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Expert system

An expert system is software that attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain. There are two main methods of reasoning when using inference rules: backward chaining and forward chaining.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Forward chaining starts with the data available and uses the inference rules to conclude more data until a desired goal is reached. Backward chaining starts with a list of goals and works backwards to see if there is data which will allow it to conclude any of these goals.

DMO

AI

@chintech

The end-user usually sees an expert system through an interactive dialog, an example of which follows: Q. Do you know which restaurant you want to go to? A. No Q. Is there any kind of food you would particularly like? A. No Q. Do you like spicy food? A. No

Q. Do you usually drink wine with meals? A. Yes Q. When you drink wine, is it French wine? A. Yes
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DMO

Knowledge Intensive problem solving

In knowledge intensive problem solving, the information about the state of its problem solving and explanations of the choice and decisions made should be provided. The AI programs can be easily prototyped, tested, and changed because of this explanatory nature and also a change in a production rule will not affect globally.
AI @chintech

DMO

Characteristics of expert system

Support inspection of their reasoning processes, both in presenting intermediate steps and in answering questions about the solution process. The system should provide information about the state of its problem solving and explanations of the choices and the decisions that the program is making.
AI @chintech

DMO

Allow easy modification in adding and deleting skills from the knowledge base. As in production system, modification in a single rule will not affect the other rules.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Reason heuristically. We can implement heuristic searching while implementing expert system.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Expert systems are built to form a wide range of problems in domains such as medicine, engineering, computer, law etc. The general problems faced in expert system are, developing

1. Interpretation : forming high level conclusions from collections of raw data. 2. Prediction : projecting probable consequences of given situations.
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DMO

3. Diagnosis : determining the cause of malfunctions in complex situations based on observable symptoms. 4. Design : finding a configuration of system components that meets perfomance goals while satisfying a set of design constraints. 5. Planning : devising a sequence of actions that will achieve a set of goals given certain conditions and run -time constraints.
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6. Monitoring : Comparing a system's observed behaviour to its expected behaviour. 7. Instruction : assisting in the education process in technical domain. 8. Control : governing the behaviour of a complex environment.

DMO

AI

@chintech

User

User interface may employ : Question-andanswer OR menu-driven OR Natural language OR graphics interface styles
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Expert System Architecture


Knowledgebase editor Inference Engine Explanation subsystem General Knowledge base Casespecific data

DMO

@chintech

Interface :

The users interacts with the system through a user interface that simplifies communication. Expert system interface employ a veriety of user styles including question-and-answer, menu-driven, or graphics interface. The interface type is decided according to the user needs and the requirements of the knowledge base and inferencing system.
AI @chintech

DMO

Knowledge-base editor :

The knowledge-base editor helps programer to locate and correct the bugs.

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Also used when need to add a new knowledge, helps to maintain correct rule syntax, and perform consistency checks on the updated knowledge-base.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Inference engine :

It is essentially an interpreter for the knowledge base. In the production system inference engine performs the recognise-act cycle. The procedures that implement the control cycle are separate from the production rules.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Explanation subsystem :

The program explains its reasoning to the user. Here user gets the informations about why a particular piece of data is used, justification for a system's conclusions, etc..

DMO

AI

@chintech

Knowledge-base :
The heart of the expert system is the knowledge base, which contains of the knowledge of the particular application domain. In Rule-based expert system knowledge is represented in the form of if....then...rules.

DMO

AI

@chintech

The knowledge base of expert systems contains both factual and heuristic knowledge. Factual knowledge is that knowledge of the task domain that is widely shared, typically found in textbooks or journals, and commonly agreed upon by those knowledgeable in the particular field. Heuristic knowledge is the less rigorous, more experiential, more judgmental knowledge of performance. In contrast to factual knowledge, heuristic knowledge is rarely discussed, and is largely individualistic. It is the knowledge of good practice, good judgment, and plausible reasoning in the field. It is the knowledge that underlies the "art of good guessing."
DMO AI @chintech

Expert systems involve a considerable investment of money and human effort. Attempts to solve a problem that is too complex, too poorly understood can lead to costly failures. These are the guidelines to determine whether a problem is appropriate for expert system solution
DMO AI @chintech

The need for the solution justifies the cost and effort of building an expert system. Many expert systems have been built in domains such as mineral exploration, medicine, defence etc... a large potential exists for saving money, time and human life.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Human expertise is not available in all situations where it is needed. For example in a remote mining and drilling site if there is a need of an expert he has to travel wasting his time where we can fulfil the need with an expert system.

DMO

AI

@chintech

The problem may be solved using symbolic reasoning: When a problem can be solved using symbolic resoning and no need of expertness in manual acts.

DMO

AI

@chintech

The problem domain is well structured and does not require commonsence. When a highly technical problem can be well studied and formalised also all the terms used are well defined and domains have a clear conceptual models.

DMO

AI

@chintech

When the problem may not be solved using traditional computing methods Expert system is used in cases where the traditional computing methods fails. If a problem can be solved satisfactorily using more traditional technoques, then it is not a candidate.
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Cooperative and articulate experts exist. The knowledge used by the expert system comes from the experience and judgement of human working in that domain. So it is important that these experts be both willing and able to share knowledge.

DMO

AI

@chintech

The problem is of proper size and scope. Expert system are used in medical field, it doesn't mean that a program is made so that all the expertise of a doctor is captured. Programming a particular piece of diagonising equipment or a particular set of diagnose is possible.
DMO AI @chintech

The primary people involving in building an expert system is the knowledge engineer, the domain expert and the end user. The knowledge engineer will decide the representation scheme to be implemented. Next step is to decide the software and hardware tools to be used for developing the project.
AI @chintech

DMO

The domain expert will provide the knowledge of the problem area. The domain expert will explain the problem solving techniques such as shortcuts, handling imprecise data, evaluating partial solutionsand all the other skills needed for the expert in that field.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Next is enduser who is going to decide the design constrains. During the design phase the skills and needs of the user must be kept in mind. Once the knowledge engineer has got the general overview of the problem domain and gone through several problem solving sessions with the expert, he is ready tobegin the design of the system
AI

DMO

@chintech

Selecting a way to represent the knowledge Determining the search strategy Design the user interface Combining all the above a prototype is made. The knowledge engineer and expert test and refine its knowledge.

DMO

AI

@chintech

Begin Define Problems and goals Design and construct prototype Test/Use system Analyse and correct shortcomings Are design assumptions still correct
Yes No
DMO

Failed No

Ready for final evaluation

Yes
AI

Final evaluation

@chintech Passed

Advantages

Provides consistent answers for repetitive decisions, processes and tasks Holds and maintains significant levels of information Encourages organizations to clarify the logic of their decision-making Never "forgets" to ask a question, as a human might
AI @chintech

DMO

Disadvantages

Lacks common sense needed in some decision making Cannot make creative responses as human expert would in unusual circumstances Domain experts not always able to explain their logic and reasoning Errors may occur in the knowledge base, and lead to wrong decisions Cannot adapt to changing environments, unless knowledge base is changed
DMO AI @chintech