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ENGINEERING STANDARDS

AIR COOLED EXCHANGER, DESIGN AND FABRICATION


ES-EXG-0301
The information contained in this document is confidential and proprietary to NOVA Chemicals and may not be disclosed in whole or in part to any other individual or organization without the prior written consent of NOVA Chemicals. Use of this information for any purpose other than that authorized by NOVA Chemicals is strictly prohibited. Rev. No.: 02 Initial Issue Date:
Leadership Approval:

31.10.2003

Rev. Date: 01.04.2007

Dave Richmond Process Safety Director


Author / Discipline Lead:

Chester Kos Vessels and Exchangers Task Team


Technical Approval:

Chester Kos MS Coordinator

Eric Wong Corporate and MW Coordinator

Amin Foroughian ME Coordinator

is a registered trademark of NOVA Brands Ltd.; authorized use

ENGINEERING STANDARDS REVISION REGISTER Standard Number: ES-EXG-0301 Standard Name: Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication Rev to Section No.
General General

Rev No.
01 02

Description
General update 2005 General update 2007

Date
01.09.05 01.04.07

Reviewed By
Chester Kos Mark MalletParet

Approved By
Eric Wong Eric Wong

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication TABLE OF CONTENTS

Eng. Std. #: Page No.: Rev. No.: Rev. Date:

ES-EXG-0301 3 of 24 02 01.04.2007

Page No. 1. GENERAL .................................................................................................................................. 5 1.1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5 1.2 Units of Measurement ..................................................................................................... 5 1.3 Definition of Terms .......................................................................................................... 5 STANDARDS, CODES AND REGULATIONS ............................................................................ 5 2.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 NOVA Engineering Standards ......................................................................................... 6 2.3 Industry Codes and Standards ........................................................................................ 6 GOVERNANCE OF DOCUMENTS ............................................................................................ 7 QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) AND QUALITY CONTROL (QC) ................................................ 7 4.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 7 SERVICE DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 7 5.1 Hydrogen Service ............................................................................................................ 7 5.2 Cyclic Service.................................................................................................................. 7 5.3 Lethal Service ................................................................................................................. 7 5.4 Severe Service ................................................................................................................ 8 DESIGN ...................................................................................................................................... 8 6.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 8 6.2 Thermal Design ............................................................................................................... 8 MECHANICAL DESIGN ............................................................................................................. 9 7.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 9 7.2 Design Temperature and Pressure for Pressure Containing Parts ................................ 10 7.3 Corrosion Allowance ..................................................................................................... 10 7.4 Tube Bundles ................................................................................................................ 11 7.5 Headers ........................................................................................................................ 11 7.6 Tubes ............................................................................................................................ 13 7.7 Fins ............................................................................................................................... 14 7.8 Structures and Casing ................................................................................................... 15 7.9 Louvers ......................................................................................................................... 17 7.10 Fans .............................................................................................................................. 17 7.11 Vibration Switches ......................................................................................................... 18 7.12 Drivers........................................................................................................................... 18 7.13 Lubrication .................................................................................................................... 19 WELDING AND HEAT TREATMENT ....................................................................................... 20

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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INSPECTION AND TESTING ................................................................................................... 20 9.1 Impact Testing .............................................................................................................. 20 9.2 Weld Inspection ............................................................................................................ 20 9.3 Hydrostatic Tests .......................................................................................................... 20 PAINTING ................................................................................................................................ 21 SHIPMENT ............................................................................................................................... 21 APPENDIX A: DEFINITION OF TERMS ................................................................................. 23 APPENDIX B: LINKS TO NOVA ENGINEERING DATASHEETS ........................................... 24

10. 11. 12. 13.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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1. 1.1 1.1.1

GENERAL Scope This Engineering Standard together with API STD 661 and ASME code defines the minimum technical requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, and testing of air cooled heat exchangers. NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PVS-0201 Pressure Vessel, Design and Fabrication is to be considered an integral part of this standard in its entirety. Heat Exchangers of this type are considered to be pressure vessels. If a conflict exists between API STD 661 and this specification, the more restrictive shall apply. No variation shall be made from this Standard without prior completion and approval of a NOVA Engineering Standards Variance Form (No. SPF-012). Units of Measurement All units of measurement are expressed in the International System of Metric Units (SI) followed by the English Units (US Conventional System of Measurement) in parentheses. Definition of Terms The definitions of engineering discipline terms used throughout this Standard are listed in Appendix A. STANDARDS, CODES AND REGULATIONS General NOVA representatives and its suppliers are responsible for identifying, issuing and using copies of the applicable editions / addenda of NOVA Standards and Industry Standards and Codes, cited in Sections 2.2 and 2.3 below.

