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B QUC PHNG

TNG CNG TY VIN THNG QUN I

HNG DN O KIM S DNG MY BIRD


(Dnh cho nhn vin lp t, nghim thu, vn hnh, CTT v ti u)
LU HNH NI B

H NI, 5 - 2008

B QUC PHNG

TNG CNG TY VIN THNG QUN I

HNG DN O KIM S DNG MY BIRD


(Dnh cho nhn vin lp t, nghim thu, vn hnh, CTT v ti u)
LU HNH NI B

BAN IU HNH K THUT 3

PHNG K THUT-TCT

TRUNG TM O TO VIETTEL

H NI, 5 - 2008
3

LI M U
Trong h thng v tuyn vin thng t khi xy lp cng nh trong qu trnh vn hnh khai thc chng ta cn c mt loi thit b o kim, xc nh cht lng h thng. lm c iu ny trn h thng trm BTS chng ta dng my o Bird (BSA: Bird Site Analyzer) o kim cng sut pht ca TRE, kim tra cht lng ca h thng cp Jumper, Connector, feeder, anten cng nh kim tra xc nh nhng im li trn Jumper, Connector, feeder, anten khc phc. to iu kin thun li cho cc nhn vin k thut trong qu trnh lp t, nghim thu v vn hnh h thng trm BTS, Ban iu hnh k thut 3 bin son ti liu Hng dn o kim s dng my o BIRD, ti liu bao gm 6 chng sau: Chng 1: Gii thiu Tng quan v my o Bird. Chng 2: Cc ch tiu o kim. Chng 3: Cn chnh my o Bird. Chng 4: Ch o p ng tn s. Chng 5: Ch o v tr li. Chng 6: o cng sut. Ti liu ny c s dng cho nhn vin lp t, nghim thu, vn hnh, CTT v ti u khi kim tra, nghim thu tch hp trm BTS, cng nh trong qu trnh vn hnh khai thc BTS c th x l c li VSWR ti trm. Ti liu ny yu cu nhn vin phi nm c h thng cp Jumper, feeder, Connector, anten cng nh phi nm c chng trnh BTS Terminal kch hot TRE pht khi o cng sut. Trong qu trnh bin son chc chn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st, rt mong nhn c nhng kin ng gp hon thin cho ln chnh sa sau. Mi kin ng gp xin gi v: Trung tm o to Viettel M1 - An Khnh - Hoi c - H Ty Tel: 04 265 0291 Fax: 04 265 0174 Emai: daotaoviettel@viettel.com.vn

N V VIT TI LIU

MT S THUT NG VIT TT
Ch vit tt
BSA GSM Cal Combo Esc VSWR BTS DCS PCS Rx Tx TRX

Thut ng ting Anh


Bird Site Analyzer Global System of Mobile Calibration Combination Escape Key Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Base Transceiver Station Digital Cordless System (European 1800MHz GSM System) Personal Communication Service Receiver Transmitter Transceiver

Ting Vit tng ng


My o kim trm Bird H thng di ng ton cu Khi cn chnh my o Bird Phm hy hoc tr v trng thi trc T s sng di Trm thu pht gc H thng GSM bng tn 1800MHz H thng GSM bng tn 1900MHz My thu My pht My thu pht

Chng 1 GII THIU TNG QUAN MY O BIRD


Bird Site Analyer (BSA) l mt thit b o kim a chc nng c s dng trong lp t v bo tr cc h thng thng tin v tuyn. Cc ch tiu k thut ca h thng ngten GSM v truyn dn v tuyn c kim tra bng BSA v b cm bin cng sut RF. D liu c hin th di dng cng sut hoc cc n v o tng ng (dBm, Watl v.v...) 1.1. Gii thiu chung: Mt vi chng loi my o Bird:

Hnh 1.1 Mt s chng loi my o Bird

My o v ph kin:

Hnh 1.2 My o bird v mt s ph kin Vng kt ni trn my:

Hnh 1.3. Vng kt ni trn my o Bird 8

Sensor cu hnh my (Cal Combo):

