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MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF

ETHIOPIA

FOREIGN TRADE PROMOTION


MANUAL FOR ETHIOPIAN DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS
ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS AFFAIRS GENERALDIRECTORATE ADDIS ABABA NOVEMBER 2007

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This manual would not have been possible without the cooperation and contributions of various government and private organizations. These organizations, just to mention a few, include the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Ethiopian Customs Authority, the National Bank of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority, the Ethiopian Sugar Production Support Center Sh. Co., the Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce, the various exporters associations (vis., the Ethiopian Coffee Exporters Association, the Ethiopian Meat Producers-Exporters Association , the Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association, the Ethiopian Leather Industries Association, Amibara Agricultural Development Enterprise, the Ethiopian Pulses, Oilseeds and Spices Processors-Exporters Association and the Ethiopian Textiles and Garment Producers Association. These organizations and many individuals therein have contributed to the study by making available their publications, reports prepared for internal use and, by responding to written specific requests; hence many thanks go to them.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................ .II List of Acronyms ............................................................................................................................VI Executive Summary...................................................................................................................... VII Introduction: Background and Objective............................................................................... ......9 1. Overview of Ethiopian Foreign Trade Structure and Prospects ........................................11 1.1 Foreign Trade Policy Environment ...................................................................................11 1.2 Foreign Trade Policy Targets and Strategies ....................................................................12 1.3 1.4 1.5 Export Performance ......................................................................................................12 Major Export Products .................................................................................................13 Import Structure and Major Import Products ..........................................................15

1.6 Direction of External Trade ................................................................................................15 1.6.1 Major Destinations of Ethiopian Exports ..................................................................15 1.6.2 Major Sources of Ethiopian Imports ............................................................................16 1.7 Trade Balance ..........................................................................................................................16 1.8 Export Potential/ Opportunities .........................................................................................17 1.9 Trade in Services .....................................................................................................................21 1.10 Market Access and Opportunities for Ethiopian Exports .............................................22 2. Domestic Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework relevant to Import-Export Trade .......................................................................................................................................................24 2.1 Laws, Regulations, Procedures, National Tariff Structure ...............................................24 2.1.1 Export Regulation ............................................................................................................24 2.1.2 Export Procedures ...........................................................................................................24 2.1.3 Import Regulation ............................................................................................................26 2.2 Incentives Structure Related to Import-Export Trade .......................................................30 2.3 Mode of Payment .....................................................................................................................34 2.4 Mode of Transport, Access to the Sea and Transit Regulations .......................................36 2.5 Mode of Delivery ......................................................................................................................37 3. Provisions of Export Market Development Services ..............................................................39 3.1 Market Intelligence Services ..................................................................................................39 3.2 Export Market Research ........................................................................................................40 3.3 Export Promotion and Marketing Services .........................................................................42 III

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3.3.1 Recruiting host country importers ...............................................................................42 3.3.2 Setting-up a Showroom .................................................................................................43 3.3.3 Exhibitions, Trade Fairs and Trade Shows ................................................................43 3.3.4 Export Promotion through Networks ........................................................................45 3. 4. Match Making ........................................................................................................................45 3.4.1 Provision of Information ..............................................................................................45 3.4.2 Incoming Trade Missions .............................................................................................46 3.4.3 Outgoing Trade Missions .............................................................................................47 4. Facilitating Priority Imports and Technology Transfer .........................................................48 4.1 Identification of Imports ........................................................................................................48 4.2 Supporting Buyer-Seller Negotiations ..................................................................................48 4.3 Acting as Procurement Center ...............................................................................................49 5. Bilateral, Regional and Multilateral Trade Negotiation Services ............................................51 5.1 Studying Options for Trade Relations ..................................................................................51 5.2 Bilateral Trade Negotiation Services .....................................................................................52 5.3 Regional and Multilateral Treaty Negotiations ....................................................................53 5.4 Trade Agreement Advisory Services .....................................................................................54 5.5 Soliciting Trade Related Technical Assistance and Capacity Building Support (TRTAS) .....................................................................................................................................................55 6. Handling Trade Related Enquiries, Disputes and Complaints ...............................................56 6.1 Handling Trade Related Enquiries ........................................................................................56 6.1.1 General Enquiries ..............................................................................................................56 6.1.2 Specific Enquiries ..............................................................................................................56 6.2 Handling Trade Disputes and Complaints ..........................................................................56 Annex I: List and Brief Description of Major Ethiopian Export Products..............................58 Annex II: Address List of Major Ethiopian Export Product Exporters...................................72 Annex III: Mode of Payment and External Trade Related Financial Regulation ....................90 Annex IV: Outline for Product Market Research........................................................................101 Annex V: Trade Enquiry Form................................................................................................... ..103 Annex VIa: List of Freight Forwarders.........................................................................................104 Annex VIb: List of Freight Forwarders and Shipping Agents...................................................105 Annex VIc: List of Shipping Agents..............................................................................................105

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Annex VII: Address List of Ethiopian Institutions Related to External Trade......................106 Annex VIII: Ethiopian Export Performance by Commodity...................................................109 Annex IX: Trade Balance of Ethiopia with Major Trading Partners.......................................111 Annex X: Selected Ethiopian Export Items for the Year 2006.................................................111 Annex XI: Selected Ethiopian Import Items for the Year 2006...............................................120

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List of Acronyms
ACP African Caribbean and Pacific (Countries) ADLI Agricultural Development-led Industrialization AGOA American Growth and Opportunity Act BPR Business Process Re-engineering CAD Cash-Against-Document CIF Cost-Insurance-Freight Co. Company COMESA Common Market foe Eastern and Southern Africa DFQF Duty-Free-Quota-Free EBA Everything-But-Arms E. C. Ethiopian Calendar EPA Economic Partnership Agreement ETB Ethiopian Birr EU European Union EUR 1 Movement Certificate when exporting to the European Union markets FDI Foreign Direct Investment FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia FOB Free-on-Board FTA Free Trade Area GDP Gross Domestic Product GSP Generalized System of Preferences HS Harmonized System ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ID Identification Card ICC International Chamber of Commerce ICO International Customs Organization L/C Letter of Credit LDCs Least Developed Countries MDGs Millennium Development Goals MFN Most Favored nation MOTI Ministry of Trade and Industry NBE National Bank of Ethiopia ODA Official Development Assistance PO Purchase Order UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development SNNPR Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region TRTA Trade Related Technical Assistance UAE United Arab Emirates UK United Kingdom USA United States of America USD United States Dollar WTO World Trade Organization

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Executive Summary
Based on various pertinent policy documents of the country, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has prepared a five-year Strategic Plan and has conducted an extensive Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) study on most of its core functions. The outcomes of the Strategic Plan and the BPR study have clearly underscored the role and contribution of economic diplomacy to the successful realization of the development goals of the country and have thereby identified specific economic diplomacy activities that should be carried out by the Headquarters and the Missions abroad. Foreign trade promotion is one of the core functions of the Ministry that have undergone a thorough re-engineering. The re-engineering activity stressed the need for an "operational" manual that contains the guidelines for the provision of foreign trade promotion services by the Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions abroad. Accordingly, this manual contains the operational steps that Ethiopian Missions and the diplomats therein, specifically, those that are assigned for the task of promoting and safeguarding Ethiopian interests in export and import trade, could use in their day to day activities. In addition, the manual provides an extensive coverage of the performance of the foreign trade sector in Ethiopia. Extensive data has also been used with a view to backing up facts with figures, with the understanding that the data would need to be updated as time goes by. The manual also touches on the domestic legal and regulatory framework shaping the sector. Accordingly, Chapter One deals with an overview of the structure and prospects of Ethiopia's foreign trade relations. As such, the Chapter extensively covers issues such as export performance, trade balance, major export and import items, major destinations of exports and major sources of imports, export opportunities/potential, and market access conditions and opportunities for Ethiopian export products. Chapter Two extensively covers issues such as the laws, regulations and the tariff structure; the incentive structures related to foreign trade; modes of payment, delivery and transport; and transit regulations. Chapter Three elaborates the specific steps and guidelines that a Mission and/ or a diplomat should follow in order to efficiently and effectively deliver export promotion services. It describes the steps to be taken, for instance, in assessing export market opportunities, market research, organizing showrooms, participating in trade fairs and so on. Chapter Four deals with activities and services related to facilitating priority imports and

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technology transfer. It also covers issues related to acting as a procurement center for Ethiopian imports. Chapter Five, contains the guidelines to be followed by Missions and diplomats in their role as participants and facilitators of trade negotiations. More specifically, the Chapter consists the steps and guidelines that focus on bilateral, regional and multilateral trade negotiations. The last chapter in the main body, Chapter Six briefly describes the tasks related to handling trade related disputes and complaints. The manual also contains a substantial material in the form of eleven annexes. Annex I contains the list and description of the major Ethiopian export products. The description of the products consists of their HS (Harmonized System) codes, description, uses, specification, production location and the major export destinations of the products. The full addresses of the major exporters of Ethiopian export products is compiled in Annex II. Annex III contains Mode of payment and External Trade Related Financial Regulations. Annex IV provides a template or a brief outline for product market research. Annex VII embodies trade enquiry form. Annex VI a-c depict, respectively, list of freight forwarders, list of freight forwarders and shipping agents and list of shipping agents where as Annex VII contains the full addresses of those Ethiopian institutions that are directly or indirectly connected with foreign trade. Annex VIII depicts Ethiopian Export Performance by Commodity. Annex IX contains Trade Balance of Ethiopia with Major Trading Partners. The last two annexes (Annex X and XI) contain data for the year 2006 on the major export and import items of the country (with description of the items, destination or origin, FOB value in Birr in the case of exports and CIF value in the case of imports). It is believed that the manual could serve as a good tool in the day to day operation of the Ethiopian diplomats entrusted with the task of promoting foreign trade of the country.

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Introduction: Background and Objective


The Foreign Affairs and National Security Policy and Strategy document which is currently under implementation was formulated and issued by the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in 2002. This document opened a new avenue and chapter for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Diplomatic Missions of Ethiopia in terms of clearly defining the role and policy direction that the Ministry and the Missions should pursue in the field of economic diplomacy. The said document articulated the goals, strategies and priorities of the economic diplomacy efforts of the country. Based on this and other pertinent policy documents of the country, the Ministry has prepared a five-year Strategic Plan and has conducted an extensive Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) study on most of its core functions. The outcomes of the Strategic Plan and the BPR study have clearly underscored the role and contribution of economic diplomacy to the successful realization of the development goals of the country and have thereby identified specific economic diplomacy activities that should be carried out by the Headquarters and the Missions abroad. One of the core functions of the Ministry and the Ethiopian Missions that have undergone re-engineering are trade and tourism promotion services. Accordingly, the BPR study thoroughly assessed the weaknesses and strengths of the trade promotion services that had hitherto been provided by the Ministry and the Missions, made recommendations and re-designed new services and processes. One of the findings of the study is the need for an "operational" manual that contains the guidelines for the provision of the newly identified and re-designed trade promotion services by the Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions abroad. The approval of that recommendation has, thus, given birth to the idea of preparing this manual. Accordingly, this manual is prepared with the main objective of providing Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions, and the diplomats therein, a compact and practical set of guidelines that can be followed in the day to day trade promotion activities. While the main focus of the manual is on providing the basic tools of conducting trade promotion activities, it nevertheless covers the general foreign trade context in which the promotion services are to be provided. As such, the whole of Chapter One and Chapter Two of the manual are dedicated to providing the general picture of Ethiopia's foreign trade relations. Chapters 3 to 5 present concise guidelines for providing trade promotion services. More information
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related to the major Ethiopian export products and their respective major exporters, foreign trade statistics, various regulations and procedures related to foreign trade, etc. is provided in the appendices (Annex I-XI). Last but not least, as time and space limitations make it difficult to address every aspect of the promotion services in this manual, users are strongly advised to consult the relevant BPR study documents as and when the need for more information regarding a specific service process or activity arises.

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Chapter One: Overview of Ethiopian Foreign Trade Structure and Prospects


1.1. Foreign Trade Policy Environment

Needless to say, Ethiopia is one of the Least Developed Countries in the world. Its economy is based on agriculture. As such, the sector contributes about 45% to the GDP, 85% to employment, 85% to export, supplies raw materials to the manufacturing sector and food to the urban population. In recognition of this multi-dimensional role of agriculture in the economy, the Government of Ethiopia has set Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) as a long-term national development strategy. The strategy envisages that realization of agricultural development will fuel and ultimately bring about a fundamental transformation of the entire economy. In line with the basic tenets of ADLI, the country has enacted an industrial development strategy that aims at attaining the international competitiveness of the sector, in view of the competitive global environment. Other sectoral strategies in such areas as road, education, capacity building, health and so forth have in them the lofty objective of enhancing the productive and supply capacity as well as that of human and institutional capacity of the country. The stable macroeconomic environment together with the freemarket economic system has enabled the private economic agents to make economic decisions in the hitherto unprecedented scale. These and similar other measures in a range of areas, coupled with the stable political environment have yielded an encouraging economic dividends. As such, the national economy has shown double digit growth rates in the several most recent years. In maintaining such a high level of economic growth, the country envisages not only to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) at the target date but also to propel itself into the middle income category in the not-too-distant future. It can thus be said that the aforementioned favorable policy environment, accompanied by concerted actions, no doubt, would lay a strong foundation for the export sector to flourish now and in the years to come.

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1.2 Foreign Trade Policy Targets and Strategies Generally speaking, Ethiopia's foreign trade policy has three general objectives: (1) developing and ensuring broad international market for the country's agricultural products in particular; (2) generating sufficient foreign exchange which is essential for importing capital goods, intermediate inputs and other goods and services that are necessary for the growth and development of the economy; and (3) improving the efficiency and international competitiveness of domestic producers through participation in the international market. The export promotion strategy of Ethiopia is upheld by three main pillars: (1) focusing on limited number of priority exportable products; (2) focusing on providing an all-round support to exporters; and (3) executing export promotion activities in a well organized manner. (Since the export promotion activities of Ethiopia's Diplomatic Missions form part and parcel of the overall national efforts, these three pillars should also form the basis on which the export promotion services provided by the Missions are to be founded.) While the first pillar implies that the focus of the country's (and hence the Missions') export promotion activities are to be selected exportable agricultural products in the medium term, this does not mean that other (non-priority) products are to be discouraged or ignored. 1.3 Export Performance The Government of Ethiopia has been exerting at most effort to bolster the export sector. This has not only resulted in sustained and remarkable growth in the export sector but also has paid off in terms of diversifying the narrow range of export products through new investments in export sectors such as floriculture and textile. The multi-dimensional supportive interventions of the Government under the umbrella strategy of ADLI have led to encouraging results in most key export product categories; in particular, in products such as pulses and oil seeds. The growth trend in the export sector is expected to continue at the current or at an improved rate in the near future. In order to show the performance of the export sector during the past few years more clearly, attempt has been made to present data related to the past 10 years in Table 1 below based on the raw data obtained from the Ethiopian Customs Authority1. This is
The Economic and Business Affairs General-Directorate managed to obtain raw data on Ethiopia's exports and imports for the ten years period from 1997-2006, which it has deposited in its data base. The
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complemented by the 6 years' data presented in Annex VIII. From the data it is abundantly clear that the performance of the export sector of Ethiopia has indeed been remarkable in the past few years. As such, the total value of exports has increased from ETB 3.9 billion in 1997 to ETB 8.9 billion in 2006 which is a two and half fold growth. As Annex VIII clearly shows, in the period between 1994 - 1999 E.C., export earnings grew on average by 22% with the earnings rising from USD 436 million in 1994 E. C. to USD 1.2 billion in 1999 E.C. Encouraged by the consecutive growth of earnings from the export sector, the government envisages that such earnings would stand between USD 1.6-1.8 billion in the year 2000 E.C. (2007/08). Table 1: Performance of Ethiopia's Merchandize Trade (value in ETB)2 Year FOB Value of Exports CIF Value of Imports Merchandize Trade Balance 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 3,919,004,423 3,947,987,070 3,550,532,275 3,958,930,209 3,833,164,327 4,056,198,999 4,989,643,902 5,315,220,673 7,848,147,134 8,779,721,238 7,490,578,841 10,391,891,031 11,068,873,507 10,429,320,387 15,341,831,208 13,724,796,129 22,988,435,399 26,263,630,318 33,271,475,705 39,988,259,522 -3,571,574,418 -6,443,903,961 -7,518,341,232 -6,470,390,178 -11,508,666,881 -9,668,597,130 -17,998,791,497 -20,948,409,645 -25,423,328,571 -31,208,538,284

Source: Computed based on Ethiopian Customs Authority data 1.4 Major Export Products3 The structure of the export sector of Ethiopia is characterized by high commodity concentration as is the case with least developed countries. That is, the sector is dominated
General-Directorate made computations of exports, imports, trade balance, direction of trade etc. from this raw data. 2 The Ethiopian Customs Authority issues a full year's data only at the end of December of a given year. 3 For more practical purposes, a brief description of the major export products of Ethiopia and the addresses of the major exporters is annexed towards the end of this manual.

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by a few primary products that account for a lion's share of the country's export earnings. During the period 1994-1999 E.C., the leading export products of the country were coffee; oilseeds, pulses and spices; chat; hides and skins; and in very recent years flower and gold. For example, during the 1999 E.C. (2006/07), the share of the biggest contributors to the export earnings of the country was as follows: coffee (36%), pulses, oil seeds and spices (22.6%) of which the oilseeds were the most dominant (15.9%), gold (8.2), chat (7.8%), and hides, skins and leather products (7.6%). In absolute terms this means that coffee accounted for USD 424 million; pulses, oil seeds and spices' share was USD 267.6 million of which oilseeds accounted for USD 188 million; gold USD 97 million;; and hides and skins fetched USD 90 million; chat fetched USD 88.5 million and so on in the same year (i.e. 2006/2007). It is therefore abundantly clear that export earnings from coffee still dominate and indeed exceed that of the second major export earners, namely pulses, oilseeds and spices by USD 157 million in that year. There has been, however, an interesting new development in the export composition of the country in recent years. That is, even though the sector is still dominated by a few primary products and coffee is still the biggest foreign exchange earner for the country, its percentage contribution to export earnings has gradually declined from 57% on average during the 1997/98-2000/01 period to 37% during 2000/01-2006/07 period. That is a decline from a share of more than half to about one third in a matter of few years. As can be seen from the annexed data, this phenomenon occurred not because the absolute total (dollar) amount that coffee earns in a year has declined but because other sectors' contribution to export earnings has increased. That is, the contribution of product categories such as pulses and oilseeds and new comers such as flower has reduced the dominance of coffee in the export sector of Ethiopia - indicating a process of gradual horizontal export diversification. Indeed the earnings from flower export have shown a dramatic growth such that it rose from a mere USD 159,000 in 1994 E.C. to USD 65 million in 1999 E.C. which is a four hundred fold growth, in a matter of six years. Even though the country is trying to increase its earnings from coffee by increasing its supply and by activities such as branding its coffees (Sidamo, Harar, Yirgachefe, etc.), it is even more determined to reduce the relative contribution of the product in the export sector by diversifying its export composition.

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1.5 Import Structure and Major Import Products A look at Table 1 above shows that not only exports but also imports of Ethiopia have shown a dramatic increase in value in recent years. In fact, imports have increased in value much more than exports. This is a reflection of the effects of liberalization of external trade sector and the rising demand for import in the country as the result of the robust economic growth and investment activity; and possibly, the rising international prices of petroleum and petroleum related import products. As a result, the deficit in trade balance went from ETB 3.6 billion in 1997 to ETB 31.2 billion in 2006. However, a look at the structure and composition of Ethiopian imports, reveals that capital goods account for the lion's share in the country's import expenditure, followed by imports of non-durable consumer goods, semi-finished goods and petroleum. 1.6 Direction of Foreign Trade 1.6.1 Major Destinations of Ethiopian Exports The General-Directorate's computations from the data obtained from the Ethiopian Customs Authority reveal that the share of the major destinations of Ethiopian exports in terms of individual trading partners or countries for the year 2005 to have been the following: Germany (13.3%), China (9.1%), Japan (7.3%), Djibouti (5.9%), Saudi Arabia (6%), Italy (5%), and the US (4.7%). Indeed during the three years, i.e. from 2004-2006, Germany remained the single most important destination for the Ethiopian exports. In the same period, the second, the third and the fourth, etc places were alternatively taken by other countries. As such these places were occupied in 2006 by Japan, China, Saudi Arabia, Italy and Djibouti; in 2005 by China, Japan, Switzerland, and Saudi Arabia; and in 2004 by the US, Japan, Saudi Arabia and Italy. This means that from Europe, Germany and from Asia, China and Japan were the most important trading partners for Ethiopian exports. A notable fact regarding the destination of Ethiopian exports in recent years is that Djibouti's share went down from 28.05 percent of the total in 2001 to just 5.99 percent in 2005 while that of China's shot up from a meager 0.39 percent to 9.30 percent.4

The composition of Ethiopian exports for the year 2006 is appended herewith.

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1.6.2 Major Sources of Ethiopian Imports According to Ministry of Trade and Industry's computations (based on Ethiopian Customs Authority data), the most important source of Ethiopian import is the Middle East and Asia which accounted for 57.5% in 2004/05 which was a remarkable rise from its share of 15% in 2000/01. This is followed by Europe whose share showed a slight increase in the same period from 23.1% to 25.5%. The third and fourth places were taken by North America and Africa As for the individual trading partners, Saudi Arabia's share which was 9.7 percent in 2003 went up to 15.7 in 2005 while that of China which was around 9.6 percent as recently as 2003 has grown to 12.7 percent in 2005. In the case of China, the increase is basically the result of the fact that that country has become a major source of lower cost consumer goods and other basic manufactured items. In the case of Saudi Arabia, the increase is attributed to the petroleum price hikes witnessed in the period under consideration as the country is the major source of Ethiopia's petroleum and related products. In general, Saudi Arabia and China are the two most important sources of Ethiopian imports in recent year; thereby demonstrating the fact that the Middle East and the Far East are the major sources of the Ethiopian imports.5 1.7 Trade Balance In the earlier sections, it was noted that the value of Ethiopian exports has shown a consistent and a remarkable growth in recent years. It was also noted that the imports of the country have shown even more pronounced increase during the same period. Consequently, the trade balance of the country (which is the difference between the total value of exports and that of imports) has been showing a growing deficit. For example the surge in imports from ETB 7.5 billion in 1997 to ETB 40 billion in 2006 compared to the export earnings which stood at 3.9 billion and 8.8 billion in the same period led to the deterioration of the balance of trade position. This meant that the share of export in import financing (export/import) declined from 52% in 1997 to 22% in 2006/07. Consistent with this overall situation, Ethiopia's trade balance with its major trading partners calls for concern. Accordingly, as Annex IX clearly depicts Ethiopia had deficit
The composition and origin of Ethiopian imports for the year 2006 is attached as an appendix at the end of this manual.
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trade balance in 2004/2005 with all its major trading partners (except with Germany). During this period the country had singe largest trade deficit with Saudi Arabia, followed in descending order by China, USA, UAE, Italy, UK and so on. Earlier in 2000/2001, except with the Sudan and Djibouti, the country had the largest deficit with China, followed in descending order by Italy, USA, UK, France, Saudi Arabia and so on. The picture is almost the same in the intervening period. The aforementioned deficit in Ethiopia's trade balance can be interpreted in two ways. On a negative note, it can be seen as cause for alarm since such a wide and growing gap between the value of exports and imports of a country means that the country continues to need other sources of financing its import demand such as foreign aid and credit; and needs the resources at an increasing rate. On a positive note, the fact that the lion's share of the value of imports is taken up by capital goods plus intermediate inputs is in fact an indication of the fact that the domestic economy is growing and the productive capacity of the country is expanding at an increasing rate. In any case, the fact still remains that Ethiopia remains what is technically known as an "import compressed" economy - an economy whose growth potential could artificially be limited by its inability to import what it needs for growth due to the gap between the value of exports and the import demand. The fact that most of the import products of the country are "necessities" such as capital goods and petroleum means that trying to limit imports is not really a viable option to solve the problem of the persistent and widening trade imbalance. Therefore, the challenge facing the country is to increase the pace of the growth of exports even more. It is with this understanding that the Government of Ethiopia is very keen to boost exports and has, as was mentioned in previous sections, made export promotion and expansion as a top priority in its economic development strategies. It is thus incumbent upon our diplomats to leave no stone unturned to search for markets for our products as well as to ensure mobilization of other development financial resources such as ODA, private capital for investment, private remittances, and so on to address the supply and productive capacity problems of the country thereby to bolster the export capacity of same. 1.8 Export Potential/ Opportunities According to Investment Guide to Ethiopia: Opportunities and Conditions which was published jointly by UNCTAD and ICC (in 2004), the fact that Ethiopia offers a stable political and economic environment as well as security; exceptional climate; almost complete absence of

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routine corruption; continuously improving infrastructure and public service delivery; and abundant, cheap and trainable labor force make it potentially an ideal destination for investment - and by implication for export. More specifically, even though Ethiopia is a large and very diverse country, the economic and the political environment is characterized by very little crime and disorder. The fact that Ethiopia has 18 ecological zones and five climatic zones ranging from alpine to desert means that the country is ideal for a wide variety of agricultural activities. Since Ethiopia is one of the less developed countries with the lowest levels of corruption, it can claim to offer one of the cleanest business climates in the developing world. Thus, besides all its untapped natural and human resources, the publication cited above describes Ethiopia as "Safe, peaceful, stable and very nearly free of corruption". This means that its economy has great potential to grow and prosper. Since the economic policies of the country are export oriented, economic growth in the country translates into export growth. Product specific export opportunities in brief are as follows: Coffee Ethiopian coffee is among the very best in the world. The diversified type of Coffee Arabica produced in the country is highly valued in the world markets, including for its gourmet, specialty and organic coffee. It is also used for blending with and upgrading coffees produced in other countries. Currently, the total area of the country covered by coffee is estimated to be more than 400,000 hectares and the total production at 350,000 tones per year. Annual exports approached 180,000 tons in 2006/07, a rapid rise compared to 58,000 tons in 1990/91.. Coffee remains the single most important export crop, fetching 424 million USD in 2006/07. Preliminary studies show that there is an ample room to increase coffee production through area expansion, productivity improvements and through further processing. Only less than 4% of the estimated 12.5 million hectares of highly suitable land is covered by coffee at the moment; and if the current 5-6 quintals/hectare yield could be improved to 10-12 quintals/hectare achieved by similar coffee variety producing countries like Kenya, it is possible to double the current level of total output from the existing cultivated land area. The successful conclusion of the current efforts underway to register and license fine Ethiopian coffees Sidamo, Harar and Yirgacheffe as brand names holds a promising future for Ethiopia to harness huge benefits from its natural resource endowment.

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Livestock and Livestock Products (Hides and Skins, Leather and Meat) Ethiopia has the largest livestock population in Africa. It is estimated that there are about 35 million heads of cattle, 11 million sheep, 10 million goats and 1 million camels. From theses resources, for example, Ethiopia is capable of supplying 16-18 million pieces of hides and skins per year. Not only the volume but also the unique quality of Ethiopian leather, some of which are considered to be of prime quality in international markets, gives the country a competitive edge over other countries. For example, Ethiopian goatskin named after a locality known as Bati is accorded a high place in the market to the extent that it is referred to as "Bati Genuine" (the international name given for high quality goat skins) and fetches the highest premium price in the world market while anything that looks like it is referred as Bati type and may be offered the next best price. Currently, there are 19 tanneries in operation,, four of which are state owned and the remaining under private ownership. They mainly produce semi-processed products for export and small quantities of finished leather for the domestic leather products industry and very small share for export. There are about 12 small and medium scale industries engaged in the production of leather garments, footwear and small leather articles for the export and domestic market. Ethiopia has great potential for the rapid development of its leather sector. Its short term strategy is on moving all leather production from the wet-blue stage to the crust and eventually finished stage. The strategy for the long-term is to gradually convert all available hides and skins to finished leather products: shoe uppers, shoes, jackets, bags, etc. It is worth mentioning that the country earned USD 89.5 million in 2006/07 from the export of hides and skins. With regard to meat and meat products, there are currently 5 export abattoirs of international standard and five meat processing plants which are capable of producing fresh and frozen as well as canned meat (such as corned beef, minced beef, stewed steak, corned mutton, goulash, etc.). The current cumulative capacity of these plants will enable the country to supply about 48,910 tones of chilled and frozen meat and 16,000 tones of canned meat annually. The rapid rise in export earnings from 1.7 million USD in 2000/01 to 18.3 million USD in 2005/06 is a vivid testimony of the opportunities available in the sector for further expansion. There is also a huge potential for export of live animals. Natural pasture which constitutes 51% of the total land area of the country is the main source of animal feed which provides for the growth of livestock free of chemical and hormones with great appeal

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for health conscious developed country consumers. Given the availability of suitable infrastructure and the export capacity of firms, the country can export large number of heads of sheep and goats and over 100,000 heads of cattle annually. There was a dramatic leap in the export of live animals such that in a short period of seven years the export earnings jumped from a mere USD 18,000 in 2000/01 to 36.8 million USD in 2006/07 thereby implying that the country has enormous potential yet to be tapped from the resources. Pulses and Oilseeds The fact that Ethiopia occupies a unique geographical area with sunny summer days, mild winters, and has similar other favorable agro-ecological conditions means that it is highly conducive for cultivation of most types of pulses and oil seeds. Since oilseed production in the country is usually undertaken without the use of pesticides and fertilizers, the products can be sold with organic labeling at premium price if appropriate certification is acquired. The oilseed export showed a rapid expansion and as such fetched 188 million USD in 2006/07 compared to about 37 million USD in 2001/02. Export of pulses also grew dramatically during the same period. Horticulture and Floriculture Another area where Ethiopia has great export potential is horticulture and floriculture. The country has agro-ecological, location and labor cost comparative advantage in the production and export of various types of tropical fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers. It also has ideal condition for items such as bobby beans, red onion, papaya, orange, potatoes, asparagus, avocado, mango and many others. The Ethiopian Government encourages companies with experience in agro-processing to invest in the floriculture sector. The recent investment boom in the cut flower production and export is a testimony that the country is capable of competing with major exporting countries such as Ecuador, Colombia and Kenya. Easy access to suitable and suitably located land, with host of generous government incentives provided to investors in the area, have opened up a great opportunity for production and export of floricultural and horticultural products. As a result, the rapidly growing domestic and foreign investment in the sector is expected to triple the total export (which was worth 81 million USD in 2006/07 (i.e., 64 million USD in the case of floriculture and 17 million USD in the case of horticulture) in the next two years. Textile and Garments

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Yet another area that holds great export potential for the country is the textile and garment sector. The existing capacity as well as the potential to expand further the supply of cotton through area expansion and productivity improvements, the availability of large reservoir of young easily trainable and low-wage labor force, the industrial tradition already established and the preferential market access the country enjoys in the US and EU markets under AGOA and EBA arrangements, respectively, together with the huge importance and support provided to the sector by the government mean that the sector is sure to become a competitive player in the world markets and a major foreign exchange earner in not so distant future. The foreign exchange earning from the sector rose to 12.6 million USD in 2006/07 from a mere 3.5 million USD in 2000/01, demonstrating the great potential to increase export earnings. 1.9 Trade in Services Notwithstanding the deficit in merchandise trade balance, net receipts from services exhibited a surplus throughout the period under consideration thereby offsetting part of the trade deficit. This was the result of rapid growth in receipts from travel, transportation and government services in the period under investigation. Data compiled by the NBE reveals that from 1997/98 to 2004/05 receipts from travel went up from USD 35.2 to USD179.9 million; transportation from USD 205 million to USD 416.2 million; and government services from USD 82.9 million to USD 197.9 million. These positive developments offset the observed pick-up in the payment for travel, transportation and other services, thus contributing to the surplus in the services account, which stood at USD 241.6 million in 2004/05. As a result of this and other net receipts (such as official transfers) in the services account, the staggering deficit in trade balance which was USD 2.8 billion in 2004/05 was reduced to USD 960 million in the current account balance in the same year. According to data from NBE, in 2006/2007, foreign exchange receipts from services and private transfers registered 18% and 59% growth and totaled 1.3 and 1.1 billion USD, respectively. In the same period, official transfers (grants and loans in the form of financial and material aid) amounted to 1.5 billion USD of which 78% was grant. All in all, the country obtained 6.2 billion USD from all sources including export earnings in the budget year 2006/2007. As a result, the balance of payments

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recovered from the deficit it encountered in the 2005/06 budget year and showed surplus at the end of 2006/2007 budget year. 1.10 Market Access and Opportunities for Ethiopian Exports Ethiopia enjoys preferential market access by virtue of being a member of the COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa) which embraces 23 countries with total population of about 380 million. A study commissioned by the government is underway to assess the implications of the zero-tariff regime under the COMESA Free Trade Area (FTA) arrangement. Meanwhile, Ethiopian exports are entitled to benefit from the customs duty reduction arrangement introduced before the establishment of the FTA once they meet the COMESA Rules of Origin criteria. Ethiopia has embarked on the process of the WTO accession negotiation by submitting its "Memorandum on the Foreign Trade Regime" to the Organization. The successful completion of the process would render the country, inter alias, unfettered access to the markets of the global body whose membership is increasingly assuming a universal character. Ethiopia is also involved in the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations that aim at addressing reciprocal market access issues between ACP-EU and among the ACP country blocks under the framework of the Cotonou Agreement which has redefined the relationship between African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and the EU. Further more, Ethiopia qualifies for a preferential market access to EU markets under the Everything But Arms (EBA) initiative and to the US markets under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). EBA is a preferential market access given by the EU to a group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) (including Ethiopia) that allows the countries to export their products duty free and without quantitative restrictions, excluding arms and ammunitions. Similarly, AGOA is part of the Trade and Development Act of the US Government promulgated in 2000. This non-reciprocal trade act provides that African products meeting eligibility requirements will receive duty and quota free treatment up to 2015. The Act provides most sub-Saharan African countries (including Ethiopia) with the most liberal access to the US market available to any country or region with which the US does not have a Free trade Agreement. A broad range of manufactured goods from Ethiopia are entitled to preferential market access under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) in Australia, Canada, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, USA and

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most countries in the EU. No quota restrictions are placed on Ethiopian exports falling under the 3000-plus items currently eligible for GSP treatment. The People's Republic of China has also granted almost all Ethiopian export products (agricultural products and raw materials, in particular) duty free access to its markets. Ethiopia, as an LDC and as acceding country to the WTO, is expected to benefit from the duty-free and quota-free (DFQF) market access opportunities for LDCs being negotiated in the WTO in the context of the ongoing Doha development Agenda negotiations. On top of all these, Ethiopia's geographical proximity to the Middle East and Gulf countries offers great potential market for Ethiopian export products. There is also great potential particularly for export of perishable but high value products (such as floricultural and horticultural products) from Ethiopia to the EU due to its geographical proximity (relative to its competitors). All in all, the aforementioned potential renders Ethiopia a well placed country not only as an investment destination but also as a springboard to huge market destinations.

