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Shoshone Dictionary

A aaa (-a) aapo (-a) Crow Indian apple mothers brother (uncle) male cousin sisters son / daughter (M) they / those(over there) (PL/SUBJ) them / those (over there) (DL/OBJ) their (over there) (PL/POSS) their (over there) (DL/POSS) they / those (over there) (DL/SUBJ) that (over there) (SG/SUBJ) thats because... salmon that (over there) (SG/OBJ) that (over there) (SG/POSS) over there (ADV/PLACE) differently (ADV) father that (over there) (contrastive)(SG/SUBJ) dish / plate to wash dishes

ada (-a)

adee adehi adeeN adeheN adehwe adeN adeuka agai (agai) aka akaN aku andapuN ape (-a) aseN a[]wo (awoi) awogozho[]hai-

(ne) awogozho[]haikwainna

(I) usually wash the dishes (iterative aspect) (refer to:gozho[]haiaiaingabitehwe (-tehi)) red (dual form)

aibehibite (aibehibiti) aidee aideeN aideheN aidehi aidehwe aidei aideN aika aikaN aiki aikwehibite (aikwehibiti) aingaaingaaibi (-ti/-ta) aingabite (aingabiti) aisheN aisheN

blue they / these (not close enough to touch) (PL/SUBJ) their (not close enough to touch) (PL/POSS) their (not close enough to touch) (DL/POSS) they / these (not close enough to touch) (DL/OBJ) these (not close enough to touch) (DL/SUBJ) they / these (not close enough to touch) (PL/OBJ) this (not close enough to touch) (SG/SUBJ) this (not close enough to touch) (SG/OBJ) this (not close enough to touch) (SG/POSS) here (not close enough to touch) (ADV/PLACE) purple red (prefix) pink red this (not close enough to touch) (singular) (subject case) (contrastive aspect) thank you

aishimbite (aishimbiti)

grey B

baa (bai) baaema- [baaewa-] baaema [baaewa] baaemafenni

water to rain hard it rains/rained hard (durative aspect) it is/was raining hard (continuative aspect)

baagenaiHbaagenaihka baagenaihkanna

to be foggy it is/was foggy (resultative aspect) that/while it is foggy (relative clause)

baaN baande

on top of (postposition) above, (high) over (postposition) (static transitive verbs with no motion) on top of (postposition) (transitive verbs of motion; movement towards) to sprinkle, rain lightly it is/was sprinkling (continuative aspect) it sprinkles/sprinkled (durative aspect)

baangu baazagaiHbaazagaifenni baazagai

babi (-a) bahambia (-a)

older brother brothers wife, sister-in-law (female) fathers sister, aunt fathers female cousin brothers son/daughter (female) daughter (also: baide (baidi))

baha (-a)

baide (-a)

-baidu baihyugi baingwi (baingwi) baisheN -baitu bakiehe (-a) banabuiH (-ha) / banabui (-a) bannaite (-a) basabasnnu

at; towards, to (postposition) (also: -baitu) next to; beside (postposition) fish already (refer to: -baidu) Blackfeet (Indian) window Bannock (Indian) to dry up (intransitive verb) dried up (completive)

basakwaibasakwainna

to be/become dry (intransitive verb) that/which becomes dry (relative clause)

basigoo (basigooa) bazi (-a) beaichehku beaichehkuseN beaim beeN beaiN beaitembe (-ha) benneN

Indian potatoes (camas root) older sister; older female cousin; herself (early) morning (early) in the morning (adverb) long ago, a long time ago (adverb) long ago, a long time ago (adverb) old self (myself, oneself etc.)

bia (-a) biagwasuu (-na) biaseemote biaape (-a) biaichi (-a) bibiaichinehwe (-nehi) bibiaichi (-a)

mother; mothers sister (aunt) coat (one) hundred fathers older brother big big (dual form) big (plural form)

-bidebidebiidebidennu

to arrive and (+ verb) (auxiliary verb) to arrive (intransitive verb) (pausal form) has/have arrived, has/have come (completive aspect)

biiyaiHbiiyaihka

to be left over is/are left over (resultative aspect)

binna[]gwa binnagwaseN binnangwa bituseN bizhiyuhu (bizhiyuhi) bizhi (-a) bizhiguchuN (-na)

then; later (adverb) later (adverb) behind (facing speaker) (postposition) back (adverb) butter udder (of cow); breast; milk milk cow (feminine gender)