Hnh 1.4 Sensor o cn chnh Sensor o cng sut:

Hnh 1.5 Sensor o cng sut 1. 2. Chc nng cc phm bm trong my Bird Site Analyzer: M hnh my o Bird

Hnh 1.6 Cc phm chc nng trn my o 9

T hp cc phm c chc nng mm: Chc nng c thay i ty theo ch c th, th hin bn phi. T hp cc phm c chc nng cng: trong c 4 phm o Mode: phm ny dng la chn cc ch lm vic: Measure Match, Fault Location. Measure Power hoc Utilities Mode o Config: thit lp cc thng s khc nhau cho Mode c lc chn (tn s, khong cch, bng tn, n v) o Calibrate: dng kch hot vo mc cn chnh my o. o Marker: dng kch hot vo mc nh du. Cc phm s: Thay i cc gi tr ty chn. Escape: o Nu ang thao tc trn Menu: Dng tr li mc trc. o Nu ang nhp d liu: th n s that khi th mc nhp d liu v khng chp nhn gi tr va mi nhp vo. Enter o Nu ang thao tc trong List: dng la chn mc cn trong list ny o Nu ang nhp d liu: th n s that khi th mc nhp d liu v chp nhn gi tr va mi nhp vo Phm mi tn: Chn cc thng s c th trong tng ch o. o Phm bn tri: Nu ang ch Maker: th n di im c nh du v pha bn phi Cc trng hp cn li n s thc hin nh ng chc nng m t ca n. o Phm bn phi: Nu ang nhp d liu th n s xa k t trc n. Nu ang ch Maker: th n di im c nh du v pha bn tri Cc trng hp cn li n s thc hin nh ng chc nng m t ca n. o Phm i ln: Nu ang nhp d liu th n s tng s nhp ln. Nu ang ch Maker: th n di im c nh du n gi tr cao nht. Trng hp s dng ch tng phn: th n tng ch tng phn hin th.

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Cc trng hp cn li n s thc hin nh ng chc nng m t ca n. o Phm i xung: Nu ang nhp d liu th n s gim s nhp xung. Nu ang ch Maker: th n di im c nh du n gi tr thp nht. Trng hp s dng ch tng phn: th n gim ch tng phn hin th. Cc trng hp cn li n s thc hin nh ng chc nng m t ca n. Battery Led o Led s sng vng khi thit b c cung cp ngun t 1 ngun DC bn ngoi. N s chp trong khi ang np cho Battery, khi battery c np y th Led ny s ngng chp. o Led s sng xanh bt c khi no thit b c bt. Phm tng phn o Gi phm ny kt hp vi cc phm (ln xung) khi mun thay i tng phn. I/O: Dng bt, tt thit b. 1.3. Mn hnh hin th: Ch o p ng tn s:

Hnh 1.7. Ch o p ng tn s 11

Ch o khong cch li:

Hnh 1.8 Ch o v tr li 1) Th hin di dng th ca kt qu o. 2) Hin th gi tr o c ti v tr con tr. 3) Hin th v tr hin thi ca con tr (marker). 4) Ch nh trng thi cn chnh hin thi. 5) Ch nh hin ti thit b ang s dng ngun Battery hay ngun cung cp bn ngoi v thi gian c th duy tr ca acqui. 6) Ch nh tn file c ly ra. 7) Ch nh kiu o hin ang s dng 8) Cc phm mm: thay i ty theo la chn. 9) Indicator ball: Hin th trng thi ang o hoc ang tm dng. 10) Hin th gi tr gii hn thit lp. 11) Hin th Fault nu gi tr o c vt qa gi tr gii hn thit lp. 12) ng gch ngang ch nh th ca ng gii hn 13) Hin th gi tr nh nht v ln nht trn trc o 14) Hin th kiu n v o trn trc.