1.1.2 1.1.3

1.2 1.2.1

1.3 1.3.1

2. 2.1 2.1.1

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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2.2

NOVA Engineering Standards ES-ELE-0701 ES-EXG-0201 ES-MAC-0601 ES-PCL-0201 ES-PCL-0302 ES-PPG-1201 ES-PRO-0102 ES-PVS-0201 ES-PVS-0202 ES-PVS-8300 ES-STR-0103 EG-WPS-0101 LPS 2.3 AC Induction Motors Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Design and Fabrication Specification for Sound Control of Mechanical Equipment External Coatings Standard Hot-Dip Galvanizing Standard Piping, Pressure Testing For Piping and Equipment Basic Plant Project Data Questionnaire Pressure Vessels, Design and Fabrication Pressure Vessels, Alloy and Alloy Lined Pressure Vessels, Construction Details Structural Steel Specifications Guidelines for Welding Loss Prevention Standards Plant Layout

2.3

Industry Codes and Standards This specification contains references to the following industry codes and standards:

2.3.1

American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 632, Winterization of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers STD 661, Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section V, Nondestructive Examination Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division 1 and Division 2, Alternative Rules American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A123 Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products A153 Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware A269 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service A325 Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120 / 105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength A384 Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of Steel Assemblies A385 Practice for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot Dip) A490 Heat-Treated, Steel Structural Bolts, 150 ksi (1035 MPa) Tensile Strength B209 Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate

2.3.2

2.3.3

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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2.3.4

NACE International (NACE) Corrosion Data Survey GOVERNANCE OF DOCUMENTS Where variances occur between the documents explaining the work, please refer to NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PVS-0201 Pressure Vessels, Design and Fabrication, Section 3, Governance of Documents. QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) AND QUALITY CONTROL (QC) General Various responsibilities exist to ensure that QA and QC in NOVA Engineering Standards for products and services will be met. Refer to NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PVS-0201 Pressure Vessels, Design and Fabrication, Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) section, for explanation of responsibilities. SERVICE DEFINITIONS Hydrogen Service Hydrogen service is defined as service in which normal operating contents contain hydrogen partial pressure equal to or greater than 689.5 kPa (100 psia). Hydrogen service shall be noted on datasheet. Cyclic Service Cyclic service is defined as service in which operating conditions during design life exceed number of cycles that require fatigue analysis in accordance with ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 2, Paragraph AD-160.2. Cyclical service shall be noted on datasheet. Lethal Service Lethal service is defined as service that contains lethal substances, either liquid or gaseous, as defined in ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, paragraph UW-2. Lethal service shall be noted on datasheet.

3. 3.1.1

4. 4.1 4.1.1

5. 5.1 5.1.1

5.1.2 5.2 5.2.1

5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1

5.3.2

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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5.4 5.4.1

Severe Service Severe service is defined as service that can cause: Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen stress cracking Stress corrosion cracking of high strength steels Examples of severe service include: Hydrochloric acid High pressure (greater than 3.45 MPa, or 500 psia) hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide (partial pressures greater than 1.73 kPa, or 0.25 psia) Cyanides Hydrofluoric acid Anhydrous (less than 0.2 wt.% H 2O) ammonia Rich and lean amines Caustics as defined in NACE Corrosion Data Survey Severe service shall be noted on datasheet. DESIGN General Carbon steel tubes or headers used in corrosive or erosive service shall have maximum process stream velocity of 6.1 meters per second (20 feet per second) at any point of carbon steel component in cooler. Thermal Design If heat release curves are provided, weighted Mean Temperature Difference (MTD) shall be used. If decrease of 10% or less in specified fouling factor permits reduction in cooler size, smaller cooler shall be quoted as an alternate. Turbulence inserts may be used as turbulence promoters for coolers in filtered, closed loop oil systems only, subject to Purchaser approval. Air fin cooler shall be designed to prevent excessive cooling at 50% of design flow rate. If such condition requires additional automatic controls, an alternate quotation shall be submitted. Quotation shall include performance of each item based on natural convection with fans off and louvers open.