Bohogoi Botoode

Gibson (district on the Fort Hall reservation) Fort Hall (used by older speakers) to trot (of horses) to walk (masculine gender) (transitive verb) is/are trotting is/are walking (masculine gender) (durative aspect)

boyokamiaboyokamia

bozhe[]na (bozhe[]nai) buhibite (buhibiti) buhi-dekape (-ha) buhihsea-

buffalo / bison green (head of) lettuce; salad to sprout (of plants); to have new green growth (transitive verb) (literal: to grow green) while/when sprouting; while/when having new green- growth (of plants) (relative clause)

buhihseagu

buibuiki

to see (intransitive verb) (transitive verb) saw (something) and just arrived

buinuhi bungu (bungui/bungi) bu[]nibu[]nni

will see (expective aspect) horse to see by chance, happen to see (transitive verb) saw by chance, happened to see (durative aspect)

D daa one, someone, somebody, some thing (indefinite pronoun)

daadekaHdaadekahwatsi

to eat breakfast after having eaten breakfast (relative clause)

daam baagenaihkanna daaN daaN daan daiboo dedaigwanna daan gutsenihkanna daan newedaigwanna daa weinna dabaidekaHdabaidekaneimiidabaiwa dabaishuaiHdabaishuai-gande dabaishuaihka

that/while it is foggy (relative clause) someones, ones (possessive case) refer to: dahaN written materials (in English); reading materials (in English) (nominalized verb) that/while it is hot (relative clause) speaking (the) Indian (language) (nominalized verb) that/while it is raining (relative clause) to eat lunch to usually go (away) to eat (and then come back, on a daily basis) all day long (adverb) to be sunny to have sunshine it is sunny (resultative aspect)

dabaiyi daga (-a) daga dahaN

daytime, during the day; noon, at noon (adverb) friend (referring to a male) (male speech) (archaic form) only; just; but (adverb) our (dual form) (possessive case) (includes the listener)

bannaite (-a) dahnanadahnanadahnakandui

above us two, (high) over us two (dual form) (includes the listener) to set (something) down to be set down (passive voice) will be set down (future tense) (passive voice)

dahwa[]ni dahwaa[]ni dahwe daiboo (-a) daibooan daigwape (ha) daigwadaigwade daigwaade

spring (noun); in the spring time (adverb) (pausal form)

we (dual form) (subject case) (includes the listener) white person; Euro-American the English language to speak, talk (intransitive verb) (transitive verb) speak/speaks (customary/habitual aspect) (pausal form)

daigwape (-ha) daizhi dakabi (-ta) dakaduaaidakaduaaiyu

language; speech; word(s) sisters husband, brother-in-law (M) snow to snow a lot; to accumulate snow (intransitive verb) it snows a lot; the snow is slowly accumulating (progressive aspect)

dakaweiH-

to snow

dakweigu dakweihwa dakwei

while it snowed, when it snowed it snowed (momentaneous aspect) it snowed (durative aspect)

damme dammeN dammen daiboo dedaigwanna dammen newedaigwanna dapaihyaaHdapaihyahwa

we (plural form) (includes the listener) our (plural form) (possessive case) (includes the listener) refer to: daan daiboo dedaigwanna

refer to: daan newedaigwanna to put on (ones) socks put (past) on (ones) socks (momentaneous aspect)

dapaihyaa dawi (-a) da[]zaN daodadaota

sock(s) younger brother; younger male cousin summer (noun); in the summertime (adverb) to find (transitive verb) find/finds (durative aspect)

deasedeaseka

to be freezing cold (of weather) it is freezing cold (resultative aspect)

deaseN debofoidebofoide

also, too to study study/studies, am/is/are a student (habitual/customary aspect)

deboodeboogwapi (-ha) deche suaNdeche suangenna

to write; to draw (transitive verb) writer, journalist; secretary to dislike (transitive verb) dislikes/dislike (repetitive apect)

