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LESSON

21 Divisibility (page 112) Name

• Tests for divisibility: Teacher Notes:


• Introduce Hint #34, “Tests for
Last-Digit Tests Divisibility.”
• Refer students to “Tests for
Inspect the last digit of the number. A number
Divisibility” on page 5 in the
is divisible by …
Student Reference Guide.

2 if the last digit is even.

5 if the last digit is 0 or 5.

10 if the last digit is 0.

Sum-of-Digits Tests

Add the digits of the number and inspect the


total. A number is divisible by …

3 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 3.

9 if the sum of the digits is divisible by 9.

Practice Set (page 114)

a. Which of these numbers is divisible by 2?


123 234 345

b. Which of these numbers is divisible by 3?


1234 2345 3456

Use the divisibility tests to decide which of the numbers 2, 3, 5, 9, and 10 are factors of the following
numbers:

c. 120 , , ,

d. 102 ,
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Written Practice (page 114)

1. ( )×( )= 2. 1959 – =d
sum difference
1959 Hawaii
1787 Delaware

Saxon Math Course 1 L21-81 Adaptations Lesson 21


Written Practice (continued) (page 114)

3. 16 ∙ w = 4. fraction left
Multiply the loop.
Divide by the outside number.

pounds 240
____ 000
____
bowling balls 000 000

5. girls ____ 6. three hundredths


students

7. 8. 987,654,321

$2. 3 4

9. 1, 4, 16, 64, , ... 10. 64 × 1 64 + 1

M the preceding term

by . © 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

11. Divisible by 9 means the sum of the digits can be 12. Estimate the sum.
divided by 9.
396
A 365 B 1179 C 1556 197
203

Saxon Math Course 1 L21-82 Adaptations Lesson 21


Written Practice (continued) (page 115)

13. GCF of 12 and 16 4030 =


14. _____
• List (in order) the factors of the smaller number, 12. 0100
• Starting with the greatest factor, cross off factors
that are NOT factors of the larger number, 16.
• The greatest factor is the GCF.

1 , , , , , 12

_______
15. 24 ) 48,840 16.

678

17. $4.75 18. $10 – w = 87¢

$10.00
+ $10.00

w=

19. 463 + 27 + m = 500 20. least to greatest

1 , 0, –2, __
1, __ 1
2 4
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m= , , , ,

21. average 22. factors of 28

12
16
+ 23

1 , , , , , 28

Saxon Math Course 1 L21-83 Adaptations Lesson 21


Written Practice (continued) (page 115)

23. Multiply the loop. 24.


4 in.
sides
___________ 1
___ ___
centimeters ?

25. (12 × 12) – (11 × 13) = 26. Show clock divided into thirds.

– =
 

 
 
 
 


and

27. __ 3
2 < __ 28. a. 1 dollar = bits
3 4
b. Multiply the loop.

< bits
_______ ___ ?
__
dollars 1 _1
2

a.

Use work area. b. © 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

29. • Here are the factors of 20. 30. Draw a . In the circle draw
• Cross off the factors that are NOT factors of 30.
ap sign.
1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20
Then draw a t sign

in the circle.

, , , Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L21-84 Adaptations Lesson 21


LESSON

22 “Equal Groups” Stories with


Fractions (page 117)
Name

• The textbook shows how to solve fraction of a group problems with Teacher Notes:
a diagram: What number is _34 of 16? • Introduce Hint #35, “Fraction of a
Group, Part 2.”
1. Draw a rectangle and divide it into the number of equal parts
• Refer students to “Finding a Part
shown by the denominator of the fraction. (four parts) When the Whole is Known” on
page 14 in the Student Reference
2. Divide the “of” number by the denominator and write that Guide.
number in each part of the rectangle. (16 ÷ 4 = 4)
3. Count the number of parts of the rectangle shown by the
numerator of the fraction and find the answer. (4 × 3 = 12)
 

{ { {
 
_
3
of 16  _
3
of 16  is 12
4 4
 
 

• You can also solve these problems using an “is/of” loop.


• Notice the words “is” and “of” appear in these problems: What number is _34 of 16?
1. Set up a loop problem using the words “is” and “of.”
is
__ ___ ___
of
2. Write the given fraction first. is
__ 3
__ ___
of 4
3. Then fill in the number given.
If the “is” number is given, write it as the numerator. is
__ 3
__ ?
___
If the “of” number is given, write it as the denominator. of 4 16

4. Solve the problem.


(1) Draw the loop. is
__ 3
__ ?
___ (16 × 3) ÷ 4 = 12
of 4 16
(2) Multiply the numbers in the loop.
(3) Divide by the outside number.
• When working percent problems, remember that a whole is 100%.