5.4.2

5.4.3 6. 6.1 6.1.1

6.2 6.2.1

6.2.2

6.2.3

6.2.4

6.2.5

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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6.2.6 6.2.7 6.2.8

Temperature outlet control will be specified by Purchaser. Economic Evaluation. Air fin coolers shall be designed to obtain the most efficient and economical combination of fan horsepower and equipment configuration. MECHANICAL DESIGN General Mechanical design shall comply with ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 and API STD 661. If air cooler in base quotation has combined header for handling process fluids at two (2) different temperatures, cost shall be provided for alternate cooler with split headers. Cooler dimensions shall comply with layout, space and location specified by Purchaser. Air fin cooler shall be laid out such that air recirculation due to free air space (e.g.: abutting two [2] banks together) is minimized. Elevation above grade, prevailing wind direction and air path short circuiting shall be considered. Operating noise levels of installed equipment shall not exceed limits specified in NOVA Engineering Standard ES-MAC-0601 Specification for Sound Control of Mechanical Equipment. The design shall include completion of a Noise Datasheet per Annex D of API STD 661. Austenitic stainless steel nameplate that includes the following information shall be attached to header of each tube bundle: Supplier name Serial number Purchaser identification Order number Date Tube side design pressure Design Temperature Test pressure Corrosion allowance Stress relieving or x-ray requirements Maximum allowable working pressure for new construction Minimum design metal temperature Exchangers shall be stamped in accordance with ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1. Equipment shall be designed for maximum interchangeability of parts.

7. 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2

7.1.3 7.1.4

7.1.5

7.1.6

7.1.7 7.1.8

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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7.2 7.2.1

Design Temperature and Pressure for Pressure Containing Parts Mechanical Design Temperature.

7.2.1.1 If mechanical design temperature is limited by flange rating, the Purchaser shall be consulted on whether or not to change pressure rating of flanges. 7.2.1.2 If flange rating is not changed, mechanical design temperature shall be highest temperature for flange rating coincident with mechanical design pressure. 7.2.2 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP)

7.2.2.1 After actual components to be used to fabricate exchanger are selected, MAWP shall be calculated in accordance with Section VIII, Paragraph UG-98. MAWP shall not arbitrarily be set at design pressure. 7.2.2.2 If mechanical design temperature is greater than maximum temperature at which stress values do not change in accordance with ASME Code, Section VIII, MAWP shall be calculated and stamped on exchanger for the higher temperatures. 7.2.2.3 MAWP specified on ASME Manufacturer's Data Report shall be after loss of specified corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance shall be specified on data report. 7.2.3 Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT).

7.2.3.1 Impact testing requirements shall comply with applicable ASME Code, Division 1 or 2, and most severe low temperature and coincident pressure conditions. 7.2.3.2 MDMT and coincident pressure shall be determined using applicable ASME Code, selected plate material type, plate thickness, impact testing performed and tensile stress level. Tensile stress shall include pressure and non-pressure loads, such as wind, seismic or other mechanical loads. 7.2.3.3 The MDMT and coincident MAWP shall be indicated on exchanger nameplate and Supplier's data report. The MDMT shall be the lower of that specified by NOVA on the exchanger datasheet or the lowest allowable MDMT for the material grade and thickness selected at the MAWP. 7.3 7.3.1 Corrosion Allowance Corrosion allowance will be specified by Purchaser. Minimum corrosion allowance shall be inch for carbon and low alloy steel per API STD 661, Paragraph 7.1.5.1. Alloy construction may be used, subject to Purchaser approval, if design is more economical than carbon steel with specified carbon steel corrosion allowance.

7.3.2

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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7.3.3

