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Cmo calcular el ngulo en las vigas del techo

na viga es un soporte estructural para revestimiento de tejas y techos. Probablemente necesites el ngulo de una viga para varios propsitos. Un techo con pendiente pronunciada, absorbe con mayor fuerza el viento, mientras que una pendiente ms suave aboserber ms rayos UV. Estos factores pueden afectar la pendiente estructural o clculos de energa. Puedes calcular los ngulos de una viga triangular con algunas medidas bsicas y clculos trigonomtricos.
Nivel de dificultad: Moderada


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Mide la longitud de la base de la viga. La base es el elemento horizontal de la viga paralela al cielo raso de la edificacin. Ahora debers conocer la distancia horizontal desde el borde de la base hasta la punta directamente debajo del vrtice o pico. Llamemos "b" a esta distancia. Para vigas simtricas, esta es simplemente una mitad del largo total de la base.


Mide la altura de las vigas. Llammosla "h". Esto es simplemente la distancia vertical desde el vrtice hasta su base.


Calcula el ngulo de la esquina ms baja de la viga. Este es el ngulo hecho por la base y uno de los bordes de la pendiente, tcnicamente conocido como "cordones superiores". Para encontrar este ngulo puedes usar la funcin trigonomtrica de tangente inversa o "arctan". La tangente de un ngulo es el borde opuesto dividido por el borde adyacente. Por lo tanto, usando lgebra, la base del ngulo es igual al arctan (h/b). Si la viga es simtrica, los dos ngulos de la base son iguales. Si no, repite el mismo proceso que usaste para encontrar el ngulo de la base del lado izquierdo para encontrar el ngulo base del lado derecho.


Calcula el ngulo superior de la vida. Usa el hecho de que la suma de los ngulos interiores del un tringulo siempre da 180 grados. Si has calculado los dos ngulos de la base, puedes restar su total a 180 para obtener el ngulo de la punta, esto es, el ngulo de la punta es igual a 180 menos el ngulo de la base 1 menos el ngulo de la base 2.
Typical Parts of a Roof Truss
A truss is essentially a framed set of rafters that supports the roof of your house. A truss offers greater strength which allows for a much wider span between walls than older traditional framing techniques. Trusses allow for a wide variety of shapes to be used in designing a roof since they offer greater flexibility. As a bonus most trusses are built from wood which is a renewable resource and is thus an environmentally friendly building technique. Below you will find the major roof truss components illustrated and briefly defined.

Slope Is the measure of how "steep" a roof is. For example, if a roof is "4 in 12", the roof rises 4 inches for every horizontal run of 12 inches. The pitch of the roof is a big factor in determining the kinds of materials that can be used and the longevity of the roof. Usually, a steeper roof (higher pitch) will last longer due to its better drainage capabilities. Top Chord - Main member of a truss running along the underside supporting the decking. Bottom Chord - Main member of a truss running along the lower side between supports. Peak The highest part of the truss. Overhang That portion of the roof truss structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building. Cantilever - a beam anchored at one end projecting into space.

Roof Rafters
Information on Roof Rafters
Rafters make up the main framework of all roofs. Rafters rest on the top of the building wall and are inclined up to meet the ridge or another rafter which they are fastened to. Rafters will be spaced every 16 - 48 inches depending upon the design of the roof. The rafter will often extend beyond the wall (overhang) which creates the eaves of the building to help protect the siding and windows of the building as well as make sure that water from rain and/or snow will run off the roof farther away from the foundation of the house.

Common Rafters - Common to all types of roofs these beams extend at right angles from the plate to the roof ridge. They are used as the basis for laying out other rafter types. Hip Rafters - The roof beams that extend from the corner of the plate to the ridge. Valley Rafters - The roof beams that extend from the plate to the ridge along an intersection between two roofs. (i.e. - cross hip or cross gable roof) Jack Rafters - See below o Hip Jack - Roof beam that extends from the plate to the hip rafter o Valley Jack - Roof beam that extends from the ridge to the valley rafter o Cripple jack - Roof beam that is placed between a hip rafter and a valley rafter. It does not touch the ridge or the roof or the plate

Roof Slope
Determining Roof Slope
Slope (or pitch) measures the amount of rise your roof has compared to the length. In other words, for every twelve inches of length your roof will rise a set number of inches. The diagram below illustrates a roof that has a seven inch rise for every 12 inches of length thus it has a 7 inch slope or

pitch. (also expressed 7 in 12)

Measuring Slope An easy way to measure slope is to take level and mark where 12 inches is. (assuming it is longer than one foot) Place the level with one end on the roof and raise the other end until it is level. Next take a tape measure and determine the number of inches between the roof and the spot you have marked on your level. You now have the amount of slope for your roof. Simplified Slope 1. Flat Roof - Flat or with just the slightest amount of a pitch to them. 2. Low Slope Roof - Usually around a 2-3 in pitch roof that is easily walkable with normal footing. 3. Medium Slope Roof - Considered 4-6 in pitch roof, it is walkable with normal footing. 4. Steep Slope Roof - Any pitch above 6 in, this is a roof that is not walkable without assistance.