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Chng 2 CC CH TIU O KIM


Cc ch tiu k thut dng o kim, nghim thu, tch hp h thng trm BTS theo quy nh nh sau:
STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Thng s Mc suy hao phn x ca feeder Mc suy hao phn x ca ngten Mc suy hao phn x ca mi ni (connector) Suy hao cp (i vi cp LCF 7/8) Suy hao phi hp tr khng ca feeder Cng sut pht (qua combiner) Cng sut pht (khng qua combiner) Gi tr chun <- 32dB <- 17,5dB <- 30dB 0,041dB/1m Measure Match <19.5dB 41,9 - 43,2 dBm Measure Power 45,2 - 46,5 dBm Fault Location Ch o

Khi o kim ty theo ch o, kt qu o phi m bo t c gi tr theo quy nh, nu gi tr o c ln hn gi tr chun phi kim tra khc phc trc khi a h thng trm BTS vo hot ng.

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Chng 3 CN CHNH MY O BIRD (BSA)


Nhm t kt qu o chnh xc nht, BSA cn phi c hiu chnh v tn s v cc tham s khc ngay trc khi tin hnh o kim hoc khi thay i cc thng s ci t nh loi cp, di tn s v.v. Qu trnh ny c thc hin nh sau:

Hnh 3.1 Cn chnh my o Bird 1) Chn chc nng CALIBRATE. 2) u ni port Open ca Cal Combo vo port ngten test ca my o 3) Chn phm OPEN tng ng trn cc phm chc nng mm. Ch n khi c ting bp v mc Calibration Open hin th Done. 4) u ni port Short ca Cal Combo vo port ngten test ca my o 5) Chn phm SHORT tng ng trn cc phm chc nng mm. Ch n khi c ting bp v mc Calibration Short hin th Done. 6) u ni port Short ca Cal Combo vo port ngten test ca my o. 7) Chn phm LOAD tng ng trn cc phm chc nng mm. Ch n khi c ting bp v mc Calibration Load hin th Done. Sau khi tn hiu v mc Calibration hin th Done th BSA s bo Calibration: FULL. Nu my o cha c hiu chnh, mn hnh s hin th Calibration: OFF. 8) Tho Cal Combo sau khi vic cn chnh han thnh.

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Chng 4 CH O P NG TN S -MEASURE MATCH MODE


Ch o ny cho php kim tra p ng ca tn hiu theo cc di tn s khc nhau. Kt qu o c hin th theo th x-y. Trc x (ngang) hin th di tn s tng ng, trc y (ng) hin th cc thng s cn o nh: suy hao do phn x Return Loss (dB), suy hao do cp: Cable Loss (dB), hay h s sng ng VSWR. 4.1. Chn ch o Measure Match Mode: 1) Chn phm chc nng cng: Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng mm: Measure Match Mode tng ng.

Hnh 4.1 Chn ch o p ng tn s 4.2. Ci t cc tham s: 4.2.1. Ci t di tn s: Tn s c th c ci t bng cch nhp vo trc tip bng cc phm s hoc chn t mt danh sch c thit lp sn trn my. Nu tn s thay i, BSA s t ng vo ch Calibration OFF, phi cn chnh li my trc khi tin hnh o. Phi ci t tn s trc khi tin hnh Calibration cho my. Ci t tn s c th nhp gi tr nhn cng t cc phm s hoc c th chn danh sch di tn s c sn trong my o. 1) Trong ch o Measure Match Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng cng: Config. 3) Chn phm chc nng mm: Freq.

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Hnh 4.2 Ci t tn s ty chn 4) Nhp gi tr tn s bt u, kt thc, tn s trung tm, khong cch bng tn. Hoc c th chn danh sch di tn s Band List: khi chn Band List di tn s s hin th, dung phm ln/xung chn di tn cn o.

Hnh 4.3 Ci t tn s theo danh sch

Hnh 4.4. Danh sch tn s 16

Hnh 4.5 Hin th ci t tn s theo danh sch 5) Chn phm Enter xc nhn gi tr va chn 6) Chn phm Esc tr v mn hnh o chnh. 4.2.2 Ci t t l v n v o: T l xch c th c ci t bng tay hoc chn ch t ng. n v tng ng c th l Return Loss (dB), Cable Loss (dB) hay VSWR. 1) Trong ch o Measure Match Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng cng: Config. 3) Chn phm chc nng mm: Scale.