If temperatures are higher than water condensation point, welded baffles of suitable alloy steel may be used in carbon steel headers to avoid excessively thick partitions required for corrosion allowance. Use shall be subject to Purchaser approval. Tube Bundles Side channels shall have lifting lugs to facilitate handling. Lugs shall be staggered to prevent interference with adjacent bundles. Tubes within bundle shall be arranged to: Minimize air leakage and bypassing Permit replacement of any tube by removing tube above or below tube to be replaced Tube bundles shall be designed as follows: To be removable without removing platform For lifting and removing while others remain in service at reduced rates Framing tube spacers and support, if required, shall be galvanized in accordance with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PCL-0302 Hot Dip Galvanizing Standard. Bolts shall be hot dip galvanized in accordance with ASTM A 153. Electro-plating, such as cadmium plating, shall not be acceptable. Stacked tube bundles shall be pre-assembled in shop and shall be checked for nozzle match. Bolts of interconnecting nozzles of stacked bundles shall be removable without moving bundle. Two (2) tube bundles shall usually be used to make one (1) air fin cooler cell or operational unit. Multi-cell coolers may be used. If either of the following operating conditions occur, tube-to-tubesheet joints shall be seal welded and expanded and inspected in accordance with NOVA Engineering Guideline EGWPS-0101 Guidelines for Welding: In hydrogen service (as defined previously) at temperature of 800F or above In hydrogen service with hydrogen partial pressure of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) or above at any temperature Where experience indicates that consistent leakage occurs Headers General

7.4 7.4.1

7.4.2

7.4.3

7.4.4

7.4.5

7.4.6

7.4.7

7.5 7.5.1

7.5.1.1 Plug type shall be used for: Services listed in Section 6.4, Paragraph 7 Services in which fouling factor is less than 0.006 Clean out nozzles shall be provided if fouling factor is between 0.004 and 0.006

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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7.5.1.2 Removable cover type shall be used for other services in which the fouling factor is 0.006 and greater. 7.5.1.3 Plug type header with U-bend construction at opposite end of bundle shall be acceptable if gasket leakage may be a problem and fouling is not anticipated. 7.5.1.4 Use of all-welded manifold type header and return bend construction shall be subject to Purchaser approval. 7.5.1.5 Header passes, nozzles and piping shall be designed to: Minimize piping runs Permit inspection and mechanical cleaning of tubes without dismantling piping or cooler parts other than cover plates or access plugs Minimize areas of high turbulence and velocity at air cooler tubesheet 7.5.1.6 For two (2) phase inlet flow, piping and header nozzles shall be laid out symmetrically to ensure equal flow distribution for multiple units. 7.5.1.7 Header nozzles shall be long enough to permit bolt removal from both sides of flange. 7.5.1.8 Tubes shall not extend more than 3.2 millimeters ( inch) nor less than 1.6 millimeters ( /16 inch) beyond face of tubesheet. 7.5.1.9 Pass partition plates shall have sufficient weep holes such that each header compartment can be completely vented and drained. Holes shall be sized such that they do not affect performance of air fin cooler. 7.5.1.10 Pressure parts shall consist of ASME SA-285 or SA-516 carbon steel. Parts with base metal thickness over 19 millimeters ( inch) shall be SA-516. 7.5.1.11 Tube hole diameters, tolerances, grooving, finish and roller expansion shall comply with API STD 661. 7.5.1.12 Material used for pressure containing parts of headers shall have adequate notch toughness. If lowest MDMT established is lower than that obtained from impact test exemption curves of ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1, material for pressure containing parts shall be impact tested. 7.5.2 Plug Type Headers
1

7.5.2.1 If seal welding of tube ends is specified, tube access holes shall be sized to permit seal weld. 7.5.2.2 Access plug gaskets shall not contain asbestos. Gaskets in hydrogen service shall be coated with suitable sealer.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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7.5.2.3 Header and plugs made from austenitic material are susceptible to galling local seizure between materials. Galling shall be prevented as follows: Anti-seize compound shall be applied to plug thread Header and plug shall be of different austenitic materials Plugs may be made from cold worked bar stock, provided no chloride cracking potential exists for given application Plugs may be made with threads treated by one (1) of the following methods: o Shot peened o Nitrided o Covered with nickel coating such as electroless nickel or equal 7.5.3 Removable Cover Type Headers.

7.5.3.1 Cover Plates shall have: Jackscrews to facilitate dismantling Lifting lugs for handling Plugged access holes opposite both ends of one (1) tube in each pass to permit inspection Bolting material in accordance with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-EXG-0201 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Design and Fabrication, Section 6.1.3.5: o During assembly, bolts, studs and nuts shall be coated with suitable thread lubricant o If galvanized bolts are specified, bolts shall be hot dip galvanized in accordance with ASTM A 153 o Electro-plating such as cadmium plating shall not be acceptable o Galvanized bolts or bolts painted with zinc containing paint shall not be in contact with stainless steel or nickel alloy pressure containing parts during service 7.5.3.2 Gaskets: Gaskets shall comply with Table 1 Gasket materials shall comply with Table 2 Temperature limitations for gasket materials shall comply with Table 3 7.5.4 Nozzles and Other Connections.