Practice Set (page 119)


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Answer using either the diagram or the “is/of” loop.

3 of 12 =
a. __ 2 of $4.50 =
b. __ 4 of 60 =
c. __
4  3  5 
  
is
__ 3
__ ?
___ is
__ 2
__ ______ is
__ 4
__ ___
of 4 12  of 3 $4.50  of 5 
  
 


Saxon Math Course 1 L22-85 Adaptations Lesson 22


Practice Set (continued) (page 119)
3 of 80 =
d. ___ 5 of 24 =
e. __ 9 of 100% =
f. ___
10  6  10
   
is
__ 3
___ ___   is
__ 5
__ ___ is
__ ___ ?
______  
of 10 of 6  of 100%
   
    
    
 



Written Practice (page 119)

1. ( )–( )= 2. original states ______


00000
all states 00000

3. 26 mi plus 385 yd 2 of 12
4. __ 
3
Multiply the loop. 
Multiply the loop.
Divide by the outside number. 
mi
___ 1
___ 26
___
yd is
__ 2
__ ___ 
?
of 3

3 of 16
5. __ 3 of $3.50
6. ___
 
4 10
 ` `
is
__ 3
__ ___ is
__ 3
___ ___
 ` `
of 4 of 10
` `

` `

` `
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7. 600 ft 8. w – 15 = 8 w = 345
9. ___ 10. $34.09
0 = 15 $34.09
=
–100 ft + $34.09

w= w=

Saxon Math Course 1 L22-86 Adaptations Lesson 22


Written Practice (continued) (page 120)

_________
11. ) $1 2. 4 5 12. ______ R
35 ) 1000

7 + 9 + 14 =
13. ___________ 14. 36 9×4
3
$1.24 $1.25

a. estimate

b. First multiply $1.25 × . Then multiply that answer

times .
Use work area.

15. ten-millions place 16. GCF of 12 and 15


• List (in order) the factors of the smaller number, 12.
375,426,198,000 • Starting with the greatest factor, cross off factors that are NOT factors
of the larger number, 15.
• The greatest factor is the GCF.

, , , , ,

17. 30 18. 100 2


3
5
9
10
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, , , , , , , , ,


4=
19. __ %  20. Use fraction manipulatives.
5

is
__ ___ ?
______ 1
__ 1
__
of 100%  3 2



Saxon Math Course 1 L22-87 Adaptations Lesson 22


Written Practice (continued) (page 120)

21. NOT prime 22. (3 + 3) – (3 × 3) =

A 19 B 29 C 39 – =

23. halfway between 27 and 43 24. perimeter

CM

CM

25. 26. Use fraction manipulatives.

1
__ 1
__
6 5


2
27. __ 3
__ 1 of
28. __
4 5 4
is
__ ___ ___
of

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Use work area.

29. a. 1 dollar = bits 30. c – p = t

1 dollar =
b. __ bits c– =
4
p+ =
a.
t+ =

b. Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L22-88 Adaptations Lesson 22


LESSON

23 Ratio
Rate (page 122)
Name

• A ratio is a way to describe a relationship between numbers. Teacher Notes:


• Review Hint #25, “Rate.”
• Each of the following forms is read the same: “Thirteen to fifteen.”
• Refer students to “Proportion
13 to 15 13:15 __
13
15 (Rate) Problems” on page 19 and
“Ratio” on page 22 in the Student
• Write the ratio in the order asked. Reference Guide.
12 = _
• Always reduce ratios. __ 3
16 4

• Leave ratios in “top-heavy” fraction form. (Never convert a ratio to a mixed number.) _74
• A rate is a ratio of measures.

Name Rate of Measures Example Alternate Form


distance
________ 55 miles
________
Speed 55 miles per hour
time 1 hour
distance
_________ 28 miles
________
Mileage 28 miles per gallon
fuel used 1 gallon
price
________ $2.89
______
Unit Price $2.89 per pound
quantity pound

• Rate problems are solved just as you did equal-groups problems:


1. Name what the problem is about.
2. Fill in what you know.
3. Fill in what you are looking for.
4. Multiply the loop.
5. Divide by the outside number.

Practice Set (page 124)


a. What is the ratio of dogs to b. What is the girl-boy ratio in a c. If the ratio of cars to trucks in
cats in a neighborhood that has class of 30 students with 17 the parking lot is 7 to 2, then
19 cats and 12 dogs? boys? what is the ratio of trucks to
dogs cars in the parking lot?
___ girls ___
cats boys trucks
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___
cars

Multiply the loop. Divide by the outside number.

d. How long will it take a trucker to drive 400 miles e. If a four-quart container of milk costs $2.48, what
at 50 miles per hour? is the cost per quart?

miles
______ ___ ___ quarts ___ ___
hours ? $ ?

