Sixth Street, Camden, New Jersey 08104.

SECTION 4

Traduccin Tcnica - 59

OPERATORS TROUBLESHOOTING
Corrugated sheet defects which may cause operators to suspect a problem in the preconditioner are summarized in Table 4-1. For each toruble listed, the table describes the possible cause and remedy for the difficulty. It should be emphasized that the fault may be caused elsewhere in the system. If the remedy given does not correct the problem, check the other units.

WARNING
THE REMEDIAL PROCEDURES LISTED IN TABLE 4-1 ARE INTENDED FOR USE BY PERSONNEL HAVING AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION, OPERATING CONTROLS AND OPERATING PROCEDURES DESCRIBED IN PREVIOUS SECTIONS OF THIS MANUAL FOR YOUR PERSONAL SAFETY. BE ALERT, EXTREMELY CAREFUL, AND DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY STEP UNTIL YOU HAVE THOROUGHLY READ AND UNDERSTOOD THE PURPOSE AND EXPECTED RESULT OF THE ENTIRE PROCEDURE TO BE PERFORMED.

Table 4-1. Troubles, PossibleCauses and Remedies.

TROUBLE
1. 1. Medium fracturing

POSSIBLE CAUSE
Medium too wet

REMEDY
-Verify that drum heat is adequate. Increase drum heat if necessary. -Reduce amount of shower -Verify that drum heat is not excessive. Reduce drum heat if necessary. -Increase amount of shower -Adjust drum speed (paragraph 5-11). Tension V-belts (paragraph 5.9.3). Reduce drum heat -Verify that drum heat is adequate. Increase drum heat if necessary. -Reduce amount of shower. -Verify that drum heat is not excessive. Reduce drum heat if necessary. -Increase amount of shower. -Tension V-belts (paragraph 5.9.3) -Adjust drum speed (paragraph 5.11). -Readjust brake pressure

Medium too dry

Low drum speed is increasing web tension Slipping V-belts are ncreasing web tension 2. 2. Brittle medium 3. Highs and lows Excessive heat Medium too wet

Medium too dry

4. Embedding

Drum speed too low causing excessive web tension

Excessive mill roll stand brake pressure causing excessive web tension. Excessive moisture

-Verify that drum speed is adequate. Increase drum heat if necessary. -Reduce amount of shower.

SECTION 5

Traduccin Tcnica - 60

ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
5.9 DRIVE CHAIN MAINTENANCE 5.9.3. TENSIONING CHAIN Use following procedure to tension chain a. b. Loosen the three nuts securing eccentric on which the large pulley and small sprocket are mounted. See Figure 5-6. Rotate eccentric base until chain is seated in both sprockets, there is no slack in chain, and both spans are equally tight. If necessary, use the pulley to turn and position the small sprocket to balance amount of chain in both spans. While maintaining tension on chain, tighten nuts on eccentric to secure it for operation. Check tension of V-belts. If necessary, tension V-belts in accordance with paragraph 5.10.3.

c. d.

Traduccin Tcnica - 61