deche wesungadeche wesunga

to dislike, not feel good about dislikes/dislike; doesnt/dont feel good about (durative aspect)

dedaigwadedakooni (-a) dedaposiigwapi (-ha) dedeaidedeai

to read (intransitive verb) policeman carpenter to work work/works (durative aspect)

dedeaiidedeainukimiidedeaipede (dedeaipedi) dedeaipedee (-dei)

to work (on a daily basis) to run off to work (on a daily basis) child children

dedeaingededeaingenna

to work for (someone/something) (causative aspect) work/works for (iterative aspect)

deesuadegumahaningeN-

to feel; be (in a certain mental state) to cook for (someone)

degumahaningebidegu aaidegumahanipe (-ha) degupita (-a) degwasenge (-a) deheya (-a) deheyaan duku (duki) dei (-a) deiape (-a) deigu (-a) deingu (-a) deka-

to usually arrive and go cook for (someone) (on a habitual basis) (oven-baked) bread (electric) light frying-pan deer deer meat, venison (female) friend (referring to a female) fathers younger brother; uncle a little (bit) refer to: deigu to eat (intransitive verb) (transitive verb) eat/eats (customary/habitual aspect)

dekade dekfenni dekkuandui dekyu dekayu

am/are/is eating (something that does not take very long, such as a snack) (continuative) will go to eat/going to eat am/are/is eating (something that takes a while, such as a full meal) (progressive) (pausal form)

deka-gahni (-gahni) dekape (-ha) demaseN

restaurant eaten (adjective); food (noun) then

Dembimbosaage dembuiHdembuihka dembuitegidembuiteki dembuitegiiyu

Idaho Falls, Idaho (lit: stone bridge) to watch (transitive verb) am/are/is watching (resultative aspect) o sit and watch sat and watched (durative aspect) usually sit(s) and watch(es) (progressive aspect)

-deN

(customary/habitual aspect) (suffix) -dehwe : (dual form); dee : (plural form) (nominal suffix) one who: (+ verb)-s; (verb)-er to obey; learn by listening; behave am/are/is obeying, learning by listening (customary/habitual aspect) to judge (someone/something) (transitive verb) judge, lawyer to sing (intransitive verb) singer to farm (intransitive verb) farm(s) (on a habitual basis) (progressive aspect)

-deN

denangabizhiaNdenangabizhiande denihanidenihanigwapi (-ha) denitoaidenitoaigwapi (-ha) dewaseangedewaseangeiyu

deweedeweedui

to buy will buy (future tense)

dezahani-

to drive (a vehicle); to operate (something) by hand

dezahanigwapi (-ha) dezakenadezakenaaidezakenaaiyu

driver (of a vehicle) to sew (something) (transitive verb) to usually sew am/are/is usually sewing (progressive aspect)

dezatebofoingeHdezatebofoingenna

to teach (intransitive verb) teach/teaches (iterative aspect) (intransitive verb)

dezo[]woi (-ha) dogo (-a) dogwai dogwai-dabai[]yi dogwai-duga[]ni domahanidomahanihpenni

hat (maternal) grandfather; grandchild(ren) (Male) (by ones daughter) right (at), exact(ly) (adverb) noon; 12 p.m. midnight; 12 a.m. to knead (dough) (intransitive verb) (transitive verb) am/are/is kneading (dough) (continuative aspect)

do[]mmo do[]mmo egi do[]mmo

winter, in winter, winter-time (adverb) year; winter (weather) (noun) this winter

dosadosabite (dosabiti) dowoa-

white (adjective prefix) white to be cloudy

dowoahka doyadaiboo (-a) doaiHdoaihwa

it is/was cloudy (resultative aspect) Mexican, Mexican-American, Hispanic to emerge; come out; go out emerged, came out (momentaneous aspect)

dua (-a) dubiichi (-ha) duchaduchaawo (duchaawoi) dugani dugu duhubite (duhubiti) dukaN dukangu dukai duku (duki) duN duu-daiboo (-a) duyepe (-a) dui Dzoon (-ha)

son quarter (twenty-five cents) dirty (adjective prefix) dirty dishes night; at night (noun) must, have to (adverb) black under (postposition) under (postposition) under (postposition) meat, flesh; mountain sheep in, with, by use of (a language) (postposition) black person, African-American boy will be (postposition) John