Saxon Math Course 1 L23-89 Adaptations Lesson 23


Written Practice (page 125)

2 of 30 
1. Multiply the loop. 2. __
3 
cm 1
___ 30
___ is
__ ___ ___ 
mm of


3. One large pace is about one yard. 4. Multiply the loop.


Divide by the outside number.
100 large paces = yards
mi
___ ___ ___
gal.

 
3 of 25
5. __  7 of $36.00
6. ___
5 10  
  
is
__ is
__ is
__ __ s __
is i__ is
 of of of  
of of of
  
  

7. Use fraction manipulatives to add. 8. mixed number

3
__ 9 =
__
8 8
4
+ __
8
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9. Reduce. 10. $3.75

2=
__ %
8

Saxon Math Course 1 L23-90 Adaptations Lesson 23


Written Practice (continued) (page 125)

11. 12. 36,174,591

$3.75

13. One way to find _23 of a is to first 14. $0.35n = $35.00

divide the number by ; then

that answer by 2.

Use work area. n=

15. $10.20 – m = $3.46 16. Use fraction manipulatives.

$10.20 3
__ 1
4
× $13.46

m=

17. IN 18. 2, 4, 8, 16, , ,…

 To find a number, multiply the number before it

by .
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19. See the thermometer in the Student Reference Guide. 20. 12 ÷ 6 – 2 12 ÷ (6 – 2)

Fahrenheit or Celsius?

14˚ is below freezing on the

scale, but is above freezing on the

scale.
Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L23-91 Adaptations Lesson 23


Written Practice (continued) (page 125)

21. GCF of 24 and 32 22. sum of the first seven positive odd numbers
• Here are the factors of 24.
• Starting with the greatest factor cross off factors
that are NOT factors of 32.
• Circle the GCF.

1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24

23. Use fraction manipulatives. 1=


24. __ %
8
A

B
a.

b.

1
25. ___ = __ 26. 16 on team
8 2
freestyle _______
not freestyle

27. See the Student Reference Guide. 28. Which represents a line?
A

C
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29. Use tests for divisibility by 2 and 5. 30. win win


____
loss loss
A 252 B 525 C 250

Saxon Math Course 1 L23-92 Adaptations Lesson 23


LESSON

24 Adding and Subtracting


Fractions That Have Common
Name

Denominators (page 127)


• Use fraction manipulatives to help you see that the denominator does not change.
• To add or subtract fractions with like denominators, add or subtract the numerators.

1 
8 1  
8 
1 
1 1 8   
8 8  

3 + 2 = 5  Ľ  â 
8 8 8   

Practice Set (page 129)

3 + __
a. __ 4 =
8 8

3 + __
b. __ 1 =
4 4

c. __ 1 + __
1 + __ 1 =
8 8 8

4 – __
d. __ 1 =
8 8

3 – __
e. __ 2 =
4 4

1 =
1 – __
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f. __
4 4

g. Use words to write the subtraction problem in exercise d.

eighths minus eighth equals eighths.

Saxon Math Course 1 L24-93 Adaptations Lesson 24


Written Practice (page 129)

3 of 1 dozen 
1. Multiply the loop. 2. __
4 
$
__ ___ ___
$5.00 car
is
__ ___ ___ 
hr 1 5 $5.00 yard
of
$ 5.00 altogether 

Equal g pattern; then

a pattern.

1 of 1760
3. __  4. Use fraction manipulatives.
8
1 + __
__ 2 =
is
__ ___ ___
4 4
of

I divided by .

5. __ 4 =
7 – __ 1 + __
6. __ 1 =
8 8 2 2

7. __ 1 =
1 – __ 1 + __
8. __ 1 =
2 2 2 4 %

Fred had of a carrot. He ate it.

How much did he have ? © 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

9. fiction _______ 10. halfway


nonfiction
A 123 and 321 and

d by .

Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L24-94 Adaptations Lesson 24


Written Practice (continued) (page 130)

11. 12. NOT prime

MI A 21 B 31 C 41

13. _______ R 14. _______ R


9)1 0 0 0 ) 22,422

15. 1
16. __ 1
__
2 4
$350

17. Seattle to Portland—172 mi 18. Multiply the loop.


Portland to San Francisco—636 mi Divide by the outside number.

Circle one. He (will, will not) be charged extra. mi


___ 172
____ ?
___
hr
172
I rounded
636

Use work area.