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Chapter Two: Domestic Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework Relevant to Import-Export Trade
2.1 Laws, Regulations, Procedures, National Tariff Structure 2.1.1 Export Regulation (a) Registration requirement for engaging in exporting Export registration requirements in Ethiopia follow the same procedures as those that apply to import registration requirements; these procedures have been elaborated in 2.1.3 (a) below. (b) Export Licensing procedure The details of export licensing procedure are the same as the import licensing procedure. The proclamation and regulations mentioned in 2.1.3 below apply also for export procedures. As in the case of importers, exporters are required authorization to export certain products. Export products, which require authorization and authorizing government institutions, are indicated here under: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development for coffee, forest products, live animals including wild animals, plants and birds; Ministry of Mines and Energy for mineral products, such as marbles, gold, and other precious metals and stones. In addition to the above-mentioned government ministries, the Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia gives authorization by inspecting and certifying Export Products for which relevant Ethiopian Standards have been established and are made mandatory under Council of Ministers Regulation No. 13/1990. 2.1.2 Export Procedures There are a range of procedures and various types of documentation required for export of goods from Ethiopia. Upon the decision to accept a purchase order, the first thing an exporter needs to do is to finalize the export contract stipulating the method of payment

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for the export consignment. Then it has to apply for the registration of export order with one of the commercial banks operating in the country or the National Bank of Ethiopia. According to the regulations issued by the National bank of Ethiopia, all exports except coffee have to be registered with any of the commercial banks operating in the country, and only the registration for export of coffee should take place at the national Bank of Ethiopia. The first stage in the registration process involves registering the initial import intent issued by the buyer. The documents required at this stage are a valid export license and a document that indicates the purchase intent from the buyer. The second stage involves finalizing the export contract and acquiring an export permit that allows the export of that particular consignment. The export contract required by the commercial banks includes the following copies depending on the modes of payment involved: LC (6 copies), advance payment (5 copies), CAD (5 copies) and consignment note (5 copies). At this stage, the exporter is required to fill the Customs Clearance Annex form issued by the commercial bank on behalf of the Ethiopian Customs Authority. This later facilitates the clearance of goods at the checkpoints by the Customs Authority. After preparing the export goods with the product description in the export contract, the exporter has to make arrangements for suitable packaging and apply to the Quality and Standards Authority or other pre-shipment institutions of the country depending on the type and nature of the product to be exported. The next step is to acquire a certificate of origin if the regulations of the importing country require so. This is necessary if the exports are to qualify under some preferential tariff or other treatment for originating in Ethiopia. The next step is acquiring customs clearance from the Customs Authority in order to be able to pass all Ethiopian checkpoints. The documents required for this purpose are a valid export license; export permit for the consignment from a commercial bank or the NBE; certificate of origin; quality and standard or pre-shipment inspection certificate;, commercial invoice, packing list, Customs Declarations Annex form stamped by a commercial bank; and an insurance certificate. Finally, after delivering the goods by fulfilling the necessary documents, the exporter hands over all the relevant documents to its banker for collecting payments.

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2.1.3 Import Regulation6 (a) Registration Requirements for Engaging in Import The Government of Ethiopia has issued Proclamation No. 67/1997 (amendment Proclamation No. 376/2003) and Council of Ministers Regulations No. 13 /1997 (Amendment Regulation No. 95/2003) for Federal Government Commercial Registration and Licensing. The requirements are clearly stipulated in the Proclamations and the Regulations. These are: No person shall engage in commercial activities such as import, export, wholesale, retail, manufacturing and service rendering business unless registered in a commercial register. Foreign nationals considered as domestic investors and Ethiopians who wish to have an import license and engage in any business activities in Ethiopia have to make a principal commercial registration. For this purpose, a businessperson has to be registered principally at the Ministry of Trade and Industry or at regional states trade bureau. Principal commercial registration is made only once except it is amended upon the request of the trader when he/she wants to change the particulars in the initial registration. Whereas the businessperson (physical or juridical) wants to open branches at different places he/she makes a summary registration at the Ministry of Trade and Industry or regional states trade bureau where he/she opens a branch. Such registration is made by citing the particulars entered in the principal commercial register in brief. For Ethiopian nationals a recent passport size photograph, a complete application form and photocopy of the applicant's ID card is the requirement to be registered for a principal and a summary registration. Foreign nationals considered as domestic investors shall apply for a principal or summary registration by completing and submitting the application form to the Ministry of Trade and Industry together with the following in two copies: his/her recent passport size photograph;

Adapted from MOTI (December 2006), Memorandum on Foreign Trade Regime: Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.

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a photocopy of the pages of his/her passport which identify him/her and indicate his/her legal entry into the country; investment permit; and Photocopy of his residence permit. Registration fee: (a) Principal registration (ETB 80 or USD 9.30) (b) Summary registration (ETB 10 or USD 1.20)

Unless adding value, foreign nationals are not allowed to engage in import-export trade. (b) Characteristics of the National Tariff The national tariff is based on the Harmonized System (HS). The legal framework for the application of the HS is Article 4 of the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System and Ratification Proclamation No. 67/1993, Article 5 of the Definitions of Power and Duties of the Council of Ministers and the Executive Organs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No. 4/1994 and Article 51 (1) of Proclamation 60/1997. All Customs tariffs revisions and amendments since 1993 have been done based on the Internationally Accepted Commodities Descriptions and Coding System of the HS including the latest amendment of import tariffs Regulation No. 209/2003, dated January 9, 2003. The Harmonized System (HS) is articulated in 4 digits, 6 digits and 8 digits of the Harmonized System (HS) tariff item number. The HS 1996 version had been replaced by the 2002 version as from January 1, 2003. Both import and export tariffs are based on ad valorem duties. There are no preferential tariffs other than for imports from the COMESA member states. All imports from the Sudan (Proclamation No 318/2003 and Article 4 of the Agreement), and imports of salt, fish and fish products, and bottled or canned water from Djibouti are zero-rated. The import duty rates for the rest of imports from COMESA member states are 10 percent less than the (most favored nation) MFN duty rates. A series of customs tariff amendments and measures have been taken since 1993. The maximum import tariff has been decreased step by step from 230 percent to 35 percent. The average tariff rate has also been reduced from 41.6 percent to 17.5 percent and tariff bands from 23 to 6 including the zero rate bands. As per Regulation No.80/2002, the

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existing customs tariff amendment has been done in January 2003. At present, there are five import tariff bands excluding zero rates. They are 5,10,20,30 and 35 percent. Accordingly, the tariff bands, the number of tariff lines, imports and share of imports for the year 2003 are shown in the Table below. Table 2: The Existing Distribution of Tariff Bands (2003)

Source: Ministry of Finance & Economic Development, based on Ethiopian Customs Authority data. * Including 5 tariff lines that could not be allocated among the bands. The number of tariff lines is 5608, out of which 5424 are subject to ad valorem duties while the rest are duty free items and prohibited. Currently the lowest and highest tariffs are 5% and 35% respectively, which makes the dispersion of 30%. The current simple arithmetic average of all tariff lines, is 20 % and the weighted average tariff rate is 17.5 %. As indicated in Table 3 above, the share of 2003 annual imports of goods falling within each band is as follows: zero percent band, 4.3 %; five percent band, 20.1 %; ten percent band, 15.8%, twenty percent band, 13.7 %; thirty percent band, 15.1 %; thirty-five percent band, 31.0 %. In general, the duty-free category of imports is mostly comprised of fertilizers, articles of wood, railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof, aircraft, spacecraft and parts thereof, etc. Within the 5 and 10 percent bands are raw materials and machineries, which are used by manufacturing industries. Items within the 20 percent band include organic chemicals, carton, boxes, envelopes, sacks and bags, thread, synthetic filaments, artificial filaments, yarn and synthetic monofilament staple fibers. Items within the 30 and 35 percent bands include perfumes, soaps, tiles, transmission belts, ornaments, silk, cotton, jewelry, footwear, motor vehicles, textiles products and toys. To encourage sectoral development, and to accommodate social health and security issues, the Ethiopian customs tariff book also contains the second schedule which mainly lists conditional exemptions at

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nil or reduced rates and exemptions at nil for importation by or on behalf of privileged organizations, persons, public bodies and institutions. (c) Tariff Quotas and Tariff Exemptions Ethiopia does not apply tariff quotas. However, there are tariff exemptions (relief from duties and taxes) for various kinds of imports. These include: Exemptions granted on imports by diplomatic missions or consular privileges according to the Vienna Convention; Relief on goods imported for education, scientific and cultural materials (UNESCO agreement); Equipment or material related to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO Convention); Commercial samples and advertising materials; Importation of tourist publicity documents and materials; Goods for display or use at exhibitions, fairs and meetings; Relief on personal effects imported by investors and capital goods for the specific project under the permission of government authorities; For goods imported for home use by international organizations and etc.; Exemptions for humanitarian and religious purposes; and Tariff exemptions granted by Proclamation no. 249/2001 (revised in 207) as export trade duty incentive scheme. (d) Import licensing procedure Pursuant to Proclamation No. 67/1997 (Amendment Proclamation No.376/2003) and Council of Ministers Regulations No.13/1997 (Amendment Regulation No.95/2003), registered importers are required to obtain license from the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The import of certain goods and materials are regulated from the line of responsibility entrusted upon government offices and authorities. In line with this, there are offices, which administer the imports of different products. The products that need authorization and the relevant institutions are indicated here below: Road Transport Authority - for imports of motor vehicles and transport machinery

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Ministry of Health (Drug Administration and Control Authority) - for human and animal drugs and medical equipment Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development - for pesticides, seeds, plants and other articles, which are liable to be infested or infected with plant pests, live animals and animal products.

The Quality and Standard Authority of Ethiopia gives import accreditation by inspecting and certifying products for which relevant Ethiopian Standards have been established and are made mandatory under Council of Ministers Regulation No. 13/1990. Communication apparatus and similar equipment like radio receivers, gaming machines, lottery tickets and games; armaments, dynamites and fire guns, cigarettes and petroleum are exclusively imported by the Ethiopian Telecommunication Corporation, National Lottery Administration, Ministry of Defence and Ethiopian Tobacco and Cigarette Enterprise and Ethiopian Petroleum Enterprise respectively. (d) Rules of Origin Ethiopia has not established its own rules of origin. However, it applies the COMESA rules of origin for imports from and exports to COMESA member states. The Ethiopian Customs Authority also signs the GSP, EUR1, and ICO certificates and provides VISA for AGOA beneficiaries. 2.2 Incentives Structure Related to Import-Export Trade As was stated in previous sections, the Ethiopian Government is keen to encourage exports and to attract foreign investment in priority sectors. Accordingly, it has drawn out various legal and policy incentives structures and specific strategies to this end. One such incentive structure is the tariff and duty exemption scheme granted under Procl. No. 249/2001 (as revised in 2007) and is known as the Export Trade Duty Incentive Scheme Establishment Proclamation. The revised proclamation deepens the Export Trade Duty Incentive Scheme by addressing the limitations observed in the implementation process of the earlier one and extends the scheme to the 'indirect exporters' that contribute to the growth of export trade. It is worth mentioning at this juncture that all export products are exempt from any taxes as well as export duty payments. Needless to say, such exemption would enhance the price competitiveness of export in the world market.

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The aforementioned incentives include three schemes: Duty Drawback, Voucher and Bonded Manufacturing Warehouses. All the three schemes are intended to provide exporters with duty and tax free access to inputs from all sources regardless of the origin of imports. The following brief description is given in the interest of providing a better feel of these first set of schemes: (a) Duty Draw-back Scheme According to Proclamation No. 249/2001 (as revised in 2007), duty draw-back means a scheme by which duty and taxes paid on raw materials used in the production of commodities is refunded upon exportation of the commodity processed and shall include refund of duties paid on goods re-exported in the same condition for being not in conformity with purchase order specifications, damaged, short delivery or not in market demand. The same Proclamation defines "Duty" to mean all indirect taxes and duties paid on raw materials and commodities imported or produced locally. The beneficiaries of duty draw-back scheme include (a) producer-exporter wholly or partially or occasionally engaged in exporting their products; (b) indirect producer-exporters wholly, partially or occasionally supplying their products to producer-exporters or exporters in the form of raw materials or finished goods; (c) indirect producer-exporters supplying imported raw materials to producer-exporters without processing them; (d) exporters (e) persons or organizations reexporting commodities or raw materials they have imported upon payment of duties if being not in conformity with purchase specifications, damaged, short delivered or not in market demand. Regarding the duty draw-back scheme rate, the Proclamation stipulates that when the export of raw material or commodity on which duty to be drawn-back is ascertained: If re-exported in the same condition, 95% of the duty paid shall be refunded; If exported after being processed or used for packing and containing commodities, 100% of duty paid shall be refunded. (b) Voucher Scheme This is a scheme where individuals and organizations that are engaged in wholly or partially exporting their products are granted eligibility certificate from the Ministry of Trade 31

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and Industry and are issued a "voucher book" by the Customs Authority. To be a beneficiary of the Voucher Scheme persons and organizations must, among others, fulfill the following criteria: Have manufacturing or exporting license; submit at the beginning of the budget year their annual business and export plan; submit input-output coefficients; supply information concerning raw materials wasted in the process of production; submit evidence of export performance in the last two years if they are not new to the sector; and sign an agreement with the Customs Authority undertaking to fulfill obligations of the scheme. If the exporters are new entrants into the sector, they must submit their annual export plan and investment certificate and/or trade license from the appropriate government organ. Regarding the procedure for the application of the Voucher Scheme: The Customs Authority shall issue Voucher Book on which is entered the amount of duty to be paid on raw materials they may import, to producers who are desiring to become beneficiaries of the Voucher Scheme upon satisfying the conditions stated above; Upon arrival of imported raw materials at the customs port, the producer importing the raw materials shall present his/her Voucher Book to the customs station where the raw materials are declared. The customs officer at the station shall deduct the amount of duty payable on the raw materials from the entry book, where upon the raw materials shall directly be transferred to the private warehouse in the premises of the production site. Customs formalities shall be carried out in the producer's private warehouse.

Bonded Manufacturing Warehouse Beneficiaries of Bonded Manufacturing Warehouse Scheme are producers wholly engaged in exporting their products who are not eligible to use the Voucher Scheme and who have license that enables them to operate such warehouse. Persons or organizations that can be beneficiaries of Bonded Manufacturing Warehouse Scheme are persons who have fulfilled the following conditions: Have manufacturing license; have a warehouse that fully complies with all the requirements provided for by customs laws and regulations; that pay allowances to customs officials assigned in the warehouse and license fees as determined by law; present evidence showing that they have ensured the warehouse; that can provide Customs Authority their annual export plan showing the type, quantity and value of the
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products they intend to export during the year, and the raw materials they import to use in the manufacturing of the products; and submit input-output coefficients. As for the procedures for application of Bonded Manufacturing Warehouse Scheme: The customs official and the exporter shall jointly lock the licensed warehouse; The exporter who imports raw materials shall complete transit formalities at the port of arrival and the raw materials shall directly be transferred to the warehouse. All necessary formalities shall be completed at the warehouse. By way of a final remark, it is worth mentioning that the revised proclamation imposes strict discipline on the violators of the forgoing incentive scheme whose severity increases with the recurrence of the offence. The second set of incentives intended to promote export trade relate to export financing. A brief description of these set of incentives is given below: (a) Export Credit Guarantee Scheme (Directive No. SBB/33/2002) The scheme provides non-coffee exporters access to pre-shipment and post-shipment finance equivalent to the volume of the previous year's export proceeds without any collateral requirement for existing exporters and with 20% and 30% collateral requirement for new producer-exporters and new exporters, respectively. Both the pre- and postshipment guarantees are provided to a maximum of 180 days. Pre-shipment finance meets the working capital requirements between the time of receipt of the order and the time of shipment. It normally covers procurement of raw materials for the export goods, processing or manufacturing of the export goods, packaging of the export goods, costs of special inspection or tests required of the importer, transportation of the goods to seaport or airport or railway sides of departure or destination (depending on the delivery terms), ports, customs and shipping agents' charge, freight and insurance charges depending on which it is (CFR or CIF contract), cost of documentation, port handling operations, warehousing, etc. Post shipment finance represents bridging finance - working capital provided to the exporter for the time interval between the shipment of the goods and receipt of payment from the importer. The fund enables the exporter to continue in business during this period. (b) External Loan and Suppliers or Foreign Partners Credit (Directive No. REL/005/2002) 33

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This scheme is meant to allow exporters access to foreign short-, medium- and longterm financing means. Using this scheme, exporters can acquire capital goods, raw materials, semi-finished goods, spare parts and other such inputs using foreign sources of finance. (c) Franco Valuta Scheme for Import of Raw Materials for Export Processing The Franco Valuta scheme enables exporters to acquire raw materials and intermediate inputs from their foreign partners who may be working on international sub-contracting basis, technical and marketing arrangements, FDI or joint venture. (d) Retention and Utilization of Export Earnings and Inward Remittances (Directive No. FXD/11/1998) Under this scheme, the Government has allowed exporters to retain the foreign exchange they themselves earn in two types of foreign exchange accounts: Retention Account A allows exporters to hold indefinitely 10% of their export earnings in foreign currency with banks, use it for their export-related activities and also sell it to commercial banks at an agreed rate of exchange. Retention Account B allows exporters to use the remaining 90% of export earnings for export-related activities but within a period of 28 days and also sell it to commercial banks at an agreed rate of exchange. If the exporter fails to utilizes her/his foreign exchange earnings within 28 days, then the foreign exchange earnings will be changed into local currency at the exchange rate prevailing on the next day. 2.3 Mode of Payment Pursuant to the authority vested in it by Article 39(1) and (2) of the Monetary and banking Proclamation No. 83/1994, National Bank of Ethiopia authorizes commercial banks to handle foreign exchange payment services and incoming payments involving imports and exports. The following paragraphs provide a concise and cursory description of modes of payment for imports and exports. commercial banks in Ethiopia. Concerning exports, all payments should be made in foreign exchange by transfers through banks and payments using the appropriate instruments or by the debit of a "NonResident Transferable Birr or Foreign Currency Account" maintained with commercial Further information can be obtained by importers/exporters from the NBE and the international banking departments of the

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banks by their corresponding banks abroad. Commercial banks are authorized to allow exports other than coffee (for which NBE issues export permits by applying procedures and requirements that are similar with those of other exports). The modes of payments in the case of exports are LC (on sight and on acceptance), CAD (on sight and on acceptance), Consignment and Advance Payment. Advance payment may be in the form of bank transfers, travelers cheques bought by the purchaser from abroad or cash notes provided that the purchaser presents a signed and sealed Customs Declaration Form. Bills of Lading, airway bill or any other document evidencing shipment of goods from Ethiopia to any destination abroad shall be made out to the order of a bank duly licensed to operate in Ethiopia or the opening bank abroad for payment arrangements on letter of credit (L/C) and cash against document (CAD). However, Bill of Lading or Airway Bill can be issued in the name of the buyer or his/her agent for advance payment and consignment forms of payment arrangement. Commercial banks bear the responsibility for ensuring that the export proceeds for all export permits approved are repatriated into the country within 90 days from the date of issue of export permits for all applicable modes of payments. In the case of CAD (on sight or on acceptance), the maximum allowable amount for a single export permit is USD 30,000.00 and subsequent permit is issued only upon the full repatriating of the allowable amount. Commercial banks may allow export applications on cash basis to the tune of the amount that has been converted by the buyer while they may issue permits on consignment sales basis for selected goods against undertaking letter issued by an applicant stating its responsibility for the repatriation of the sales proceeds in addition to the documents required in the case of the other modes of payment. The consignment sale are only applicable to perishable items such as fruits, cut flowers, unfrozen meat, live animals, and molasses and other items as may be approved by the NBE. With regard to imports, there are three applicable modes of payment: Letter of Credit (LC), Cash Against Documents (CAD) and Advance (up to a limited amount only). To import goods using an LC documents required are import application form showing NBE's importer's account number and HS codes; three copies of Proforma invoices showing clearly the full description of goods, modes of shipment, terms of payment, unit price and total amount of the goods to be paid at a named place of delivery; photocopy of valid trade license for foreign

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trade, investment or industry; insurance certificate issued by local insurance company and documents showing the settlement of commitment for previous imports if any. With regard to the use of the CAD mode of payment, importers have to submit Purchase Order (PO) for prior approval from banks in addition to those documents required for the LC mode. PO presented for prior approval by importers should include, among others, details of the place of cargo discharge. Importers who wish to import goods by effecting Advance Payment are required to submit a letter of undertaking to assure the entry of the goods into the country in addition to the documents required in the case of other modes of payment. The amount that would be approved for advance payment cannot exceed USD 5,000.00. In cases where the importer wishes to make payment under a telegraphic transfer for more than this amount, s/he shall submit foreign bank guarantee confirmed by local banks. However, bank guarantee will not be required if transactions are to be debited to a NonResident Accounts or Retention Account. In addition to the above modes of payment, importers can also use Supplier's Credit and External Loans to import goods. Such forms of financing are part of the incentive structures devised for the explicit purpose of export and investment promotion and are described in detail in a separate sub-section above. Full details of regulations pertaining to modes of payment and financial matters of import-export trade are attached towards the end of this Manual as Annex III. 2.4 Mode of Transport, Access to the Sea and Transit Regulations Ethiopian exporters have five choices regarding transporting goods to an international market. These are sea, air, rail, road and multimodal services. The choice of the modes of transport depends on factors such as weight and volume of the goods, packaging characteristics and the route. As Ethiopia's major export products are agricultural commodities and also since the major trading partners are across the Red Sea and the Atlantic, maritime mode of transportation is the most widely used particularly from seaports. Air transportation is a secure and very fast method which usually needs little packaging, and has a low cost of capital locked with the goods but is usually the most expensive method. Currently, it is the preferred mode of transportation for vegetables, cut flowers, meat and meat products from Ethiopia. Road transport in Ethiopia can be used to transport goods to neighboring

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countries and other African countries and to transport goods to seaports. There are highways that connect Ethiopia to all neighboring countries including Kenya, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia. Unlike in the case of road transportation, the Ethio-Djibouti Rail Way is the only rail transportation available in Ethiopia. It connects Addis Ababa to the Port of Djibouti and is often used to ship export products to the Djibouti market and the Port of Djibouti. Ethiopian export products are usually shipped to the seaports either by road transport or rail transport while use of containers is the preferred method of transportation in a multimodal transportation. Ethiopia is a land locked country. It has a port utilization agreement with several neighboring countries. Currently, by far the bulk of Ethiopian exports and imports are handled at the Port of Djibouti. In accordance with Articles 24-26 of customs Proclamation 60/1997, any goods in transit shall accomplish transit formalities at the customs port of departure before the commencement of transit operation. A clearing agent licensed by the Customs Authority is the one who should move the goods under the cover of guarantee prescribed by the Authority. All transit goods should arrive at the port of customs destination in the condition prescribed in the transit documents before the operation starts. Customs Clearing Agent shall report forthwith the arrival of the goods to the customs destination offices, in accordance with Article 25(1) of the law. Goods-in-transit shall be imported through prescribed customs ports and be transported through allowed transit routes. Pursuant to Article 26(2) of Customs Proclamation 60/1997, customs ports and transit routes are determined and prescribed in public notice issued by the Ministry of Revenue as the Ministry is the supervisory body of Ethiopian Customs Authority. 2.5 Mode of Delivery The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has developed Incoterms (International Commercial Terms) such as FOB. CIF, etc. that state the respective responsibilities of the buyer and seller regarding matters such as transport costs, transfer of risks, customs clearance and insurance. Incoterms 2000 is the latest version of Incoterms published by ICC in the year 2000 and contains 13 Incoterms. Commercial contracts should therefore explicitly refer to them by the term "Incoterm 2000". For the purpose of this manual, three of the Incoterms, vis., FOB, CIF and CFR have been briefly elaborated below.

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a. FOB - Free On Board (...named port of shipment) "Free On Board" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all the costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. b. CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight (...named port of destination) "Cost, Insurance and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. However in CIF the seller also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under CIF term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, s/he should either need to agree as such expressly with the seller or to make her/his own extra insurance arrangements. The CIF term also requires the seller to clear the goods for export. Similar to the FOB term, the CIF term also can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. c. CFR (Cost and Freight) "Cost and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport.

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Chapter Three: Provisions of Export Market Development Services


3.1 Market Intelligence Services For the purpose of this manual, market intelligence services expected from Ethiopian diplomatic Mission involves collecting and analyzing data; and forecasting current export market conditions, tendencies and future trends. The first step in the process of providing this service is to conduct a need assessment for trade intelligence service. To this end, the Mission has to collect information from the beneficiaries of the service. Based on this information, it has to: (I) (II) Assess its human, financial and material resource capacity to provide the service; and based on this assessment Identify priority trade promotion areas in terms of providing market intelligence services. After doing this, the Mission/the diplomat assigned for the task should perform the following specific activities: Identify sources of market intelligence and information about market conditions and trends of the host economy; and create business contacts with the relevant sources if need be; Collect market intelligence and market trend data from the identified sources through overt and covert means; Organize and compile the data and information; Analyze the data by using various analytical methods (such as SWOT analysis, benchmarking, scenario planning, etc.) and by relating it to current political, social and economic conditions; Based on the data and the analysis regarding the current conditions in the economy of the host country, identify the market trends and prepare forecasts; Based on the analysis and forecasts, notify the relevant (Ethiopian) bodies about market trends and prospects so that they could make preparations for changes that

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may occur in the future; and provide such information whenever requests are submitted to the Mission; and Constantly and vigilantly monitor all phenomena (that occur in the host country and) that might have positive and/or negative impact on Ethiopian external trade and promptly disseminate the information to the relevant bodies. 3.2 Export Market Research In this context, market research means studying market opportunities and identifying buyers for export products. The first step under this activity is to conduct desk research regarding market opportunities for the country's exports. The thrust of such research should encompass the following: Identify priority export products based on information about products and exporters obtained from home institutions; Identify types, sources and means of obtaining data related to the flow and exchange of export and import products in the host country; Collect information about the population size, level of economic development, geography, purchasing power of the population, culture, currency, etc. of the host country and analyze the market size, buying pattern and growth potential of the host country market; Collect, organize and analyze statistical data of the host country related to the flow of imports and exports, types and market shares of import items and - in accordance with this information - rank Ethiopian export products' export potential; Assess the possibility for expanding the volume and market share of Ethiopia's export products in the host market through a detailed comparison of host country demand and Ethiopian exporters' supply trends; Identify Ethiopia's priority products that have high and reliable demand in the host country but that are yet to be supplied by Ethiopia; and After compiling the collected data and preparing a general profile of the market of the host country; and based on this profile, prepare a list of Ethiopian products for which there is market potential and for which market research is needed.

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The second step under this activity relates to conducting field research to assess market opportunities for Ethiopia's export products. To realize this, the following specific activities have to be carried out: Collect and analyze data regarding supply capacity, volume, quality, samples, existing defects, etc. of Ethiopia's export products for which the existence of market opportunity has been ascertained in the first step; Identify the sources (public and private) and means (face to face interview, telephone interview, mail survey, focus group interviews, etc) of obtaining the necessary information and select the most appropriate sources and means; Collect extensive information regarding the type and volume, required quality standard, packaging, price, system of payment and purchase order related to the export products for which market opportunity has been identified during the desk research - and using this information - identify the challenges and opportunities that Ethiopia's exports might face in the market; Collect and compile information related to the import policies and systems of the host country such as laws, rules and regulations pertaining to imports, tariff and non-tariff barriers, documentation and preconditions required in order to export to the country, mechanisms and systems of payment and government procurement policies and - using this information - identify the opportunities and challenges facing Ethiopian exporters to supply this market; Identify potential competitors in terms of supplying products that have high market share and demand in the host country (This is to be done by collecting and compiling information regarding their market share and participation, price, quality, supply strategies, promotional strategies, etc.); Identify means and strategies for promoting, marketing and accessing the import market of the host country (This involves, among others, collection and compilation of information regarding import channels, buyers, their pre-conditions and buying mechanisms, medium-term market growth forecast, consumption level and trend and potential market segments.); and Based on compilation and analysis of the data gathered using various methods of field research, conduct market study, clearly indicate the findings and report to the Headoffice.

