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# STATICS ( KM10903 )

SESSION 2012/2013

ASSIGNMENT 1
APPLIED MECHANICS Title : 30-cm Height Two-step Riser Lecturer : Mr. MR. CHUAH BIH LII

NAME
ALVIN TUNG KWONG CHOONG CHIA CHU WEO JACKY TAN JUO KIONG TAI YAO HWEE YU WEI CHET

MATRIX NUMBER
BK12110017 BK12110048 BK12110116 BK12110352 BK12110387

INTRODUCTION
A truss is a frame structures consist of slender members that are joined together at their end points. It will continue to perform as a geometrically unchangeable system, even when all of its rigid joints are replaced by perfect hinges. The trusses are often used to support roofs and bridges because they have the same function as beam and girders, but the spans they cover are larger. All the members in trusses are subjected either to tension or compression. This ensures ideal utilization of the materials used. Materials such as concrete steel that can sustain high shear strength are used in modern truss. Other factors such as resistance to rusting and expansion due to heat are also taken to consideration in choosing the material when designing a truss. In this proposal, a two-step riser is designed and built to test the functionality of the truss. The internal forces distribution and the forces in each member of the truss are calculated for us to find the best structure of the truss. A prototype with 0.3m length and height, and 0.15m widths is built. There are only four contact points to the ground to support the structure. The structure with only maximum of 5kg is built by using carton box and cardboard. A load of 15kg is placed on the second step of the prototype to test the stability of the structure. Two best designs and their respective structure analysis are included in this proposal. The best structure is depends on forces distribution and the ratio of the weight of the load to the weight of the prototype.

## Free Body Diagram (Method Of Joints) (a) (b) (c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

(k)

Calculation (a) ,ME=0 ; W(0.075) -Ay(0.3)=0 ; 98.1(0.075) - Ay(0.3)=0 ; , Fy=0; Ay+ Ey + W=0 ; (b) , FX=0 ; FAB=0 , Fy=0; FAK+ Ay=0 ; FAK= - Ay; (c) FAK= -24.525N 24.525+ Ey+ 98.1=0 Ay=24.525N

; Ey=73.575N

, Fy=0 ; -FKB sin63.43 - FKA=0; -FKB sin63.43 - (-24.525)=0 ; FKB=-27.421N , FX=0 ; FKJ +FKB cos 63.43=0 ; FKJ +(-27.421)cos63.43=0 ; FKJ= 12.265N

(d)

## FBJ= -FBK ; FBJ = 27.421N

, FX=0 ; FBC+ FBJcos63.43- FBKcos63.43=0; FBC+ (27.421)cos63.43-(-27.421)cos63.43=0; FBC= -24.53N (e) , Fy=0 ; FCJ =0 , FX=0 ; FCD - FCB=0; FCD = FCB ; FCD = -24.53N

(f)

(g)

## , FX=0 ; FGH=0 , Fy=0 ; FGF=0

(h)

, Fy=0 ; -98.1- FHJsin63.43-FHFsin63.43=0 ; 2 FHJsin63.43=-98.1 ; FHJ =-54.842N , FX=0 ; FHF cos63.43-FHJcos63.43=0 ; FHF = FHJ ; FHF =-54.842N

(i)

## , Fy=0 ; FJHsin63.43- FJDsin63.43- FJB sin63.43=0 ;

(-54.842)sin63.43- FJDsin63.43- (27.421)sin63.43=0 ; FJD = -82.263N , FX=0 ; FJHcos63.43+ FJF+ FJD cos63.43-FJB cos63.43-FJK =0; (-54.84)cos63.43+ FJF+ (-82.863)cos63.43-(27.421)cos63.43-(12.265) =0 ; (j) , FX=0 ;-FFH cos63.43-FFJ-FFD cos63.43=0 ; FJF=85.856N

(54.842)cos63.43-85.856 -FFD cos63.43=0 ; FFD=-137.13N , Fy=0 ; FFH sin63.43-FFD sin63.43-FFE =0 ; (-54.842)sin63.43-(-137.13) sin63.43-FFE =0; (k) , FX=0 ; FED=0 , Fy=0 ; FEF +FEY=0; -73.57+73.57=0 (proven) FFE=-73.57N