E edeiNedeinde egeegebichi (-ha) egi egi beaichehku egi dabaiyi egi dahwani egi dahwani gimaginde egi daza egi dazan gimaginde egi do[]mmo egi dommo gimaginde egi yebani egi yebani gimaginde egi yeitabaiyi egi yeika e[]mmi eN eN to be hot it is hot (customary/habitual aspect)

new (adjective prefix) new now this morning (adverb of time) today (adverb of time) this spring (adverb of time) next spring (adverb of time) this summer (adverb of time) next spring (adverb of time) this winter (adverb of time) next winter (adverb of time) this fall (adverb of time) next fall (adverb of time) this afternoon (adverb of time) this evening (adverb of time) you (singular form) (object case) you (singular form) (object case) your (singular form) (possessive case)

e[]nne ezheikanna ezheiNezheinde (ezheindi)

you (singular form) (subject case) that/while it is cold (relative clause) to be cold (intransitive verb) (it) is cold (customary/habitual aspect)

ezheinniku

as cold (as) F

-fe[]ni/-pe[]ni

(continuative aspect) (verbal suffix) G

gaH

in, at (postposition) in (postposition) (transitive verbs of motion) (or movement within a specified area) (object case of nominalized postpositional phrase) to sit am/are/is sitting (durative aspect)

-gati

gadegat

gadenoo (gadenooa) gagu (-a) gahniN (gahniN) gahte gahtei gahtu

chair (maternal) grandmother; grand child(ren) (by ones daughter) (female speech) house at (used with static verbs that indicate no notion) at; people at (a specific location) (plural form) to (postposition)

gaahtu

(pausal form)

gahyunde gai gai gai himbaigaN gaihiwa'i gaisheN gaisheseN gaiyuuN gande gapai (gapai) gapii (-a) gebedande (gebedandi) gedii (-a) -genna genduN gendum beaichehku gendu yeika gendu yeitabaiyi genga (gengai)

at not no not much its not there; theres nothing there (EXPR) not yet not yet (very informal version of: gaisheN) late to have bed coffee long cat (repetitive aspect) (verbal suffix) yesterday (adverb) yesterday morning (adverb of time) yesterday evening (adverb of time) yesterday afternoon (adverb of time) onion

genu (-a) gesungadeche gesunga-

(paternal) grandfather grandchild(ren) (by ones son) (masculine speech) to like (by tasting with the mouth); to taste to not like (by tasting with the mouth)

getaaN gewaga gewagahku gia gia se[]ba gizhaa goonigoonigoonipe gotoo (-a) gotoonoo (-a) gozho[]haigoaiHgoaihkigoaihkimii-gu

very; really; extremely (adverb) next to, beside (postposition) next to (transitive verbs of motion) (or movement towards) (postposition) maybe, perhaps maybe, perhaps not good (also: gai tsaa) to go and come back; to make a round trip (intransitive verb) to mark a circle; cycle (intransitive verb) cycled; gone (around) in a circle (perfect) fire stove to wash (something) (transitive verb) to return, go back, come back to come home (from perspective of speaker) to usually come home (on a habitual basis) while, when (subordinator)

guchuN (guchuna) guhnaikiguhnikingu

cow to run (of a motor) (intransitive verb) is running (of a motor) (intransitive verb) (momentaneous aspect)

gu[]na (gu[]na) gunawaimungu (gunawaimungi) gupa

wood train; box-car; railroad in; within (POSTPOS) in; within (transitive verbs of motion) (or movement towards) (postposition) pants to heat up, get hot it heats up, it gets hot; it heated up; it got hot (resultative aspect) to be continuously hot (of the weather) (intransitive verb) it is continuously hot (progressive)

gupangu

gusa (gusai) gutseniHgutsnihka gutsenihkaaigutsenihkaaiyu

guyungwiyaa (-a) guyungwiyaaan duku (duki) -gwagwasuuN (-na) gwee (gwehi) gwehe (gwehi)

turkey turkey (meat) (indicates direction away from the speaker) (auxiliary verb) dress, skirt; shirt, blouse wife wife (ALTERNATIVE)

gwiipusiaHgwiipusiahka

to be smoky (of the environment) it is smoky, it was smoky (resultative aspect)