7.5.4.1 Flanges shall comply with ASME B16.5. Flanges in hydrogen service shall be Class 300 minimum. 7.5.4.2 Use of solid alloy nozzles shall be restricted and subject to Purchaser review and approval. 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 Tubes Tubes shall have minimum Outside Diameter (OD) of 25.4 millimeters (1 inch). Carbon steel tubes shall have minimum wall thickness of 2.77 millimeters (0.109 inch).

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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7.6.3

Alloy and copper based tubes shall have minimum wall thickness of 2.1 millimeters (0.083 inch). Ferrous tubes shall be provided on a minimum wall basis. Fins General

7.6.4 7.7 7.7.1

7.7.1.1 Unless specified otherwise, fins shall be aluminum, ASTM B 209 alloy numbers 1100 or 3003. 7.7.1.2 Spiral groove wrapped or tension wrapped aluminum fins shall be constructed of strip stock of sufficient thickness to obtain minimum thickness of 0.2 millimeters (0.008 inch) at outer edge of fin. Minimum strip stock thickness for any fin height shall be 0.4 millimeters (0.016 inch). Required thickness may be greater to meet minimum outer edge thickness of 0.2 millimeters (0.008 inch) Bimetallic fins shall be extruded to obtain a smooth fin profile, free of splits For 10% of top and bottom rows of tubes, fins shall be stripped back 5.08 centimeters (2 inches) from back face of tubesheet for future ultrasonic or radiographic inspection 7.7.1.3 Unless approved otherwise, fin height shall not exceed 15.87 millimeters ( inch). 7.7.2 Spiral Grooved Wrapped Fins (Embedded Construction).

7.7.2.1 Spiral groove wrapped fins typically consist of aluminum finning mechanically wrapped under tension and embedded into spiral groove in surface of tube. 7.7.2.2 Maximum operating inlet temperature of 400C (750F) shall not be exceeded. 7.7.2.3 Groove profile shall be smooth and rounded without sharp corners. 7.7.3 Bimetallic-Extruded Fins (Integral Construction)

7.7.3.1 Bimetallic-extruded fins typically consist of fins formed by extrusion of aluminum outer tube that is mechanically bonded to inner tube. 7.7.3.2 Manufacturer's standard shall be subject to Purchaser approval. 7.7.3.3 Bimetallic-extruded fins shall not be used if either: Maximum operating inlet temperature exceeds 288C (550F) Normal operating wall temperature of carbon steel tubes exceeds 176C (350F) 7.7.3.4 There shall be complete mechanical bond between tubes.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

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7.7.4

Spiral Surface Fins (Footed Construction)

7.7.4.1 Spiral surface fins typically consist of aluminum footed finning mechanically spirally wrapped under tension around surface of tube. 7.7.4.2 Spiral surface fins shall not be used if either: Maximum operating inlet temperature exceeds 176C (350F) Normal operating wall temperature of carbon steel tubes exceeds 121C (250F) 7.7.4.3 Finned tubes shall not be edge wrapped. 7.7.4.4 Spiral surface fins shall not be used: In short range condensing service such as steam condensing in which condensing interface occurs over short tube area and could cause shock In extreme cycle operation If operating temperature changes frequently, regardless of design inlet temperature 7.7.5 Other Types of Fin Materials.

7.7.5.1 If approved by Purchaser, bare tubes, other types of fin materials and finned tubes may be used. 7.7.5.2 Serrated fins may be offered if savings may be realized in equipment cost and / or plot area. 7.8 7.8.1 Structures and Casing General.

7.8.1.1 Steel structures shall be designed in accordance with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-STR0103 Structural Steel Specifications. 7.8.1.2 Steel structures shall be fabricated in accordance with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-STR0103 Structural Steel Specifications except that welders may be qualified in accordance with AWS or ASME. 7.8.1.3 Units shall be prefabricated in shop for field assembly with structural high strength bolting in accordance with ASTM A325 and A490. 7.8.1.4 Induced draft units shall have minimum vertical clearance for air entrance of 2.44 meters (8 feet, 0 inches) from bottom of walls or tube bundles to top of equipment below or to grade.