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The report should, among others, indicate the product development activities that have to be performed in order to be able to supply reliable volume and quality export products; measures that need to be taken in order to supply the market at competitive prices; the best market entry channels; the most appropriate ways of promoting exports to the host market; and the most suitable buyers, importers and distributors together with their profiles. (See Annex IV: Outline of Product Market Research.) 3.3 Export Promotion and Marketing Services Prior to actually conducting the promotion activities, the Mission and/or the concerned diplomat should gather the information needed to identify the most appropriate means and way to promote Ethiopian export products in the potential market. To this end, assessing the promotion methods that have previously been applied in that market and their outcomes is important. It is also important to gather and analyze information related to the strategies used by other developing countries to promote their exports in that market and their best practices. It should be noted that international trade fairs, exhibitions, shows and store promotion activities are considered the most effective means of market promotion for the products from various countries. Based on the information so gathered and the conclusions thereby drawn, the Mission has to identify the most appropriate ways and means of promoting Ethiopian products in the host country's market and perform the following set of specific activities: 3.3.1 Recruiting Host Country Importers Recruiting host country importers to purchase Ethiopian products (with proven export potential) through dissemination of product profiles, brochures, leaflets, samples and on-thespot presentations involves the following specific steps: Identify individuals and organizations to whom promotional information is to be sent and/or presentations are to be given; Disseminate the promotional information to the identified targets, ensure that the information reaches the intended target, fix a convenient appointment and personally make a presentation about Ethiopian export products; Handle additional enquiries and follow-up issues; and 42

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Prepare and send a detailed report to the relevant section in the Headquarters consisting details about the discussions, follow up issues and the list of recruited or interested importers.

3.3.2 Setting-up a Showroom This task involves the following specific activities: Conduct a feasibility study to set up a showroom and identify the location where it is to be set up; Report the results of the study to the Headquarters, request for the materials (samples, profiles, etc.) necessary for the show room and obtain the materials; Collect and organize additional information and description of the samples and other promotional materials and display the materials in an attractive manner; Organize occasions and programs for publicizing the displays; Keep the displays and the whole show room up-to-date (by adding new products and removing outdated/outmoded products and information); and Recruit and follow-up those visitors who show interest in the promoted products.

3.3.3 Exhibitions, Trade Fairs and Trade Shows The following are the specific activities to be performed by the Mission and/or the relevant diplomat therein in connection with promoting export products at selected exhibitions, trade fairs and trade shows: Collect information about programs of trade related exhibitions and shows held in the host country from various sources such as chambers of commerce; Collect information regarding the program content, number of participants, number of visitors, etc.; and based on the cost-benefit analysis using this information, identify and select those shows and exhibitions that are deemed worthy of Ethiopian producers' and exporters' participation; Identify organizations that sponsor and/or support trade exhibitions and shows; collect and disseminate information about them; look for sponsors and inform the relevant Ethiopian bodies about the sponsorships;

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Identify and inform organizations on the Ethiopian side that can participate in the shows, exhibitions and programs; Collect information about the Ethiopian organizations that have shown willingness to participate in the program and provide this information to the organizers in the host country;

If there exist chances of support to participants, collect additional information concerning those supports and pass it to the relevant bodies; Book space, furniture, electricity, etc. as required and hotel accommodation for participants; Plan decoration of stand; Invite potential importers by mail to visit the Ethiopian stand (stand number should be given); Contact customs authorities and arrange for an agent for the clearance of exhibits; Provide support to Ethiopian participant in collaboration with relevant bodies; ensure that the information, leaflets, samples, etc. of the products which will be displayed in the exhibition or show are complete and adequate;

Arrange appointments and meetings for the Ethiopian participants with buyers/importers of the host country during the show or exhibition and promptly inform those involved about the arrangements;

Welcome Ethiopian producers/exporters to the show/exhibition; providing them with support at the show/exhibition program; promote Ethiopian exports (during the programs) and recruit buyers for Ethiopian exports;

During the event, check every day staff, participants, exhibits, brochures, etc. to ensure that they are in good order; Be informed of the results of everyday and suggest on follow-up actions; Maintain a close contact with the organizers, participants, agencies, potential buyers, etc.; After the event, arrange the disposal of stand and exhibits; Make sure that all outstanding payments to the organizer, clearing agents, utility service agents, etc. are settled;

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Obtain reports from participants; Make preliminary assessments of the results which should help in deciding for future participation; Disseminate all important market information to the appropriate organizations and exporters in Ethiopia; Send letters of appreciation to those who have helped; and Make necessary follow-ups and correspondence for market promotion.

3.3.4 Export Promotion through Networks This activity involves recruiting Ethiopians, host country citizens of Ethiopian origin and friends of Ethiopia to promote Ethiopian exports. The specific steps are as follows: Collect information about Ethiopians, host country citizens of Ethiopian origin and friends of Ethiopia who reside in the host country and identify those that could promote Ethiopian exports; Based on the information, check the willingness of those selected for the task through face to face discussion; Report the information about those that have shown the willingness to promote Ethiopian exports to the relevant Ethiopian bodies; requesting for the necessary promotional materials and disseminate it among them and provide them with any additional information they might ask for; and Monitor their activities, provide them all the necessary support in their efforts and award them letters of gratitude for their participation in the promotional activities. 3. 4. Match Making 3.4.1 Provision of Information Provision of detailed information and addresses to selected importers/buyers and Ethiopian exporters (so that they could contact each other) entails the following activities: Prepare a list of importers/buyers that have shown interest to import Ethiopian products and list them in the order of their reliability and credibility; Based on this list, prepare their profiles and transmit the profiles to the Headquarters;

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Ensure that the profiles reach the relevant Ethiopian exporters; Obtain profiles of the relevant Ethiopia exporters (from Headquarters and other relevant bodies); and Facilitate the contacts between the exporters and importers/buyers; provide support during negotiations and follow-up the implementation of their agreements.

3.4.2 Incoming Trade Missions Organizing and coordinating individual and group business visits of recruited importers/buyers and facilitating meetings with Ethiopian producers and exporters is required when the existence of reliable market for Ethiopian export product is ascertained or needs to be ascertained and if the potential buyers/importers show interest in the business visit. When such situations arise, the following specific activities have to be performed by the Mission: Assess in detail the need for the business visit and for exchange of experience and collect the necessary information concerning the matter; Based on the collected information, identify a suitable time schedule, identify the purpose, the tasks to be performed and clearly state the results expected from the visit; Transmit the information to relevant Ethiopian authorities and members of the private sector that are deemed to benefit most from the visit; Make the necessary preparations and consultations with all the relevant bodies to make the visit fruitful and successful; Check if there are organizations that finance such visits and pass that information to relevant bodies; Collect feed-back regarding the visit from the participants and Ethiopian counterparts; and Consult with relevant bodies about the conduct, the outcomes, and the lessons from the visit; identify future courses of action and prepare an action plan.

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3.4.3 Outgoing Trade Missions Co-coordinating and facilitating the (trade related) visits of Ethiopian government officials and business delegations involves the following tasks: First, the Mission has to study and ascertain the need and importance of visits by high level government officials and business delegations based on the facts on the ground (interest of recruited importers/buyers, etc.); Based on the study, prepare and send a memorandum to the relevant officials; follow-up so that a decision is passed; After the visit program has been approved, obtain information such as the name of the head of the delegation, the composition of the delegation, the purpose and expected outcomes of the visit, programs, agenda, support expected from the Mission, etc. Organize a reception program on the occasion of the visit and invite importers/buyers who have shown interest in Ethiopian products and others; Prepare a press release about the visit and facilitate its release; Book and/or arrange hotel, transport and other facilities for the delegation; Arrange appointments for the members of the delegation with relevant bodies; Prepare a briefing for the delegation regarding the economy of the host country; Discuss with relevant authorities about samples and other information that the delegation should take with them and pass this information to the members of the delegation; Receive the delegation, brief them about the country and distribute the brochures and programs prepared for the visit; Participate in the programs of the delegation, provide them with support and facilitate the whole program; Prepare a detailed report about the visit - indicating the results, identifying the weaknesses and strengths of the visit and actions that have to be taken in the future; and follow-up the implementation of the results of the visit.

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Chapter Four: Facilitating Priority Imports and Technology Transfer


4.1 Identification of Imports The task of identifying of reasonably priced and quality imports and reporting the findings should be preceded by the obtaining of adequate information related to appropriate technologies and priority intermediate and final products from the Headquarters and other relevant offices. Such information includes, among others, technology needs of the country, intermediate inputs and priority import items that are of particular importance to sectors that are identified in the strategies of the Government as top priority. The Mission also has to obtain (from the Headquarters and other relevant authorities) appropriate specifications for the products. Based on such information, it should perform the following specific activities: Identify and collect information about the producers and suppliers of the products; Based on the information collected, rank the products and their suppliers (or producers) in accordance with their appropriateness to the Ethiopian climatic and other conditions, price competitiveness, quality, supplier reliability, reputation, etc.; and identify the most appropriate product and/or supplier according to the rankings; Make contacts with the producers/suppliers and cross-check the reliability of the information about the appropriate technologies, inputs and priority import products. (This may include field visits to the sites of the producers/suppliers.); Conduct further in-depth study of the producers/suppliers of the products and technologies, prepare their detailed profiles and report the findings of the study and the profile to the Headquarters. (The subsequent dissemination of the results to the concerned authorities and to selected importers/buyers is the responsibility of the relevant department at the Headquarters.) 4.2 Supporting Buyer-Seller Negotiations The steps to be followed when providing advice and support during buyer and Seller negotiations and contract signings are:

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Facilitate the exchange of contact addresses between the identified importers/ buyers and the respective suppliers/ producers of the appropriate technologies, intermediate inputs and priority import items;

Arrange appointments and programs for meeting(s) of the buyers/importers and suppliers/producers and facilitate the conduct of negotiations; Collect, compile and disseminate (to the relevant bodies) information that can be used as an input to subsequent negotiations; and Provide advisory, technical and logistical support to the Ethiopian buyers/importers during the negotiations and contract signings;

4. 3 Acting as Procurement Center Acting as procurement center for Ethiopian imports entails that the Mission/the concerned diplomat perform the following sub-processes or specific tasks: Collect and compile complete information about the technologies, inputs and import products for which purchase decision has been made (agreement has been reached) and about the support expected from the Mission; After identifying the buyers/importers for importing the technologies, inputs and import products, collect and compile adequate and complete information about import procedures and mechanisms; and pass this information to the relevant Ethiopian bodies; (Such information could includes legal procedures, licenses required, packaging, insurance services, payment systems, customs procedures, etc.) Identify Ethiopian bodies that have roles in the timely importation of the products and technologies and that can clearly figure out the needed support (The bodies referred here may include customs offices, financial institutions, export businesses); Regarding the export procedures and mechanisms of the host country, collect and compile detailed information related to customs procedures and regulations, technology licensing procedures, packaging, modes of transport and payment, insurance, documentation, etc. Based on the information collected thus far, identify the best ways and means of importing the technologies and other products in terms of price, time and quality; and accordingly, provide information and advice to the relevant Ethiopian bodies;

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Create close contacts with all the relevant Ethiopian bodies involved in the import of the products and technologies; and monitor and support the timely import of the products; and

Ensure that the imported products and technologies reach their destination as per the schedule and report the results to the Headquarters.

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Chapter Five: Bilateral, Regional and Multilateral Trade Negotiation Services


5.1 Studying Options for Trade Relations This involves studying and prioritizing options for bilateral, regional and multilateral trade relations. The specific tasks are as follows: This activity requires the performance of the following specific tasks: Identify the trade relations and the priority areas of the country with regard to bilateral, regional and multilateral organizations; Assess in detail the strategies, results and best practices of other developing countries related to trade promotion through bilateral and multilateral trade relations; and identify those that best suit Ethiopia; Assess in detail countries and areas of relations that would benefit Ethiopia most in terms of expanding trade relations and devise strategies and approaches to this end; In connection with the relationship Ethiopia has/will have, identify areas of priority; Prepare a concept paper regarding the countries, regional organizations and multilateral bodies that are deemed of interest to Ethiopia in terms of forming and strengthening trade relations; the criteria and pre-conditions they set; and the priorities of Ethiopia on the matter; Forward the concept paper to the relevant authorities in Ethiopia for their review and comments where possible; hold discussions and exchange of views on the concept paper with stakeholders (i.e. concerned ministries and private sector organizations); on the basis of the opinions and comments, revise the concept paper and prepare a draft study; Ensure that the results of the study are reflected in the annual indicative plan of the Head Office and the plans of the relevant Directorate-General in the Head Office; and Review and update the study report based on the prevailing objective situations.

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5.2 Bilateral Trade Negotiation Services For the purpose of creating of market access through bilateral trade negotiations and agreements, the Mission has to perform the following activities: Identify the objectives of trade relations and prepare an action plan of activities to be performed in order to facilitate the successful negotiations to form and to strengthen bilateral trade relations; based on this information, prepare a concept paper; Conduct a multi-level discussions on the matter with bodies that participate in the negotiations and the representatives of the business community; Facilitate the formation of joint commission comprising of representatives from relevant sector bodies; identify the chief negotiator; negotiating experts and analysts to be involved in the potential negotiations; Prepare a zero draft of the agreement to be negotiated and devise a negotiation strategy; Develop the zero draft through multi-level discussions with experts and officials at various levels, including the higher ones; Discuss the timetable and agenda of the negotiations with relevant bodies; present alternative timetables; transmit these to the relevant bodies of host country; Obtain comments on the draft agreement text from the host side and transmit them to relevant Ethiopian bodies; Participate in the negotiation on the agenda items; in the implementation of the negotiation strategy and ensure that the negotiations are in line with the national interest of Ethiopia; Monitor and evaluate the negotiation process; identify the outcomes of the negotiations and steps that need to be taken afterwards; and formulate future negotiation strategies; When the negotiations are concluded with an agreement, make preparations for and facilitate the signing of the agreement documents; Follow-up and facilitate the submission of the documents to relevant bodies; provide presentations about the agreement if need be and facilitate the ratification of the agreement by parliament;

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Identify in detail the benefits obtained as the result of the agreement in terms of export expansion, creation of new market access, utilization of the technical assistance and capacity building support, et cetera; ensure that the Ethiopian side involved in trade has full awareness of the benefits; and

Monitor the implementation of the agreement and prepare periodic reports.

5.3 Regional and Multilateral Treaty Negotiations7 In order to promote Ethiopian national interest in regional and multilateral trade negotiations, the following specific steps should be taken by the Mission: Collect and compile detailed information regarding the content and focus of the agendas and negotiating issues of regional and multilateral trade related bodies and organizations; Identify and select the issues and agendas that are of priority interest to Ethiopia; Prepare a memorandum which would clearly indicate the positions that Ethiopia should take on the selected agenda items; Hold multi-level consultations on the memorandum with relevant Ethiopian sectoral bodies, representatives of the business community and other relevant stakeholders; and formulate a common position; Draw an action plan for Ethiopian negotiation position; Facilitate the formation of a team that would participates in the negotiations, comprising of a chief negotiator, negotiators, supporting experts, information collectors and analysts; Participate in the preparation of negotiating positions and strategies based on the focus areas such as market access capacity building, etc.; Facilitate the exchange of views with delegations of other countries or countries' groupings that have similar interest or common position, work in coalition with such countries and promote Ethiopia's position; Monitor and evaluate the process of negotiations and make appropriate adjustments to negotiating positions and strategies;
This activity is to be performed by Ethiopian Mission abroad that are involved in and/or accredited to regional and multilateral (trade related) organizations. Not all Missions are required to perform it.
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Brief the appropriate Ethiopian bodies and the business community about the negotiated outcome; If and when the negotiations are concluded with the signing of an agreement, ensure that the documents of the agreement reach relevant bodies and follow-up their ratification; and

Monitor the implementation of the agreement.

5.4 Trade Agreement Advisory Services Analyzing, making policy recommendation and advising about the impacts of Ethiopia's involvement in bilateral, regional and multilateral trade agreements entails undertaking the following specific tasks: Collect detailed information related to Ethiopia's rights and obligations in the bilateral, regional and multi-lateral agreements it has signed or will be signing and analyze their policy implications; Prepare a proposal regarding the modifications that have to be made on the foreign trade policy of the country in connection with bilateral, regional and multi-lateral trade agreements and declarations to which Ethiopia is or is going to be a party; and the tasks that have to be performed in this connection; Conduct consultations and discussions with relevant bodies based on the proposal; reach a consensus and common understanding; Identify and analyze current regional and global political, social and economic phenomena that would have the potential to necessitate some changes in the foreign trade policy of the country; Identify the potential challenges and opportunities created by the occurrence of the aforementioned phenomena vis--vis the national interest of the country; Prepare a proposal containing the modifications that need to be made on the foreign trade policy of the country as the result of the above mentioned phenomena; have the opinion of the relevant bodies on the proposed modifications; Conduct consultations and discussions with relevant government and private bodies on the proposed modifications; provide clarifications and work towards their acceptance and endorsement.

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5.5 Soliciting Trade Related Technical Assistance and Capacity Building Support (TRTAS) The following are some of the specific activities that have to be performed in order to identify and successfully access TRTAS: Identify the types and sources of information on Ethiopia's trade related technical assistance and capacity building needs; Identify government and private beneficiaries of trade related technical assistance and capacity building support in Ethiopia; Prioritize the needs and beneficiaries of the support; Identify individual country, regional or multi-lateral organization that provides trade related technical assistance and capacity building support and collect information about them; Identify the eligibility criteria, pre-conditions and actions that need to be taken to access the trade related technical assistance and capacity building support; Assess the trade related technical assistance and capacity building support needs of Ethiopia in light of the available resources and accordingly prioritize the issues and the sources; Identify the countries and/or organizations that have previously been providing trade related technical assistance and capacity building support; and identify the ways and means of enhancing such support; Compile detailed information about the available support including their general features, their preconditions, potential beneficiary organizations and steps that have to be taken in order to benefit from the opportunities and communicate the information to relevant government and private bodies; When agreed by the appropriate body, formulate request and forward it to the agency providing trade related technical assistance and capacity building support; and follow-up its delivery; and Provide in sustainable manner information and advisory service to relevant bodies in connection with utilization of trade related technical and capacity building support.

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Chapter Six: Handling Trade Related Enquiries, Disputes and Complaints


6.1 Handling Trade Related Enquiries 6.1.1 General Enquiries Trade related enquiries of general nature, such as list of export products, names and addresses of exporters of specific products in Ethiopia, etc should be answered by the officials in the Mission to the extent of the availability of information in the Mission. All information furnished by the trade promotion bodies in Ethiopia should be well perused and frequently browsed by the Mission officials. 6.1.2 Specific Enquiries The enquiries related to foreign trade and mainly related to imports of products from Ethiopia which are not of general nature and which can not be answered by the officials of the Mission should be recorded in a form given in Annex V and be forwarded to Economic and Business Affairs Directorate General in the Headquarters by e-mail, fax and depending on the importance and urgency of the enquiry, by express mail, for necessary action. The potential importer of Ethiopian products is likely to make enquiries on some of the following subjects: Information on products such as quantity, availability, quality standards, technical specification, price list (CIF, C&F, or FOB), time of delivery, packaging, etc. Product literature, photographs, catalogues, samples, etc; Method of payment (advance payment or irrevocable letter of credit) and shipment by air or by sea; Export formalities and other rules of Ethiopia; etc. 6.2 Handling Trade Disputes and Complaints The first step in this regard is to identify the main causes of trade related disagreements and disputes. Such causes, among others, include the following: misunderstandings; late delivery of goods; non-delivery of goods; delay in payment or non-payment; dissatisfaction

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over the quantity or quality of goods; non-collection of goods; ambiguous contract terms; differing customs and practices; and problems of quarantine laws, standards, and procedures. There are several methods of settling disputes or complaints: Amicable Settlement: The dispute can be settled through a factual investigation and the problem resolved in a friendly manner. In this case, the staff of the Mission can help both parties in settling the problems most positively under a cordial environment. Independent Arbitrator: Amicable solution may not be possible in all case. A second alternative is to appoint an independent arbitrator. Legal Procedures: This is the case where a dispute or complaints may be settled by a National or International Court. Settlement of disputes through the chamber-to-chamber system, including the in International Chamber of Commerce. The official(s) of the Mission should be involved if amicable settlement is the possible solution to the problem of dispute or complaint. In case other alternatives are chosen by the parties, the Mission will have no role apart from recommending or providing names and addresses of the competent and reliable lawyers if requested by the concerned party. In case of amicable settlement, the Mission should follow the following procedures: Collect all the facts from both parties to the dispute; Collect supportive documents, evidence from the institutions involved in the trade transaction, such as banks , post offices, customs, trade associations, chambers, carriers, forwarding and clearing agents, etc.; Study all the documents, and also the points of complaint or dispute; make own judgment, establish the reason for the dispute and recommend the possible solution; and get advice from experts or other relevant bodies if necessary before any possible solution is recommended;

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Annexes
Annex I: List and Brief Description of Major Ethiopian Export Products
Coffee (Coffee Arabica)
1. HS Code of Green Bean Coffee: 09011, 09012, 090121, 090122 2. Description and Specification: Ethiopia is the Birth place of Arabica coffee and has a broad genetic diversity among its coffee varieties. Annual coffee production is estimated to be about 350,000 tons. The harvesting period for Ethiopian coffee is generally between October and December. The major types of Ethiopian coffee that are exported worldwide are grouped into washed and sundry categories. The washed category includes Yirgachefe-2, Sidamo-2, Limu-2 and Bebeka-2 while sundry category includes Harrar-4,5, Djimmha-5, Nekemti-5 and Lekemti-4. The coffees are packed in new jute bags with weight of 60kg (gross weight 61kg). The prices of coffee depend on international market prices. The terms of delivery is FOB Djibouti Port. The terms of payment are against an irrevocable and confirmed letter of credit. The minimum delivery volume is 18 tons or 300 bags in 20 feet containers. 3. Production location: The major coffee producing regions in Ethiopia are: a. Oromia (Jimma, Illubabor, East and West Wollega, East and West Harar, Borana, Guji, Bale and Arsi) b. Southern Nations, Nationalities and people's Regional State (Sidama, South and North Omo, Kafa, Gamogofa, Wolaita and Gedeo) c. Gambella. 6. Major Destinations/ Export Markets: The European Union, Japan and North America

Meat
1. HS Code: 0201, 0202 2. Description: Meat products exported from Ethiopia include carcass chilled/frozen beef, veal, mutton, goat meat and meat cuts chilled/frozen, beef prime cuts, lamb racks/roll goulash, goat racks. 3. Uses: All meat products exported from Ethiopia are for the purpose of human consumption.

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4. Specification: Meat products destined for export are prepared in export abattoirs where animals are killed, skinned, the flesh washed, cut, cooled, frozen or chilled as required; and packed in stockinets before they are loaded onto refrigerator trucks for transport to their final export destinations. 5. Production Locations: There are five export abattoirs in Ethiopia at the moment. Two of these are located at Debrezeit; two more in Mojo; and the remaining one in Malge Wondo (near Awassa). 6. Major Destinations/Export Markets: Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (currently discontinued), Egypt and Congo Brazzaville.

Hides and Skins and Leather Products


1. HS Codes: 4101, 4105, 4106, 410621,410622, etc. 2. Description: Export of hides and skins and leather products include the following: 3. Uses: Ethiopian highland hair sheepskin - Export products in this category include pickled, crust and finished leather; and glove leather from sheepskin. Ethiopian Bati Genuine and Bati Type Goatskins - Exports from this category include wet blue, crust and finished leather from goatskin. Wet blue, crust and finished cow hides. Finished garment leather, leather, lining/upper leather, full grain leather, embossed leather and patent leather. Footwear, leather garments, bags and other leather articles. - Tickled sheepskin is used for further processing for finished leather to be - Wet blue goatskin is used primarily for further processing for finished leather and shed leather. - Wet blue hides is used for shoe upper leather after processing. - Finished leather is employed for various uses (shoe upper, other leather goods and articles making). - Shoe leather is used for human footwear. 4. Specification a. Size (in square feet) - sheep and goatskin: Small (below 2.5), Medium (2.5-3.5), Large (3.5- 4.5), Extra large (4.5-5.5), above extra large (5.5 and above);

used for glove leather, garment leather, and upper shoe leather.

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b. Size (in square feet) - cowhides: small (below 10), medium (10-16), large (16-21), extra large (above 21). c. Grades - sheep and goatskin: I, II, III, IV, V and VI. d. Grades - Cow hides: I, II, III, IV and V 5. Production Location 5.1. Location of Tanneries: Total - 23; Oromia - 10; Amhara - 6; Addis Ababa - 6; and Tigray - 1 5.2 Location of Footwear and Leather Garment: Addis Ababa - 12 mechanized footwear factories, 10 leather garment manufacturers and about 1000 SME footwear producers, Tigray - 1 shoe factory 6. Major Destinations/ Export Markets: Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Romania, India, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, etc.

Horticultural and Floricultural Products


1. Roses (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Carnation (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Geranium (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Bedding Balcon (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Green Bean (Vegetable) - HS Code: 0708900 Cherry (fruit) - HS Code: 08092000 Tomato (Vegetable) - HS Code: 070200 Melon (fruit) - HS Code: 0807 Okra (Vegetable) - HS Code: 070900 Paprika (vegetable) - HS Code: ---Strawberry (fruit) - HS Code: 81010 Passion Fruit - HS Code: 081090 Mango (fruit) - HS Code: 080450 Pelargonium (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Chives (herbs) - HS Code: 070390 Chervil (herbs) - HS Code: 070990 Gypsophilla (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Hypericum (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Eryngium (flower) - HS Code: 060310

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Solidago (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Limonium (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Onions (vegetable) - HS Code: 070310 Delphinum (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Premium Highland Roses (flower) - HS Code: 060310 Basil (herb) - HS Code: 121190 Coriander (herb) - HS Code: 090930 Dill (--) - HS Code: 091099 Mint (herb) - HS Code: 330125 Oregano (herb) - HS Code: 12119020 Parsley (herb) - HS Code: 07129060 Recolla (herb) - HS Code: 250300 Rosemary (herb) - HS Code: 121190 Sage (herb) - HS Code: 121190 Tarragon (herb) - HS Code: 070990 Thyme (herb) - HS Code: 091040 2. Uses: The purpose of purchasing flowers is mostly to give them away as a gift, for funerals, and for own use. Flower purchases are made at florists; the rest bought at places like street vendors and supermarkets. 3. Specification: The number of stems per kilo of each species varies according to varieties, stem length, bud size and pre harvest and post harvest handling and treatment. These specifications are based on the requirements of different markets. 4. Production Locations: Sendafa, Tefki, Sebeta, Awash, Alemgena, Merti, Jeju, Around Sodere, Koka, Debrezeit, Derba, Addis Alem, Holeta, Welmera/Menagesha. 5. Major Destinations/ Export Markets: The Netherlands, Germany, United Arab Emirates, Russia, United Kingdom and Scandinavian Countries.

Cotton
1. HS Code: 52030000 2. Description: Fiber Crop, (Gossypium hirusstum). After ginning, lint cotton and seed cotton are the main products. 3. Uses: It can be processed into fabrics, yarns, animal feeds (cotton cake), edible oil, etc.

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4. Specification: The style length ranges from 1 1/16 to 1 1/8 inches. The varieties grown are medium staples (Acala sj2 and Deltaphine 90). Cotton is picked only by hand; so, the grade is above middling. Lint cotton packed in the form of bales is covered by cotton cloth or hesian cloth and wrapped with baling wires. 5. Production Location: Awash valley, Humera, Metema, Gambella, North and South Omo, etc. 6. Major Destinations/ Export Markets: India, Turkey, Bangladesh, China, etc.

PULSES, OILSEEDS AND SPICES


A. I. PULSES Horse Beans (Vicia faba)

1.1 HS: 0713.50 1.2 Descriptions: Horse beans is a leguminous crop 1.3 Uses: More than 90% of the produced faba bean in Ethiopia is consumed locally in various ways. It is a source of food and cash to farmers. Also plays significant role in soil fertility practices. It is valuable supplement to cereals and other starchy root and tuber crops. It is mostly used either whole (fried or fresh), split or as a floor. The grains may be boiled, fried or allowed to germinate and eaten as sprouts. 1.4 Specifications: The beans should have a maximum moisture content of 17%. They shall be free from foreign odours, weevil or other insects, insect webbing, any unknown foreign substances, broken glass or metal fragments. They shall have good natural colour or appearance. 1.5 Production Locations: It is the most important pulse crop in terms of area coverage and total annual production. This crop has manifold advantages in the economic lives of the farming community in the high lands of the country. 1.6 Major export Markets: Sudan, South Africa, Djibouti, Yemen, Russia and USA. 2. Peas (Pisum sativum) 2.1 HS: 0710.21 2.2 Descriptions: Peas is a leguminous crop 2.3 Uses: In Ethiopia pea (Pisum sativum) is a highly consumed pulse in the daily diet of the society in urban and rural areas. It is eaten whole, split or milled usually fresh, fried, boiled or mixed with other cereals to make various types of stews, soups.

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2.4 Specifications: Dry peas shall be clean, sound, with natural color or appearance and shall be free from foreign or abnormal odours. 2.5 Production Locations: Peas (Pisum Sativum) is produced in Ethiopia for a long time in high and mid altitude Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and some parts of SNNPA by smallholders farmers without using any chemical inputs. Hence, the product is said to be organic, although not certified. 2.6 Major export markets: Ethiopian export of peas is very small compared to other pulses due to its high local demand. 3. Chickpeas (Cicer aretinum L.) 3.1 HS: 0713.20 3.2 Descriptions: Chickpeas is a leguminous crop 3.3 Uses: In Ethiopia chickpeas are consumed widely fresh as green vegetables, sprouted, fried, roasted and boiled. It is also ground in to flour to make baby feed mixed with other cereals, soup, bread and sweat meat. It is also used to rehabilitate depleted fallow lands by playing active role in crop rotation practices/programs. 3.4 Specifications: The Ethiopian chickpeas are dominated by the small sized Desi chickpeas which have demand in the Indian subcontinent. 3.5 Production Locations: The largest growing regions are Oromiya (West, East, and North west Shoa, Arsi), Amhara (South Gonder, North and South Wollo, North Shoa) and few districts of Tigray and SNNPR. 3.6 Major export Markets: India, Pakistan, UAE, Panama and Bangladesh. 4. Lentil (Lens esculenta L.) 4.1 HS: 0713.40 4.2 Descriptions: Lentil is a leguminous Crop 4.3 Uses: Lentil is one of the heavily consumed pulse crops in Ethiopia. It is usually eaten fried, roasted and boiled whole or split in the form of stews, vegetable soups mixed with other bean. It is also ground to powder to prepare 'shiro', 'Azifa', and 'Hilbet'. It is also widely used in crop rotation practices to improve soil fertility. 4.4 Specifications: The work done by Debrezeit Research Center has led to the release of 7 improved varieties and only one variety, ADAA FLIP-86 41L is recommended for export due to its bigger sized seed and red color when splited.