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19. Split the difference. 20. 32, 9 87,145

í&

í&

í&

Saxon Math Course 1 L24-95 Adaptations Lesson 24


Written Practice (continued) (page 130)

21. GCF of 21 and 28 22. Use tests for divisibility by 9.


• List (in order) the factors of the smaller number, 21.
• Starting with the greatest factor, cross off factors that are A 123 B 234 C 345
NOT factors of the larger number, 28.
• The greatest factor is the GCF.

, , ,

23. Use fraction manipulatives. w = 20


24. __
8
x
1 = __
4

w=

25. 7x = 84 26. 376 + w = 481

481
× 376

x= w=

27. m – 286 = 592 28. twice the population of Eaton


0OPULATIONOF#OUNTY4OWNS

592

× 286
INTHOUSANDS
0OPULATION






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%ATON #HESTER -ADISON


m=

29. Madison 30. 0OPULATIONOF#OUNTY4OWNS



Chester

INTHOUSANDS
0OPULATION






%ATON #HESTER -ADISON 7ILSON
Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L24-96 Adaptations Lesson 24


LESSON

25 Writing Division Answers


as Mixed Numbers
Name

Multiples (page 132)


Teacher Notes:
• In some division problems, the answer must be shown as a • Review Hint #33, “Improper
Fractions.”
mixed number. • Refer students to “Multiples” on
page 5 in the Student Reference
• A mixed number is a whole number plus a fraction.
Guide.
whole number 2_34 fraction
}
mixed number
• Put the remainder over the divisor to make the fraction.
Example 1: Write __
25
6
as a mixed number.


 



Example 2: A whole circle is 100% of a circle.


One third of a circle is what percent of a circle?

  
 





• We find multiples of a number by multiplying the number by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on.


Example: The first six multiples of 3 are 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18.

Practice Set (page 134)

a. ___ b. ________ c. _____


) 28 ) 1 0 0% ) 467

The times table will give you the multiples of a number.

d. first four multiples of 12 , , ,


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e. first six multiples of 8 , , , , ,

f. 3rd multiple of 8 _____


2nd multiple of 12

Divide to change the improper (top heavy) fractions to mixed numbers:

35 =
g. ___ 49 =
h. ___ 65 =
i. ___
6 10 12

Saxon Math Course 1 L25-97 Adaptations Lesson 25


Written Practice (page 134)

1. ( )–( )= 2. Carlos can find the a distance of

the t punts by adding yd,

yd, and yd, and then

d the sum by .

Use work area.

3. one hundred forty-nine million, six hundred 4. perimeter


thousand kilometers

IN


IN


, ,

5. 4 ∙ p = 6.

Show the answer as a mixed number.


___
) 30

1 of 12
7. __ 1 of 12
__ 8. Use fraction manipulatives for help.
2 3
1=
Half of __
2
Now, half of that =
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9. Show the answer as a mixed number. 10. Use fraction manipulatives for help.
________
) 1 0 0%

a.

b.

Saxon Math Course 1 L25-98 Adaptations Lesson 25


Written Practice (continued) (page 135)

11. 33 _13% is what fraction? 12. mixed number

365

13. __ 2 =
2 + __
2 + __ 14. __ 5=
6 – __
3 3 3 6 6

15. 30 × 40 ÷ 60 = 16. ___ 5 =


5 – ___
12 12

17.
win 000
____ 18. 10 ∙ =t
loss 000
pens 1
__ x
__
cost x ?
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19. GCF of 24 and 30 1 of 100


20. ____
100
• List (in order) the factors of the smaller number, 24.
• Starting with the greatest factor, cross off factors that are NOT factors of
the larger number, 30.
• The greatest factor is the GCF.

, , , , , , ,

Saxon Math Course 1 L25-99 Adaptations Lesson 25


Written Practice (continued) (page 135)

5+m=1
21. __ 144 = 12
22. ____
8 n
5
1 __
8
5
× 1__
8

m= n=

23. estimate 2 of
24. __
3
3142
6328
is
__ xx
___ xx
___
4743 xx xx
of

25. 26. Jan could draw segments from the center to

estimate the 12, the , and the .

measure 


 
 
 
 


Use work area. Use work area.

27. mixed number 28.

15 =
___
4
3
__ 4
__
4 5 © 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

Use work area.

29. Multiples: Think times table. 30. Circle the number that is divisible by 9 and 10.
Use tests for divisibility by 9 and 10.
A 910 B 8910 C 78,910
The sum of the digits is , which is

divisible by . The last digit is so it is

divisible by .
25, , , Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L25-100 Adaptations Lesson 25


LESSON

26 Using Manipulatives to
Reduce Fractions
Name

Adding and Subtracting Mixed


Teacher Notes:
Numbers (page 136) • Introduce Hint #36, “Reducing
Fractions (Manipulatives and
• Use fraction manipulatives to reduce fractions. Shortcuts).”