Hnh 4.6 Ci t t l v n v o 4) Thit lp cc gi tr theo yu cu: T l, gi tr Min/Max ca n v o, n v o. 5) Chn phm Enter xc nhn gi tr va chn 6) Chn phm Esc tr v mn hnh o chnh. 4.2.3 Ci t gi tr ng chun so snh - Limit Line: Gi tr chun c ci t cho php so snh gi tr o c vi gi tr chun mt cch trc quan trn th, hin th kt qu o l t hay khng t yu cu k thut. 1) Trong ch o Measure Match Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng Config. 17

3) Chn phm chc nng Limit Line nh trong hnh v:

Hnh 4.7 Ci t gi tr chun 4) Dng phm s nhp gi tr cn thit. 5) Chn phm Enter xc nhn gi tr va chn 6) Chn phm Esc tr v mn hnh o chnh. 4.3. o kim: 4.3.1. o phi hp tr khng: Sau Sau khi ci t cc tham s o cn thit, cn chnh my o, m bo trn h thng cp cn o khng c cng sut >22dBm, u ni h thng cp feeder, ngten vo my o. Tin hnh o v phn tch, nh gi kt qu o c.

Hnh 4.8 V d kt qu o phi hp tr khng theo tn s 18

4.3.2. o suy hao cp: Sau khi ci t cc tham s o cn thit, cn chnh my o, m bo trn h thng cp cn o khng c cng sut >22dBm, tin hnh o suy hao cp nh sau: 1) Tho ti kt cui (tho ngten) ca cp. 2) Kt ni cp vo my o 3) Trong ch o Measure Match Mode, chn phm chc nng cng: Config. 4) Chn phm chc nng mm: Cable Loss.

Hnh 4.9 o suy hao cp Gi tr o th hin di dng sau:

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Hnh 4.10 V d kt qu o suy hao cp 4.4. Phn tch x l kt qu o: 4.4.1. Gi gi tr o hin thi (Measurement Hold): Nh c tnh ny n s tm ngng cp nht gi tr o mi, gi nguyn gi tr hin thi (p dng cho c ch Measure Match Mode v Fault Location Mode). Cc bc thc hin nh sau: 1) Trong mn hnh chnh ca ch o tng ng 2) Nhn phm Holl gi gi tr o . 3) Nhn phm Run khi phc li ch tip tc o . Biu tng Kha trn mn hnh ch nh gi tr o c gi. 4.4.2. Con tr hin th (Marker):

Hnh 4.11 Ci t con tr hin th Con tr c s dng hin th v gi tr o nh: VSWR hoc suy hao phn x (Return Loss) hoc suy hao cp (Cable Loss) ti cc v tr m ta mun xem. Ta c th kch hot v ci t con tr hin th c ti a 6. Tuy nhin ti mt thi in ch c th lm vic vi mt con tr duy nht trng thi Active, nu mun lm vic vi con tr khc phi chuyn Active sang con tr . Kch hot v ci t hnh dng ca con tr hin th (Marker): 1) Nhn phm cng Maker vo ch ci t con tr. 2) Nhn phm mm Mark la chn con tr tng ng cn ci t, mi ln chn tng tng vic chn mt con tr khc 1 -> 2 -> ->6. 3) Nhn phm Active/Off kch hot hoc hy b vic la chn con tr. 4) Nhn phm mm Type la chn hnh dng con tr (hnh tam gic hay ng thng). 20

5) Nhn phm ESC tr li mn hnh o chnh.

Hnh 4.12 Di chuyn con tr hin th Di chuyn con tr 1) Nhn nt Maker vo ch ci t con tr. 2) Nhn phm mm Mark la chn con tr cn di chuyn. 3) S dng cc phm qua tri, qua phi di chuyn con tr nh mong mun, s dng phm ln nu mun tm im cao nht, s dng phm xung nu mun tm im thp nht. 4) Nhn phm ESC tr li mn hnh hin th ban u. 4.4.3. Lu v hin th li kt qu o Save and Recall: Cc th v kt qu o c th c lu li trong b nh ca my o vi thi gian tin hnh o kim km theo v tn file. Mc ch lu li kt qu c th in trc tip qua my in hoc xut vo my tnh lm c s lu tr thng tin trm, nghim thu, a trm vo hot ng. a) Lu kt qu o: 1) Trong ch o tng ng. 2) Chn Phm chc nng Save/Recall.