H ha haa ha[]bihabikwainna hap (question particle) yes to lie, be (in a supine position); lie down, go to bed usually go/goes to bed (iterative aspect) am/is/are lying (in a supine position) (durative aspect)

haga hagaahti? hagadeN hagaadeN

where? where at? who? (pausal form)

hagadeN

which...? (+ noun) how? what? what do you mean? how? what? (transitive verbs of motion, or movement within specified area) (object of nominalized postpositional phrase) (from) where? (from) where? (a specific place- name)

hagai hagai enne?

hagaiti

haganai haganaite

hagani hagani naakwa?

how? in what way? what? (non-material) what happened?

haganihatu

how? in what way? what? (non-material) (intransitive verb of motion) (movement towards or into specified area) why? how come? (to) where? where? where? (pausal form)

haganiyunde hagapundu hagaaku hagaa[]nna hagaaanna

hainji (-ha) ha[]niibe (-ha) hannihanniyu hanniiyu

(male) friend (Indian) corn, maize to do (INTR/TR) am/are/is doing (progressive) (pausal form)

hap ha[]yangenaa hibihibinna

m/is/are lying (in a supine position) (durative aspect) (refer to: ha[]bi-) first, first (thing) to drink that ... is/are drinking (subordinating suffix)

himbai

when?

himbaigaN gai himbaigaN

how much? not much

himbaigande himbaigandee (himbaigandei) himbaigandengahtu himbaigaandengahtu

how much? how many? for how much (money)? (pausal form)

hinga dabai hinga dabai nahayu? hi[]nni (hi[]nna) hiwangehiwangekuandui

what time (of day)? what time (of day) is it? what? to pick up (things) with the hands; select (from a pile) will go and pick (things) up with the hands (future)

hukuneaiHhukuneaifenni

to blow dust (intransitive verb) it is blowing dust (continuative aspect)

hutsi (-a)

(paternal) grandmother; grandchild(ren) (by ones son) (female speech) I

-i-

(indicates periodic repetitive or habitual action) (prefinal verbal suffix) these (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (subject case) their (close enough to touch)

idee

ideeN

(demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (possessive case) these (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (objective case) these (two) (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (possessive case) these (two) (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (objective case) those (two) (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (subject case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (subject case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (object case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (possessive case) right here (adverb of place) here it is this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (subject case) (contrastive aspect) tomorrow (adverb of time) tomorrow morning (adverb of time) (refer to: beaichehku)

idei

ideheN

idehi

idehwe

ideN

ika

ikaN

iki iki mai

isheN

iwaa iwaa beaichehku

iwaa dugani

tomorrow night (adverb of time) (refer to: dugani) tomorrow evening (adverb of time) (refer to: yeika) tomorrow afternoon (adverb of time) (refer to: yeitabaiyi) coyote (noun) K

iwaa yeika

iwaa yeitabaiyi izhape

-ka -ki

(resultative)(verb)(suffix) ( + verb)-ed and just arrived (auxiliary verb) (momentaneous)(verb)(suffix) (variant of -kwa/-hwa) go and ( + verb) (auxiliary verb) (momentaneous)(verb)(suffix) (variant of -kwa and -ku) habitually ( + verb) (variant of -hwainna) M

-ku

-kua

-kwa

-kwaina

ma -maai maaiku

this/that, it (visible) with, in addition to with, in addition to (variant of maai) behind (behind something and away from speaker) (postposition)

maa[]nangwaH

maa[]nangwahku

behind (transitive verbs of motion, movement towards speaker) (postposition) to fix with the hands (transitive) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural) (subject) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual) (possessive case) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual) (object case) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual) (subject case) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural) (object case) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular) (subject case) to wash with the hand(s) (verb) after finish ( + verb)-ing (auxiliary verb) they say, people say, it is said (QUESTION PARITICLE) (variant of maai) okay, alright outside (adverb of place) outside (transitive verbs of motion) (movement towards speaker) (adverb of place)