• We reduce when we use the fewest number of fraction pieces to • Review “Fraction Families
Equivalent Fractions” on page 12 in
show the amount. the Student Reference Guide.
• When adding mixed numbers:
1. Add the whole numbers.
2. Add the fractions.
3. Reduce or convert the fraction if needed. We convert when we change an improper
(top-heavy) fraction to a mixed number or a whole number.
• Simplify is another way to say convert or reduce.

Practice Set (page 138)

Use fraction manipulatives to reduce:

2 = ___
a. __
8

6 = ___
b. __
8

Add and reduce when possible:

c. 1%
12__ d. 2%
16__ e. 3
3__
2 3 4
+ 121 %
__ + 662 %
__ + 23
__
2 3 4
= = =

1 + 2__
f. 1__ 7 =
8 8
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2 =
g. 3 + 2__
3

3+4=
h. __
4

i. Use words to write problem f.

plus equals .

Saxon Math Course 1 L26-101 Adaptations Lesson 26


Written Practice (page 139)

1. HOME PARK years x


2. _______ 1
___ ___
3_34 mi
months 36

1 dozen
3. 2__ Is this enough? mc
4. ___ 1
___ 1000
_____
2 cm ?
1 dozen =

1 dozen =

1 dozen =
__
2

5. perimeter 6. __ 1
1 + __ 1 of __
__ 1
2 2 2 2


IN


7. Convert and reduce. 8. __ 1%


1 = 12__
8 2
7
5 __
8 3 =
__ %
5
__ 8
+ 78
=
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9. 1 = ___ 10. GCF of 15 and 25


12 • List (in order) the factors of the smaller number, 15.
• Starting with the greatest factor, cross off factors
that are NOT factors of the larger number, 25.
• The greatest factor is the GCF.

1 , , , 15

Saxon Math Course 1 L26-102 Adaptations Lesson 26


Written Practice (continued) (page 139)

11. Find the pattern. Continue it. 12. mixed number

8, 16, 24, 32, 40, , , ... 14 =


___
5
Add to the preceding term.

13. Simplify. 2 + n = 1
14. __
3
2
__ 2
1__
5 5
2
__
4
__ + 3
+ 5
=

n=

16. 3
1 __
15. GCF of 12 and 18
4
• List (in order) the factors of the smaller number, 12. 3
– 1 __
• Starting with the greatest factor, cross off factors that are 4
NOT factors of the larger number, 18.
• The greatest factor is the GCF.

, , , , ,

17.
3
3__ 18. 2_1_
4 2
+ 33 1
__
– 22
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19. Use tests for divisibility by 2 and 3. 20. prime numbers between 30 and 40
See the Student Reference Guide.
A 4671 B 3858 C 6494

and

Saxon Math Course 1 L26-103 Adaptations Lesson 26


Written Practice (continued) (page 140)

21. 5063 22. Use fraction manipulatives to reduce.


3987
6 =
__
8


$ounds xx ? 3 of $30
23. _______ ___ ___ 24. __
pounds xx xx 5
is
__ xxx
____ xxx
____
of xxx xxx

25. 26. least to greatest


MM   
1 , 0, –1, 1
__
2

a. in millimeters a.
b. in inches

b. , , , ,

27. 2AINFALL!MOUNTSFOR&IRST4HREE9EARS 2nd year 28. average



1st year

2AINFALLININCHES









&IRST 3ECOND 4HIRD


9EAR 9EAR 9EAR © 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

29. average 30. In the year it rained inches. In the

1st year year it rained inches. Altogether, how

many did it rain? Answer:

Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L26-104 Adaptations Lesson 26


LESSON

27 Measures of a Circle (page 141) Name

• The circumference is the distance around the circle (perimeter). Teacher Notes:
• Refer students to “Circle” on
• The diameter is the distance across a circle through the center. page 17 in the Student Reference
Guide.
• The radius is the distance from the center to the circle.
• Post reference chart, “Circles.”
• The diameter is twice the radius.
• The activity in the Student Edition is
D = 2r optional.

• The radius is half the diameter.


c u
r m
r = _12 D

f
C
Diameter Radius
• A compass is a tool for drawing a

e
circle.

r
e
e
• Concentric circles are circles with c n

the same center like a bull’s-eye target.

Practice Set (page 142)


Give the name for:

a. The distance across a circle d

b. The distance around a circle c

c. The distance from the center to the circle r

d. If the diameter is 10 in., what is the radius?

The radius is h the diameter.