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Hnh 4.13 Lu kt qu o 3) Chn nt Save 4) t tn cho kt qu o 5) Chn phm Enter lu kt qu o. b) Hin th li kt qu o: 1) Trong ch o tng ng. 2) Chn Phm chc nng Save/Recall.

Hnh 4.14 Hin th li kt qu o 3) Dng phm mi tn ln/xung di chuyn n tn file cn hin th 4) Chn nt Recall 5) Chn phm Enter hin th kt qu o (c lu trc ) ln mn hnh. 4.4.4. In gi tr o: My BSA c th in cc thng tin hin th trn mn hnh n bt k my in no HP Deskjet no m c h tr giao thc PCL lp 3. in cc hnh nh hin th nh mong mun trc ht phi gi hnh nh cn in (xem ch Measurement Hold) sau nhn phm Print. Ch : nu sau khi nhn lnh in nhng my in khng c kt ni, th n s hin th t ERROR bn cnh phm Print. xa li ny, la chn Mode>Ultility>Priinter, sau nhn phm Printer v i khong 1 giy th h thng s reset li.

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Chng 5 CH O V TR LI FAULT LOCATION MODE


Ch o ny cho php xc nh v tr mt cn bng tr khng (Gy suy hao ln) trn h thng cp feeder ngten. Kt qu o c hin th theo dng th x-y. Khong cch c hin th trn trc x (ngang) v gi tr suy hao cp c hin th trn trc y (ng). Ch : phi chn khong tn s ch Measure Match trc khi thc hin cn chnh, nu khng khi thay i tn s ci t n s t ng chuyn ch Calibration sang OFF kt qu o s khng chnh xc. 5.1. Chn ch o Fault Location Mode: 1) Nhn phm Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng Fault Location tng ng.

Hnh 5.1 Chn ch o p ng khong cch 5.2. Ci t cc tham s: 5.2.1. Ci t loi cp cn o: Loi cp cn o c th c chn t mt danh sch thit lp sn trn my o hoc co th chn nhn cng bng cch nhp gi tr vn tc truyn (Velocity of propagation) v suy hao cp (cable loss). Ch : khi thay i loi cp trc x hin th khong cch s tr v gi tr ln nht, do lun chn loi cp trc khi chn khong cch. 1) Trong ch o Fault Location Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng Config. 3) Chn phm chc nng tng ng Cbl Type.

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Hnh 5.2 Ci t loi cp 4) Chn loi cp t chc nng Cable list di gc phi mn hnh, chn phm ln/xung chn loi cp cn o. Hoc c th nhp gi tr Vel Prop v Loss tu phm s trn my o.

Hnh 5.3 Chn loi cp theo danh sch 5) Chn phm Enter xc nhn gi tr va chn 6) Chn phm Esc tr v mn hnh o chnh. 5.2.2. Ci t khong cch o: Ci t khong cch o phi ln hn 25% khong cch thc ca h thng cp, ngten cn o. 1) Trong ch o Fault Location Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng Config. 3) Chn phm chc nng Distance tng ng. 24

Hnh 5.4 Ci t gii hn khong cch cn o 4) Dng phm mi tn chn thng s cn hiu chnh. Dng phm s nhp gi tr cn hiu chnh tng ng. 5) Chn phm Enter xc nhn gi tr va chn 6) Chn phm Esc tr v mn hnh o chnh. 5.2.3. Ci t t l v n v o: T l hin th c th c ci t bng tay hoc t ng. n v o c th l dB hay VSWR. 1) Trong ch o Fault Location Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng Config. 3) Chn phm chc nng Scale tng ng.