mabizhiaNmade

madeheN

madehi

madehwe

madei

madeN magozhohai-mahwaka

mai -mai maiku maitenga

maitengaku

maitengate

outside (used with static verbs that indicate no motion) (adverb of place) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular) (object case) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular) (possessive case) fifty (number) five (of something) (noun) to plant, sow, raise (animals) (transitive verb) this/that (neutral distance) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular) (subject case) (CONTRASTIVE) plant/plants, sow/sows, raise/raises (animals) (durative aspect) (transitive verb) your (dual) you (dual) you (plural) your (plural) lets go (see mia-) to go (intransitive verb) am/are/is walking (singular and plural) (pausal) (dual form of miayu)

maka

makaN manegiseemote manegitee (manegitei) maseange-

maseN

masea meheN mehwe memme memmeN mia miamiayu miaayu mimiayu

miawaiH-

to go out

miawaihyu going out (progressive aspect)

-miimimiayu mubii (-ha) munna[]gwa munnagwa dahwani munnagwa daza munnagwa dommo munnagwa yebani

(indicates habitual, repeated action) (verbal suffix) (dual form of miayu) car, automobile last year (adverb of time) last spring (adverb of time) last summer (adverb of time) last winter (adverb of time) last fall (adverb of time) N

na-nna naanaafaite (naafaite) naafaitee (naafaitei) naafaitenga daa naakihka naakiHnaakihka

(passive voice) (verbal prefix) (iterative aspect) (verbal suffix) to happen, become; be; do (variant of: naha-) six six (of something) at six (oclock) to become, get to be (in time) (it) becomes (in time), gets to be (in time) (resultative aspect)

to be seen, be, look (like) (passive of bui-) nabuiHnabuinde looks (like), is/are seen (habitual/customary aspect)

nadainape (-a) nadahnanadahnakandui

husband; sisters husband (F) to be set down (passive of dahna-) will be set down (future) package, carton (pausal form)

nadatewade (nadatewadi) nadatewaate

nadeasengepe (-ha) nadewaganadewagahwa

frozen (adjective) something frozen (noun) to sell sold (momentaneous aspect)

nadewagagwapi (-ha) nadewengahni (nadewengahni) nadoaigahni (nadoaigahni) nagozho[]hainagozhaineitsi

cashier, vendor, merchant store bathroom, restroom, toilet (feminine gender) to bathe (intransitive verb) after have gone and bathed (on a daily basis)

nahanahape nai

to do, make, happen (intransitive verb) (alternate form of: naa-) has become (perfective tense) from (postposition)

naite nambe (nambeha/nampeha) nammi (-a) nangasumbaadunangasumbaaduka

from (+ place name) (postposition) shoe younger sister to understand (by hearing) (transitive verb) understand/understands (resultative tense)

naniha (nanihai) nanihananihade nanihaade

name to be named/called is called, be named (customary/habitual aspect) (pausal form)

naninakainaninakaide

to cost it costs (customary/habitual aspect)

nanimeenanimede nanimeete

to cost it costs (customary/habitual aspect) (pausal form)

nasundeganaaHnasundeganaahka

to plan (something) plan/plans (resultative aspect)

natesuuN (-na) natesuungahni (natesuungahni) nawasoaH-

medicine hospital to get dressed (intransitive verb)

nawasoa nawasoahwainna nawasoakua

put on your clothes! (imperative aspect) habitually get/gets dressed go and put on your clothes!

nawaaipe (-a) nazatewa (-a) nazawaiyiHnazawaiyihka

wife; brothers wife (masculine tense) door to hang (intransitive verb) am/is/are hanging (resultative tense)

ne neaineai neaide (neaidi) neaipenni

I (subject case) my to blow (of wind), be windy it is/was windy (durative aspect) it is windy (habitual/customary) it is windy (continuative tense)

neaN neheN

my, mine our (exclusive pronoun) (dual form) (subject case) we(exclusive pronoun) (dual form) (subject case) to go and (+ verb) and return (auxiliary verb) left (to do something) and came back (auxiliary verb) (suffix) we (plural form) (subject case) (exclusive pronoun)

nehwe

-nei-

-nei

nemme

nemmeN nemmi ne[]we (ne[]wi) newedaigwape (-ha) ne[]we duN newezoikai (-ha) niikwiniikwi niigwina

our (plural form) (exclusive pronoun) us, for us (plural form) (object case) (exclusive pronoun) person, Indian, Shoshoni (Indian) the Indian peoples language in (the) Shoshoni/Indian (language) through the Indian/Shoshoni language Nez Perce (Indian) to tell, say (intransitive verb) (transitive verb) said, told (momentaneous aspect) telling, saying (to) (iterative aspect)