Written Practice (page 143)

1. ( )×( )= 3 of
2. __
4
sum difference
is
__ xx
___ xx
___
of xx xx
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Saxon Math Course 1 L27-105 Adaptations Lesson 27


Written Practice (continued) (page 143)

3. 306 – =d 4. a. radius b. The d is

306 twice the radius of a


IN
c .

a.

5. Use tests for divisibility. 6. 1,234,567

A 122 B 123 C 132

8. denominator
7. 10p =
See the Student Reference Guide.
lb
___ 010 ____
____ 010
23
___
$ 010 010
24

3 of 65
9. __  2 of $15
10. __
5 3 
is
__ xx
___ xx
___ is
__ xx
___ xx
___
of xx xx of xx xx

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11. Use fraction manipulatives for help. 12. Reduce.


Simplify.
3 =
7 – __
__
3
2 + __
1 + __ 8 8
__ =
6 6 6

Saxon Math Course 1 L27-106 Adaptations Lesson 27


Written Practice (continued) (page 143)

13. __ 5 =
6 – __ 5 =
2 + __
14. __
6 6 8 8

0 4 =
15. a. 1 = __ 16. __
8 6

0
1 = __
b. __
2 8
a.

b.

1 of __
17. __ 1
18. 50% =
2 4

19. ______ R sides 1


__ 0
___
52 ) 2100 00 20.
inches
/
? 36
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21. Convert. 22. 432 =


____
18
7 =
__
6

Saxon Math Course 1 L27-107 Adaptations Lesson 27


Written Practice (continued) (page 144)

23. (55 + 45) ÷ (55 – 45) = 24. Use tests for divisibility by 2 and 5.

÷ = A 502 B 205 C 250

25. Add the d of the number. 26. prime but NOT odd

If the s of the digits can

be divided by , the number can be

by 9.

Use work area.

27. perimeter of a circle 28. There are even numbers


1 2 3
4 5 6 and odd numbers.
7 8 9

even 00
___
odd 00

Use work area. © 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

29. 1%
37__ 30. Convert.
2
1% 1%
33 __
– 12__
2 3
+ 16 2 %
__
3
=

Saxon Math Course 1 L27-108 Adaptations Lesson 27


LESSON

28 Angles (page 145) Name

• A plane is a flat surface like a tabletop. Teacher Notes:


• Introduce Hint #37, “Geometry
• Parallel lines never meet, like railroad tracks. Vocabulary.”
• Lines intersect when they cross. • Refer students to “Types of Lines”
and “Types of Angles” on pages 17
• Perpendicular lines intersect and make square corners like the and 18 in the Student Reference
corner of a piece of paper. Guide.
• Post reference chart, “Angles and
• Oblique lines intersect but do not make square corners.
Triangles.”

PERPENDICULAR OBLIQUE
LINES LINES
PARALLEL
LINES INTERSECTINGLINES

• Two rays that start at the same point make an angle.


• The vertex of an angle is the point where the rays start.

RIGHT ACUTE OBTUSE


ANGLE ANGLE ANGLE

The square corner fits a “cute” little angle more than a right angle
the corner of your paper.

• Angles can be named with letters or numbers.


• You can name an angle with just the letter of the vertex. If three letters are used to name the angle, the
letter of the vertex must be in the middle. !

• This angle is named angle B (∠B), angle ABC (∠ABC),


angle CBA (∠CBA), or angle 1(∠1). 
"
#

Practice Set (page 147)

a. With your thumb and forefinger, show an acute angle, a right angle, and try to make an obtuse angle.
Describe each angle below as acute, right, or obtuse.

b. c. d.
© 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.


 
e. What type of angle is formed by the hands of a clock at 4:00 o’clock? angle  
 
 
f. What type of angle is formed at the corner of a door in your classroom? angle 
 

g. Which two angles formed by these obtuse lines appear to be acute angles?

∠ and ∠ . 



Saxon Math Course 1 L28-109 Adaptations Lesson 28


Practice Set (continued) (page 147)

h. Draw two parallel line segments.

i. Draw two perpendicular lines.

Refer to the triangle to answer questions j and k.