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ENGINEERING STANDARDS

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7.8.2

Supports.

7.8.2.1 Unless specified otherwise, main structural steel supports shall be provided. 7.8.2.2 Galvanizing shall comply with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PCL-0302 Hot Dip Galvanizing Standard. 7.8.2.3 Supports shall be rigid and braced to minimize vibration. 7.8.2.4 Columns shall be predrilled to accommodate future extension. 7.8.2.5 Permanent structural member shall be located above motor to permit installation of hoist to lower motor to fixed or traveling platform. Motors installed with shaft up shall have 0.762 meters (2 feet, 6 inches) clearance between bottom of support member and shaft end. Motors installed with shaft down shall have 0.61 meters (2 feet, 0 inch) clearance between bottom of support and motor end plate. 7.8.3 Casing (Plenum Chamber and Shrouding)

7.8.3.1 Plenum shall be constructed of 16 gage USS minimum ribbed sheet metal. 7.8.3.2 The following shall be included in Supplier's quotation: Basic Bid: Carbon steel where galvanized structural supports are not required Alternate Number 1: ASTM B209 aluminum Alternate Number 2: ASTM A123, A153, A384 or A385 sheet metal 7.8.3.3 Casing braces and spacers shall be of same material as casing. 7.8.3.4 Fans shall be separated by partitions to prevent recirculation of air if only one (1) fan is operating (in accordance with API RP 632). 7.8.3.5 Electrical contact between aluminum casing and steel structure and / or framing shall be prevented to avoid galvanic action. 7.8.4 Guards

7.8.4.1 Belt or chain drives and couplings on shaft shall have wire mesh type guards in accordance with API STD 661. 7.8.4.2 Guards shall be designed for convenient removal to facilitate belt and bearing inspection and replacement. 7.8.4.3 If specified by Purchaser, tubes on forced draft units shall have hail screens.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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7.9 7.9.1 7.9.2

Louvers Unless specified otherwise, louvers shall be manually operated. Automatic louvers, if specified by Purchaser, shall fail wide open and provide maximum cooling during power failure. Automatic control shall be provided by pneumatic actuators and necessary linkage. Actuator shall have at least double the force required for operation. Louver material shall match casing material. If required by Purchaser, protection for extremely cold weather shall be provided. Type of weather protection shall be subject to Purchaser approval. Fans

7.9.3 7.9.4

7.10

7.10.1 Cells shall have two (2) or more fans. 7.10.2 If two (2) or more services are combined into one (1) cell, each service shall receive air from at least two (2) fans. 7.10.3 Forced or induced draft fans shall be selected based on best type suited for service, controls, economic justification, geographic location and climate. Selection shall be subject to Purchaser approval. Forced draft fans shall be used for services in which tube side inlet temperature exceeds 135C (275F). 7.10.4 Maximum fan diameter shall be 4.27 meters (14 feet). Maximum tip speed shall be 3,660 meters per minute (12,000 feet per minute). 7.10.5 Fan assembly shall be dynamically balanced. Blades shall be balanced against master blade to ensure interchangeability. 7.10.6 Controllable fan blade pitch positioners shall not be allowed. 7.10.7 Fan blades may be as follows: Aluminum Stainless steel Monel Molded or laminated plastic. Plastic on Induced Draft (ID) cells shall have service guarantee for Purchaser specified maximum outlet temperature and maximum exhaust temperature 7.10.8 Blades shall not be wooden or laminated wood.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

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7.10.9 Natural frequencies of fan or fan component shall be less than 80% or more than 120% of blade passing frequency. 7.10.10 Fan blade retainings, if required, shall be monel. 7.10.11 Fan shafts shall consist of AISI 4140 steel, be quenched and tempered to approximately 300 BHN (Brinell hardness number) or equivalent and have rounded keyway corners. 7.10.12 Fan motors shall be accessible to facilitate motor removal and repair (refer to Section 6.8.2). Fan performance characteristic curves shall be provided with final documentation. 7.11 Vibration Switches

7.11.1 Fans shall have vibration switch with remote reset capability. 7.11.2 Vibration switches shall be explosion proof, Metrix Model 5078 or Purchaser approved equal. 7.11.3 Vibration switch shall be installed on cooler frame prior to shipment. 7.11.4 Electrical wiring shall not be provided for vibration switch. 7.12 Drivers