-nniku noha noondea noyo (noyi) nooyo (nooyi) nukinukndema

like..., as... (postpostition) used to or else, otherwise egg testicle to run just go then! (expression)

O odee odeeN that (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (subject case) that (demonstrative pronoun)

(plural form) (possessive case) odei that (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (object case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (possessive case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (object case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (subject case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (subject case) flowing (adjective) river, stream (noun) yellow (plural form)

odeheN

odehi

odehwe odeN

ogwaideN ohapite (ohapiti) oohapitee

oka

that (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (object case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (possessive case) there (adverb of place) brown that (contrastive aspect) always P

okaN oku ondembite (ondembiti) oseN oyoseN

-pe

(perfective aspect)

-pe[]nni/-fe[]nni

(continuative aspect) S

saape (-ha) sa[]bai

stew in there that (within sight) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural) (subject case) dog that (within sight) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural) (possessive case) that (within sight) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual) (possessive case) that (within sight) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual) (object case)

sadee

sadee (sadeea)

sadeeN

sadeheN

sadehi

sadehwe

that (within sight) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual) (subject case) that (within sight) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (object case) that (within sight) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (subject case) this (not close enough to touch) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (subject case)

sadei

sadeN

saidee

saideeN

this (not close enough to touch) (a specific object) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (possessive case) this (not close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) this here (not close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) this here (not close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) this (not close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) this here (not close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) Bannock Creek (Fort Hall Reservation) (also: Saigwihunu) this here (but not close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) this here (not close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) here (not close enough to touch) (adverb of place) (refers to a specific object) over here (adverb of place) that (within sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (object case)

saideheN

saidehi

saidehwe

saidei

saideN

Saigwiogwai

saika

saikaN

saiki saitu

saka

sakaN

that (within sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) over there (adverb of place) (refers to a specific object) maybe, perhaps maybe, perhaps ten (number) one (number) half (used only in reference to money) (noun) sometimes one (alternate of: seme) sheep Basque this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) this (close enough to touch)

saku se[]ba sebagia seemote seme (-a) sengwaibi sesewe sewe sii-bungu (sii-bungi) sii-bungudaiboo (-a)

sideeN

sidee

sidei

sideheN

sidehi

(demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) this (close enough to touch) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) right here (adverb of place) (refers to a specific object) right here (adverb of place) that (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case)

sidehwe

sideN

sika

sikaN

siki sikiteN sodeeN

sodee

sodeheN

sodehi

sodehwe

sodei

sodeN

soho[]bi (-ta) soka

tree that (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) that (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) there (adverb of place) (refers to a specific object) a lot, much, many (adverb) (quantifier) Blackfoot (Idaho) (literally.: many houses) a lot, much Shoshoni (Indian) over that way (demonstrative pronoun) (locative aspect) to think, want, feel, need (transitive verb) then in there that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) that (out of sight)

sokaN

soku

sooN

Soo-gahni sooseN sosoni (-a) soto suaNsubai su[]bai

sudee

sudeeN

sudeheN

sudehi

(demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (subject case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (object case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (refers to a specific object) (possessive case) there (out of sight) (adverb of place) (refers to a specific object) to not know (intransitive/transitive verb) know not/knows not (iterative aspect)

sudehwe

sudei

sudeN

suka

sukaN

suku (gai) sumbanaigai sumbanainna

suniyunde

thats why (conjuction) (variant form of: sunihyunde) to want, need

suwaisuwai suwaihka sua thinking, think/thinks (durative aspect) want/wants, need/needs (durative aspect) (implies that there are only one or two items to choose from) want/wants, need/needs (resultative aspect) (implies large selection of items to choose from)

to mess up (transitive verb) suahaibeisuahaibeideN suahaibeidee someone who messes things up (habitual/customary aspect) people who mess things up (dual form: suahaidehwe)

suana suaana

at, about, around, usually (adverb) (used with expressions of time) (pausal form)