&

j. Angle H is an acute angle; name another acute angle. ∠

k. Name an obtuse angle. ∠ ( '

Written Practice (page 148)


1. Convert. 2 of 20 million
2. __
5 
1 + __
__ 3 =
2 + __ 
3 3 3 



3. 32g = 768 4. – 1776 = d


peanuts 768 ?
________ ____ __ + 1776 this year
children 1 + 1776 Declaration of Independence

5. Convert. 2
1__ 7. 2
3 __
6. Convert. 3 3
2
__
23 =
___ 2
__ + 43
3 + 13
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5 2 of $24 
8. 3__ 9. Reduce. 10. __
6 3
1 4
__ 4=
__ is
__ ___ ___
– 6 8 of

Saxon Math Course 1 L28-110 Adaptations Lesson 28


Written Practice (continued) (page 148)

1 of 100% =
11. a. ___ 12. What fraction?
10
3 of 100% =
b. ___ 25% =
10

a.

b.

mi
13. ___ ___ ?
___ 1+m=1
14. __
gal 1 4
1
1__
4
1
× 1__
4

m=

15. 423 – w = 297 16. a. obtuse angle


b. acute angle
423
× 297 1

a. ∠
0 3 2

w= b. ∠

17. average 18. inches ___ ?


__
sides 3 1
22
20
23
+ 23
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19. GCF of 24, 36, and 60 20. 10,010


• List (in order) the factors of the smaller number, 24. 10,010
• Starting with the greatest factor, cross off factors that are NOT factors
of the other numbers, 36 and 60.
• The greatest factor is the GCF.

, , , ,

, , ,

Saxon Math Course 1 L28-111 Adaptations Lesson 28


Written Practice (continued) (page 149)


21. (100 × 100) – (100 × 99) = 1 =
22. ___ %
10
– =

23. Show the answer as a mixed number. 3 of 2 dozen


24. __
4
long division

is
__ ___ ___
5097
of

25. a. in inches 26. Multiples: Think times table.


b. in centimeters first five multiples of 6: , , , ,

first five multiples of 8: , , , ,


Circle the common multiple.

a. b.

red _____
27. Use fraction manipulatives for help. 28.
white
1 of __
__ 1
2 3

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29. factor tree  30. Use tests for divisibility by 9.

A 234 B 345 C 567

∙ ∙

Saxon Math Course 1 L28-112 Adaptations Lesson 28


LESSON

29 Multiplying Fractions
Reducing Fractions by Dividing
Name

by Common Factors (page 152)


Teacher Notes:
• Multiplying fractions: • Review Hint #30, “Finding the
Greatest Common Factor,” and
“Of” means “multiply.” Hint #36, “Reducing Fractions
(Manipulatives and Shortcuts).”
4
(
Set up whole numbers as fractions. 4 = __
1 ) • Review “Fraction Families
Multiply across. Equivalent Fractions” on page 12 in
the Student Reference Guide.
Convert and reduce answers.
Example: 4 × __ 2
3
4 × __
__ 8 = 2__
2 = __ 2
1 3 3 3
Example: __2 of __
4 means __
2 × __ 8
4 = ___
3 5 3 5 15
• Reducing fractions:
What number will divide evenly into both the numerator and the denominator? (the GCF)
Example: Reduce __ 4.
6
The GCF of 4 and 6 is 2.

4 ÷ 2 = __
______ 2
6÷2 3

Practice Set (page 153)


Multiply; then reduce:

a. __ 4 =
1 of __ 1 of __
b. __ 2 = 3 =
2 × __
c. __
2 5 4 3 3 4
Multiply; then convert:

d. __ 6=
5 × __ e. Write the whole number 4 =
f. 2 × __
6 5 3
as a fraction.

2 =
5 × __ 4 =
___ × __
3 3
2 =
___ × __
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3
Reduce:

9 =
g. ___ 6 =
h. ___ 18 =
i. ___
12 10 24

j. In a class of 30, there were 20 girls. What was the ratio of boys to girls?
Reduce.

boys boys
_____ _____ =
girls girls

Saxon Math Course 1 L29-113 Adaptations Lesson 29


Written Practice (page 154)

1. tons 1
___ 8
__ 2. beans 16
___ ?
___
pounds ? ounces 1

3. ( )–( )= 4. Reduce.

win ___ =
loss

16 =
5. ___ 6. Reduce.
24
3 =
1 + __
__
8 8

7. Reduce. 8. Reduce.

__ 2 =
1 × __ 3 =
7 – ___
___
2 3 12 12

© 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

1 of 96
9. __  10. 1, 4, 7, 10, , , ,…
8
is
__ ___ ___
of

Saxon Math Course 1 L29-114 Adaptations Lesson 29


Written Practice (continued) (page 154)

11. 5 out of 12 months passed 12. offset

$3.60

13. Cancel the matching zeros. 14. Convert and reduce.

50,000 18 =
_______ = ___
50,100 4

15. 15°
= 16. m + 496 + 2684 = 3217
0° =
–8°

m=

17. 1000 – n = 857 18. 24x = 480

1000
× 8857
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n= x=

19. 7 ∙ 11 ∙ 13 = 20. To estimate 4963 ÷ 39, first r

4963 to and r 39 to

. Then divide by .