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4.5 Production Locations: Lentil is grown as winter crop in Ethiopia and particularly important in Oromia, Amhara and some parts of SNNPR, Tigray regions 4.6 Major Export Markets: Pakistan, Yemen, and Djibouti 5. Haricot bean 5.1 HS: 0708.20 5.2 Descriptions: Haricot bean is a leguminous Crop 5.3 Uses: Several varieties of them are consumed in SNNPR, Eastern Hararge, and Western Ethiopia usually mixed with other cereals. Pea beans are used boiled, fried, or in the form of soups. It is also milled or grounded to make stews. In recent years the white pea beans have got major share in the countries pulse export. 5.4 Specifications: The quality of haricot beans is measured in terms of color, size, shape and other physical factors such as impurities (%). The Ethiopian white pea beans are smaller sized. However, almost all haricot beans produced in Ethiopia are grown by smallholders with out chemical inputs, and are organic by nature. 5.5 Production Locations: The crop successfully grows in West Wellega, Arsi, East Shoa, Kembata Tembaro, Sidama, Wolyita, Konso, Burji, East Hararge, and some parts of East Gojjam. 5.6 Major export Markets: The main destination markets are Pakistan, Germany, Yemen, UK, South Africa, India and Mexico 6. Mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) 6.1 HS: 0708.20 6.2 Descriptions: Mung bean is a leguminous Crop 6.3 Uses: Its consumption is not widespread like the other pulses. 6.4 Specifications: It has green skin and is also called green bean. It is sweet in flavor and cold in nature. 6.5 Production Locations: It is also a recent introduction in Ethiopian pulse production and grown in few areas of North Shoa, 6.6 Major export Markets: Denmark, Djibouti, Netherlands and South Africa. B. OILSEEDS 1. Sesame Seed ( Sesamum indicum L .) a) HS:120740 b) Descriptions: Sesame seeds are an oil crop

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c) Uses: In Ethiopia Sesame is grown chiefly for export (more than 90%) and direct consumption used in bakeries. Very small quantity is also used for the production of edible oil by traditional oil mills at the growing areas specially Humera area. Few edible oil producing agro industries also use sesame in small quantity. d) Specification: The whitish Humera type (including metema type) and Wellega type (including Pawi type) which is mixed/brownish are the two dominating varieties in the country although there is the red Wollo type. e) Production Locations: Sesame is a major oil crop in North-west Tigray (Humera and its environ), North Gonder (Metemma and the surroundings) and Oromia (East Wellega). f) Major export Markets: Israel, Turkey, Egypt, Yemen, Greece, Japan Jordan Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and Switzerland

2.

Niger Seed (Guizotia abyssinica L.f )


a) HS: 1207.79 b) Descriptions: Niger seed is categorized under the oilseeds and oleaginous fruits nest whether or not broken c) Uses: Niger seed in Ethiopia is cultivated mainly for the production of edible oil and direct consumption fried and mixed with sunflower seed. The pressed cake from oil extraction is used for livestock feed especially in and around cities and large fattening and dairy farms. Many farmers use it as a rotation crop to improve the fertility of depleted soils. d) Specifications: The black seed yield yellow edible semi -drying oil with little odor and pleasant nutty taste. e) Production Locations: Being a high land crop, there are sufficient potential areas for Niger seed Expansion in Amhara (East Gojjam, Awi, North and South Gonder, Western Tigray, Oromia (East and West Wellega, East and North Shoa, South Eastern Arsi) where sufficient moisture is available. f) Major export Markets:

3. Groundnut/Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) a) HS: 1202.10/1202.20 b) Descriptions: It is an annual legume

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c) Uses: Locally it is consumed directly either fried or as a raw material for oil producing industries. d) Specifications: Ground nuts: They consist of in-shell ground nuts and unshelled groundnuts. Inshell ground nuts are nuts which consist of clean ground nut kernels of one variety, which are mature, dry, free from loose kernels, dirt, and other foreign or extraneous matter. Unshelled groundnuts: Are kernels obtained by selecting groundnut pods which have the shape, size, configuration and appearance characteristic of the variety and shall be covered with light pink to red skin which peels-off easily and darkens with age. e) Production Locations: Cultivated mainly in Eastern Hararghe and some parts of Amhara Region and SNNPA. f) Major export Markets: Djibouti, Egypt, UAE and Yemen. 4. Linseed a) HS: 1204.00 b) Descriptions: Linseed is an oil crop. c) Uses: Apart from its use in oilseeds production, it has medicinal value for the treatment of Gastritis. The powdered linseed is also consumed with bread or injera. d) Specifications: Linseed shall be free from castor seeds and any other seed other than linseed and shall be white, brown and yellowish. e) Production Locations: Linseed (Linum usitatisum L) is produced in Ethiopia mainly in Oromia, Amhara Regions and smaller quantity in Tigray and SNNPA. f) Major export Markets: Canada, China, Djibouti, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, USA 5. Sunflower a) HS: 1206.00 b) Descriptions: Sunflower is an oil crop. c) Uses: This crop is produced (grown) in smaller quantity mainly for direct consumption, oil production. d) Specifications: Total impurity 3% max.; oil content 34% min.; moisture content 11% max. Seeds shall be sound, free from visible mould and reasonably free from insect

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damage. They shall not contain any foreign matter which can not be removed during processing or other material hazardous to health. e) Production Locations: The main producing areas are Oromia, and Amhara Regional states. f) Major export Markets: Israel, USA 6. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) a) HS: 1207.60 b) Descriptions: Safflower is an oil crop. c) Uses: In Ethiopia it is mainly grown for direct consumption in various forms (fried, crushed milled with other cereals). A drink is also made from the crushed/milled part for home consumption. Oil producing local industries also uses it as a raw material. d) Specifications: The seeds shall be clean and free from foreign matters, dirt, and seeds of other oilseeds; and shall be free from non-edible weed seeds such as castor or neemseeds. e) Production Locations: This crop is known as most viable in Nile valley of Ethiopia. f) Major export Markets: Israel, Saudi Arabia, USA 7. Castor Seed (Ricinus communis L.) a) HS: 1207.30 b) Descriptions: Castor seed is an oil crop. c) Uses: Recently castor leaf is identified as one of the best trees for silk worms feeding. Locally its usage in the oil producing industries is very limited. d) Specifications: The seeds shall be sound, free from visible mould and reasonably free from insect damage. They shall not contain any foreign matter which cannot be removed during processing. (Total impurity - 1%max, oil content - 34%, moisture content -11%) e) Production Locations: In some coffee growing areas caster plant has been utilized as temporary shade for coffee trees. f) Major export Markets: Thailand 8. Rape/Mustard seed a) HS: 1207.50 b) Descriptions: Rape seed and mustard seeds are oil crops.

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c) Uses: Locally the rape/mustard plant leaf is consumed as vegetable fresh or fried/cooked. The seed after crushed and powdered used for polishing injera (local bread) pans. It is also known to be a seed source for new plantings in home gardens. It is also used as a raw material for the production of edible oil. d) Specifications Rapeseed: The containers shall be free from any insect infestation or fungal contamination and from any undesirable odor. Mustard seed: The odor and flavor of the seeds when ground and moistened shall be fresh and pungent and free from rancidity and mustiness. e) Production Locations: Both the introduced rape seed (Brassila napus) and the local variety grow in Oromia, Amhara, SNNP, Tigray Regions. f) Major export Markets:Israel, Netherlands, udan, USA, UAE. 9. Soy bean (Glycine max L.) a) HS: 1201.00 b) Descriptions: Soybean is an oil crop. c) Uses: Locally the seed is used in split or ground form usually used in the production of soymilk, and fafa formulation. d) Specifications: Soybean seeds shall be clean and the seeds shall not emit foul odor, nor found deformed due to moist conditions and shall be free from non-edible seeds such as castor and neemseeds. e) Production Locations: The low lands of Ethiopia mainly in Anger Goten, Arsinegele, Awasa, Ziwai, Debrezeit, Bako, Jimma and Dedesa f) Major export markets: Australia, Djibouti, Netherlands, USA. C. SPICES 1. Cinnamon a) HS: 090610 b) Descriptions: Cinnamon sticks are made from long pieces of bark that are rolled, pressed, and dried. Cinnamon has a sweet, woody fragrance in both ground and stick forms. c) Uses: Ground cinnamon is perhaps the most common baking spice. d) Specifications: It is the dried bark of various laurel trees in the cinnamomun family. Cinnamon is also used in savory chicken and lamb dishes.

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e) Production Locations: Grows in natural forest areas of Southern and Western Ethiopia, with adequate moisture and heat. f) Major export Markets: Europe, Asia, USA and some African countries 2. Coriander a) HS: 090920 b) Descriptions: Coriander is the seed of coriandrum sativum, a plant in the parsley family. It has a mild, distinctive taste similar to a blend of lemon and sage. c) Uses: It comes from Morocco and Romania and used in Indian curries, gin, American cigarettes, and sausages. d) Specifications: The seed is globular and almost round, brown to yellow red, and 5mm in diameter with alternating straight and wavy ridges. e) Production Locations: Oromia Regional State f) Major export Markets: Djibouti, Kenya, UAE, USA, Yemen 3. Cumin a) HS: 090930 b) Descriptions: Cumin is the pale green seed of cuminum cyminum, a small herb in the parsley family. The seed is uniformly elliptical and deeply furrowed. c) Uses: It is frequently used in Mexican dishes such as chilicon, carne and hot tamales. Hence, the increasing popularity of Mexican influenced foods is boosting the sale of cumin. d) Specifications: Cumin has a distinctive, slightly bitter yet warm flavor. e) Production Locations:Oromia and Amhara Regional States f) Major export Markets: Algeria, Canada, Djibouti, Egypt, Isarael, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Switzerland, UAE, USA, Yemen 4. Ginger a) HS: 091010 b) Descriptions: Ginger is a flavoring from a tuberous root of Zingiber officinale, a plant in the Ginger family. The root is often dried and ground or "crystallized" with sugar. c) Uses: Used in gingerbread, ginger ale, gingersnaps, and Asian dishes. d) Specifications: It has a slightly biting and hot note. Its aroma is rich, warm, and woody.

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e) Production Locations: SNNPR, Amhara and Oromia Regions f) Major export Markets: Djibouti, Egypt, India, Kenya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, S. Africa, Sudan, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen. 5. Turmeric a) HS: 091030 b) Descriptions: It comes from the root of Curcuma longa, a leafy plant in the ginger family. The root, or rhizome, has a tough brown skin and bright orange flesh. It is boiled or steamed and then dried, and ground. c) Uses: It is also grown in China and Indonesia. Turmeric is a necessary ingredient of curry powder. It is used extensively in Indian dishes, including lentil and meat dishes, and in Southeast Asian cooking. It is routinely added to mustard blends and relishes. It is also used in place of saffron to provide color and flavor and is mildly aromatic and has scents of orange or ginger. It has a pungent, bitter flavor. Turmeric, with its brilliant yellow color, has been used as a dye, medicine, and flavoring. It was also used externally, to heal sores, and as a cosmetic. d) Specifications: The beans shall have characteristic odor and flavor of spices and shall be free from mustiness or other foreign flavours, and shall be free from living and dead insects, moulds and rodent contamination. e) Production Locations: SNNPR, Gambela and Oromia Regions. f) Major export Markets: Iran, Kenya, UAE, USA, Yemen

Sugar and Related Products


1. White Cane Sugar a HS Code: 1701.11 b Description: White cane sugar c Specification: Medium grain white cane sugar free flowing d. Production Location: Metehara and Wonji Shoa sugar factories e. Major markets: Djibouti, Middle East and other neighboring countries 2. Raw Cane Sugar a. HS Code: 1701.11 b. Description: Raw cane sugar c. Specification: moisture - 0.20% (maximum); grain size (mean aperture) - 0.80mm (maximum); color index - 1100(1c) maximum

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d. Production Location: Wonji/Shoa Sugar Factory e. Major Markets: EU sugar refineries as per the EBA regulation 3. Cane Molasses a. HS Code: 1703.10 b. Description: Black strap can molasses c. Uses: Animal feed, yeast, rectification of ethanol d. Production Location: Metehara and Wonji/Shoa sugar factories e. Major Destinations/ Export Markets: Germany, Netherlands and UK. 4. Technical Alcohol a. HS Code: 2207.10 b. Description: Technical alcohol c. Uses: For medical treatment and cleaning d. Specification: Clear and free of suspended materials e. Production Location: Fincha sugar factory f. Major markets: Italy 5. Power Alcohol a. HS Code:2207.10 b. Description: Power alcohol c. Uses: Source of fuel energy d. Specification: Clear, colorless,, free from suspended materials e. Production Location: Fincha sugar factory f. Major market: Italy

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Annex II: Address List of Major Ethiopian Export Product Exporters


1. NAME AND ADDRESSES OF COFFEE EXPORTERS8 Ser. No. Exporter's Name and Address
1

Ser. No.
2

Exporter's Name and Address P. O. Box 4854 Telephone No. +25111


5510124/5515117 Haicof Limited PLC

P. O. Box 2639DD Telephone No. +25125 1114890 DD Fax No. +25125 111489DD E-mail abacofd@ethionet.et
Addis Exporter Ltd (PLC) P. O. Box 22357 Telephone No. +25111 1561829/1561830 Fax No. +25111 1551292 E-mail addisexp@ethionet.et Adem Bedane Oda Imp.-Exp. P. O. Box 2135 Telephone No. +25111 1222550/1222551/52 Fax No. +25111 1222553/ 1222554 E-mail adem.bedane@ethionet.et Alfoz Pvt. Ltd. Co.

Abadir Coff Trading PLC

Fax No. +25111 5516888 E-mail haicofltd@ethionet.et


4 Helen Gebrenigus Coffee Exp. P. O. Box13332 Telephone No. +25111 5531719/5512312 Fax No. +25111 5510299 E-mail hgn.coffee@ethionet.et Ibero & Jos Hansen/Ethiopia/ Ltd. P. O. Box 3035 Telephone No. +25111 2753686/2757073/2757069 Fax No. +25111 2753433/2765168 E-mail moplaco@ethionet.et

P. O. Box 13732 Telephone No. +25111

J. J. Kothari & Co. /Eth./ (Ltd)

Fax No. +25111 6624389/5513481 E-mail alfoz@ethionet.et


9 Alpha Trading Partners PLC 10

6624283/6621745/5511782

P. O. Box171 Telephone No. +25111


4661114/15/16/511400 Fax No. +25111 4661122 / 4661113

E-mail j.j.kothari@ethionet.et P. O. Box 9594 Telephone No. +25111


Kaleb Service Farmers House PLC

P. O. Box 1617 Telephone No. +25111 5151920/5528084 Fax No. +25111 5528085 E-mail alphatrp@ethionet.et
11 Altaysir Trading PLC 12

4391459/4393675 Fax No. +25111 4393674 E-mail skaleb@ethionet.et

P. O. Box12723 Telephone No. +25111

Kana Import-Export Prv. Enter.

Ethiopian Coffee Exporters Association P. O. Box 8808, PHONE +25111 3711990 /3711130 /3200201, FAX +25111 3711477 E-mail: ecea@ethionet.et, Website: www.ecea.org.et

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P. O. Box 20189 Code 1000 Telephone No. +25111 Fax No. +25111 4394184 E-mail altaysir@ethionet.et
13 Ambassa Enterprise PLC 14 4393461/4393463/4394185

1235198/1223522 Fax No. +25111 1235197 E-mail kana@ethionet.et


Kedir Haji Hassen Coffee Exporter P. O. Box 23173 Code1000 Telephone No. +25111 4390931 Fax No. +25111 4393085 E-mail kedirhassen@ethionet.et

P. O. Box 2253 Telephone No. +25111

4167221/4655314/4655753

Fax No. +25111 4654888 E-mail ambassa@ethionet.et


15 A.S.K International Trading 16

Kemal Abdella International PLC

P. O. Box 19374 Telephone No. +25111

Fax No. +25111 4390353/ 5534342 E-mail askit@ethionet.et


17 Amdehun General Trading PLC P. O. Box 28201 Telephone No. +25111 5534607/2754010 Fax No. +251115534260 E-mail amdehun@ethionet.et 18

4391588/4390354/4391304

P. O. Box 24511 Telephone No. +25111 Fax No. +25111 4391950 E-mail kemalabdela@ethionet.et
Legesse Sherefa PLC P. O. Box 2288 Telephone No. +25111 2752043/2766486/ 2752716 Fax No. +25111 2763127 E-mail legesse-sherefa@ethionet.et Makfam PLC P. O. Box 9366 Telephone No. +25111 3714118/3714119/2756410 Fax +25111 3713877/2755077 E-mail makfam@ethionet.et Mohammed A. Ogsadey Imp. Exp. P. O. Box 250 DD/58912 AA Tel. +25111 1558899/1551433AA 4391951/52/ 4421498

19

P. O. Box 13019 Telephone No. +25111 6180850/6625747 Fax No. +251116615598/6625749 E-mail awdacoff@ethionet.et
Aziza PLC

Awda PLC

20

21

22

P. O. Box 182992 Telephone No. +251111558455/ 1558461 Fax No. +25111 1569530 E-mail ismael.t@ethionet.et
23 Bahomed Trading PLC 24

P. O. Box 578 Telephone No. +25111

AA/+25125 1111024 DD E-mail ogsadey@ethionet.et Moplaco Trading Co. Ltd. P. O. Box 3035 AA/4 DD

+25125 1112808/1113425 DD Fax No. +25111 1553773

Fax No. +25111 2754433 E-mail bahomed@ethionet.et

2751085/2763388/2770928

Tel. +25111 6456002/6456008/6455999 AA/+25125 1113971/1113453 DD


Fax No. +25111 6456011/12AA/+25125 1113972DD E-mail moplaco@ethionet.et Mullege Pvt. Ltd. Co. P. O. Box 12791

25

P. O. Box 756

Baminif Trading PLC

26

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

73

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

Telephone No. +25111 2751861/2760281 Fax No. +25111 2755257 E-mail baminiftrading@ethionet.et
27

Telephone No. +25111

Fax No. +2511 1461729/1552270 E-mail mullegecoffee@yahoo.com


28 Muluneh Kaka Coffee Exporter

6463883/6458577/6461727

P. O. Box8888AA /73 DD Tel.+251111551305/1573160/1558479AA/ 25 1113443 DD Fax No. +25111 1550924 AA/25 1110919 DD E-mail bashanfer@ethionet.et
Ba Shawieh Trading PLC P. O. Box 51026 Telephone No. +25111 2593732/2593734/36 Fax No. +25111 2593735 E-mail ba.shawieh@ethionet.et Belete Shibeshi PLC

Bashanfer Trading PLC

P. O. Box15917 Telephone No. +25111

4390290/4391117/4391093

Fax No. +25111 4393938 E-mail mkcoffeeexporter@ethionet.et 30 Nardos Coffee Export

29

4667545/4660298 Fax No. +25111 4667546 E-mail nardostr@ethionet.et 32 Nejet International PLC

P. O. Box 2577 Telephone No. +25111

31

1112762/1559190/1559196 Fax No. +25111 1550590 E-mail beshi@ethionet.et

P. O. Box 21338 Telephone No. +25111

P. O. Box50721 Telephone No. +25111


+25111 4391620 E-mail nejat@ethionet.et

Fax No. +25111 4390248

4392399/4391864/ 4390249

33

Bulehora Trading Enterprise

34 Paul Ries & Sons /Eth./ Ltd.

P. O. Box 121776 Telephone No. +25111 4421877 Fax No. +25111 4421878 E-mail bulehora@yahoo.com
35 Cabey PLC 36

P. O. Box3659 Telephone No. +25111 1551315/ Fax No. +25111 1551278 E-mail paulries@ethionet.et
Robera Pvt. Ltd. Company 1553194 / 1550233

4671696/4672022/4671697 Fax No. +25111 4671699 E-mail cabey@ethionet.et 37 Camels Trading Enterprise PLC 38

P. O. Box 18192 Telephone No. +25111

P. O. Box22061 22518 Telephone No. +25111 6461451 Fax No. +25111 6461454 E-mail robera@ethionet.et P. O. Box1269 Telephone No. +25111 6620925/
6620926/ 6620927 S. A. Bagersh PLC /6461452/ 6461453

P. O. Box 1148 Telephone No. +25111 2754881/6541076 Fax No. +25111 2762623 E-mail camels@ethionet.et
Challa Mulissa Coffee Exporter

Fax No. +25111 6620827 E-mail bagershtrade@ethionet.et


40 Said Jemal Rahmato PLC

39

P. O. Box1 5017

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

74

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

P. O. Box 120538 Telephone No. +25111 2774853/6621195 Fax No. +25111 1551428 E-mail challa@ethionet.et
41 Challenge Coffee Traders PLC 42

Telephone No. +25111 4420932 Fax No. +25111 4420933 E-mail rahmato@ethionet.et

P. O. Box 7618 Telephone No. +25111 5538312/5501158 Fax No. +25111 5537313 E-mail chcoffee@ethionet.et
43 Coffee Plantation Development Enterprise 44

S. Sara Coffee Enterprise

P. O. Box 5661 Telephone No. +25111 3713916/ Fax No. +25111 3713914 E-mail saracoffee@ethionet.et
Seid Yassin Ali Coffee Exp. Enterprise 3726293/ 3726294

P. O. Box 4363 Telephone No. +25111

4670688/4663363/4672001 Fax No. +25111 4670687/ 4168137 E-mail coffeepl@ethionet.et

P. O. Box 1382 Telephone No. +25111 5522246/


5525255 5527272

Fax No. +25111 5526233/+25111

45 Ethiopian Commodities PLC

46

P. O. Box1113 Tel. +25111 5517637/5517906/5533834/5514194 Fax No. +25111 5517222 E-mail etcomm@ethionet.et
47 Ethio Agri-CEFT PLC 48

E-mail s.y.a.c.e@ethionet.et Semachew Demissie Investment PLC P. O. Box 22766 Telephone No. +25111 6461725 / 26/ 6463594 Fax No. +25111 6463592 E-mail semachew.coffee@ethionet.et
Semachew Kebede Export-Import P. O. Box 9210 Telephone No. +25111 4390911/ 4391033 Fax No. +25111 4391677 E-mail semachewkebede@ethionet.et

P. O. Box1006 Telephone No. +25111 6637780/6637781/ Fax No. +25111 6615573/ 6637782 E-mail ethioagriceft@ethionet.et
49 Garden Mocca PLC 50 665608

P. O. Box 27729 Code 1000 Telephone No. +25111 6638052/53 Fax No. +25111 6638054 E-mail gardenmocca@ethionet.et
51 Ghion Industrial & Commercial PLC 52

P. O. Box 1397 DD** Telephone No. +25125 1112058/


1114097DD

Sheik Habib Farid International PLC

Fax No. +25125 1114062 DD E-mail shf@ethionet.et


S. J. Magdalinos PLC

2794769/2793360/61/62/63 Fax No. +25111 2794770/2755211 E-mail ghionexp@ethionet.et

P. O. Box 22669 Telephone No. +25111

P. O. Box 243 Telephone No. +25111 1550050/ Fax No. +25111 1550310 E-mail s.j.magdalinos@ethionet.et
1112419

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

75

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

53 Green Coffee Agro-IndustryPLC

54

P. O. Box13936 Telephone No. +25111 5519911/5512986 Fax No. +25111 5519971 E-mail gcaiplc@ethionet.et
55

P. O. Box112 Telephone No. +25111 4422924 Fax No. +25111 4431470 E-mail sms@ethionet.et P. O. Box 21561 Code 1000 Telephone No. +25111 552
6982/5517601 Winta International TradingPLC

S.M.S Private Limited Co.

P. O. Box19211 Telephone No. +25111 4342032/4341489 Fax No. +25111 4342033 E-mail husagra@ethionet.et
Wondo Trading PLC

Green Gold Ethiopia PLC

56

Fax No. +25111 5527109 E-mail win@ethionet.et


58 Zege PLC

57

P. O. Box 9515 Telephone No. +25111

Fax No. +25111 5513654 E-mail wondo.ftra@ethionet.et


59 Oromia Coffee Farmers Cooperative Societies Union (OCFCSU) Ltd. P O Box 1394 Code 1110 Tel 251114673256/4673257 Mobile 251911226744/911234332 Fax 251114673262 E-mail: cofunion@ethionet.et Website: www.oromiacoffeeunion.org Yirga Cheffe Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union P O Box 112641 Tel 251114431774/4421613 Mobile 251911210468 E-mail yirgacheffee@ethionet.et Website www.yirgacheffee-coffee.com 60

5521009/5521458/5521457

P. O. Box182608 Telephone No. +25111 1573969 Fax No. +25111 1573971 E-mail zege@ethionet.et
Sidama Coffee farmers Cooperative Union (CFCU) P O Box 122062 Tel 251114407165 Mobile 251911247326 Fax 251114407166 E-mail: sidacoop@yahoo.com Website: www.sidacoop.com

61

2. ETHIOPIAN PULSES, OILSEEDS & SPICES PROCESSORS EXPORTERS ASSOCIATION LIST OF MEMBERS AND THEIR ADDRESSES9

No

Name and Address


AMAL TRADING CO. LTD

No.

Name and Address


MALIMA PLC.

Tel. 251-011-1552512 251-091-1204170 Fax251-011-1550958 E-mail: amalco@ethionet.et P.O. Box 1486


OMAR & AWAD BAOBED

Tel. 251111571998 251-011-1572001 251-091-1200080 Fax251111572005 E-mail: malima@yahoo.com P.O. Box 13130
AJLI INT. TRADING PVT.LTD.CO.

Address of the Association: P O Box 8686, Tel. 251115156268; Fax. 251115156153; E-mail: epofpe@ethionet.et Website: www.epofpea.com

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

76

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

251-011-1563098 251-091-1200120 Fax 251-011-1560394 E-mail: baobed@ethionet.et P.O. Box 1245 BAJEBA PRIVATE LTD CO. Tel. 251-011-2751545 251-011-4391544 251-091-1211202 Fax251-011-2754766 251-011-4391545

Tel. 251-011-1562579/80

Tel. 251115159090 251-091-1205338 251-091-1195492 Fax251115158613 E-mail: seidibrahimajli@ethionet.et P.O. Box 43439
MANDURA ETHIOPIA

Tel. 251116639416 251-011-6639418 251-091-1214218 Fax251116639417 E-mail: mandura@ethionet.et P.O. Box 25883

E-mail: bajiba@ethionet.et P.O. Box 758


8

J.J. KOTHARI & CO.LTD

Tel. 251-011-4661155 251-091-1211024 Fax 251-011-4661122 E-mail: j.jKothari@ethionet.et P.O. Box 171 ANTYPAS & BROTHERS LTD Tel. 251111551316/1123770 Fax 251-011-1550657 E-mail: antypasaddis@hotmail.com P.O. Box 1606

ASNAKE ADDISSU NEGASH EXPORTER Tel. 251115522068 251911221122/212903 Fax25111-5522067 E-mail: getasnake@ethionet.et P.O. Box 10366 COMELS TRADING Enterprise Pvt.Ltd.com. Tel. 251-011-2754881 251-091-1205374 Fax 251112762623 E-mail: camels@ethionet.et P.O. Box 1148 C.G.F BUSINESS GROUP Pr.Ltd.com. Tel. 251114166268 251911212787/1372581 Fax 251114166270 E-mail: gftr.en@ethionet.et P.O. Box 23833 Code 1000 ALPHA TRADING PARTNERS P.L.C. Tel. 251115528084 251911203254 251911209450 Fax 251115528085 E-mail: alphatrp@ethionet.et P.O. Box 1617 AGRO PROM INTERNATIONAL PLC. Tel. 251115533090 251-091-1670040 Fax 251115533090 E-mail: arroprom@ethionet.et

10

12 11

AMBASSEL TRADING HOUSE

Tel.251115533502/5525695/5526001 Fax251115505840/5515312 E-mail: ambaseltrading@ethionet.et P.O. Box 12617


14 13

GUNA TRADING

Tel. 251-011-4652288/4650512 251-091-1208595 Fax 251-011-4654633 E-mail: guna.trading@ethionet.et P.O. Box 80316
16 15

DINA TRADING.PLC

Tel. 251-011-2776958 251-091-1212134 Fax251-011-2777579 E-mail: dinat@ethionet.et abduruadem@hotmail.com

P.O. Box----

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

77

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

P.O. Box 9277


17

YAHIA SAYED OMAR (YSO) Tel. 251-011-2751296/2770339/40 251-091-1205180/81 Fax251-011-2752911

18

ABDULSEMED TAKELE Tel. 251111558455 251-091-200127 Fax251111558461 www.merkato.com/abdulemedexp.htm ismael.@ethionet.et P.O. Box 182992 MULAT ABEGAZ GENERAL EXP. ENT. Tel. 251111236717 251-091-1236208 251-091-1223159 Fax 251111236716 E-mail: mulatoil.gex@ethionet.et P.O. Box 8486 CROWN TRADING Pvt.Ltd. Co. Tel. 251-011-2763157/251-011-2771161 Fax 251-011-2763158/251-011-5533681 E-mail: crown@ethionet.et P.O. Box 25741

E-mail: yso@ethionet.et P.O. Box 4202


AL - EMAN TRADING
19 20

E-mail:

Tel. 251-011-1114775 251-091-1204120 Fax2 51-011-1551664 E-mail: al-eman@ethionet.et P.O. Box 14498
22

ETHIOPIAN GRAIN TRADE ENT.P

21

23

Tel. 251-011-4663952/4665037 251-011-4650234/4652436 251-091-1207789 Fax 251-011-4655428 251-011-4652792 E-mail: egte@ethinet.et P.O. Box 3321 ODA SHARE CO. Tel. 251-011-1566953/54/52 251-091-1235473 Fax251-011-1552474 E-mail: www.odashco.com oda@ethionet.et P.O. Box 34369

24

M.Y GLOBAL TRADING P.L.C. Tel. 251116555188/251911205167 Fax251114669249 E-mail: mayglob@ethionet.et ak.55h@ethionet.et P.O. Box 57850 KALEB SERVICE FARMERS HOUSE P.L.C. Tel. 251114393653 Fax251114393674 E-mail: skaleb@ethionet.et P.O. Box 9594

26

K.A.S.INT.TRADING
25

Tel. 251-011-1555869/12550144 00251-022-112 82 99 Nazreth 521-091-1204568 Fax 251-011-1560277 E-mail: kAS@ethionet.et nutuhussen@yahoo.com www.Kasethio.com P.O. Box 50609
28

WARKA TRADING P.L.C.


27

Tel. 251-011-1558121/91-1201217 Fax251-011-1551950 E-mail: Warkatr@ethionet.et P.O. Box 19639


NAZRETH INT. TRADING CO.
30

SULULTA AGRO INDUSTRY Tel. 251115540260/911250752 Fax251115540282 E-mail: sulagroindplc@ethionet.et wondim@yahoo.com P.O. Box 25890 Code 1000 NILE SOURCE P.L.C

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

78

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

29

/6611679

Tel. 251116614950/911200295 Fax 251116624683

E-mail: nazreth.int. @ethionet.et P.O. Box 62402


TAYE BELAY GEN.IMP/EXPORT
32

Tel. 251111113436/911200451/911204755 Fax 251111562171/2762211 E-mail: nilesource@ethionet.et P.O. Box24400/17325


Kalu Transport Agriculture & In.Pr.Tr.En

31

Tel. 251-011-2779630/31 251-091-1204014/91-1404475 Fax 251112779632 E-mail: inter-axxes@ethionet.et P.O. Box -33 34

Tel. 251116841621/911205102 Fax251116841622 E-mail: Kalu@ethionet.et P.O. Box 26542


Al-Impex Import-Export

HAWAS AGRI BUSINESS PVT.LTD CO.

Tel. 251114431596/97/4402164/911207356 Fax251114431594 E-mail: Hawas-agri@ethinet.et P.O. Box 5723


36

251-022-1114321

Tel. 251116634400/01 Fax 251116630451 E-mail: al-impex@ethionet.et P.O. Box 7185


Bedru and Family P.L.C

ALI ABDU ALI IMPORT & EXPORT


35

Tel. 251114670202 251-091-1208066

37

aligdd@yahoo.com P.O. Box 122646 BEYEN TEKA GEN. IM/EX Tel. 251116620813 251-091-1602012 Fax25111-6620813 E-mail: beyeneteka@yahoo.com P.O. Box 32296

Fax251114670203 E-mail: 3aie@ethionet.et

muredin-bedru@yahoo.com P.O. Box 57456


38

Tel. 251112799495/911-219376 Fax 251112799494 E-mail: bedfam@ethinet.et

Labora International Trading PLC Tel 251-011-4665553/56 Fax 251-011-4665544

E-mail: laboraecxport@ethionet.et
P O Box 13823
40

39

Hajuta Trading PLC Tel 25111 6621232/911 505195/911877313 Fax 251 011 6295785/86
E-mail: hajutatrading@yahoo.com
hajuta@ethionet.et P O Box: 170221

Kana Industry and Trading PLC

Tel. 251 011 1235198/1223522


Fax 251 011 1235197 E-mail: kana@ethionet.et

P O Box 12723
42

41

Smart Business Group PLC

Daniel Dessalegn Mengistu

Tel. 251 011 5527710/45 Fax 251 011 5518291 E-amil: smartbusiness@ethionet.et P O Box 6329 3. Vegetables and Fruit Exporters

E-mail: danieldesalegn@ethionet.et
P O Box 794

Tel. 251 0911665057/222033 Fax 251 011 5540648

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

79

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

No.

