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Human Anatomy and Physiology Notes

Chapter 1
- Structure, form and organization of body parts.

- Function of body parts.

Characteristics of Life

-Traits that humans share with other organisms.

1. Movement
A. A self-initiated change in an organism’s position or to its traveling from
one place to another.
B. Also applies to the movement of internal parts.
1. Ex: Heartbeat
2. Responsiveness
A. An organism’s ability to sense changes taking place inside or outside its
body and react to these changes.
1. Ex: Drinking water when thirsty, and moving away from a hot
3. Growth
A. An increase in body size without and important changes in shape.
4. Reproduction
A. The process of making a new individual.
5. Respiration
A. The process of obtaining oxygen, using oxygen to release energy and
removing the resultant gaseous wastes.
6. Digestion
A. A process that chemically and mechanically breaks down food sources
into simpler forms.
7. Absorption
A. The passage of substances through certain membranes.
8. Circulation
A. The movement of substances within the body in body fluids.
9. Assimilation
A. The changing of absorbed substances into forms that are chemically
different from those that entered the body.
10. Excretion
A. The removal of wastes that body parts produce as a result of their

Requirements of Living Organisms

1. Water
A. The most abundant chemical in the body.
B. Is required for many metabolic processes and provides the environment
for these processes.
C. Used to transport substances within the body.
D. Regulates body temperatures.
2. Food
A. Provides the body with necessary chemicals in addition to water.
B. Source of energy.
C. Supplies raw materials for building new living matter
1. Ex: Protein helps build muscles
3. Oxygen
A. Gas that makes up about 1/5 of ordinary air.
4. Heat
A. Form of energy.
B. End product of metabolic reactions.
5. Pressure
A. Application of force on an object.
1. Atmospheric pressure
a. The force on the outside of the body due to the
weight of the air in the atmospheric.
B. Blood Pressure
1. An action of the heart that forces blood from heart through
blood vessels.

- The maintenance of a stable internal environment.
- Is vital for survival
- The amounts of water, nutrients, oxygen, heat and blood pressure of an
organism must remain stable for survival.

Homeostatic Mechanism
- “Thermostat” in the body that regulates temperature.
1. Ex: Cold Temperature = Shivering
Hot Temperature = Sweating

Negative Feedback
Controls Homeostasis
As a condition moves away from its normal state (negative move). A signal is
sent in the opposite direction (feedback).
Levels of Organization

1. Atom
A. Smallest functional unit of life
2. Molecules
A. 2 or more atoms that have joined
3. Macromolecules
A. Smallest molecules that have combined in complex ways to form larger molecules
4. Organelles
A. Large molecules composed of substances such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,
and nucleic acids
5. Cells
A. Basic unit of structure and function
6. Tissues
A. Layers or masses of organized cells that have common functions
7. Organs
A. Complex structures with specialized functions formed by groups of different
8. Organ systems
A. Groups of organs that function closely together
9. Organism
A. A group of organ systems

Organization of the Human Body

Body Cavities
1. Axial Portion of the body
A. Consists of head, neck, and trunk
B. Contains two cavities
1. Dorsal cavity- is divided into two parts
a. Cranial cavity
1. Houses everything within the skull
b. Vertebral canal
1. Contains the spinal cord within the vertebrae
2. Ventral cavity- is divided into two parts
a. Thoratic cavity
1. Houses the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus
b. Abdominopelvic Cavity is divided into two parts
a. Upper Abdominal Region
1. Contains the stomach, liver, spleen,
gallbladder, kidneys, and the majority of the small and large intestines
b. Pelvic Cavity
1. Contains the terminal portion of the large
intestine, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs (everything enclosed by
the hips).
Organ Systems

1. Integumentary System
A. Protects the underlying tissues of the body
B. Helps regulate body temperature
C. Contains the skin and various accessory organs
1. Accessory organs = hair, nails, and sweat glands

2. Skeletal System
A. Provides the body’s support
B. Protects internal organs
C. Provides attachments for muscles
D. Aids muscles in movement
E. Consists of bones, tendons, and ligaments

3. Muscular System
A. Responsible for the maintenance of posture
B. Muscles contract and relax to provide movement of body parts
C. Consists of muscles

4. Nervous System
A. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs
B. Nerves receive, interpret and send impulses throughout the body

5. Endocrine System
A. Responsible for all hormone regulators
B. Consists of all glands that secrete hormones such as pulmonary, thyroid,
parathyroid, and adrenal glands
C. Also includes the pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal glands, and thymus gland

6. Cardiovascular System
A. Pumps blood throughout the body to transport gases, nutrients, and wastes
B. Consists of the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood

7. Lymphatic System
A. Transports certain tissue fluid back to the blood stream and carries certain
fatty substances away from digestive organs
B. Consists of the lymphatic vessels

8. Digestive System
A. Receives food and breaks it down into simpler forms to be passed through cell
membranes and later absorbed or eliminated
B. Consists of the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, colon, and rectum

9. Respiratory System
A. Exchanges gases between the blood and air
B. Consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

10. Urinary System

A. Functions to remove wastes from blood
B. Urine is the by product of the urinary system
C. Consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

11. Reproductive System

A. Male Reproductive System
1. Produces and maintains sperm
2. Consists of the scrotum, testes, seminal vesicles, prostate glands, penis,
and urethra
B. Female Reproductive System
1. Produces and maintains eggs
2. Supports the development of prenatal humans (babies)
3. Consists of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva

3. Anterior- towards the front
4. Posterior- towards the back
5. Medial- towards the body’s axis
6. Lateral- away from the body’s axis
7. Proximal- towards the trunk
8. Distal- away from trunk
9. Superficial- towards the surface
10. Deep- away from surface

Body Parts
1. Sagittal- divides the body into left and right portions
2. Frontal- divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
3. Transverse- divides the body into superior and inferior portions