Use work area.

Saxon Math Course 1 L29-115 Adaptations Lesson 29


Written Practice (continued) (page 155)

21. __ 3
2 × __ 22. perimeter 
3 2 one width
MM
both widths
1 so both lengths
one length

1 × 1 – __
1 =
23. Think! 24. __
2( 2
__
)
4
12 – 40 = 00
___ 1 =
__

00 4

25. a. acute angles 26. Reduce.

b. obtuse angles 3
2 of __
__
3 5
$ !

a. ∠ and ∠

# "
b. ∠ and ∠

27. product 28. Reduce.

3
__ 4
__ radius ___ =
4 3 diameter

© 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

29. 2=
30. __ %
 5
 
 
  1 of a circle is
__ 2 is
%, so __ .
  5 5
 


Saxon Math Course 1 L29-116 Adaptations Lesson 29


LESSON

30 • Least Common Multiple (LCM)


• Reciprocals (page 158)
Name

• Multiples remind us of multiplication. Teacher Notes:


• Introduce Hint #38, “Finding the
• Multiples: Think times table.
Least Common Multiple,” and
Example: Find the least common multiple (LCM) of 3 and 4. Hint #39, “Reciprocal.”
• Refer students to “Multiples” on
Multiples of 3: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, … page 5 in the Student Reference
Guide.
Multiples of 4: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, …
12 and 24 are common multiples.
12 is the least common multiple (LCM).
• Reciprocal “flip” the fraction
Example: 4 = _41, so the reciprocal of 4 is _14 .
• Rule: The product of any fraction and its reciprocal always equals 1.
3 × __
Examples: __ 4 = ___
12 = 1 7 × __
__ 9 = ___
63 = 1
4 3 12 9 7 63

Practice Set (page 158)

Find the least common multiple of each pair:

a. Go down the 6s and 8s. b. Go down the 3s and 5s. c. 5 and 10


Find the first number in common. Find the first number in common.

6 and 8 3 and 5

Write the reciprocal of each number:

d. 6 2
e. __ 8
f. __ 1
g. __
3 5 3

Use the rule of reciprocals to find the number that goes in the box:

3 ×
h. __ = 1 i. 4 × = 1 j. 1 = 1
× __ k. 7 = 1
× __
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8 6 8

l. How many _25 s are in 1? (reciprocal)

m. How many __
5
12
s are in 1?

Saxon Math Course 1 L30-117 Adaptations Lesson 30


Written Practice (page 159)

1. Multiples: Think times table. 2 of


2. __
3
( × )–( × )= is
__ __ __
of

3. 42 ∙ =p 4. Multiples: Think times table.

15 min = _14 hour

2 hours = _
1 -hours
4
Multiply the loop.
Divide by the outside number.

popcorn 42
___ ?
___
_
1 -hours
4 12 , , ,

5. LCM of 4 and 6 6. Reduce.


• Go down the 4 s and 6 s. one hour = min
• Find the first one in common.
commercials 00000 =
______
non commercials 00000

One hour is minutes, so if minutes were

commercials, then minutes

were not commercials.

7. Convert. 1 =
8. 1 – ___
10
__ 2 + __
2 + __ 2 =
5 5 5 © 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

9. Reduce. 10. rule of reciprocals

___ 1 =
11 – ___ 3 × __
__ 4 =
12 12 4 3

Saxon Math Course 1 L30-118 Adaptations Lesson 30


Written Practice (continued) (page 159)

11. ___ 3 =
5 × __ 12. Convert.
4
5 × __
__ 5 =
2 3

13. Count the factors of 24. 14. $6.50


$6.50
$6.50

15. $5.00 16. 596


+ $6.50 405

17. obtuse angle 18. __ 2


2 × __ 2 × 1
__
3 3 3
!

"
#
© 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

500,000 ______
19. ________ = 20. 35 ) 8540
500,100

Saxon Math Course 1 L30-119 Adaptations Lesson 30


Written Practice (continued) (page 159)

21. Write the answer as a mixed number. 4 =


22. ___
short division
12

1 0 0%

23. average 24. Multiply the loop.


Divide by the outside number.
375
632 sides
______ ___ ___
+ 571 inches 36 ?

25. rule of reciprocals 26. Think reciprocal.

3 ×
27. __ = 1 28. The only even prime number is .
8 The reciprocal of that is:

© 2007 Harcourt Achieve Inc.

29. Convert and reduce. 30.

45 =
___
10

IN


3 × __ =
__
4

Saxon Math Course 1 L30-120 Adaptations Lesson 30