Company Name and Address

No.

Company Name and Address

1 Ethiopian Horticulture Producer and Exporters Associations (EHPEA) Telephone:251-11-663 67 50/663 6751/ 911 254077 Fax: 251-11-663-67-53 P.O. Box: 22241 Code 1000 A.A E-mail: ehpea@ethionet.et 3 Upper Awash Agro-Industry Enterprise Telephone: 251-11-4671569 (AA) (251-22-1122688 Merti) 251 22 1122702 Fax: 251-11-4671633 (AA)/251-22-1122703 (Merti) P.O. Box: 12624 A.A E-mail: Peval@ethionet.et 5 Ethiopian Fruits and Vegetable Marketing Share Company Telephone: 251-11-551 70 05/251-11-551 91 92/251-91-122 56 38 Fax: 251-11-551-64-83 P.O. Box: 2374 A.A E-mail: etfruit@ethionet.et 7 Horticultural Development Enterprise Telephone: 251-11-156-25-46/251-11-15784-38/251-11-2550167 Fax: 251-11-157 07 14/251 11 15 78438 P.O. Box: 3896 A.A E-mail: h.d.e@ethionet.et 9 Ethioflora P.L.C Telephone: 251-11-4660982/521-91-1125 40 77/251-91-1124 87 51 Fax: 251-11-466 09 80 P.O. Box: 602 A.A E-mail:Benf2etf@ethionet.et
4. Flower Exporters10 No. 1 Name and Address Seit Agro PLC Tel. +251115533684 Fax. +251115533685 E-mail:sietagro@ethionet.et P.O. Box:43382 No. 2

2 Eteco Plc. Telephone: 251-114162535/251-91-1220462 Fax: 251-11-663-67-29 P.O. Box: 5202 A.A E-mail: eteco@ethionet.et 4 ILAN TOT Plc. Telephone: 251-91-142-3635 Fax: 251-11-656-9092 P.O. Box: 2451 Code 1250 E-mail:ilantot@walla.com

6 Afruta Fruit & Veg. Exporter Service Giving P.l.c Telephone: +25 112 49 79/0911 573 40 99 Fax:---P.O. Box: E-mail: 8 Gurmed Fruit & Veg. Exporter Service Giving P.l.c. Telephone: 091 57 30 883 Fax: 251-111123982 P.O. Box:-E-mail:--

Name and Address Ziway Rose Tel. +251464414172 Fax. ---E-mail:zwayrose@ethionet.et P.O. Box: 386, Ziway

10

Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association; P O Box 22241 Code 1000 (A A); Tel. 251116636750/51; Fax. 251116636753 ; E-mail: ehpea@ethionet.et Website: www.ehpea.org.et

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

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Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

11

13

15

Summit Agro Industry Tel. +251116604865/75 Fax. +251116604862 E-mail: jobera@ethionet.et P.O. Box:17758 Joy Tech plc Tel. +251114336123 Fax. +251114336122 E-mail:mail@joytechplc.com P.O. Box:1901 code 1250 Mnaye Flower Tel. +251113728667 Fax. +251113710627 E-mail:minaye@ethionet.et P.O. Box:11048 Maranque Plants plc Tel. +251221190727 Fax. ---E-mail:info@maranqueplants.com P.O. Box:-----Derba Flower Tel. +251115540368 Fax. +251115540368 E-mail:mullo@ethionet.et P.O. Box:40320 Golden Rose Tel. +251114669971 Fax. +251114669970 E-mail:gomba@ethionet.et P.O. Box:19900 J.J Kotari Tel. +251114661155 Fax. +251114661122 E-mail:j.jkothari@ethionet.et P.O. Box:171 Ethio Agri Ceft Tel. +251116615608 Fax. +251116615573 E-mail:ethioagriceft@ethionet.et P.O. Box:1006 MAM Trading Tel. +251114440280 Fax. +251114432010 E-mail:info@mam-rose.com P.O. Box: 120956 Dire Highland Flower Tel. +251112772894 Fax. +251112772895 E-mail:dhf@ethionet.et P.O. Box: 2492

10

12

14

16

17

18

19

20

21

Red Fox Tel. +251221129250 Fax. +251221129253 E-mail:r.petri@ethiopia.redfox.de P.O. Box:42, Modjo Holeta Roses Plc Tel. +251114671791 Fax. +251114671794 E-mail:holroses@ethionet.et P.O. Box:---Joe Flower Tel. +251116186460 Fax. +251116639033 E-mail:jflowers@ethionet.et P.O. Box:--Spirit plc Tel. +251116521210/11/12 Fax. +251116521214 E-mail: spirit@ethionet.et P.O. Box:---Super Arsitte Tel. +251115534696/99 Fax. +251115534697 E-mail: makiya@ethionet.et P.O. Box: 28912 Top Flower Tel. +251115534696/99 Fax. +251115534697 E-mail:--P.O. Box:--A Flower Plc Tel. +251 115534696/99 Fax. +251115534697 E-mail:makiya@ethionet.et P.O. Box: 28912 Tabor Herbs Tel. +251115523581 Fax. ---E-mail:-----P.O. Box:----Ethiopian Horticultural Producers & Exporters Ass. Tel. +251636750/51 Fax. +251636753 E-mail:ehpca@ethinet.et P.O. Box: 22241code1000

5. Tanners, Footwear & Leather Products Manufacturers

FDRE Ministry of Foreign Affairs

81

Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions

No. 1

Company Name Address Abay Tannery Tel. 251 116 625911 Mob. 0911 Fax: 251 11 6625909 e-mail: abaytan@ethionet.et P. O. Box 2701 Code 1110 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Addis Ababa Tannery S/C Tel. 251 011 1575311 Mob. 091/1201451 Fax: 251 011 1575307 e-mail: aatan@ethionet.et P. O. Box 22498 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Bale Tannery Tel. 251 11 5539428 Mob. 091/1204924 Fax: 251 011 5536593 e-mail: bale.plc@ethionet.et P. O. Box 1862 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Bahr Dar Tannery Tel. 251 011 5159040 Mob. 091/1200997 Fax: 251 011 5159050 e-mail: bdt@ethionet.et P.O.Box 482 Code 1110 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Batu Tannery Tel. 251 011 4421451/52 Mob. 091/1212801 Fax: 251 011 4421454 e-mail: Batutan@hotmail.com P. O. Box 1273 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Blue Nile Tannery Tel: 251 011 2380816 Mob. 091/1206130 Fax: 251 011 2380600 e-mail: bntannery@ethionet.et P. O. Box 9339 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Colba Tannery Tel: 251 011 4168759 Fax: 251 011 4168760 Mob. 251-091-1210754 e-mail: colba.tannery@ethionet.et P.O.Box: Combolcha Tannery S/C Tel. 251 011 5514075 Fax: 251 011 5518098 P.O.Box 2516 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

No 2

Company Name Address Shifa Abdo Tannery Mob. 251-091-1404517

4 Shoa Tannery Tel. 251 011 5533348 Mob. 091/1201013,223135,149010 Fax: 251 011 5517578 e-mail: shoa.tannery@ethionet.et P. O. Box 26998 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 6 Walia Tannery Tel. 251 011 4422367 Mob. 091/1207331 Fax: 251 011 4421777 e-mail: wallia.tannery@ethionet.et P. O. Box 8187 Abysiniya Leather Garments Tel. 251-011-5526898 Mob.251-091-1230527 Fax. 251-011-4655331

10

e-mail: ashford@ethionet.et P.O.BOX :3182 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Ethio-Sung Bine Leather Garments Tel. 251-011-5531332 Mob.251-091-1227097 Fax: 251-011-5510344 e-mail: P.O.Box: 2641 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Genuine Leather Crafts PLC Tel. 251 115 531894 Mob. 251 911 217284 Fax 251 115 518841 e-mail: glc@ethionet.et P.O.Box 2218 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Jonzo Leather Garments Tel.251-011-6621508/09 Mob.251-091-1204240 Fax:251-011-6621510

esbleatherg.f@ethionet.et

12

13

14

15

16

e-mail: jonzo@ethionet.et P.O.Box:24696 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Modern Zege Leather Garments Tel. 251 011-5157279/ 91-1208767 Fax: 251-011-5511187 e-mail:

modern.zege@ethionet.et

17

Debre Brehan Tannery Tel. 251 011 5516906 Mob. 091/1204531 Fax: 251 011 5157114 e-mail: dbt@ethionet.et P. O. Box 5557 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Desse Tannery Tel. 251 011 5514075 Fax: 251 011 5518098 e-mail: dst.plc@ethionet.et P.O.Box 13405 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Dire Industries

18

P.O.BOX :1035 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Anbessa Shoe S/C Tel. 251-011-2754269 Mob.251-091- 1205229 Fax: 251-011-2756335

19

20

e-mail: anshoeco@ethionet.et P.O.Box: 1641 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Berehe Assefa Shoe Factory Tel 251 0 111223137 Fax 251 0 111223434 Mob. 0911 117384 Gamb Shoe Trading & Industry

21

22

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Tel: 251-011-5156144/Mob. 251-091-1408596 Fax:251-0115508935 Email:et.tanners@ethionet.et/Etflgma@yahoo.com Web site: www.ethiotanners.org.et P.O.Box 12898 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 6. Natural Forest and Forest Products Exporters' Addresses

e-mail: mesfin.sahle@ethionet.et P.O.Box; 6656 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 35 Modjo Tannery Tel. 251 011 5514856, 36 0344408424 Mob. 091/1201907 Fax: 251 011 5513525, 0344408423 e-mail: modjan@ethionet.et P. O. Box 3 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 38 37 Sheba Tannery Tel.251 011 5513335 Mob. 0911 230737 Fax: 251 011 5513432 e-mail: shebatannery@ethionet.et P.O.Box 18313 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Ethiopian Tanners, Footwear and Leather Products Manufacturing association (Full Address)

Tel. 251 011 2756443 Mob. 091/1201155 Fax: 251 011 2752455 e-mail; dire@ethionet.et P. O. Box 2492Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Ethio-Leather Industry PLC (ELICO) Tel. 251 011 4655152 Fax: 251 011 4655151 e-mail: elico@ethionet.et e-mail: elico.proex@telecom.net.et P. O. Box 9281 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Ethiopia Tannery S/C Tel. 251 011 5513691 Mob. 091/1202383 Fax: 251 011 5512822 e-mail: eth.tannery@ethionet.et P. O. Box 5628 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Gellan Tannery Tel. 251 1 11 1574701 0911 205562 Fax. 251 1 11 1574702 e-mail: gellan.tannery@ethionet.et Hafde Tannery Tel. 251 011 1564640 Mob. 091/1219331 Fax: 251 011 1551428 e-mail: Hafde@ethionet.et P. O. Box 4411 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Hora Tannery Tel. 251 011 4339575 Mob. 091/1201385 Fax: 251 011 4339733 e-mail: horatann@ethionet.et P. O. Box 472 Debrezeit, Ethiopia Mesaco Global Tel. 251-011-1568119 Mob.251-091-1212678 Fax: 251-011-1568127

Tel.251112132145 Mob.251911 220231 Fax. 251 112132145 e-mail: gamb@ethionet.et Jamaica Shoe Factory Tel. 251-011-1564280 Mob. 251-011-1204524 Fax: 251-011-1553114

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e-mail: Okjamaica@ethionet.et P.O.Box: 26430 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 26 Kangaroo Shoe Factory Tel. 251 011 4421451/52 Mob. 091/1212801 Fax: 251 011 4421454 e-mail: Batutan@hotmail.com P. O. Box 1273 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Melese Teka shoe Factory

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Tel.215-011-2751877

Fax: 215-011-2751877 Peacock shoe Factory Tel. 251-011-2756443 Fax:251-011-2752455

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e-mail: dire@ethionet.et 32 Ramsie Shoe Factory Tel. 251-011-2753728 Fax: 251-011-1550530

e-mail: Ramsay@yahoo.com P.O.Box: 182807 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 34 Ras Dashen Shoe Factory Tel. 251-011-6293432 Fax: 251-011-6294162 P.O.Box 22723 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

e-mail: Tikurabay@ethionet.et P.O.Box: 802 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Wallia Shoe Factory Tel. 251-011-4422369 Fax: 251-011-4421777 e-mail:

Tikur Abaay Shoe S/C Tel. 251-011-2701803 Mob. 251-091-1205527 Fax: 251-011-2704050

wallia.tannery@ethionet.et

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No. Name and Address 1 Natural Gum Product and Marketing Organization Tel. +25111 5518825/5527082/5518813 Fax. +251115518110 P.O.Box 62322 A.A. E-mail: natgam@ethionet.et 3 Guna Trading House Plc. Tel. +251114650482/4652288 Fax. +251114654633 P.O.Box80316 A.A E-mail: guna.trading@ethionet.et Bwap Plc. Tel. +251116626362
+251911217266 Fax. +251116639633/6626363 +251911212403

P.O. Box 1980/1110 A.A E-mail: bwap@ethionet.et Handa International Plc Tel. +251 6635056/ +251911 202475 Fax. +251116635057 P.O. Box 18009 AA E-mail: hat@ethionet.et

No. 2. Ambasel Plc Tel. +251115525695 +251911202475 Fax.+251115515312/5505840 P.O. Box 12617 A.A E-mail: apd@ethionet.et 4. Durale Nesredin Plc. Tel. +251112752572 +251911236056 Fax. +2512756261 P.O.Box12617 A.A. E-mail: 6. Abebaye Clering Plc. Tel. +251911212403 Fax. +25111 5530796 P.O.Box5304 AA E-mail: abebaye@ethionet.et

7 Cotton Exporters NO. Company Name and Address No. Company Name and Address 1 Amibara Development Enterprise 2 Middle Awash Development Enterprise Tel.251115511765 Tel. 25122456013 251911614625 251911291895 Fax. 251115150040 Fax. --E-mail: amibara@ethionet.et E-mail:asrgad@yahoo.com P.O. Box 182665 P.O. Box: ---3 Africa Global Enterprise 4 Segel General Trading Tel. 251116627897 Tel. 251111571690 251911216144 251911204373 Fax. 251116627893 Fax. 251111571692 E-mail: peval@ethionet.et E-mail: segalcamp@ethionet.et P.O. Box:----P.O. Box:----8. Exporters of Meat11 No. Company Name and Address No.
11

Company Name and Address

Ethiopian Meat Producers-Exporters Association; Tel. 251116628292; E-mail: empea@ethionet.et

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Elfora Agro Industries PLC Tel. 251911203141 Fax. 251116620208 E-mail:--P.O. Box: 2500 Luna Export Slaughter PLC Tel. 251911211271 Fax. 251115150336 E-mail:--P.O.Box:----

Mojo Modern Export Kera PLC Tel. 251911253447 Fax251115537879 E-mail:--P.O.Box:--Helmex-Hashim Nuru Tel. 251115644/05/07/08 (?) Fax. ---E-mail:---P.O.Box:----

9. Live Animal Exporters No.


1.

Company Name and Address

No.
2.

Company Name and Address


Abdurahman Umer Abdi general import & export Tel. 251116632699/6632700/911-406176 Fax. +251-11-6610990 E-mail: arimex2004@yahoo.com P.O. Box: 9664 A.A Derman Animal Trade, Export & Feed Production Co-operative Union Tel. Fax. E-mail: P.O. Box: Ayele Tezera livestock fattening & exporter Tel. 251114663749/ 463312836/911344977 Fax.--E-mail: ayeletez@yahoo.com P.O. Box: 223 Dilla T.Z.M livestock fattening & exporter Tel. 251911-893703 Fax.-E-mail: tefera21@yahoo.com P.O. Box:----Gasco Trading P.L.C. Tel. 251115513337/5512943/911-201172 Fax. +251-11-5531865 E-mail: gasco@ethionet.et P.O. Box:----

SHAG import export enterprise Tel. 251115537877 251911208922/228132 Fax. +25111537888 E-mail:-P.O. Box: 56169 A.A TAKEM Agro industry 3. Tel. 251115511070/911247555 Fax. +25111513388 E-mail: Lminterus@yahoo.com P.O. Box: 2704 A.A I.T.A Agro industry plc. Tel.251111551860/1112786/911216976 Fax. +251-11-1551860 E-mail: itaagro@telecom.net.et P.O. Box: 1027 A.A Aminat Nuru import & export enterprise Tel. 251112782026/911401224 Fax. +251-11-2782026 E-mail: alsalfalehexp@yahoo.com P.O. Box: 28728 A.A Dr.Tefera Hailu exporter Tel. 251911344820 Fax. +251-11-5530320 E-mail: teferahailu@yahoo.com P.O. Box: --

4.

6.

5. 7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Kalied Ahmed Importer & exporter Tel. 251221128231/221128232/911220013 Fax. +251-221-118230 E-mail:--P.O. Box:----

12.

Tel. 251115512186/911200508 Fax. +251111551382 E-mail: medtech@ethionet.et P.O. Box:---

MED - TEK Ethiopia

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10. TEXTILE & GARMENT MANUFACTURERS12 No. 1 Organization Awassa Textile Share Company Fax. 11-5-514-984/5-514984 Tel. 011-5-51-89-00 E-mail: habibnarin@awassa textile com. Diradawa Textile Factory Fax. 251-5-110-582/11-5-512-711 Tel. 011-5-51-07-91 0911645379 011-5-51-68-56/091164-5379 E-mail: ddtfdgm@ethionet.et ddtfmark@ethionet.et Arbaminch Textile Factory Fax. 46-8-81 4- 4 Tel. 011-5-53-50-38/011-5-535035/37 E-mail: Kombolcha Textile Factory Fax. 11-5-511-771 Tel. 011-5-51-37-97 E-mail: kte@ethionet.et Ethio-Japan Nylon Textile Factory Fax. 11-5-515- 77 Tel. 011-5-51-34-76 E-mail: ejstsc@ethionet.et Akaki Textile Factory Fax. 11-4-341-666 Tel. 011-4-34-01-40 E-mail: Bahirdar Textile Factory Fax. 11-5-512-747 Tel. 011-5-53-13-81 E-mail: bdrtexed@ethionet.et Almada Textile Factory Fax. 11-5-517-442 Tel. 011-5-51-59-68 E-mail: Ediget Yarm Factory Fax. 11-3-713-855 No. 2 Organization Kebre Enterprises Private Limitted Fax. 011-5-520-677/0115525029 Tel. 011-5-52-05-75 0344420502/01/03 E-mail: kebire2@ethionet.et Ambassador Garment Fax. 011-6-461-442 Tel. 0116461427 E-mail: amb garment @ ethionet Haile Garment Fax.---Tel. 0911-20-62-43/0116532992 E-mail: haile@hailegarment.com Nazerette Garment Fax. 022-1-111-733/0114405279 Tel. 0221113361/0911207836 E-mail:----Knit to finish Garment P. L. C. Fax. 011-4-345-779/450039 Tel. 0911-202-271/0911201608 0114450038 E-mail: garment exp@ethionet com. African Cottons Private Limited Fax. 011-4-404-865 Tel. 011-4-40-48-64 E-mail: africancottons@ethionet.et Mulate Garment Fax. 011-4-403-614 Tel. 011-4-40-36-15/0911406833 E-mail: mulata@ethhionet.et Woynu curtain Trade Fax. 011-5-509-067 Tel. 011-5-50-90-65/0911206844 0115509068 E-mail: Wasse Garment Fax. 011-5-517-722

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17

18

12

3*/81 Ethopian Textile and Garment Manufacturers Association; Tel. 251114421754; Fax. 251114421753; E-mail: etgma@ethionet.et

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Tel. 011-1-23-63-00/011-1-23-63-20 E-mail: edgetgar @ethio net Adye-Ababa Yarm Factory Fax. 11-5-514-42 /44 5-12 Tel. 011-4-42-06-18/ 0911-245816 E-mail: Akaki Garment Factory Fax. 11-4-34 -222 Tel. 011-4-34-01-54 E-mail: Addis Garment Factory Fax. 11-3-71 - 77 Tel. 011-1-22-17-91 E-mail: Gulale Garment Factory Fax. 11-2-7 2-953 Tel. 011-2-70-20-05/2-702266 E-mail: Debra Birhane Blanket Factory Fax. 11-5-513- 8 Tel. 011-5--51-35-80 E-mail: dbbfcc@yahoo.com, dbbfcc@ethionet.et Mehere Fiber Products Factory Fax. 11-4-34 -201 Tel. 011-4-34-03-12/4-341240 E-mail: meher@ethionet.et Ethiopia Fiber Products Factory Fax. 11-4-34 -338 Tel. E-mail: Trio craft Garment P.L.C. Fax. 11-6-661-44 Tel. 0911-641-949/0114400752/440075 E-mail: kassaelsaohot @mail com. akmoussie @hotmail.com G.G Super Garment Factory Fax. 011-6-293-123 Tel. 0911-21-11-35 E-mail: ggroyalhotel@ethionet.et Progress Garment Factory Fax. 11-6-46 -857/6460917 Tel. 0911-20-22-31/011-6460917 011-6515856 E-mail: Pgt@ethio net.et D.H Geda Blanket Factory Fax. 011-4-34-41-80 Tel. 011-4-34-41-81/0114434302 0911874886 E-mail: d.h.ged@ethionet.et Edget Garment P.L.C Fax. 011-1-224502 Tel. 011-1-23-63-20/011-1-23-63-00

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Tel. 0911-405016 /809529 E-mail: wwhdk@ aol.com Best Garment Fax. 011-5-517-722/0115539273 Tel. 0911-682-386 E-mail: gomassoud@yahoo.com Unis Garment Fax. 011-5-443-447 Tel. 011-5-44-34 50/52 E-mail: yonis@ethionet.et Zaytso Business Group Fax. 011-1-560-384 Tel. 0911-232-796 E-mail: Sony Garment Fax. 011-1-560-384 Tel. 0911-235-402 E-mail: Ties Garment P.L.C. Fax. 011-5-517-304 Tel. 011-5-53-19-94/0911-623-600 E-mail: tayspic@ethionet.et Creative Textile Ethiopia p.l.c Fax. 0114422388 Tel. 0114422366/422358 0911635694 E-mail: dong@ethionet.et dongruiqirs@hotmail.com OASIS Abyssina Garment Fax. 0114422072 Tel. 0911204884/0114404898 E-mail: oasisabyss@ethionet.et Feleke Garment Fax. 0115514139 Tel. 0911203033 E-mail: sembel.biz@ethionet.et Waw Fashion Fax. 0115510334 Tel. 0911200612/0116520218 0911628530 E-mail: fuade@ethionet.et Nova Star Fax. 251116638279 Tel. 0116638282/0116-520377/6 0911-037403 E-mail: Sara Abera Desgin and Factory Fax. 0116-613375/0111-234016 Tel. 0911203580/0116611687 E-mail: sara@ethionet.et muyaethiopia@ethionet.et Bezawit Asmelash Import and Exporter Fax. ---Tel. 0911-669924

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0911204114/0911684157 E-mail: edegetgar@ethionet.et Ras Dashen Textile & Garment Factory Fax. 011-6-294-162 Tel. 0114421365/74/58/ 0911-718-224 E-mail: rasdatfplc@ethionet.et Millium General clothing Private Limited Fax. 011-5-506-595 Tel. 011-5-50-65-76/0911220794 0115506578 E-mail: gybstarcomm@ethionet.et Etab Enter Garment Fax. 011-5-511-662 Tel. 011-3-20-35-44/011523691 0115512106 E-mail: etab.int.med@ethionet.et Zefmesh Garment Private Limited Fax. 011-1-553-927/011-6-463-835 Tel. 0911-219396 E-mail: zefmesh@ethionet.et

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0114-422706 E-mail: bezawitant@yahoo.com GMM Garment P.L.C Fax. 0115-528170/4162536 Tel. 0116-522872/73 0911-207981 E-mail: gmmgar@ethionet.et amulu@ethionet.et Concert International Ethiopia Fax. 0116-630614 Tel. 0116-615586/ 0114-404624 E-mail: gbace@ethionet.et KK Textile Factory Fax. 0114-342682 Tel. 0114-342675/76/81 0911-210694 E-mail:------

49

11. Other Agricultural Related Companies which Export and which have Export Potential

No

Name of The Company


1

Type of product Olioresein

No 2

Name of the Company Ethio-Agri Safe PLC Tel 011-6615392 Fax 011-6615573; AA Fafa Food Share Company Tel011-4405713
A.A Kaliti

Ethiopian Spices Extraction Factory Tel 011-4428000/4421829 Fax 011-4423633; A.A Wonji Shoa Sugar Factory Tel 022-2200001/2201400 Fax 022-2200977
Wonji

Type of product Tea

Sugar

flour

Metehara Sugar Factory Tel 011-5519700 Fax 022-1113747


Metehara

Sugar

Grano doro Flour & Macarony Factory Tel 011- 439092/4391837 Fax 011- 4390924
A.A Kaliti

Macaroni

Sugar

Fichaa Sugar Factory Tel 011-5512577 Fax 057-6641015; Finchaa

Bashenfer plc Tel 011-1551305/1573160 Fax 011-1550924


A.A.

Roasted coffee

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Harrar Beer Share Company Tel 025-6660385/6660267/6660639 Fax 025-6661555/011-4666715


Harrar

Beer

10

East African Group plc (East African Flour Factory) Tel 011- 3711400/3201263 Fax 0113727489/3711408,A.A.

Flour

11

Bedele Beer Share company Tel 047-4450148/446147/0114651193/0114661870/011474450499 Fax 047-4451006/4411946,Bedele

Beer

12

Green Star Food plc Tel 011-4336018/4390924 Fax 011-4336019; AA Zege Agriculture & agoIndustry Tel 011-5517719; A.A. Awash Winery S.C. Tel 011-3711010 Fax 011-3711738, AA Ambrosia Honey & Beewax plc Tel 0111571088/1571061/157105 8 Fax 011- 1571186, A.A

Processed fruits and vegetables

13

15

Meta Abo beer Share company Tel 011-5153955 Fax 011-5517899/1565735, AA Ambo Mineral Water Factory Tel 011-5517333 Fax 011-5516252; AA B.G.I. Ethiopia /Beer/ Tel 011-5510677/5511163 Fax 011-5511711
A. A

Beer

14

Ambo Mineral water Beer

16

Beer

17

18

Honey and Beewax

19

Upper Awash Agro Industry /Merti Vegetable and Fruits Processing Plant/ Tel 022-1122702
022-1122707/1122708

20

Melge Wendo (Alfora Agro- Industry) Tel 011-3206600 Fax 011-3206561/3206562


Merti

21

23

Fax 022-1122703;Oromia Sebta Agro- Industry Tel 011-1566685/5523127 Fax 011-5519856/5523099, AA Diredawa Food Complex S.Co. Tel 025-1114020/4654214 Fax 025-1110400
Diredawa Or A.A.

22

Pasta, macaroni, etc.

24

Universal Food Complex Tel 011- 4393639 Fax 011- 4393961, AA Afia Food Complex Tel0911-205171 Fax 011-2754522 Nas Foods Factory plc Tel 011- 6512416/6635253
AA Honey

25

Green P.L.C.
Tel 0911-201871
AA

26

27

Kaliti Food Share Company Tel 011-4390144 Fax 011-4391925


A.A Kaliti

Biscuits, Pasta, etc.

28

Alem Honey processing IndustryTel 011-5512149/6514687


033-4421573

29

Hailu Tesema Enjera Production Enterprise Tel - 0911-487359

Enjera

12. Tea Exporters Address


No. 1 Name and Address of Exporter Ethio Agri Ceft Tel. 251116615608/6615392/3202393 No. 3 Name and Address of Exporter Muzemil Mohammed Ahmed Tel. 251112750248

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Fax: 251116637782/3712229 Contact Person: Mr Yilma Yemaneberhan P O Box 2520 Mobile: E-mail: emt@ethionet.et ethioagriceft@ethionet.et East Africa Agri Business Tel. 251113201263/3711400/3727713/3729496 /3721180/3716668/3727118/3727491 Fax: 251113711407 P O Box 6267 Mobile Contact Person: Mr Bizu Ayehu Tadele E-mail:eaig@ethionet.et

Fax 251112750248 Mobile: 251911206076 P O Box 18654 Contact Person: Mr Muzemil Mohammed E-mail:muzemill@yahoo.com

Annex III. Modes of Payment and External Trade Related Financial Regulation
The National Bank of Ethiopia pursuant to authority vested in it by Article 39 (1) and (2) of the Monetary and Banking Proclamation No. 83/1994 authorizes Commercial Banks to handle imports and exports excluding coffee and provide associated services against submission of the required documents by the importer and exporter. Commercial Banks shall approve imports for any values; but values of USD 1,000,000 and above are subject to open international competitive bidding backed by relevant documents.

1. Imports
1.1 Imports by Letter of Credit (L/C) The required documents to be submitted by an importer under L/C are:a) An application form duly completed, signed and sealed. b) Three copies of Performa invoices showing clearly full description of goods, including quantity, grade, quality, volume, measurement, weight, mode of shipment, terms of payment, unit and total price of the goods at a named place of delivery. c) Photocopy of valid trade licenses for foreign trade, investment or industry. d) Insurance certificate from licensed local insurance company. e) Clearance certificate from NBE that he/she settled its outstanding commitment. 1.2 Restrictions

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An importer cannot import the under listed goods unless specifically indicated in their trade licenses in accordance with "Federal Government Commercial Registration and Licensing Council of Ministers Regulation No. 67/1997" Article 17(2): a) coffee; b) pharmaceuticals or veterinary medicines; c) medical appliances; d) forestry products; e) wild animals and birds; f) agricultural, industrial and construction machinery, mechanical appliances and motor vehicles; g) minerals; h) chemicals; i) petroleum and petroleum products; and j) other goods for which a certificate of competence must be obtained from the pertinent government institution, in order to prevent damage to public health, safety and the national economy.

1.3

Imports by Cash Against Document (CAD) at sight

Importers who wish to import goods on cash against documents (CAD) at sight basis are required to submit:a) A purchase order, Performa invoice and valid trade licenses for foreign trade, investment or industry; b) One copy of local insurance certificate, c) Application form duly completed, signed and sealed together with the following documents: i) Three copies of chamberized invoices ii) Two copies of certificate of origin iii) Full sets of shipping documents (i.e. Bill of lading, airway bill, truck manifest, railway bill, couriers etc. and carrier invoice) to indicate the actual freight charges. iv) Clearance certificate from NBE that he/she has settled its commitment.

1.4

Imports by Advance Payment

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Importers who wish to import goods by advance payment are required to submit a letter of undertaking for the entry of the goods into the country in addition to the documents indicated under above. The amount to be approved for advance payment shall not exceed USD 5,000. In case an importer wishes to make transfer exceeding USD 5,000, he/she should submit foreign bank guarantee confirmed by local banks. However, bank guarantee requirement is not applicable for non-transferable (NT) account holders.