Structural Analysis For Design 1 Assumptions:1. All loadings are applied at the joints. 2. The members are joined together by smooth pins. Forces Ay Ey FAB FAK FKB FKJ FBJ FBC FCJ FCD FIH FIJ FGH FGF FHJ FHF FJD FJF FFD FFE FED Value(N) 24.525 73.575 0 -24.525 -27.421 12.265N 27.421 -24.53 0 -24.53 0 0 0 0 -54.842 -54.842 -82.263 85.856 -137.13 73.57 0 Type Of Forces Acting On The Members External Forces External Forces Zero-Force Member Compression Compression Tension Tension Compression Zero-Force Member Compression Zero-Force Member Zero-Force Member Zero-Force Member Zero-Force Member Compression Compression Compression Tension Compression Tension Zero-Force Member

## Design 2 (2D Free Body Digram)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

Calculation (a) ,Mc=0 ; W(0.075) -Ay(0.3)=0 ; 98.1(0.075) - Ay(0.3)=0 ; , Fy=0; Ay+ Cy + W=0 ; 24.525+ Cy+ 98.1=0 ; (b) , FX=0 ; FAB=0 , Fy=0; FAH+ Ay=0 ; FAH= -Ay ; FAH= -24.525N (c) , Fy=0; FAH - FHBsin45=0 ; -24.525 - FHBsin45=0 ; FHB= -34.684N , FX=0 ; FHG-FHBcos45=0 ; FHG -(-34.684)cos45=0; FHG=24.525N (d) , FX=0 ; FCB=0 , Fy=0; Cy+ FCD=0 ; 73.575+ FCD=0 ; FCD=-73.575N (e) , FX=0 ; FBC+ FBDcos45+ FAB +FHB cos45=0; 0+ FBDcos45+0+(-34.684) cos45=0 ; , Fy=0; FBG+FBDsin45-FHBsin45=0 ; FBG+34.684sin45-(-34.684)sin45=0 ; (f) , FX=0 ; FHG+FGD=0 ; FGD= -FHG , Fy=0; FGB+FGF=0 (g)
;

Ay=24.525N

Cy=73.575N

FBD=34.684N

## FBG= -49.051N FGD= -24.525N FGF=49.051N

; FGF= - FGB ;

, FX=0 ; FGD+FBD cos45-FDF cos45=0 ; -24.525+34.684cos45-FDF cos45=0 ; , Fy=0; FCD+FBD sin45+FDFsin45+ FDE=0; -73.575+34.684 sin45+0sin45+ FDE=0; FDE=49.051N FFE=0N FDF=0

(h)

## , FX=0 ; FFE-FDF sin45=0 ;

Structural Analysis For Design 2 Assumptions:1. All loadings are applied at the joints. 2. The members are joined together by smooth pins. Forces Ay Cy FAB FAH FHB FHG FCB FCD FBD FBG FGD FGF FDF FDE FFE Value(N) 24.525 73.575 0 -24.525 -34.684 24.525 0 -73.575 34.684 -49.051 -24.525 49.051 0 49.051N 0 Type Of Forces Acting On The Members External Forces External Forces Zero-Force Member Compression Compression Tension Zero-Force Member Compression Tension Compression Compression Tension Zero-Force Member Tension Zero-Force Member

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, we found out that both design can withstand 15 kg load according to the calculation that we have carry out. First of all, both designs have symmetrical truss in the structure, this increase the stability of the structure. The design with a symmetrical tension in the middle joint will increase the stability and also the strength of the structure as it distribute the load equally whereas for an unsymmetrical tension will cause the middle joint of the riser to be imbalance and break the riser. However, from our design, we can see that design 1 have a symmetrical tension in every joint of the structure and design 2 does not have it. This has increase the stability and also strength of the structure for design 1 to withstand more loads on it. Besides from our calculation, we found out that the internal forces in the design 1 have almost similar forces which enable us to build each member with equal dimension which may increase the stability in the structure. As a conclusion, we take design 1 as our prototype to build the two-step riser.