7.12.1 General. 7.12.1.1 All driver equipment shall be provided. 7.12.2 Prime Movers. 7.12.2.1 Required horsepower shall be calculated. 7.12.2.2 Motors shall be provided in accordance with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-ELE-0701 AC Induction Systems. 7.12.2.3 Motors shall be two (2) speed design or, if specified, suitable for operation with variable frequency drives. 7.12.2.4 Motor drives shall be selected such that their nameplate rating, excluding service factor, exceeds maximum brake horsepower determined under conditions described in Paragraph 5.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

Eng. Std. #: Page No.: Rev. No.: Rev. Date:

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7.12.2.5 If fans are pitched to handle air capacity at design conditions, sizing shall be as follows: Forced draft fan drivers shall be sized to handle denser air at minimum design winter temperature and humidity conditions without overload Induced draft fan drivers shall be sized to handle minimum temperature air with no product flowing in cooler tubes without overload 7.12.2.6 Coupling shall be Waldron, Fast, Falk Steelflex, Metasteam or equal. 7.12.2.7 Induced draft prime movers shall not be located on top of an air cooler bundle inside shroud. 7.12.2.8 Air cooler fans shall have individual factory sealed stop / start switch. Switches shall be located near fan and shall be accessible from grade. If fans are elevated and support steel to grade is not provided, fan driver support frame shall have junction box to enable erector to extend wiring to grade. 7.12.3 Belt Drives 7.12.3.1 Belt drives shall have the following maximum horsepower and fan diameters: Pedestal mounts 22.37 kW (30 hp) Suspended mounts 37.28 kW (50 hp) Fan ring attachments 15 kW (20 hp) and / or 3.05 meters (10 feet) diameter 7.12.3.2 Direct motor drives may be used for fans up to 1.53 meters (5 feet) in diameter. 7.12.3.3 Belts shall be spark resistant and made of electrically conductive materials to prevent buildup of static electricity. Belts shall be classified as static-conducting in accordance with Underwriters Laboratories (UL) tests. 7.12.3.4 Belt drives shall be tooth belt type, Uniroyal HTD or equal. 7.12.3.5 Belts shall have minimum service factor of 2.0. 7.12.3.6 Noise shall comply with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-MAC-0601 Specification for Sound Control of Mechanical Equipment. 7.13 Lubrication

7.13.1 Fan and driver assemblies shall be designed such that lubrication maintenance is minimized. 7.13.2 Oil-less bearing and / or sealed assemblies with remote lubrication shall be considered. Bearing type shall be described in proposal. 7.13.3 Remote lubrication connections shall be provided to permit lubrication without shutdown of equipment. Lubrication connection shall be located in accessible position, preferably at grade, away from hazard of rotating equipment.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

Eng. Std. #: Page No.: Rev. No.: Rev. Date:

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7.13.4 Lubrication piping shall be 9.53 millimeters ( inch) O.D. x 0.89 millimeters (0.035 inch) wall thickness, type 304, ASTM A 269 tubing. 8. 8.1.1 WELDING AND HEAT TREATMENT Welding and post weld heat treatment shall comply with NOVA Engineering Guideline EGWPS-0101 Guidelines for Welding. Tubes and tubesheets shall be heat treated in accordance with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PVS-0201 Pressure Vessels, Design and Fabrication. INSPECTION AND TESTING Impact Testing Impact testing requirements shall be established using ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1. Exemption of impact testing allowed by paragraph UG-20 (f) shall be permitted only for carbon steel, P1, Group 1, up to 12.7 millimeters ( inch) thick. Weld Inspection Weld inspections shall comply with NOVA Engineering Guideline EG-WPS-0101 Guidelines for Welding. At a minimum, exchangers shall be inspected by spot radiography after post weld heat treatment in accordance with ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 and Section V. Subject to Purchaser approval, welds that cannot be satisfactorily radiographed may be ultrasonically examined. Tube seal welds shall be inspected in accordance with NOVA Engineering Guideline EGWPS-0101 Guidelines for Welding. Repair procedure shall be subject to Purchaser approval. Defects shall be repaired and reexamined. Hydrostatic Tests Shop hydrostatic test shall: Be performed after post weld heat treatment Comply with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PPG-1201 Piping, Pressure Testing For Piping and Equipment and ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 Air fin cooler tube bundles shall be hydrostatically field tested in accordance with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PPG-1201 Piping, Pressure Testing For Piping and Equipment.