1.5

Other Requirements
a) Ministry of Health certificate if the imports of goods are medicines and other related medical equipment. b) Ministery of Agriculture certificate for the import of agricultural chemical and veterinary medicines. c) Quality and Standard Authority Certificate for import of goods such as food, matches, nails, galvanized corrugated sheets, scales etc which require standardization. d) Road Transport Authority approval as per Road Transport Regulation Proclamation No. 14/1992" Article 7(3). e) A copy of a loan or grant agreement concluded between Government Agencies and Foreign Financing Organizations.

In addition to the provisions stipulated above, the following are also required:-

1.6

Franco-Valuta Imports A. Eligibility


a) Pursuant to the "Importation of Machinery and Goods on Franco-Valuta basis Council of Ministers Regulations No, 8/1996", the following may be allowed to be imported on Franco-Valuta basis: I. Machinery and goods imported by government institutions with financial assistance of donation from foreign governments, international organizations and donor agencies for programs and projects that have obtained prior approval through agreements entered into with the government; II. Goods imported by international organization, donor agencies, diplomatic and consular missions;

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III. Machinery and goods imported by foreign investors having license from the appropriate government institution and Ethiopian investors, permanently residing abroad, for their investment activities and for personal use; IV. Goods imported for personal and family use, pursuant to directives issued by the Federal Revenue Board, by returning Ethiopians having stayed abroad on business, for education and various purposes or as refugees; V. Awards obtained by individuals and organizations for outstanding achievements in sports, arts and other similar activities. b) Exporters who import on Franco-Valuta basis for the purpose of exporting having the written approval of NBE. c) Commercial Banks shall allow exporting firms importing inputs from collaborating foreign partners without paying foreign exchange having the written approval of NBE. d) Commercial Banks are allowed to open usance import L/Cs for exporters with confirmed L/Cs.

B. Requirements
Commercial Banks shall allow Franco-Valuta imports to the applicant subject to the presentation of the following documents: a) Franco-Valuta application duly completed and signed by an applicant in three copies. b) Shipping documents such as bill of lading, airway bill, truck manifest, railway bill and couriers, as the case may be. c) If the duty free imported items are to be sold locally the concerned parties have to submit sales agreement. d) 2% service charge shall be levied based on Customs Authority value estimation slip with the exception of Article -a-i, a-ii and a-iii under the Franco-Valuta sub-section above.

1.7

Importation of Used Goods

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Commercial Banks shall allow foreign exchange for importation of used goods except clothing and other items included in the customs negative list upon submission of the following documents in addition to the requirements stipulated above as the case may be. a) A copy of valid trade licenses for import, investment or industry, as the case may be. b) Duly signed Performa invoice from overseas suppliers showing full description of the goods including type, model, date of manufacture, FOB value and freight cost separately, terms of payment and validity date. c) In case of used vehicles ownership certificate (Libre) from the country of purchase. d) Chamberized documents showing full description of the goods including type, model, date of manufacture, and original purchase price from parties other than the seller. The FOB value of used vehicles, machineries, equipments etc to be imported shall not exceed the maximum value indicated under the annexed table (annex 1) with respect of service year.

1.8

Imports through suppliers' credit


Commercial Banks shall, on the basis of approval of NBE, allow eligible applicants to import goods under suppliers' credit in accordance with the existing Directives for suppliers' Credit.

1.9

Imports through external loans


Commercial Banks shall, on the basis of NBE's directive governing external loans, allow eligible applicants to import goods in accordance with the existing Directive for External Loans.

1.10
i.

Imports by diplomatic bodies, other international organizations and their officials


Imports for their own consumption by diplomatic and other international organizations of equal status and their officials may be paid by the debit of their Non-Resident Transferable Birr Account or Non-resident Foreign Currency Account. ii. Where they do not maintain Non-Resident Transferable Birr or Foreign Currency account they shall be treated in the same way as other importers.

1.11

Commodity Classification

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Commercial Banks shall give import permits on Harmonization system (HS) commodity classification bases for different categories of goods.

1.12

Import Transit
a) Foreign Exchange to meet transit expenses incurred outside Ethiopia affected on C & F and C.I.F. shall be availed provided that the application for foreign exchange is accompanied by two copies of application forms duly completed, signed and sealed, transit invoice, final supplier's invoice, customs declaration, customs receipt, railway bill, truck manifest and airway bill. b) Where the requirement of presentation of documents to Commercial Banks to prove entry of goods into Ethiopia precedes request for transit expenses, the application for foreign exchange shall be accompanied only by transit invoice and a clearance certificate from NBE.

1.13

Import Freight
Commercial Banks shall allow foreign expense for import upon submission of the following documents: a) Two copies of application forms duly completed signed and sealed, b) Freight invoices, c) Suppliers' invoice, d) Bill of loading or airway bill.

1.14

Import other charges


Commercial Bank shall avail foreign exchange for imports to cover other charges such as port dues, port handling fee, storage upon submission of the following documents: a) a letter of request duly completed, signed and sealed in two copies, b) valid agreement signed between an importer and a beneficiary, c) invoice, d) in case of demurrage charges, the documents indicated under 5.14(a) and (c) above and the "lay time calculation sheet" are required.

1.15

Re-insurance premium

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Commercial Banks shall avail foreign exchange to authorized insurance companies for payment of re-insurance premium upon submission of the following documents: a) a letter of request together with an agreement signed between the insurance company and the re-insurer in two copies, b) insurance license approved by NBE, c) debit note or statement of accounts, as the case may be.

1.16

Foreign currency against foreign currency


Commercial Banks shall allow foreign residents/tourists to covert foreign cash notes of one currency to another currency of cash notes upon presentation of two copies of applications duly completed and signed together with passport, valid visa and air ticket.

1.17

Ex-post Verification of Documents

Commercial Banks shall ensure that all documents processed with regard to import transactions are kept in order to that NBE will undertake ex-post verification of the documents in compliance with the existing trade and exchange regulations. Moreover, the NBE undertakes the following activities:a) Price verifications of imported goods on a sample basis to forestall under and/or over invoicing. b) Verifies tender documents of import of goods for public enterprise, government organization etc on a sample basis whenever necessary.

1.18

Validity a) Import Applications


Import application shall be valid for 120 days from the date of issue. The Commercial Bank may, for good cause, grant a maximum of 30 days.

b) Applications for import transit, import freight and other charges


The applications for import transit, import freight, insurance premium and other charges shall be valid during the month of issue only.

1.19

Amendments

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Commercial Banks may for good cause amend import applications allowed at their end.

1.20

Cancellation of imports
If an importer wishes to cancel the approved imports, he/she is required to submit the full set of documents which were originally approved by a Commercial Bank for onward submission to NBE.

2 Exports 2.1 Export of Valuable Goods


No person natural or juridical, may export, or enter into any commitment to export valuable goods without the prior approval of the authorized bank and unless there are payment instruments which secure the payment to be expected or the exporter undertakes to surrender the resultant sales proceeds in foreign exchange to an authorized bank either before the actual export, at the time of export or within a period of not later than three months or within such other period that the NBE may from time to time prescribe for any class of exports or for any particular export.

2.2

Payment for export


All payment for valuable goods shall be made in foreign exchange by the debit of a

"Non-Resident Transferable Birr of Foreign Currency Account" maintained


with Commercial banks by their correspondent banks abroad.

2.3

Exports by commercial banks


Commercial banks are authorized to allow exports other than coffee under the following mode of payments:

2.3.1

Letter of credit i) at sight ii) on acceptance

2.3.2

Cash Against Document i) at sight ii) on acceptance

2.3.3 2.3.4

Consignment Advance payment received in the form of:i) at sight ii) on acceptance

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2.4

Bills of Lading for exports to be made out in the name of a local bank
1. Not withstanding any agreement to the contrary, bills of loading, airway bill or an other document evidencing shipment of goods from Ethiopia to any destination abroad shall be made out to the order of a bank duly licensed to operate in Ethiopia or the opening bank abroad for payments arrangement on letter of credit and cash against document. However, bill of lading can be issued in the name of the buyer or his/her agent for the following payment arrangements: i) Advance payment ii) Consignment 2. Exporters or forwarding Agents shall indicate in their shipping instruction to the shipping companies or ship agents the name of the bank in whose favor the documents to be made out or the buyer who would receive the consignment in whose name the bill of loading, airway bill or any other equivalent document shall be issued in respect of the valuable goods to be shipped. 3. Upon receipt of the bills of loading or the equivalent documents issued in respect of the shipment of goods entrusted to them for export, forwarding or shipping agents shall, under their responsibility, deliver them to the bank in Ethiopia to whose order the shipping documents were issued.

2.5

Repatriation of export proceeds


Commercial banks bear the responsibility for ensuring that export proceeds for all export permits approved are repatriated into the country within 90 days from the date of issue of export permits for all mode of payments applicable. Banks have to make follow-ups and exercise a reasonable care and take measures to insure timely repatriation of proceed.

2.6

Restrictions
The under listed goods shall not be approved for export unless specifically enumerated in the exporter's trade license. i) Forestry products ii) Wild animals and birds iii) Minerals

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iv) Other goods for which a certificate of competence must be obtained from the pertinent government institutions in order to prevent damage to the public health, safety and the national economy.

2.7

Exports under Letter of Credit


A. Commercial banks shall allow exports for goods to be exported abroad other than coffee against submission of the following documents: a) valid foreign trade license for export b) copy of authenticated L/C c) 5 copies of Customs Declaration duly completed, signed and sealed. d) 6 copies of Banks Declarations duly completed, signed and sealed. e) 2 copies of invoice duly completed, signed and sealed. The invoices could be chamberized as the case may be. f) A copy of sales contract. B. Terms of payment applicable under Letter of Credit i) L/C payment at sight Commercial banks shall allow exports for goods to be exported abroad on irrevocable and/or confirmed letter of credit basis. ii) Payment on L/C acceptance basis Commercial banks shall allow exports for goods to be exported abroad on L/C acceptances basis provided: a) The payment shall be secured by irrevocable confirmed Letter of Credit advised through a local bank. b) The acceptance period shall be contained within the L/C validity date and is coherent to the 90 days repatriation time allowed. c) The maximum allowable time for the L/C acceptance shall be 60 days.

2.8

Exports on Cash Against Document (CAD)


Commercial banks shall allow exports for goods to be exported abroad on CAD on sight or on acceptance basis provided: a) All documents indicated under item 2.7 (a and c-f), b) Clearance issued by NBE for each export permit to be issued by commercial banks is attached.

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c) The repatriation of the foreign exchange value is to be secured within 90 days from the date of the issue of export permit. d) The exporter shall take a full undertaking in writing stating its obligation to repatriate the amount involved in the permit issued. e) The maximum allowable amount for a single permit shall not exceed USD 30,000 however, the ceiling of USD 30,000 may be exceeded depending on the credibility of buyers and viability of the sales terms; and subsequent permit shall only be issued upon full repatriation of the allowable amount. f) With the ceiling of USD 30,000 (Thirty Thousand) approved for single permit, set under (e) above, exporters shall have access to the remaining balance.

2.9

Exports under advance payment


Exporters who wish to obtain export applications under Advance Payments are required to submit the following documents: a) All documents indicated under item 2.7 (a and c-f) required. b) Evidence of foreign currency receipt advised through banks.

2.10

Exporters on consignment basis


Exporters who wish to obtain export applications on consignment basis are required to submit the following documents:a) All documents indicated under item 2.7 (a and c-f) are required. b) The consignment sales are applicable to perishable items such as fruits, cut flowers, meat, live animals, molasses and others as may be approved by the NBE.

2.11

Exports with partial shipment


Banks shall issue separate partial shipment vouchers along wit the original export permit to enable exporters process customs formalities and to show that the foreign exchange payment for the exports of each partial shipment is covered by one of the payment systems eligible.

2.12

Dispatching returns (Copies of Permits and Tickets)


Commercial banks are strictly required to send copies of returns to NBE, Foreign Exchange Monitoring Department in weekly basis every Monday 10 o'clock in the morning.

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Annex IV: Outline for Product Market Research


1. Product Description General Description Technical Specification Uses Availability, export potential, etc. in Ethiopia Supply volume Quality Availability of Samples Existing Defects (if any)

2. Research Methodology

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Sources of and types of data and information Methods of data collection Techniques of analysis Time and resource requirements Market structure Size of the market, growth potential and future trends Short and medium term growth forecasts Consumption patterns Tastes and Preferences of consumers Sources of supply to the market (import, domestic production, sources of imports, etc.) Niche markets and potential market segments for Ethiopian exporters Market share, supply volume and participation of the competition in the market Pricing, quality standard, entry channels, packaging methods of competitors Promotional and marketing strategies of competitors Strengths, weaknesses, etc. Comparative advantages Current comparative performance of Ethiopian exporters against competitors Entry channels; description, advantages, disadvantages, etc. Promotional marketing and pricing strategies; their advantages, disadvantages, etc. Potential buyers/importers/ distributors Best practices of other suppliers to the market (in terms of pricing, quality, promotional strategies, etc.) Activities or strategies necessary on the part of Ethiopian exporters and the government in terms of export product development

3. Potential Market Opportunities and Market Segments

4. Actual and Potential Competitors to Ethiopian Exporters to that Market

5. Market Entry Channels and strategies for Ethiopian products

6. Legal and Regulatory Framework of the Host Country

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8.

Trade policy structure (tariff structure and rates, quotas, preferences, etc.) Import regulations and procedures (licensing, packaging, certification, quarantine, standard documentation and other requirements and procedures) Government procurement procedures

7. Mode of Payment Mode of Transport 9. Mode of Delivery 10. List and Profiles of Potential Importers/Buyers/ Distributors for products of Ethiopian origin

Annex V: Trade Enquiry Form


From............................................ Designation ........................................................................... Embassy/Mission/Consulate General of the FDR Ethiopia To: The Director General, Economic and Business Affairs General Directorate, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Fax: 00251115514300/5511244 Tel. 00251115517345 Date: .......................................................... Place: ........................................................... The following are the details of trade enquiry received at this office. You are requested to forward a reply to the party and a copy to as soon as possible.

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1. Name of the company/firm: 2. Full Address: 3. Telephone: 4. Telefax: 5. Name and designation of the person making the enquiry: 6. Name of the product: 7. Product specification or type: 8. Annual quantity required: 9. Delivery time: 10. Mode of Delivery: 11. Mode of Payment: 12. Mode of transport: 13. Other requests of the company:

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Annex VI a. List of Freight Forwarders


A D D R E S S No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Name of Company/Sole Business Afro Global Business Center P.L.C A.G Transit PLC Amare Assefa Asfaw Cheetah P.L.C Cross-Continental Business Group P.L.C East African Group P.L.C E.T Fetan Transit Fana Forwarding Company P.L.C Galaxy Express Services P.L.C Getachew T/Aregai Mitiku Global Transit P.L.C Green International Logistics Services PLC Hagbes PLC LINA P.L.C Mahta Embaye G/Mariam MEYOB International P.L.C Mate Freight Forwarding &Customs Clearing Overseas Freighters Ethiopia P.L.C Packtra P.L.C Safetra P.L.C Samatra P.L.C Shenkor Ethiopia Solomon Kassa Freight Forwarder Tegegnework Freight Forwarding Agency Tely International P.L.C Tewodros Belete Sisay Name of General Manager Almaw Gari Ashenafi Getachew Nebiyu Yohannes Hiwot Tadesse Bizuayehu H/Mariam Engdawork T/Mariam Gezahegn Zegeye Jemey YasinTesfaye Fente Sabir Argaw Seifu DemisseiTeshome Tefera Bekele W/Michael Befekadu Tilahun Mehari Kiros Salahadin Yohannes Lemma Solomon Kassa Tegegnework Azage Tilahun Tirfe Renewal P.O. Year (E.C) Box 1999 1999 414772 1999 90349 1999 33808 1999 40452 1999 6267 1999 1999 80528 1999 8309 1999 13080 1999 14326 1999 120672 1999 1044 1999 8891 1999 18660 1999 1046 1999 16478 1999 1999 1999 1999 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 1749 5432 25157 4699 3700 13074 55527 2877 29219 Telephone 0115-525656 0113-210013 0111-557616 0115-154039 0113-201263 0114-403948/49 0116-623563 0115-510355 0115-514611 0115-521511/12 0116-623682 0115-522333 0111-570679 0114-169605 0114-425236 0115-152490 0114-651748 0115-523711 0115-533374 0114-400252 0116-611422 0115-154394 0911-209112 0115-515139 0115-504557 Fax 011 210012 0115 404676 511236 514611 521530 0115 557753 169605 420162 527888 5513788 401844 518277 403998 City Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa

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27 28 29 30 31 32

Trans African Transport Sh.Company Trans Trade Ethiopia P.L.C Tab-Tra P.L.C United Forwarders P.L.C Unity Business Group P.L.C Wondi Trading

Hiruy Ali Markos Kebede Ephrem Dagne Adugna Bekele Wondwossen Tirfe

1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999

5607 30811 100210 40108

0116-614894 0114-650748 0115-157112 0115-525369 0911-200231 0115-510076

625908 525370 -

Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa

Annex VI b. List of Freight Forwarders and Shipping Agents


A D D R E S S No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Name of Company/Sole Business Akakas Logistics Associated Transit, Transport & Shipping (Atts) Dolphin Transit & Shipping East-West Ethio Transport PLC. Express Transit Service P.L.C Freighters International (PABOM) Garad P.L.C Maccfa Transit P.L.C Maritime & Transit Enterprise Pan Africa Golbal P.L.C Smayaz Transact International P.L.C Voyagers Freight & Forwarding P.L.C Name of General Manager Tesfa kiros Nega G/Egziabher Alemu Mebrate Seid Mussen Bahre Gezahegne Daniel Zemichael Mensure Abubeker Mulugeta Assefa Gezahegn Ahmed Yasin Tekeste Berhane Habtu Ayalew Belachew Alemayehu Mengesha Renewal Year (E.C) 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 P.O. Box 23128 28646 8677 15633 8039 40040 21879 1186 7408 13049 Telephone 0114-669581 0111-113406 0115-505618 0113-711277 0115-510946 0115-514882 0114-653744 0116--459503 0115-510666 0115-516250 0115-519621 0114-169977 Fax 669584 515259 169978 City Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis Ababa

Annex VI c. List of Shipping Agents


A D D R E S S No. 1 2 Name of Company/Sole Business Taleme P.L.C Champion Shipping P.L.C Name of General Manager Metsehet Seyoum Renewal Year (E.C) 1998 1999 P.O. Box 1484/1110 21408/1000 Telephone 0114-661121 5-153737 Fax 153743 City Addis Ababa Addis Ababa

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Annex VII: Address List of Ethiopian Institutions Related to External Trade 1. Ministry of Trade and Industry (MOTI) P. O. Box 704 (Addis Ababa) Tel. 251115518020 Fax. 251115514288/515411 E-mail: moti@ethionet.et Export Promotion Department (of MOTI) P. O. Box 6945 Tel. 251115502844 Fax.251115505192 Website: http://www.moti.gov.et/export.html 2. Ministry of Health P. O. Box 1234 Tel. 251115517011/517309 Fax. 251115519366 E-mail: moh@ethionet.et 3. Ministry of Revenue P. O. Box 2559 Tel. 251114667466/4667326 Fax. 251116662628/4668244 E-mail: mor@ethionet.et Website: http://www.mor.gov.et 4. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development P. O. Box 62347 Tel. 251115518040/ 5156242/5156289 Fax. 251115512984/5530776 5. Ministry of Finance and Economic Development Tel. 251111560135/251111552400 Fax 251111550081 6. Ministry of Culture and Tourism P. O. Box 1907 Tel.251115517020

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Fax. 251115512889 E-mail: mysc@ethionet.et 7. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Economic and Business Affairs Directorate-General P. O. Box 393 Tel. 251115517345 Fax.251115514300 E-mail: mfa.ecobusi@ethionet.et; mfaaddis@ethionet.et Website: http://www.mfa.gov.et 8. Ethiopian Customs Authority P. O. Box 3248 Tel. 251115513100 Fax. 251115518355/5537820/537921 E-mail: Website: 9. Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority P. O. Box 2310 Tel. 251116460111/189313 Fax. 251116460880/81 E-mail: qsae@ethionet.et Website: http://www.qsae.org 10. Ethiopian Investment Agency P. O. Box 2313 Tel. 251115510033/539474/5539474 Fax. 251115514396 E-mail: ethiopian.invest@ethionet.et Website: http://www.investethiopia.org 11. National Bank of Ethiopia P. O. Box 5550 Tel. 251115517430/5510060 Fax. 251115514588 E-mail: nbe.excd@ethionet.et

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12.

Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce and Sectoral Associations P. O. Box 517 Tel. 251115518240/ 514055 Fax. 251115517699 E-mail: ethiochamb@ethionet.et Website: http://www.ethiopianchamber.com

13.

Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce and Sectoral Associations P. O Box 2458 Tel. 251115500934/5518055 Fax. 251115511479 E-mail: aachamber1@ethionet.et

14. Ethiopian Shipping Lines P. O. Box 2572 Tel 251115518280 Fax 251115519225 E-mail: esl@ethionet.et 15. Ethiopian Air Lines Enterprise P O Box: 1755 Tel 251116652222 Fax 251116651474 E-mail: publicrelations@ethiopianairlines.com 16. Privatization and Public Enterprises Supervising Agency P O Box 11835 Tel. 251115530343/5510014 Fax 251115513955 E-mail: epa.etio@ethionet.et 17. Ethiopian Grain Trade Enterprise P O Box 3321 Tel. 251114652466/4653166 Fax 251114655428 E-mail: egte@ethionet.et

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Annex VIII: Ethiopian Export Performance by Commodity (Year in E.C.; Qty in Tons; Value in 000's USD)

Commodity Coffee Meat and Live Animals Meat Live Animals (in no.) Hides and Skins Skins (semi processed) Hides (semi processes) Finished Leather Leathe r Products Textiles& textile products Cotton Pulses, Oilseeds& Spices Pulses Oilseeds Spices

1994 Quanti ty Value 163,16 110,036 2 1,446 663 32,383 10,601 7,021 3,579 1,103 343 56,936 48,907 8,006

1995 Quanti ty Value 165,30 126,100 0 2,880 1,700 10,372 10,500 7,894 2,284 2,400 480 52,200 43,657 5,284

1996 Quanti ty Value 208,31 144,629 3 8,712 3,317 41,966 9,309 5,345 3,935 6,335 2,377 43,027 38,239 3,930

1997 Quanti ty Value 334,86 159,989 3 28,680 7,754 103,905 15,331 8,951 5,840 437 15,598 13,081 66,968 55,722 6,870 3,572 803 7,034 1,848 173,07 5

1998 Quanti ty Value 153,155 365,835 45,586 7,856 163,375 15,491 8,830 6,273 168 221 3,581 6,177 380,533 108,773 263,251 8,509 18,323 27,262 75,328 58,430 7,252 7,648 1,997 11,098 6,807 255,44 2 36,995 209,78 6 8,661

1999 Quantit y Value 176,390 5,855 239,955 15,679 3,900 11,760 406,213 157,406 235,742 13,065 12,622 14,341 267,552 69,286 188,047 10,219 424,144 52,263

94/9 5 1.31 99.15

95/9 6 26.02 202.5 1

Growth Rate 96/9 97/9 7 8 60.75 229.1 9 9.25 58.95

98/9 9 15.94 14.65

Averag e 22.65 120.89 85.96 205.75 12.22 6.86 5.19 114.10 3355.49

15,491 117.58 163.96 36,771 89,541 39.91 -8.32 10.73 34.00

146.22 17.47 -15.46

395.25 450.27 108.41 34.88 -17.57 -12.41 -25.62 55.64 45.72 74.81 12.48 4.86 5.56 114.10 18.87

0.86 1,309 5,827 199,466 110,857 85,441 3,168

24 4,013 5,347 74,491 33,478 37,281 3,731

323 1,969 7,562 153,548 66,200 83,000 4,348

3,259 4,039 7,735 70,500 20,000 46,100 4,400

30 7,487 8,189 195,059 75,156

858 9,354 10,879 122,70 3 24,884

103 2,212 1,228 308,231 119,436

13353.4 -73.67

-6.37 148.57 57.78 13.73 110.69 4.74 87.29

0.64 131.58 -24.80 44.68 -5.36 40.26 23.65 17.94 40.65 74.05 24.42 97.34 55.57

35.79 76.28 32.41 23.62 43.11 26.69

-83.02 268.42 41.05 41.82 39.00 47.59 4.83

109,733 90,975 10,170 6,845

35,290 126,45 173,109 5 15,685 11,330

65.90 -10.36 17.99

65.52 -23.56

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Chat Fruits and vegetables Flowers (Millions stems) Sugar Natural Gum Tea Cereals and Floor Bees Wax Gold Tantalum Others Total

9,377 30,245 0.02 46,015 2,138 153 21,882 285 5.26 61 21,056

49,011 9,408 159 9,384 2,962 180 11,957 703 37,324 4,090 5,637 436,210

11,000 25,300 16 77,000 1,544 1,782 29,057 207 5.00 70 6,716

58,000 9,600 2,904 17,900 2,200 1,583 14,100 500 42,100 4,000 27,159 482,700

23,079 28,452 32 16,000 3,109 1,966 21,829 525 6.03 122 28,960

88,059 6,870 5,050 9,756 4,369 2,100 9,122 1,389 54,993 5,008 6,817 596,521

21,301 37,645 83 33,832 3,791 1,499 18,022 400 4 80 70,519

83,390 15,971 12,645 14,553 4,946 1,833 8,761 1,177 44,192 3,936 15,156 819,026

22,125 34,550 186.4 14,100 3,529 596 38,466 353 4.97 122 73,784

88,505 12,741 21,967 8,245 5,363 837 14,078 1,516 64,716 4,343 26,162 1008568

22,667 42,067 689 24,340 3,976 691 5,973 415 6 144 56,483

92,810 16,947 63,599 15,836 5,650 913 1,634 1,825 96,966 6,151

18.34 2.04

51.83 -28.44

-5.30 6.13 132.4 7 -20.22

4.86 33.01

15.17 23.77 443.69 28.63 19.97 150.55 -9.81 36.56 24.01 10.71 97.40 22.44

1730.9 73.91 90.75 25.72 778.0 6 17.92 28.88 12.80 -2.21 -45.50 98.57 32.64 -35.31 177.7 9 30.62 25.20 23.58

150.39 73.72 189.52 49.17 -43.34 13.22 8.44 92.07 5.35 9.11

-12.73 -54.33 -3.96 -15.23 -19.64 -21.41 37.30

60.70 -88.40 28.73 46.44 10.34 23.14 20.40 49.83 41.63 17.50

22,290 381.76 1,185,083 10.66

-74.90 122.33

72.62 -14.80

Source: Ethiopian Customs Authority and Ministry of Trade and Industry

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Annex IX. Trade Balance of Ethiopia with Major Trading Partners (Thousands of USD)

Source: Ministry of Trade and Industry computation based on NBE data. Annex X. Selected Ethiopian Export Items for the Year 2006 (Above ETB 1 million)
HS Code 01019000 01019000 01029000 01029000 01029000 01029000 01029000 01029000 01029000 01041000 01041000 01061100 01061100 01061900 HS Description OTHER LIVE HORSES,ASSES,MULES,AND HINNIES(EXCLUDING 0101.1000):NES OTHER LIVE HORSES,ASSES,MULES,AND HINNIES(EXCLUDING 0101.1000):NES LIVE BOVINE ANIMALS, OTHER THAN PURE-BRED BREEDING LIVE BOVINE ANIMALS, OTHER THAN PURE-BRED BREEDING LIVE BOVINE ANIMALS, OTHER THAN PURE-BRED BREEDING LIVE BOVINE ANIMALS, OTHER THAN PURE-BRED BREEDING LIVE BOVINE ANIMALS, OTHER THAN PURE-BRED BREEDING LIVE BOVINE ANIMALS, OTHER THAN PURE-BRED BREEDING LIVE BOVINE ANIMALS, OTHER THAN PURE-BRED BREEDING LIVE SHEEP LIVE SHEEP MAMMALS :PRIMATES MAMMALS :PRIMATES OTHER MAMMALS OTHER THANS THOSE Destination Jordan Sudan Bahrain Djibouti Egypt Somalia Sudan United Arab Emirates Yemen Jordan Yemen Djibouti Egypt Djibouti Qty 750.00 3,992.00 1,913.00 5,866.00 19,475.00 23,333.00 13,354.00 6,311.00 74,867.00 7,130.00 8,032.00 5,275.00 1,845.00 1,413.00 Net Mass(Kg) 350,250.00 890,000.00 315,187.80 1,145,636.00 5,139,810.00 4,338,920.00 2,726,170.00 1,382,690.00 11,690,478.92 181,640.00 189,014.00 2,562,000.00 856,945.00 741,050.00 FOB Value(ETB) 2,001,959.52 4,866,939.46 2,169,744.25 7,943,464.36 41,200,661.00 44,361,385.29 21,321,374.01 9,554,786.00 86,729,624.85 2,521,995.08 1,605,661.43 6,953,292.30 7,361,142.25 2,405,901.06

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01061900 01061900 01061900 01061900 01063900 01069000 02041000 02041000 02041000 02045000 02045000 02045000 03022900 04070000 04081900 04090000 04090000 05100090 06012000 06021000 06021000 06021000 06021000 06021000 06021000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 06031000 07011000 07020000 07031000 07039000 07049000 07051100 07069000 07082000 07082000 07082000 07082000 07102200 07102200 07102200 07102900

OF 0106.1100 AND 0106.1200 OTHER MAMMALS OTHER THANS THOSE OF 0106.1100 AND 0106.1200 OTHER MAMMALS OTHER THANS THOSE OF 0106.1100 AND 0106.1200 OTHER MAMMALS OTHER THANS THOSE OF 0106.1100 AND 0106.1200 OTHER MAMMALS OTHER THANS THOSE OF 0106.1100 AND 0106.1200 OTHER LIVE ANIMALS LIVE ANIMALS NES Fresh or chilled lamb carcasses and half carcasses Fresh or chilled lamb carcasses and half carcasses Fresh or chilled lamb carcasses and half carcasses Fresh, chilled or frozen goat meat Fresh, chilled or frozen goat meat Fresh, chilled or frozen goat meat Fresh or chilled flat fish (excl. halibut, plaice and sole) BIRDS' EGGS, IN SHELL, FRESH, PRESERVED OR COOKED Egg yolks (excl. dried) Natural honey Natural honey --- OTHER AMBERGIS , CASTOREN ,CIVET AND MUSK;CANTHARIDES;BILE ...GLANDS BULBS, TUBERS... RHIZOMES IN GROWTH OR FLOWER; CHICORY PLANTS AND ROOTS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Seed potatoes Tomatoes fresh or chilled Onions and shallots, fresh or chilled Leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, nes White and red cabbages, kohlrabi, kale...etc, fresh or chilled Cabbage lettuce, fresh or chilled Beetroot...radishes and other similar edible roots, fresh or chilled Beans, fresh or chilled Beans, fresh or chilled Beans, fresh or chilled Beans, fresh or chilled Shelled or unshelled beans, frozen Shelled or unshelled beans, frozen Shelled or unshelled beans, frozen Leguminous vegetables, shelled or unshelled, frozen, nes

Egypt Jordan United Arab Emirates Yemen Egypt Egypt Egypt Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen Sudan Djibouti Djibouti Sudan United States France Netherlands France Germany Italy Netherlands Sweden United States Belgium Haiti Israel Italy Japan Netherlands Norway Saudi Arabia Sweden United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti Netherlands Djibouti Djibouti Denmark Djibouti Netherlands South Africa Italy Netherlands Sudan United Arab Emirates

1,130.00 460.00 2,436.00 1,512.00 431.00 1,024.00

565,000.00 214,820.00 1,128,766.67 657,150.00 333,652.77 512,000.00 316,079.00 1,160,219.00 648,809.00 2,351,910.00 4,055,238.00 87,351.50 43,110.00