T -teese only... (added to numbers) to start (to), begin (to) be (in a place), be seated put (auxiliary verb) by hand, with the hands (instrumental prefix) mountain trout good; well (it) feels good (it) has a good out look (durative aspect) nice, little kid to like the taste of (something) good morning (variant form of: tsaangu baiche) good afternoon good evening

-tegi-

tsatsaa-baingwi tsaaN

tsaan deesua

tsaandetsi (-a) tsaangesungatsaangu beaichehku tsaangu yeitabaiyi/yeitatabaiyi tsaangu yeyeika

tsaasuaNtsaasuangenna

to like, think well of (transitive verb) likes/like (repetitive aspect)

tsaawesungatsaawesunga

to feel good about (something), like (something) feels/feel good about, likes/like (durative aspect)

tsadamani (-ha) tsatebofoiNtsateboofoi tsateboofoingeH-

Chinese (person); Chinese (language) to teach teach/teaches, am/is/are teaching (durative aspect) to teach (something) (TR)

tsateboofoingehwainna tsateboofoingenna tsateboofoingetegimii-

teach/teaches on a daily basis teach/teaches, am/is/are teaching (something) (INTR) to start teaching (something) on a daily basis

tsategitsategi-nei tsautu"tsayaahkitsayaahki

to put by hand (transitive verb) went and put it (and has/have returned) to give (something) by hand (transitive verb) to carry with both hands down low (transitive verb) carry (it) with both hands down low (imperative tense)

-tsi tsiambe (-ha) tsina (-a)

after having (+ verb) (verval suffix) tomato potatoes

tsiina

(pausal form)

tsoape (-ha) tsugupe (-a)

ghost old man U

u u sengwaibi u sengwaibi maai

him; her; it; them (someone/thing already mentioned) (OBJ) half (used only in reference to money) fifty cents (literally: with half of it (a dollar))

udee

that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (subject case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (possessive case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (object case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (dual form) (subject case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (plural form) (object case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (subject case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (object case) that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (possessive case) there (out of sight) (adverb of place) there (adverb)

udeeN

udehi

udehwe

udei

udeN

uka

ukaN uku ukuhti

useN

that (out of sight) (demonstrative pronoun) (singular form) (subject case) (contrastive/presentative aspect) to give W

utu-

waapi (-ta) wagande (wagandi) waahni (-a) waahni

(Utah) juniper tree (also called cedar tree in southern Idaho) at (someones), at (somethings) ss(noun) fox (pasual form)

wahambiaseemote (wahambiaseemoti) wahatehwe (wahatehi) wahyaNwahyande (wahyandi) wanadebope (-ha) watsewite (watsewiti) watsewiteese weiwei

two hundred (number) two (number) to burn fire dollar four (NUM) only four to rain it rained (durative)

weiiweiide

to rain (periodically over time) it rains (periodically over time) (habitual/customary aspect)

weiiite

(pasual form)

wenangwa wenangwaku we[]newe[]nne

in front of (postposition) in front of (postposition) to stand am/is/are standing (durative aspect)

wepaguiwepaguinna wepaguiinna

to chop, split am/are/is chopping (iterative aspect) (pausal form)

wepaiwesungawihyu witua (wituai) witua-wepaigwapi (-ha) wizha wongo[]bi (-ta) wongoobi

to hit to feel (something) with body then, and then; but drum; pot drummer should, might (adverb) pine tree (pausal form)

Y -yamba (yambai) yambai (-ha) yeba[]ni wild carrots (yampa root) Kiowa (Indian); Southern Plains Indian fall, autumn (noun); in the fall/autumn (adverb)

yebaa[]ni (pausal form)

yeitabai[]yi yezeyetse yezemiiyu

afternoon; in the afternoon (adverb) to get up; fly (intransitive verb) is getting up; got up (durative aspect) get/gets up (on a daily basis) (progressive aspect)

-[]yu yuhudegumahanipe (-ha) yuhupe (-ha) yuuta (-a)

(progressive aspect) (verb/suffix) fry-bread

fat Ute (Indian)