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Indian Journal of Community Medicine Vol.

31,
No. 1 (2006-01 - 2006-03)

Hospital Based Study on Psychoses in


Mangalore
A. Barua, H. Shankar, A. Jain, V.K. Bhat, N. U. Kiran, S. Jayarama

Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore

Introduction Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar is a


tertiary care level private institute, situated at
Schizophrenia and related psychoses are the centre of port town of Mangalore in
severe mental disorders, which usually start in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka state in
adolescence or early adult life, and often India. The migratory population from Tamil
become chronic and disabling. They are Nadu and Kerala also often utilize the health
considered a major public health problem in care facilities of this hospital. This is a
many parts of the world, representing a heavy Retrospective study design based on Case
burden both for the families of affected Series Analysis. All in-patients admitted to
individuals as well as national health systems. Department of Psychiatry during March 1999
These are group of chronic debilitating and December 2000, constituted a sample size
psychiatric illness, characterized by loss of of 98.
touch with reality and disorders of thought,
behavior, appearance and speech1. Data was collected by using a structured
proforma after scrutinizing from case files from
While psychiatric disorders in total have a Medical Records Department. The data
worldwide prevalence of 32.5%, schizophrenia collected was tabulated and analyzed using the
has a prevalence of 1.5% (worldwide). The statistical package of SPSS (Statistical Package
prevalence of schizophrenia in India is about for Social Sciences) Version 7.5.
1%, this may be due to diagnostic drawbacks
rather than decreased number of cases2. The
etiological factors involved in the pathogenesis
of the disease include genetic predisposition Results and Discussion
(60% concordance rates in monozygotic twins),
family environment (presence of stressors and None of the patients were found to be below 16
disease among other family members), viral yrs. of age. Majority (85.7%) were in the age of
infection (inconclusive proof), cerebral 16-55 years. This observation is in concordance
infections and neurotransmitter disturbances2-4. with the figures quoted by others, who
This study was conducted with on objective to observed in their studies that 90% of
study the socio-demographic characteristics of schizophrenics belonged to the age group of 15
the patients suffering from schizophrenia and and 54 years3,4. Incidence of schizophrenia
related psychoses in a Mangalore hospital. was highest for men between 15 and 24 years
and for women the peak appeared between 25
and 34 years3,4. We also observed that females
were more affected than males (65.4%) in the
Material and Methods age group of 16-25 years and more than 65
years (83.3%). The distribution of cases
remained almost equal for both sexes in other schizophrenics in our study had made an
age groups. attempt at suicide. The risk of suicide in
individuals with schizophrenia has been
reported to range from (2-13)%3. Among the
stressors, marital disturbances were a
Majority of the patients were Hindus (68.4%). precipitating factor for 23.5% cases of
Most of them (85.7%) hailed from Karnataka. schizophrenia and related psychoses. This was
14.3% came from Kerala for treatments of their found to be the most important stressor in this
mental disorders. 58.2% individuals were study. History of death in the family within the
married and majority were females (57.4%). last 12 months was positive in 17.3% cases.
Among female patients, 24.1% were unmarried Family disputes accounted for 15.3% and
and only 12.2% were either widow, separated Personal problems, including intra and
or divorced. interpersonal conflicts acted as a precipitating
factor for in 9.2% of the cases. Here, on patient
More than half (53.0%) of the unemployed and
was subjected to more than one stressor. No
housewives were affected with schizophrenia
specific references are given to numbers but
and related psychoses. Among the unemployed
importance is given to family environment
group, 10.2% were students. Occupational
marital disturbances and problems in
status remained unknown in 14.3% cases. We
professional life as possible stressors for
observed that mental illnesses were common
schizophrenia3,4.
in working class of society (32.7%).

In this study, only 16.3% patients belonged to


below poverty level. But since this hospital was References
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