4,326,082.00 1,615,188.80 7,080,867.71 4,192,358.07 1,287,739.23 1,131,640.75 7,375,793.09 28,896,141.66 17,747,747.09 46,145,605.94 88,403,737.88 1,535,957.21 1,423,015.56 1,057,531.84 1,521,449.79 1,329,692.24 1,030,979.47 2,983,529.47 3,429,208.06 3,634,438.45 62,339,645.18 3,381,963.22 15,981,255.86 1,180,245.14 11,348,907.49 2,380,666.06 24,429.19 7,732,099.28 1,676,286.07 1,378,295.00 152,208,737.59 2,401,794.17 1,021,977.37 1,086,165.41 1,326,688.84 11,577,285.84 16,876,295.01 13,597,108.14 12,275,221.00 1,203,948.54 4,323,987.95 1,079,203.39 1,303,691.21 1,978,526.08 1,834,048.44 4,155,982.69 1,913,649.63 2,518,676.37 59,647,761.98 16,621,608.50 8,859,443.17

1,477,300.00

97,200.00 113,400.00 68,600.00 36,000.00 720.00

6,283,901.00 5,632,200.00 79,553,352.00 7,279,731.00 83,818,113.00 1,944,000.00 19,643,940.00 2,335,632.00 24,020.00 7,293,960.00 1,298,855.00 920,650.00 191,607,770.00 2,502,471.00 886,560.00 1,211,924.00 1,583,471.00 8,772,761.00

140,291.45 26,198.60 309,865.00 24,863.20 164,854.00 7,067.00 24,988.00 114,351.00 700.00 194,397.50 51,855.00 44,976.00 6,177,211.42 75,080.50 40,537.80 30,755.60 64,398.50 268,080.50 8,734,353.00 5,551,970.00 6,341,778.00 974,095.00 241,907.00 867,836.00 985,489.00 836,000.00 656,539.00 1,430,285.50 776,000.00 561,338.50 3,125,080.00 1,777,200.00 1,597,089.00

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07131000 07131000 07131000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07132000 07133100 07133200 07133200 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133300 07133900 07133900 07133900 07133900 07134000 07135000 07135000 07139000 07139000 07139000 08030000 08045000 08045000 08051000 09011100 09011100 09011100

Dried peas, shelled Dried peas, shelled Dried peas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried chickpeas, shelled Dried beans, shelled Dried adzuki beans, shelled Dried adzuki beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried kidney beans, incl. white pea beans, shelled Dried beans, shelled, nes Dried beans, shelled, nes Dried beans, shelled, nes Dried beans, shelled, nes Dried lentils, shelled Dried broad beans and horse beans, shelled Dried broad beans and horse beans, shelled Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, nes Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, nes Dried leguminous vegetables, shelled, nes Bananas, including plantains, fresh or dried Guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried Guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried Oranges, fresh or dried COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED

Pakistan Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Canada Djibouti India Pakistan Saudi Arabia Senegal Singapore Somalia Turkey United Arab Emirates Sudan Djibouti United Arab Emirates Algeria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Djibouti France Germany India Italy Jordan Morocco Netherlands Pakistan Romania Russian Federation Singapore South Africa Spain Sudan Turkey United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Yemen Czech Republic Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen Djibouti Sudan United Arab Emirates India Sudan United Arab Emirates Djibouti Djibouti Saudi Arabia Djibouti Australia Belgium Bulgaria

1,110,000.00 301,000.00 493,912.00 540,280.00 542,611.00 2,318,448.00 9,209,831.00 395,250.00 570,000.00 1,483,992.00 352,000.00 430,000.00 5,675,152.60 860,118.00 1,426,180.00 230,000.00 810,916.00 489,023.00 489,872.00 469,808.00 567,590.00 617,746.00 1,323,432.00 2,062,945.00 4,667,688.00 330,000.00 2,370,456.00 1,907,426.00 3,744,155.00 581,296.00 313,000.00 626,288.00 5,155,872.00 595,000.00 511,900.00 944,000.00 2,045,522.00 5,445,034.00 1,168,964.00 7,738,605.75 308,000.00 553,000.00 561,860.00 796,340.00 560,180.00 22,364,986.00 297,000.00 521,954.00 658,500.00 345,000.00 2,087,328.00 1,449,746.00 4,015.00 2,138,425.00 1,291,140.00 14,621,914.68 90,000.00

5,712,521.78 1,096,538.56 2,398,595.74 2,058,225.42 2,676,437.66 9,348,156.85 40,932,408.04 2,049,162.49 1,798,806.56 6,590,419.84 1,102,525.67 1,693,924.50 24,910,470.64 1,762,176.16 3,042,552.47 1,257,755.11 3,455,617.82 1,801,425.06 1,649,881.01 1,832,879.11 1,924,044.65 2,169,384.59 4,846,338.99 7,190,160.35 14,551,964.82 1,313,794.35 9,385,524.75 6,086,831.87 13,286,473.34 2,081,806.66 1,004,083.16 2,049,053.17 19,092,139.80 1,973,612.57 1,456,894.42 3,376,934.88 6,567,623.88 16,258,403.71 4,267,247.78 31,046,358.24 1,059,623.79 2,598,283.96 2,719,939.01 3,740,642.64 1,722,206.18 54,400,576.59 1,042,253.46 3,007,173.93 1,399,190.29 1,895,317.29 3,483,544.21 3,191,902.91 3,130.09 5,473,239.34 27,716,605.03 282,273,653.83 2,004,332.30

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09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09011100 09012200

COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED COFFEE, NOT ROASTED OR DECAFFEINATED Roasted, decaffeinated coffee

Canada China Djibouti Egypt Finland France Germany Israel Italy Japan Korea, Democratic People's Rep. of Korea, Republic of Netherlands New Zealand Niger Norway Poland Puerto Rico Romania Russian Federation Saudi Arabia South Africa Spain Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Taiwan, Province of China Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Yemen Sudan

1,151,700.00 108,000.00 2,722,462.00 110,400.00 504,000.00 10,738,185.00 49,209,346.73 564,000.00 9,071,400.00 37,467,630.00 86,400.00 176,400.00 2,899,210.00 113,400.00 180,000.00 376,800.00 270,000.00 72,000.00 198,000.00 972,000.00 25,052,690.00 112,640.00 756,000.00 1,082,330.00 234,000.00 3,176,100.00 1,054,800.00 456,000.00 72,000.00 649,080.00 1,258,400.00 13,760,377.50 422,550.00 289,260.00

26,795,916.27 2,259,660.22 56,488,550.75 2,095,974.99 11,622,673.37 209,384,637.36 1,000,593,405.01 10,472,543.54 225,725,354.05 740,529,928.10 2,112,975.70 3,957,396.57 67,348,749.16 2,969,308.17 3,203,483.25 9,282,101.26 5,207,515.38 1,218,114.27 3,490,324.20 18,271,558.16 496,949,283.35 2,154,075.07 17,051,548.24 19,580,435.34 4,662,967.65 65,850,208.12 24,300,811.26 8,035,317.92 1,461,559.58 11,927,249.80 30,909,851.01 326,103,353.85 8,345,628.31 6,873,528.78

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09024000 09024000 09041100 09041100 09041200 09041200 09093000 09093000 09093000 09101000 09101000 09101000 09101000 09101000 09101000 09101000 10070000 10089000 10089000 10089000 11029000 12040000 12059000 12059000 12059000 12059000 12059000 12071000 12071000 12073000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000

BLACK TEA FERMENTED/PARTLY FERMENTED,FLAVOURED OR NOT,IN PACKINGS OF >=3KG BLACK TEA FERMENTED/PARTLY FERMENTED,FLAVOURED OR NOT,IN PACKINGS OF >=3KG Dried pepper (excl. crushed or ground) Dried pepper (excl. crushed or ground) Pepper, crushed or ground Pepper, crushed or ground Seeds of cumin Seeds of cumin Seeds of cumin Ginger Ginger Ginger Ginger Ginger Ginger Ginger Grain sorghum Other cereal, nes Other cereal, nes Other cereal, nes Other cereal flour, nes Linseed RAPE OR COLZA SEEDS, (EXCL LOW ERUCIC ACID RAPE OR COLZA );NES RAPE OR COLZA SEEDS, (EXCL LOW ERUCIC ACID RAPE OR COLZA );NES RAPE OR COLZA SEEDS, (EXCL LOW ERUCIC ACID RAPE OR COLZA );NES RAPE OR COLZA SEEDS, (EXCL LOW ERUCIC ACID RAPE OR COLZA );NES RAPE OR COLZA SEEDS, (EXCL LOW ERUCIC ACID RAPE OR COLZA );NES Palm nuts and kernels Palm nuts and kernels Castor oil seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds

Djibouti Pakistan Germany United Arab Emirates Germany United States Algeria Egypt Saudi Arabia Egypt Kenya Morocco Saudi Arabia Sudan United Arab Emirates Yemen Djibouti Israel United Arab Emirates Yemen United States China Canada China Jordan Turkey United States Israel Turkey Thailand Algeria Canada China Djibouti Greece Israel Jordan Korea, Democratic People's Rep. of Korea, Republic of Malaysia Mexico Netherlands Pakistan Saudi Arabia Senegal Singapore Switzerland Tokelau Turkey Turks and Caicos Islands United Arab Emirates

125,222.00 185,130.00 20,000.00 139,479.00 17,340.00 43,238.95 92,000.00 117,000.00 145,498.50 287,580.00 677,263.00 200,000.00 511,889.50 1,466,550.00 183,720.00 1,617,712.40 957,511.00 3,014,366.82 2,078,605.00 911,700.00 200,867.60 190,000.00 190,000.00 571,140.00 190,380.00 152,304.00 665,680.00 379,240.00 190,000.00 1,280,000.00 531,373.00 3,153,427.00 63,156,877.74 9,403,379.00 4,228,526.00 20,817,405.80 7,730,568.80 1,216,000.00 777,000.00 475,390.00 284,620.00 240,810.00 220,000.00 2,760,553.20 303,620.00 1,176,404.00 2,528,722.00 280,000.00 14,994,466.00 190,000.00 4,347,817.00

1,383,769.45 2,277,896.85 4,628,423.76 1,297,475.13 3,617,656.41 1,216,569.09 1,120,049.30 1,633,368.59 1,541,582.47 2,272,882.05 4,030,787.22 1,321,606.79 4,043,053.99 11,539,145.13 1,295,424.23 10,419,315.32 1,326,858.98 10,756,915.60 11,085,956.75 3,311,340.20 1,038,828.74 1,257,870.01 1,234,400.50 3,662,908.00 1,334,058.40 1,054,014.20 2,335,502.80 2,527,623.98 1,253,002.50 3,992,619.22 3,634,593.95 20,591,896.58 415,905,862.94 61,237,192.67 30,646,463.09 147,158,275.28 54,391,367.51 8,001,950.32 7,068,176.97 2,857,632.76 1,948,874.81 1,890,086.51 1,111,226.60 18,228,927.41 2,021,651.42 7,654,979.60 16,940,129.80 1,712,289.16 94,934,386.52 1,383,076.31 27,862,987.32

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12074000 12074000 12074000 12074000 12075000 12079900 12079900 12079900 12079900 12079900 12079900 12079900 12079900 12089000 12119000 12149000 13012000 13012000 13012000 13019000 13019000 13019000 13019000 13019000 13019000 13019000 13019000 13019000 13019000 14042000 14049000 14049000 14049000 14049000 14049000 14049000 14049000 14049000 15219090 15219090 15219090 17011100 17031000

Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Sesamum seeds Mustard seeds Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other oil seeds and oleaginous fruits, nes Other flours and meal of oil seeds or oleaginous fruit, nes Other plants or parts, of a kind used in perfumery, pharmacy...etc, nes Other forage products, nes Natural gum arabic Natural gum arabic Natural gum arabic NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUMRESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) Cotton linters Vegetable products, nes Vegetable products, nes Vegetable products, nes Vegetable products, nes Vegetable products, nes Vegetable products, nes Vegetable products, nes Vegetable products, nes --- OTHER BEESWAX , INSECT WAXES --- OTHER BEESWAX , INSECT WAXES --- OTHER BEESWAX , INSECT WAXES Raw cane sugar, in solid form Cane molasses resulting from the extraction or refining of sugar

United Kingdom United States Viet Nam Yemen Israel China Djibouti Germany Israel Italy Turkey United Kingdom United States United States Netherlands Djibouti Germany Saudi Arabia Tunisia China Egypt France Germany Greece Guatemala Saudi Arabia Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen China Australia China Djibouti Kenya Netherlands Somalia Uganda United Kingdom Germany Japan United States Portugal Italy

580,000.00 2,128,220.00 76,152.00 9,987,513.70 1,000.00 380,000.00 1,490,913.00 269,500.00 320,260.12 380,694.00 246,000.00 833,366.00 11,094,496.32 570,384.00 28,439.50 2,912,420.50 81,000.00 90,200.00 89,982.00 1,065,160.00 205,000.00 75,000.00 264,875.00 201,000.00 214,000.00 90,000.00 408,000.00 706,968.00 127,289.00 454,641.00 9,256.51 4,693.00 4,932,658.26 60,133.93 4,308.31 15,853,834.62 161.00 72,276.37 73,947.00 102,175.00 52,500.00 16,490,000.00 4,000,000.00

3,825,479.56 12,771,602.50 580,520.37 58,851,719.67 4,215.98 2,532,776.60 8,473,733.51 1,124,016.47 2,882,091.09 1,420,569.04 1,424,227.35 3,212,344.47 42,590,494.54 2,022,648.45 1,027,903.27 2,510,815.02 1,271,072.66 1,443,315.34 1,738,054.21 7,011,489.51 2,812,079.79 1,199,498.01 4,183,121.31 2,724,274.58 3,098,016.45 1,589,071.26 7,494,962.19 11,629,044.21 2,394,935.39 3,867,107.88 2,764,599.57 1,138,490.31 283,785,287.39 18,450,164.18 1,047,670.73 426,665,647.10 49,520.60 21,615,886.12 2,812,732.62 4,214,480.49 2,092,400.46 86,091,358.78 8,775,100.00

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17039000 18061000 19059090 22030000 23022000 25232100 26140000 26159000 26159000 30043900 33059000 40111000 40111000 41012000 41012000 41012000 41012000 41012000 41019000 41019000 41019000 41022100 41022100 41022100 41022100 41022100 41022100 41022100 41022100 41022900 41022900 41022900 41031000 41031000

Molasses resulting from the extraction or refining of sugar (excl. cane) Cocoa powder, containing added sugar or other sweetening matter --- OTHER BREAD ,RICE PAPER ,CAKES ,ETC ,NES BEER MADE FROM MALT Brans, sharps and other residues of rice White portland cement Titanium ores and concentrates Niobium, tantalum and vanadium ores and concentrates Niobium, tantalum and vanadium ores and concentrates Medicaments of other hormones, for retail sale, nes Preparations for use on the hair, nes NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON MOTOR CARS NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON MOTOR CARS WHOLE HIDES AND SKINS ,WGT PER SKIN DRIED<8KG,D.SALTED <10KG FRESH/WET<16K WHOLE HIDES AND SKINS ,WGT PER SKIN DRIED<8KG,D.SALTED <10KG FRESH/WET<16K WHOLE HIDES AND SKINS ,WGT PER SKIN DRIED<8KG,D.SALTED <10KG FRESH/WET<16K WHOLE HIDES AND SKINS ,WGT PER SKIN DRIED<8KG,D.SALTED <10KG FRESH/WET<16K WHOLE HIDES AND SKINS ,WGT PER SKIN DRIED<8KG,D.SALTED <10KG FRESH/WET<16K OTHER, RAW HIDES ,INCLUDING BUTTS,BENDS AND BELLIES OTHER, RAW HIDES ,INCLUDING BUTTS,BENDS AND BELLIES OTHER, RAW HIDES ,INCLUDING BUTTS,BENDS AND BELLIES Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Pickled skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not tanned Skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not pickled, not tanned Skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not pickled, not tanned Skins of sheep or lambs, without wool, not pickled, not tanned Hides and skins of goats or kids, fresh or preserved, not tanned Hides and skins of goats or kids, fresh or preserved, not tanned

Italy Netherlands United Arab Emirates United States Djibouti Sudan China Belgium China United Republic of Tanzania Sudan Germany Yemen China Hong Kong India Italy Malaysia China India Italy China India Italy Japan Malaysia Thailand Turkey United Kingdom China Italy United Kingdom China Italy 2,495.00 6,750.00

683,140.00 15,568,800.00 388,244.00 349,337.70 266,771.00 2,002,192.00 600,000.00 100,554.00 19,283.00 18,500.00 5,340.00 55,013.00 112,790.00 80,113.50 321,911.25 153,962.00 82,034.50 316,486.05 11,305.90 909,362.00 347,154.00 397,246.00 3,806.55 198,754.00 395,816.50 24,175.00 123,052.00 38,249.50 66,544.00 14,383.00 31,193.00 15,156.20 16,422.00 63,555.00 32,619.40

1,680,821.46 65,786,152.07 4,197,494.28 2,222,219.33 1,407,045.10 1,262,835.60 32,483,774.98 2,054,866.99 1,247,472.25 1,866,030.19 1,121,071.76 2,022,352.05 2,081,680.33 9,354,558.60 1,656,791.30 1,496,563.14 13,906,406.84 1,169,162.15 7,845,365.75 3,295,821.50 5,444,947.20 2,597,484.05 18,448,460.56 29,805,741.16 2,978,258.40 11,449,266.05 3,138,101.55 5,927,994.20 3,414,749.72 2,653,067.81 1,243,873.95 3,288,746.68 2,135,182.54 1,683,669.37

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41041100 41041100 41041100 41041100 41041100 41041100 41041900 41041900 41041900 41051000 41051000 41051000 41051000 41051000 41051000 41051000 41062100 41062100 41062100 41062100 41062100 41062100 41062100 41069100 41069100 41069100 41120000 41120000 41120000

TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE..IN THE WET STATE...FULL GRAINS,UNSPLIT TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE..IN THE WET STATE...FULL GRAINS,UNSPLIT TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE..IN THE WET STATE...FULL GRAINS,UNSPLIT TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE..IN THE WET STATE...FULL GRAINS,UNSPLIT TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE..IN THE WET STATE...FULL GRAINS,UNSPLIT TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE..IN THE WET STATE...FULL GRAINS,UNSPLIT TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE...IN THE WET STATE...(EXCLUDING 410411 TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE...IN THE WET STATE...(EXCLUDING 410411 TANNED/CRUST HIDES&SKINS OF BOVINE...IN THE WET STATE...(EXCLUDING 410411 TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF SHEEP/LAMPS ...IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF SHEEP/LAMPS ...IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF SHEEP/LAMPS ...IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF SHEEP/LAMPS ...IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF SHEEP/LAMPS ...IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF SHEEP/LAMPS ...IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF SHEEP/LAMPS ...IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF GOATS/KIDS ..IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF GOATS/KIDS ..IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF GOATS/KIDS ..IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF GOATS/KIDS ..IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF GOATS/KIDS ..IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF GOATS/KIDS ..IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) TANNED/CRUST SKINS OF GOATS/KIDS ..IN THE WET STATE...(WET-BLUE) OTHER TANNED/CRUST OF HIDES/SKINS IN THE WET STATE (WET-BLUE) OTHER TANNED/CRUST OF HIDES/SKINS IN THE WET STATE (WET-BLUE) OTHER TANNED/CRUST OF HIDES/SKINS IN THE WET STATE (WET-BLUE) LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING/CRUSTING INCLU.PARCHMENT DRESSED LEATHER.. LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING/CRUSTING INCLU.PARCHMENT DRESSED LEATHER.. LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING/CRUSTING INCLU.PARCHMENT

China Greece Hong Kong India Italy United Kingdom China Hong Kong Italy China France Hong Kong India Italy Japan Malaysia China Greece Hong Kong Italy Malaysia Spain United Kingdom China Hong Kong Italy China France Japan

706,051.50 112,641.00 1,199,604.00 314,630.00 535,378.00 116,959.00 123,332.00 96,343.00 233,903.00 265,433.70 11,077.00 33,364.00 190,447.00 1,345,885.00 42,713.00 137,087.50 2,062,003.50 45,800.00 249,484.00 1,570,845.60 10,443.00 53,320.50 6,211.00 229,543.00 291,939.00 49,245.00 9,515.55 5,588.75 8,052.32

7,389,969.68 1,242,980.03 11,186,337.32 3,835,284.22 7,966,885.24 2,011,162.27 1,037,000.68 1,000,745.73 2,821,926.92 22,343,121.92 1,491,546.00 1,136,888.30 16,120,756.41 85,613,040.87 5,347,081.68 13,803,053.59 60,656,561.06 1,381,255.04 5,356,430.05 62,352,511.41 1,132,310.40 2,328,969.82 1,739,043.87 4,500,789.37 2,502,274.67 1,864,973.07 6,090,883.33 4,683,754.67 7,056,627.90

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DRESSED LEATHER.. LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING/CRUSTING INCLU.PARCHMENT DRESSED LEATHER.. LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING/CRUSTING INCLU.PARCHMENT DRESSED LEATHER.. LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING/CRUSTING INCLU.PARCHMENT DRESSED LEATHER.. LEATHER OF GOATS OR KIDS PREPARED AFTER TANNING OR CRUSTING.. OTHER LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING OR CRUSTING...NES OTHER LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING OR CRUSTING...NES OTHER LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING OR CRUSTING...NES OTHER LEATHER PREPARED AFTER TANNING OR CRUSTING...NES Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Cotton, carded or combed Unbleached plain cotton weave, with >=85% cotton, =<100g/m2 UNBLEACHED PLAIN COTTON WEAVE, WITH >=85% COTTON, >100G/M2 BUT < 200G/M2 UNBLEACHED PLAIN COTTON WEAVE, WITH >=85% COTTON, >100G/M2 BUT < 200G/M2 UNBLEACHED PLAIN COTTON WEAVE, WITH >=85% COTTON, >100G/M2 BUT < 200G/M2 Coloured woven fabrics of cotton, =<200g/m2, nes Coloured woven fabrics of cotton, =<200g/m2, nes MEN'S OR BOYS' SHIRTS OF COTTON, KNITTED OR CROCHETED T-SHIRTS, SINGLETS AND OTHER VESTS, OF COTTON, KNITTED OR CROCHETED T-SHIRTS, SINGLETS, ETC, OF OTHER TEXTILES, NES, KNITTED OR CROCHETED MEN'S OR BOYS' TROUSERS, BREECHES OF OTHER TEXTILES, NES WOMEN'S OR GIRLS' SUITS OF COTTON MEN'S OR BOYS' UNDERPANTS AND BRIEFS OF TEXTILE MATERIALS, NES Bed linen, knitted or crocheted Printed bed-linen of cotton (excl. knitted or crocheted) Bed linen of cotton (excl. printed, knitted or crocheted) Curtains and interior blinds; curtain or bed valances of cotton Curtains and interior blinds; curtain or bed valances of cotton

41120000 41120000 41120000 41131000 41139000 41139000 41139000 41139000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52030000 52081100 52081200 52081200 52081200 52121400 52121400 61051000 61091000 61099000 62034900 62041200 62071900 63021000 63022100 63023100 63039100 63039100

Romania United Kingdom United States Italy China Indonesia Romania United Kingdom Belgium China Germany India Indonesia Italy Pakistan Saudi Arabia Swaziland Switzerland Taiwan, Province of China Italy Belgium Germany Italy Belgium Italy United States United States United States United States United States United States Italy Italy Italy France Germany 51,656.00 66,636.00 133,179.00 216,154.00 6,707.00 180,710.00

1,354.05 66,241.35 13,289.85 5,696.50 5,731.00 4,531.70 2,312.20 15,050.00 91,379.00 1,424,639.00 343,385.07 739,473.00 1,606,473.00 257,544.89 177,000.00 469,419.00 551,561.00 777,386.00 1,058,000.00 52,979.40 115,041.00 87,096.01 77,165.77 84,369.00 127,891.04 16,353.00 16,989.40 70,650.12 97,824.60 17,036.70 58,150.54 40,085.90 59,546.98 27,936.00 42,318.00 170,211.23

1,424,182.54 25,150,920.40 6,792,232.83 1,488,903.91 3,372,140.82 1,384,047.00 1,879,108.52 1,963,793.63 1,822,677.65 13,631,856.42 3,978,922.72 7,023,912.48 15,964,165.78 3,644,429.95 1,721,684.01 4,367,264.57 5,064,362.42 7,286,221.71 9,411,891.53 1,081,922.53 2,310,752.05 1,889,079.85 1,808,406.39 2,283,849.57 4,029,386.84 1,242,993.99 1,169,428.60 2,598,883.93 1,738,763.02 1,117,957.57 1,169,166.95 1,369,928.55 2,067,413.78 1,035,513.63 1,297,722.16 5,715,038.57

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63039100 63039100 63039100 63039100 63041900 63041900 63041900 63041900 63041900 63051000 64035900 64039100 64039900 71081300 71081300 72042900 72044900 74032100 74040000 76020000 76020000 84311000 87079000

Curtains and interior blinds; curtain or bed valances of cotton Curtains and interior blinds; curtain or bed valances of cotton Curtains and interior blinds; curtain or bed valances of cotton Curtains and interior blinds; curtain or bed valances of cotton Bedspreads (excl. knitted or crocheted) Bedspreads (excl. knitted or crocheted) Bedspreads (excl. knitted or crocheted) Bedspreads (excl. knitted or crocheted) Bedspreads (excl. knitted or crocheted) Sacks and bags, used for packing goods, of jute, etc FOOTWEAR WITH LEATHER SOLES AND UPPERS, NOT COVERING THE ANKLE FOOTWEAR WITH RUBBER... SOLES AND LEATHER UPPERS, COVERING THE ANKLE FOOTWEAR WITH RUBBER... SOLES, LEATHER UPPERS, NOT COVERING THE ANKLE Semi-manufactured gold (incl. gold plated with platinum), non-monetary Semi-manufactured gold (incl. gold plated with platinum), non-monetary Waste and scrap of alloy steel (excl. stainless) Ferrous waste and scrap, nes Brass, unwrought Copper waste and scrap Aluminium waste and scrap Aluminium waste and scrap Parts of machinery of 84.25 BODIES (INCL. CABS) FOR THE MOTOR VEHICLES, NES

Italy Sweden United Kingdom United States Djibouti France Germany Italy Sweden Belgium Italy Italy Italy Swaziland Switzerland United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Belgium India United Arab Emirates China United Arab Emirates 15,157.00 15,692.00 223,228.00

47,586.00 50,420.00 110,372.81 129,376.00 2,216.00 65,233.00 71,015.17 61,470.00 96,775.00 68,246.36 20,074.00 22,228.00 310,052.00 10.17 3,451.36 32,000.00 1,576,503.00 484,000.00 64,000.00 332,768.00 950,530.00 58,330.00 6.00 7,701.00

1,472,269.50 1,615,402.06 3,605,577.81 4,157,824.79 91,344.02 2,134,372.51 2,457,753.44 2,153,393.08 3,213,462.79 1,056,340.64 1,329,370.21 1,447,163.09 20,543,900.05 1,490,391.80 446,331,930.67 1,265,198.40 1,847,942.53 1,168,446.42 2,531,001.60 3,998,391.32 4,887,113.60 10,965,986.85 1,569,968.54

Annex XI. Selected Import Items for the Year 2006 (Above ETB 1 Million)
HS Code 04021000 04021000 04021000 04021000 04021000 04021000 04022100 04022900 04022900 04029900 04049000 06011000 06011000 06021000 06021000 HS_Description Milk and cream in solid forms of =<1.5% fat Milk and cream in solid forms of =<1.5% fat Milk and cream in solid forms of =<1.5% fat Milk and cream in solid forms of =<1.5% fat Milk and cream in solid forms of =<1.5% fat Milk and cream in solid forms of =<1.5% fat Milk and cream in solid forms of >1.5% fat, unsweetened Milk and cream in solid forms of >1.5% fat, sweetened Milk and cream in solid forms of >1.5% fat, sweetened Sweetened milk and cream (excl. in solid form) Products consisting of natural milk constituents, nes DORMANT BULBS, TUBERS... RHIZOMES DORMANT BULBS, TUBERS... RHIZOMES UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS Country (Origin) India Iran, Islamic Republic of Ireland Netherlands Netherlands Ukraine Netherlands France France France France India Kenya Germany Kenya Qty. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 78500.0 0 306650 5.00 563344. 00 1878156 NM(Kg) 108500.00 23436.00 132118.00 57000.00 57000.00 75400.00 676260.00 97377.20 42967.20 50411.00 142671.80 818.00 41167.00 10394.00 CIF Value (ETB) 2149778.02 1177886.97 8809529.34 1185698.23 1185698.23 1415293.70 24824155.84 2099487.28 1440681.12 1320270.94 3598018.81 1482335.86 15005560.57 4994424.19

57375.00 29764764.78

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06021000 06021000 06024000 06024000 06024000 06024000 06024000 06029000 06029000 06029000 06029000 06031000 06031000 06031000 07081000 07131000 07131000 07134000 07134000 08041000 08062000 08062000 08103000 09023000 09061000 09070000 10011000 10011000 10011000 10011000 10011000 10019000 10019000 10019000 10051000 10061000 10063000 10063000 10063000 10063000 10063000 10063000

UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS UNROOTED CUTTINGS AND SLIPS ROSES ROSES ROSES ROSES ROSES Other live plants,nes Other live plants,nes Other live plants,nes Other live plants,nes Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Fresh cut flowers and buds Peas, fresh or chilled Dried peas, shelled Dried peas, shelled Dried lentils, shelled Dried lentils, shelled Dates, fresh or dried Dried grapes Dried grapes Black, white or red currants and gooseberries, fresh BLACK TEA FERMENTED/PARTLY FERMENTED,FLAVOURED OR NOT,IN PACKINGS OF <=3KG Cinnamon and cinnamon-tree flowers, neither crushed and ground Cloves (whole fruit, cloves and stems) Durum wheat Durum wheat Durum wheat Durum wheat Durum wheat Spelt, common wheat and meslin Spelt, common wheat and meslin Spelt, common wheat and meslin Maize seed Rice in the husk (paddy or rough) Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Semi-milled or wholly milled rice

Netherlands Spain France India Kenya Netherlands Netherlands India Israel Kenya Uganda Israel Kenya Netherlands United States Italy United States Italy Italy Saudi Arabia Turkey Turkey Iran, Islamic Republic of Sri Lanka China Kenya Australia Canada Italy Ukraine United States Andorra Italy United States South Africa United States India India India India Indonesia Pakistan

141979 0.00 527300. 00 86400.0 0 284651. 00 193035 0.00 103374 0.00 103374 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 155458 0.00 665271. 00 250955. 00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

18713.00 3094.00 6626.00 6513.00 152553.00 41041.00 41041.00 4000.00 6675.00 16591.00 12127.00 17124.00 32965.00 19402.00 2032103.00 11628350.00 3784100.00 4037750.00 4037750.00 1145178.29 250000.00 250000.00 42920.00 1638.60 179465.00 171856.00 20100000.00 9068950.00 51894970.00 13880552.00 84806092.00 403750.00 107529706.0 0 40621729.00 4836.00 5460000.00 8185156.00 8522385.00 870000.00 79662.00 1000000.00 192370.00

3846216.65 1210825.00 1898085.62 11072692.72 24423226.81 7106026.11 7106026.11 9612797.77 3076360.96 2151217.39 2070096.78 4308821.47 2976125.25 3933749.05 7956398.69 41405093.76 16057410.58 18120214.04 18120214.04 3744587.09 3202150.29 3202150.29 331110.37 162080.50 1418517.06 1165748.32 42121940.84 19009883.64 101559053.64 29746102.21 191400198.31 1976576.15 205768891.59 137293513.89 1344718.45 25342763.00 22959344.23 25085805.61 2354964.73 1075992.55 2746773.55 1043275.45