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Hnh 5.5 Ci t t l v n v cn o 4) Dng phm mi tn chn thng s cn hiu chnh nh Min, Max hay Units. Dng phm s nhp gi tr cn hiu chnh tng ng. 5) Chn phm Enter xc nhn gi tr va chn 6) Chn phm Esc tr v mn hnh o chnh. 5.2.4. Ci t gi tr chun Limit Line: Gi tr chun c ci t cho php so snh gi tr o c vi gi tr chun mt cch trc quan trn th, hin th kt qu o l t hay khng t yu cu k thut. 1) Trong ch o Fault Location Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng Config. 3) Chn phm chc nng Limit Line nh trong hnh v:

Hnh 5.6 Ci t gi tr chun 4) Dng phm s nhp gi tr cn thit. 5) Chn phm Enter xc nhn gi tr va chn 6) Chn phm Esc tr v mn hnh o chnh. 5.3. o kim: Sau Sau khi ci t cc tham s o cn thit, cn chnh my o FULL, m bo trn h thng cp cn o khng c cng sut >22dBm, u ni h thng cp feeder, ngten vo my o. Tin hnh o v phn tch, nh gi kt qu o c.

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Hnh 5.7 V d kt qu o v tr li theo khong cch 5.4. Phn tch x l kt qu o: Phn tch x l kt qu o nh gi kt qu o hin ti, hin th con tr, lu, hin th li, in kt qu tng t nh ch o Measure Match Mode. Khi kt qu o khng t tiu chun k thut phi khc phc mi m bo cht lng khi a h thng vo hot ng.

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Chng 6 O CNG SUT MEASURE POWER MODE:


Php o ny cho php kim tra cng sut pht ca khi thu pht (TRE). Ty theo b cm bin v chng loi, th h my o c th o c cc gi tr cng sut khc nhau. Ch : Khng c kt ni trc tip TRE hoc khi thu/pht vo trc tip my o. Phi TT my o khi kt ni hoc tho Sensor o cng sut vo my o bng cp cng COM DB9. 6.1. Chn ch o Measure Power Mode: 1) Chn phm Mode. 2) Chn phm chc nng Measure Power Mode tng ng.

Hnh 6.1 Chn ch o cng sut 6.2. Ci t gii hn cng sut o: Tt my o, kt ni Sensor o cng sut vo my o ci t: 1) Trong ch o cng sut 2) Chn phm Config

Hnh 6.2 Ci t gii hn cng sut o 28

3) Nhp gi tr gii hn cng sut cn o vo mc FullScale 4) Chn Enter xc nhn gi tr nhp. 6.3. Chn ch hin th: Trong ch o cng sut, chn phm chc nng mm Display thay i hin th t: Foward -> Raflection -> Match.

Hnh 6.3 Chn ch hin th 6.4. Chn n v: Trong ch o cng sut, chn phm mm PwrUnit: thay i n v o t: Kwatts -> Watts -> dBm. Cng trong ch o cng sut, chn phm mm MatchUnit: thay i n v o phi hp t: VSWR -> Return Loss -> Match Efficiency

Hnh 6.4 Chn n v o 6.5. o kim: Ch : KHNG c ni trc tip TRE vo cng my o. Lun TT MY O khi kt ni hoc tho kt ni b Sensor o cng sut vi my o. u ni my o, b thu pht (TRE), Sensor o cng sut theo hng dn. 29

Hnh 6.5 S u ni o cng sut Kch hot b thu pht (TRE) c cng sut pht. Kt qu o c th hin trn mn hnh hin th:

Hnh 6.6 Mn hnh hin th kt qu o cng sut Trong : 1) Tnh trng Sensor: Sensor cng sut c kt ni. 2) Kt qu chnh: Ch nh kt qu chnh theo kim o. 3) Gi tr chnh: hin th kt qu o theo n v c chn. 4) Khung t l o: Hin th khung t l t thp n cao. 5) Kim hin th: Hin th kt qu trn th. 6) Kt qu ph: HIn th kt qu o khng c hin th trn kim o. 7) Gi tr ph: Hin th n v kt qu o ph. 30