8.1.2

9. 9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2

9.2 9.2.1

9.2.2

9.2.3

9.2.4

9.3 9.3.1

9.3.2

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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10.

PAINTING

10.1.1 Surface preparation, priming and painting of exterior surfaces shall comply with NOVA Engineering Standard ES-PCL-0201 External Coatings Standard. 11. SHIPMENT

11.1.1 Prior to shipment: Tube bundles shall be drained Flange faces shall be protected Openings in tube bundles shall be protected to prevent entry of water during shipment and storage 11.1.2 Equipment, including drivers, shall have suitable protection for outdoor storage for at least six (6) months without detrimental corrosion or deterioration. 11.1.3 Top of forced draft air cooler bundles shall be covered with 8 millimeters ( /16 inch) plywood or equal to prevent damage to fins during shipment and for up to six (6) months of storage at final destination. Plywood cover shall be in place throughout erection and unit construction. TABLE 1: PERMISSIBLE TYPES OF GASKETS Service Hydrocarbons all pressures Steam all pressures Water and Air 150 psi and below Above 150 psi Special Services Permissible Gasket Type M, MJ, SW M, MJ, SW M, MJ, S (refer to Note) M, MJ Supplier recommendation approval
5

subject

to

Purchaser

M MJ SW S Note:

= Metal (corrugated, solid, flat, or grooved) = Metal jacketed (ceramic fiber, non-asbestos inorganic millboard or graphite filled) = Spiral-wound metal (flexible graphite filled) = Sheet gasket Aramid fiber with suitable binder Type S shall not be used for internal floating head joints.

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

Eng. Std. #: Page No.: Rev. No.: Rev. Date:

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TABLE 2: GASKET MATERIALS Service Hydrocarbons non-corrosive Hydrocarbons corrosive or unusual Conditions Steam non-corrosive Steam corrosive (refer to Note 3.) Permissible Gasket Materials Iron (refer to Note 1) Supplier recommendation (refer to Note 2.) Copper, Stainless Steel Stainless steel, Admiralty, Monel

Notes: 1. Iron shall not be used in gaskets for water or steam service. 2. Subject to Purchaser approval. 3. Contains contaminants such as ammonia of CO 2. TABLE 3: TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS FOR GASKET MATERIALS Material Sheet (Aramid fiber) Admiralty Copper Iron Monel Special alloys Stainless steel (spiral wound) Flexible graphite (SW or MJ) Non-asbestos inorganic millboard Maximum Temperature C 176.6 204.4 204.4 400 371 ASME Code limits 593 593 260 F 350 400 400 750 700 ASME Code limits 1100 1100 500

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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12.

APPENDIX A: DEFINITION OF TERMS Code: A group of standards referring to the same topic or protocol. Criteria: All the compulsory requirements relating to the work in hand as set forth in the Engineering Standard. Discrepancy: A difference between, for example, a drawing and a written procedure. Exceptions: Irregularities; exceptions to the rule / standard, etc. Governance of Documents: The order of precedence to be taken when referring to documents governing the work referred to in this Standard. Guideline: A document that describes the preferred way to achieve engineering objectives. HAZ: Heat Affected Zone. NPS: Nominal Pipe Size. Procedures: Step-by-step action plan description. Quality Assurance (QA): A guarantee made by the supplier for the level of safety, quality and performance of their product(s) or service(s). Quality Control (QC): Primarily concerned with the procedures and processes in place to guarantee the specified product or service. References: Materials used in the compilation of this Standard. Regulation: A law-enforceable document issued originally by a government entity. SCH: Schedule Pipe Wall Thickness. Standard: A document that describes the mandatory ways to achieve engineering objectives. Variance (Major): That which has a major impact on the equipment or process design. Variance (Minor): design. That which has very little or no impact on the equipment or process

NOVA Chemicals Initial Issue Date: 31.10.2003

ENGINEERING STANDARDS

Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication

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13.

APPENDIX B: LINKS TO NOVA ENGINEERING DATASHEETS ES-EXG-9002 ES-EXG-9003 ES-EXG-9004 Design and Fabrication of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Datasheet Design and Fabrication of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Inspection and Testing Requirements Sheet (1TRS) Design and Fabrication of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Documentation Requirements Sheets (DRS)