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10063000 10063000 10063000 10064000 10064000 10064000 10089000 10089000 11010000 11010000 11029000 11031300 11041200 11042300 11071000 11071000 11071000 11071000 11071000 11071000 11071000 12010000 12010000 12010000 12071000 12071000 12089000 12089000 12089000 12099100 12099100 12099100 12102000 13019000 13021300 13021300 13021300 15079010 15079010 15079010 15079010 15079010 15079090 15089010 15119010 15119010 15119010

Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Semi-milled or wholly milled rice Broken rice Broken rice Broken rice Other cereal, nes Other cereal, nes Wheat or meslin flour Wheat or meslin flour Other cereal flour, nes Groats and meal of maize (corn) Rolled or flaked oat grains Other worked grains of maize (corn), nes Malt not roasted Malt not roasted Malt not roasted Malt not roasted Malt not roasted Malt not roasted Malt not roasted Soya beans Soya beans Soya beans Palm nuts and kernels Palm nuts and kernels Other flours and meal of oil seeds or oleaginous fruit, nes Other flours and meal of oil seeds or oleaginous fruit, nes Other flours and meal of oil seeds or oleaginous fruit, nes Vegetable seed, of a kind used for sowing Vegetable seed, of a kind used for sowing Vegetable seed, of a kind used for sowing Hop cones, ground, powdered or in pellets; lupulin NATURAL GUMS,RESINS,GUM-RESINS,NATURAL OLEOR'INS/BALSAMS (EXCL. GUMARABIC) Hop extract Hop extract Hop extract ---EDIBLE SOYA BEAN OIL ---EDIBLE SOYA BEAN OIL ---EDIBLE SOYA BEAN OIL ---EDIBLE SOYA BEAN OIL ---EDIBLE SOYA BEAN OIL ---OTHER NON-EDIBLE SOYA BEAN OIL ---EDIBLE GROUND NUT OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL

Pakistan Thailand United States India India United States Italy Kenya Italy United Arab Emirates United States United States United Kingdom United States Belgium France France Germany Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Italy United Arab Emirates United States France France Denmark France France Denmark Italy Netherlands Germany Singapore China Germany Germany Egypt Malaysia Malaysia Malaysia Turkey India Turkey Egypt Indonesia Indonesia

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

586630.00 2040000.00 502367.46 1852000.00 439250.00 487060.00 500075.00 2404100.00 318675.00 816010.00 1375658.00 927000.00 57000.00 15501967.00 20335575.00 3699700.00 434201.00 1495000.00 336400.00 334000.00 317300.00 3438825.00 500000.00 500000.00 116571.00 80012.00 71030.00 441373.80 291411.60 18721.00 3468.02 64597.30 25995.00 635782.00 6000.00 4608.00 47652.00 2802345.88 398520.00 1258795.32 347260.52 206445.60 300010.00 197280.00 5656183.00 428452.00 184571.60

3598077.48 5469704.31 2479187.47 5355732.55 1239849.10 2403955.96 1715573.78 7845138.69 1346283.56 1988604.77 8530034.24 4886685.37 1104344.43 51253536.87 92253096.44 19278096.96 2258841.92 7673447.98 1750648.61 1589129.75 1514195.64 10966468.13 1646191.27 1666422.98 4025178.79 2996493.66 2422720.46 14692701.36 10054431.61 1347535.88 1013025.98 8158889.71 2905358.11 4749069.88 2180382.38 1686531.20 6391706.96 20481838.94 2272366.71 7245787.39 2795587.66 1568542.11 2242627.10 1432727.82 36977304.92 2509563.52 1249928.09

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15119010 15119010 15119010 15119010 15119010 15119010 15119010 15119090 15119090 15119090 15119090 15131910 15131990 15132910 15132910 15151100 15151910 15151910 15151910 15151910 15151910 15155010 15159010 15159010 15159010 15161010 15162010 15162010 15162010 15162010 15162010 15162010 15179000 15179000 15179000 15179000 15179000 15179000 15179000 15179000 15219090 15220000 15220000 17011100 17011100

---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL ---EDIBLE PALM OIL --- OTHER NON-EDIBLE PALM OIL --- OTHER NON-EDIBLE PALM OIL --- OTHER NON-EDIBLE PALM OIL --- OTHER NON-EDIBLE PALM OIL --- EDIBLE COCONUT OIL --- OTHER NON-EDIBLE COCONUT OIL --- EDIBLE PALM KERNEL OR BABASSU OIL FRACTION --- EDIBLE PALM KERNEL OR BABASSU OIL FRACTION Crude linseed oil --- EDIBLE LINSEED OIL --- EDIBLE LINSEED OIL --- EDIBLE LINSEED OIL --- EDIBLE LINSEED OIL --- EDIBLE LINSEED OIL --- EDIBLE SESAME OIL --- EDIBLE OTHER FIXED OIL VEGETABLE FATS AND FRACTIONS ,NES --- EDIBLE OTHER FIXED OIL VEGETABLE FATS AND FRACTIONS ,NES --- EDIBLE OTHER FIXED OIL VEGETABLE FATS AND FRACTIONS ,NES --- EDIBLE ANIMAL FATS AND OILS --- EDIBLE VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS --- EDIBLE VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS --- EDIBLE VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS --- EDIBLE VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS --- EDIBLE VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS --- EDIBLE VEGETABLE FATS AND OILS Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes Edible preparations of fats and oils, nes --- OTHER BEESWAX , INSECT WAXES Degras; residues of fatty substances or animal or vegetable waxes Degras; residues of fatty substances or animal or vegetable waxes Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form

Malaysia Malaysia Mali Singapore United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates United States Indonesia Malaysia Malaysia Saudi Arabia Malaysia Malaysia Indonesia Malaysia India Egypt Singapore United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates United States Tokelau Italy Malaysia United States United States Italy Malaysia Malaysia Singapore United Arab Emirates United States Egypt Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Malaysia Mali Singapore Yemen Malaysia Indonesia Malaysia Belgium Brazil

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

19986435.54 4509171.39 555576.96 309816.00 269384.03 641189.35 2322218.80 210000.00 2206112.00 1533280.00 1290920.00 334373.82 520870.00 465268.00 478019.00 304000.00 560672.00 223488.00 165361.12 208636.00 5430191.00 838836.00 1129853.38 217800.00 570014.00 3230019.00 3294820.40 1705919.00 300765.00 151340.00 371769.20 1329941.00 997404.20 732835.00 421731.00 3560907.08 850115.16 230880.00 285260.00 7197412.00 442427.40 771552.00 690879.00 25300.00 17253333.76

115349750.84 25506191.53 3462657.08 1760991.41 1618643.00 3860146.10 24032402.43 1054280.85 10714673.15 7546094.42 4228948.51 2690305.90 3763225.04 2729670.96 2691933.67 2518864.63 3845749.50 1246417.51 1262894.65 1185215.60 42645822.42 1952297.53 8842547.84 1280920.56 6039933.47 33783114.87 26389681.85 11601916.45 1691620.18 1145846.83 2694566.60 13168049.54 6711262.30 3801199.84 2185258.04 20381021.40 4851500.62 1157056.08 1697186.67 53679411.75 2311151.67 3967288.68 3382930.98 1408420.86 80989115.97

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17011100 17011100 17011100 17011100 17011100 17011100 17011100 17011100 17019900 17019900 17019900 17019900 17023000 17023000 17024000 17024000 17029000 17029000 17041000 17041000 17041000 17041000 17041000 17041000 17041000 17049000 17049000 17049000 19011000 19011000 19011000 19011000 19019010 19019090 19021990 19021990 19021990 19049000 19049000 19049000 19049000 19053190 19053210 20082000 20094900 20098000

Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form Raw cane sugar, in solid form Cane or beet sugar, in solid form, nes Cane or beet sugar, in solid form, nes Cane or beet sugar, in solid form, nes Cane or beet sugar, in solid form, nes Glucose and glucose syrup, containing <20% fructose Glucose and glucose syrup, containing <20% fructose Glucose and glucose syrup, containing >=20% but <50% fructose Glucose and glucose syrup, containing >=20% but <50% fructose Artificial honey, caramel and other sugars (incl. invert sugar), nes Artificial honey, caramel and other sugars (incl. invert sugar), nes Chewing gum Chewing gum Chewing gum Chewing gum Chewing gum Chewing gum Chewing gum Sugar confectionery (incl. white chocolate), not containing cocoa, nes Sugar confectionery (incl. white chocolate), not containing cocoa, nes Sugar confectionery (incl. white chocolate), not containing cocoa, nes Preparations for infant use, for retail sale, of flour, etc Preparations for infant use, for retail sale, of flour, etc Preparations for infant use, for retail sale, of flour, etc Preparations for infant use, for retail sale, of flour, etc --- OTHER FOOD PREPARATION OF FLOUR , ETC ,MALT EXTRACT --- OTHER FOOD PREPARATIONS OF FLOUR ..ETC,NES, --- UNCOOKED PASTA , NOT CONTAINING EGGS ,NOT STUFFED ,NES --- UNCOOKED PASTA , NOT CONTAINING EGGS ,NOT STUFFED ,NES --- UNCOOKED PASTA , NOT CONTAINING EGGS ,NOT STUFFED ,NES Prepared cereals in grain form (excl. maize) Prepared cereals in grain form (excl. maize) Prepared cereals in grain form (excl. maize) Prepared cereals in grain form (excl. maize) ---OTHER ;INFANT OR INVALID FOODS ---INFANT OR INVALID FOODS Pineapples, prepared or preserved (excl. those of 20.06 and 20.07) PINEAPPLE JUICE : (EXCLUDING 2009.4100) Juice of other single fruit, unfermented, not containing added spirit

Brazil Brazil France France India Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Brazil Brazil India United Arab Emirates India Thailand China India China Germany China Kenya Korea, Republic of Pakistan Saudi Arabia Turkey United Republic of Tanzania China Egypt Yemen Belgium Egypt France Netherlands Germany United States Italy Turkey United Arab Emirates Denmark Denmark Italy United States Yemen Belgium Thailand Thailand Saudi Arabia

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

540000.00 620000.00 253810.00 253000.00 20000000.00 8088014.00 700000.00 826518.00 357500.00 1140000.00 500000.00 1000000.00 327161.00 1019520.00 351900.00 1467000.00 173115.00 119520.00 402403.96 1257121.00 260275.94 596486.00 450777.00 175798.90 164225.00 225480.84 250382.56 167347.00 31948.00 78141.20 38849.00 183587.00 18873.00 4612968.00 555271.82 581888.00 811906.61 518400.00 604800.00 21102333.75 2620060.00 1130406.00 4361.00 466996.10 181868.00 222894.00

1619552.77 1907036.24 1344418.61 1073913.99 86853246.40 27179597.65 2267483.26 2334825.63 1621899.54 3489420.78 1521035.65 2986564.62 1215980.84 3433279.46 1253991.63 5047224.34 1005546.40 1064612.09 6734264.23 11246176.98 7084631.39 4411321.19 5332106.79 2200799.32 1018777.85 1892141.85 2063121.28 1550395.58 1859754.32 2518694.27 1932413.46 9353455.77 1521765.21 16243071.34 3802161.54 2713047.05 3148208.48 1668215.70 1946122.83 65474767.11 9137279.56 9896668.03 2598568.46 2923429.59 1225801.32 1503589.13

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20098000 21021000 21021000 21021000 21021000 21021000 21023000 21042000 21069010 21069020 21069050 21069090 21069090 21069090 22042100 22042900 22083000 22083000 22083000 22083000 22083000 22083000 22085000 23099000 24012000 24012000 24022000 25010010 25030000 25070000 25169000 25232100 25232900 25232900 25232900 27075000 27079900 27101100 27101910 27101910 27101920 27101920

Juice of other single fruit, unfermented, not containing added spirit Active yeasts Active yeasts Active yeasts Active yeasts Active yeasts Prepared baking powders Homogenized composite food preparations ---INFANT OR INVALID FOODS;FLAVOURED OR COLOURED SYRUPS(EXCL FRUIT JUICE) --- OF A KIND USED IN NON ALCOLIC DRINKS INDUST.OR PREPARING OR FLAV.FOOD --- VITAMINS,MINERALS AND OTHER FOOD SUPPLIEMENTS --- OTHER FOOD PREPARATIONS, NES --- OTHER FOOD PREPARATIONS, NES --- OTHER FOOD PREPARATIONS, NES WINE (NOT SPARKLING); GRAPE MUST WITH BY ALCOHOL IN: <=2L CONTAINERS WINE (NOT SPARKLING); GRAPE MUST WITH ALCOHOL IN: >=2L CONTAINERS WHISKEYS WHISKEYS WHISKEYS WHISKEYS WHISKEYS WHISKEYS GIN AND GENEVA Other preparations of a kind used in animal feeding, nes Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed/stripped Tobacco, partly or wholly stemmed/stripped Cigarettes containing tobacco --- FOOD(TABLE) SALT,SALT LIQUORS OR SEA WATER Sulphur of all kinds (excl. sublimed, precipitated and colloidal sulphur) Kaolin and other kaolinic clays, whether or not calcined Porphyry, sylnite, etc, merely cut into a square or rectangular shape White portland cement Portland cement (excl. white) Portland cement (excl. white) Portland cement (excl. white) Aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures which >=65% distils at 250xc Other oils and oil products, nes LIGHT OILS AND PREPARATIONS ---BENZENE,BENZINIE,GASOLINE,PETROL AND OTHER MOTOR SPIRITS,REGULAR OR SUP ---BENZENE,BENZINIE,GASOLINE,PETROL AND OTHER MOTOR SPIRITS,REGULAR OR SUP ---WHITE OILS ---WHITE OILS

United Arab Emirates Belgium France France Iran, Islamic Republic of Turkey Kenya New Zealand United States Saudi Arabia Turkey Turkey United States Yemen South Africa South Africa Netherlands United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Netherlands Brazil India Kenya Djibouti Saudi Arabia South Africa Italy Egypt China Egypt Malaysia Belgium United Kingdom Indonesia Saudi Arabia Sudan India Iran, Islamic Republic of

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 55007.0 0 2832.00 177122. 00 17115.0 0 3025.00 27648.0 0 11720.0 0 39444.0 0 24960.0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

826568.62 59560.00 518268.00 42617.00 220540.00 839651.00 141360.00 108000.00 295877.00 125562.60 20250.00 77474.00 88023.55 196850.00 193591.75 23673.28 255383.55 66031.00 26340.61 26182.66 43368.00 100780.16 25770.26 290376.00 237600.00 1089990.00 235728.20 9794320.00 890459.00 660000.00 28104.30 17948400.00 441903.00 16000000.00 6000000.00 88800.00 71190.00 275400.00 76045007.00 107687286.0 0 529916.00 148372.00

4698078.01 1084407.52 9638608.68 1176275.69 1226953.31 13636291.74 1367417.72 3758795.89 1506373.08 1215793.11 1017203.91 1511433.34 1113790.52 1606151.17 2311391.12 195245.67 14400917.41 4402242.59 3241345.93 2000824.03 1141478.42 2993092.55 1568230.06 1957040.46 8771179.86 20450855.92 32487161.63 3409369.34 1482763.24 1233229.38 1039892.86 16583778.38 411886.57 19618094.50 6820455.60 1023966.05 2068287.22 2372716.55 443382139.20 539382537.86 5066246.65 1134626.20

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27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27101990 27109900 27111300 27121000 27121000 27121000 27122000 27122000 27122000 27122000 27129000 27132000 27132000 27132000 27139000 27141000 27141000 27141000 27141000 27141000 27141000 27149000 27149000 27149000 27150000 27150000 27150000 27150000

---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... ---OTHER PETROLEUM OILS AND OILS OBTAINED FROM BITUMINOUS MIN... WASTE OILS EXCLUDING THOSE OF HS 27109100 Butanes, liquefied Petroleum jelly Petroleum jelly Petroleum jelly Paraffin wax, containing <0.75% oil Paraffin wax, containing <0.75% oil Paraffin wax, containing <0.75% oil Paraffin wax, containing <0.75% oil Other paraffin wax... and similar products, nes Petroleum bitumen Petroleum bitumen Petroleum bitumen Other residues of petroleum oils , etc Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands Bitumen and asphalt; natural asphaltites and asphaltic rocks Bitumen and asphalt; natural asphaltites and asphaltic rocks Bitumen and asphalt; natural asphaltites and asphaltic rocks Bituminous mixtures based on natural asphalt, bitumen...(eg. cutbacks) Bituminous mixtures based on natural asphalt, bitumen...(eg. cutbacks) Bituminous mixtures based on natural asphalt, bitumen...(eg. cutbacks) Bituminous mixtures based on natural asphalt, bitumen...

Iran, Islamic Republic of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Singapore South Africa Spain Sudan Turkey United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United Arab Emirates Sudan India Iran, Islamic Republic of Turkey China Egypt India Iran, Islamic Republic of Egypt Egypt Iran, Islamic Republic of United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Egypt Egypt Iran, Islamic Republic of Saudi Arabia Turkey United Arab Emirates Egypt Egypt Iran, Islamic Republic of Egypt Egypt Egypt Saudi Arabia

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

428358.00 14808856.00 1340963196. 00 79923893.81 1176248.12 124590.00 647464.00 3507346.00 839472.80 526847.84 12158075.28 36587190.00 111058.00 3518599.00 416863.72 2786748.00 473580.00 148908.00 526400.00 438912.16 1128969.24 280000.00 786653.00 500000.00 659551.00 1000000.00 2293226.00 2845747.00 1030372.00 2038400.00 1135816.00 798320.00 1573990.00 1552479.00 420410.00 1001144.00 607551.00 2541713.00 6599094.00

3689302.33 82551613.11 6896088149.65 285290697.20 12948011.42 1538585.41 8871423.31 11606690.60 13719640.79 7401208.97 57974285.44 172837995.76 1819750.67 15294440.96 4117331.60 23089329.32 4407941.81 1336182.05 5301032.99 4108626.70 8906981.59 2078633.49 2504097.75 1486305.34 1665925.32 3745422.50 7325100.98 7956935.60 3472877.76 5632760.77 3222615.46 1994983.02 5139482.44 4139458.89 1035574.80 2579075.69 1807575.70 7045549.50 20918919.83

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27150000 28011000 28020000 28030000 28061000 28170000 28183000 28211000 28230000 28230000 28230000 28273100 28281000 28331900 28332200 28332300 28342900 28353100 28362000 28365000 32041700 32041700 32061100 32061100 32061100 32089000 32089000 32110000 32149000 32149000 32149000 33021010 33021010 33021010 33021010 33021010 33059000 33059000 33059000 33061000 33074100 33074100 34011100 34011900

Bituminous mixtures based on natural asphalt, bitumen...(eg. cutbacks) Chlorine Sulphur, sublimed or precipitated; colloidal sulphur Carbon (carbon blacks and other forms of carbon, nes) Hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid) Zinc oxide; zinc peroxide Aluminium hydroxide Iron oxides and hydroxides Titanium oxides Titanium oxides Titanium oxides Magnesium chloride Commercial calcium hypochlorite and other calcium hypochlorites Sodium sulphates (excl. disodium sulphate) Sulphates of aluminium Sulphates of chromium Nitrates of barium; of beryllium; of cadmium; of cobalt...etc, nes Sodium triphosphate (sodium tripolyphosphates) Disodium carbonate Calcium carbonate Pigments and preparations based thereon Pigments and preparations based thereon PIGMENTS & PREPARATNS BASED ON TITANIUM DIOXIDE,CONT.=>80%TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS & PREPARATNS BASED ON TITANIUM DIOXIDE,CONT.=>80%TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS & PREPARATNS BASED ON TITANIUM DIOXIDE,CONT.=>80%TITANIUM DIOXIDE Paints and varnishes, in a non-aqueous medium, nes Paints and varnishes, in a non-aqueous medium, nes Prepared driers Non-refractory surfacing preparations Non-refractory surfacing preparations Non-refractory surfacing preparations --- OF KIND USED IN NON-ALCHOLIC DRINK INDUS. OR IN PREPAR.OF FLAVOUR FOOD --- OF KIND USED IN NON-ALCHOLIC DRINK INDUS. OR IN PREPAR.OF FLAVOUR FOOD --- OF KIND USED IN NON-ALCHOLIC DRINK INDUS. OR IN PREPAR.OF FLAVOUR FOOD --- OF KIND USED IN NON-ALCHOLIC DRINK INDUS. OR IN PREPAR.OF FLAVOUR FOOD --- OF KIND USED IN NON-ALCHOLIC DRINK INDUS. OR IN PREPAR.OF FLAVOUR FOOD Preparations for use on the hair, nes Preparations for use on the hair, nes Preparations for use on the hair, nes Dentifrices Agarbatti and other odiferous preparations which operate by burning Agarbatti and other odiferous preparations which operate by burning Soap and organic surface-active products in bars, etc, for toilet use Soap and organic surface-active products in bars, etc, nes

United Arab Emirates India Saudi Arabia China India China India China Germany Ukraine Ukraine China China China India Turkey Sweden China Kenya Thailand India United Arab Emirates Finland Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Italy Spain United Arab Emirates Italy United Arab Emirates United States India Ireland Italy Swaziland Swaziland Italy Kenya Thailand Kenya India Singapore Indonesia Egypt

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

5385436.00 390956.00 700000.00 896705.00 1166188.64 79459.77 400000.00 150808.10 80000.00 200000.00 400000.00 1941720.00 132320.00 871138.00 937251.90 375000.00 240000.00 271500.00 758215.00 292400.00 166255.03 109461.00 10000.00 260000.00 60000.00 135059.75 41210.00 46077.00 55429.59 121068.59 41679.00 55123.96 516127.00 16691.00 25044.00 212090.15 152405.00 85102.00 40599.79 19924.00 1031929.40 238562.00 1107422.49 2250020.00

26522385.97 3264048.09 1253590.53 9139346.49 2298937.62 1714211.00 1688325.73 1259364.64 1454665.61 3416006.76 6602636.99 2790764.74 1128495.52 1351560.20 2654306.45 3416454.02 1113359.37 1647918.19 1684044.49 1644062.10 3602063.95 2558126.06 1844916.53 4716901.57 1113093.09 6161730.14 1488508.87 1055142.84 1599577.91 1301285.00 1369615.72 2931457.85 59745983.75 1477026.17 4056853.55 40860015.86 1056843.19 1829291.70 1102773.93 1030401.73 21240889.47 1794622.85 10618666.79 8463012.35

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34011900 34011900 34011900 34012010 34012020 34012020 34021110 34021120 34031900 34051000 34051000 34060000 35030000 35052000 35061000 35069100 35069100 35069900 35069900 36020000 36020000 36020000 36020000 36030000 36050000 37011000 37013000 37019900 38081000 38081000 38083000 38083000 38099100 38140000 38190000 38190000 38220000 38220000 38220000 38220000 38220000 38231900 38244000

Soap and organic surface-active products in bars, etc, nes Soap and organic surface-active products in bars, etc, nes Soap and organic surface-active products in bars, etc, nes ---SOAP NOADLES ---SOAP IN POWDER FORM ---SOAP IN POWDER FORM ---MIXTURES OF ALKYL BENZENE SULPHONIC ACID(LABSA) ---WASHING PREPARATIONS (DETEREGENTS) Other lubricating preparations, with <70% petroleum oil, nes Polishes, creams and similar preparations for footwear or leather Polishes, creams and similar preparations for footwear or leather Candles, tapers and the like Gelatin and derivatives; isinglass; glues of animal origin (excl. 35.01) Glues based on starches, dextrins or other modified starches Products put up as glues or adhesives for retail sale, =<1kg ADHESIVES BASED ON POLYMERS OF HEADING 3901 TO 3913 OR ON RUBBER ADHESIVES BASED ON POLYMERS OF HEADING 3901 TO 3913 OR ON RUBBER Prepared glues and other prepared adhesives, nes Prepared glues and other prepared adhesives, nes Prepared explosives, (excl. propellent powders) Prepared explosives, (excl. propellent powders) Prepared explosives, (excl. propellent powders) Prepared explosives, (excl. propellent powders) Safety fuses; detonating fuses; caps; igniters; electric detonators Matches (excl. pyrotechnic articles of 36.04) PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES... FOR X-RAY, IN THE FLAT, UNEXPOSED PLATES AND FILM, IN THE FLAT WITH ANY SIDE >255MM, UNEXPOSED PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES AND FILM, IN THE FLAT (EXCL. FOR COLOUR), UNEXPOSED Insecticides, put up for retail sale Insecticides, put up for retail sale Herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant growth regulators Herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant growth regulators FINISHING AGENTS ETC. OF A KIND USED IN THE TEXTILE OR LIKE INDUSTRIES NES Organic composite solvents and thinners, nes; paint or varnish removers Hydraulic brake fluids and similar liquids with <70% petroleum oil Hydraulic brake fluids and similar liquids with <70% petroleum oil DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS ON BACKING;PREP'D DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS EXC.CH30 DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS ON BACKING;PREP'D DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS EXC.CH30 DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS ON BACKING;PREP'D DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS EXC.CH30 DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS ON BACKING;PREP'D DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS EXC.CH30 DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS ON BACKING;PREP'D DIAGNOSTIC/LAB.REAGENTS EXC.CH30 Industrial monocarboxylic fatty acids & acid oils from refining nes Prepared additives for cements, mortars or concretes

Indonesia Indonesia Korea, Republic of Indonesia Egypt Yemen Korea, Republic of Yemen France China Kenya China Germany Kenya China Greece India China Italy China India Japan South Africa India Pakistan Belgium Sweden China Kenya Israel China India Switzerland Italy France Kenya Belgium Denmark Germany India United Kingdom Malaysia Italy

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3955.00 1.00 325500. 00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

7639712.50 5721242.00 2970640.00 10205289.00 1024447.60 1628801.00 946800.00 2034607.00 50574.59 123898.95 447826.00 1043570.81 49265.00 35261.00 414097.18 243733.50 287175.57 226121.36 175964.21 451735.00 868558.50 172267.00 3107683.00 162580.00 363459.00 12043.86 17423.00 22558.00 10721.00 156788.92 429582.80 254077.00 33127.40 547767.23 107204.52 164550.00 11001.50 12588.00 51916.77 270574.98 25058.85 3914606.00 2482410.07

34231648.81 25683932.21 14184346.55 58435218.15 13533227.32 6949633.53 10260719.15 9340185.60 1121912.12 1907245.90 16992266.14 6750950.67 2632894.27 1055025.46 3730947.27 5468023.01 2713523.97 1887480.77 1600796.84 5129936.48 10353243.77 2060608.71 25080975.68 2914177.67 2989686.94 1522259.33 1069899.00 2907067.15 4577585.99 8431326.69 7695008.54 5385161.35 1632445.44 4932731.39 2230826.54 4265474.43 5868617.85 9064070.31 14371138.57 13560546.68 6348147.86 25501682.89 17618218.84

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38249090 39011000 39011000 39011000 39012000 39019000 39019000 39021000 39021000 39042100 39042200 39049000 39051200 39072000 39076000 39095000 39172900 39181090 39181090 39202000 39202000 39231000 39231000 39232100 39233010 39241090 39269090 40012200 40091100 40091200 40111000 40111000 40111000 40112000 40112000 40112000 40112000 40112000 40131000 40141000 40169300 40169300

---OTHER CHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND RESIDUAL Polyethylene having a specific gravity <0.94, in primary forms Polyethylene having a specific gravity <0.94, in primary forms Polyethylene having a specific gravity <0.94, in primary forms Polyethylene having a specific gravity >=0.94, in primary forms Other polymers of ethylene, in primary forms, nes Other polymers of ethylene, in primary forms, nes Polypropylene, in primary forms Polypropylene, in primary forms Non-plasticised polyvinyl chloride mixed, in primary forms Plasticised polyvinyl chloride mixed, in primary forms Polymers of halogenated olefins, in primary forms, nes Polyvinyl acetate in aqueous dispersion Other polyethers, in primary forms, nes POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE), IN PRIMARY FORMS Polyurethanes, in primary forms Tubes, pipes and hoses, rigid, of other plastics, nes --- FLOOR...COVERINGS OF POLYMERS OF VINYL CHLORIDE NES --- FLOOR...COVERINGS OF POLYMERS OF VINYL CHLORIDE NES Plates..., of polymers of propylene, not reinforced, etc Plates..., of polymers of propylene, not reinforced, etc Boxes, cases, crates and similar articles of plastics Boxes, cases, crates and similar articles of plastics Sacks and bags (incl. cones) of polymers of ethylene ---BOTTLE PERFORMS OF PLASTICS ---OTHER --- OTHER ARTICLS OF PLASTICS, NES Technically specified natural rubber, in primary forms or in plates, etc TUBES,PIPES AND HOSES OF VULCANISED ...NOT REINFORCED..WITHOUT FITTINGS TUBES,PIPES&HOSES OF VULCANISED RUBBER...NOT REINFORCED...WITHFITTINGS NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON MOTOR CARS NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON MOTOR CARS NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON MOTOR CARS NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON BUSES OR LORRIES NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON BUSES OR LORRIES NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON BUSES OR LORRIES NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON BUSES OR LORRIES NEW PNEUMATIC TYRES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON BUSES OR LORRIES INNER TUBES, OF RUBBER OF A KIND USED ON MOTOR CARS, BUSES OR LORRIES Sheath contraceptives Gaskets, washers and other seals, of vulcanized rubber Gaskets, washers and other seals, of vulcanized rubber

China India Qatar Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Belgium China India Saudi Arabia Kenya Taiwan, Province of China Thailand Jordan Netherlands Thailand United Arab Emirates Israel China Thailand Oman United Arab Emirates Germany India United Arab Emirates Belgium China China Malaysia Italy Switzerland China Indonesia Japan China China Egypt India Japan China United States Germany Italy

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 142960. 00 45088.0 0 22374.0 0 94153.0 0 9543.00 10485.0 0 21722.0 0 34186.0 0 47784.0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00

349559.50 707700.00 1231490.00 1076112.00 6165078.00 0.00 422332.05 1789702.00 1673652.00 610000.00 1288728.00 601088.00 1521840.00 1122038.80 705570.00 331792.00 51162.00 620131.97 1144610.90 186788.40 332628.49 9499.19 62583.40 549170.33 318427.00 584473.12 663685.63 721600.00 40963.71 255000.00 2372857.39 504837.00 451860.52 7466745.77 743682.17 807472.08 1244339.66 2856557.00 163226.67 30960.00 18572.49 192892.34

2466002.89 7760396.68 14425812.88 12169867.74 66993501.11 174872.14 4566119.23 20564557.15 19396563.10 7058233.99 14111568.66 5359728.21 13684721.21 20115283.22 8457311.19 3084507.37 3041609.96 4052171.83 6933593.99 3491929.85 9569700.14 1407066.65 2677196.23 2739654.10 5978049.92 6885983.52 19967569.06 14157394.19 2157984.88 3462538.81 35184318.99 14469952.00 13387356.07 131276391.55 14557991.03 20224048.17 27577993.03 80004901.58 3225968.95 4413344.05 3791017.59 17792077.59

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40169900 42021290 42021900 42033000 44079900 44071000 44121900 44219020 44219020 45031000 47032100 48010000 48025600 48025600 48041100 48042900 48192000 48201000 48202000 48202000 49011000 49011000 49019900 49119910 54034100 54076900 54076900 59021000 61033900 61099000 61099000 62033900 62034200 62099000 63014000 63041900 63049210 63049210 63049210

Articles of vulcanized rubber, nes --- TRUNKS SUIT-CASES ... ETC OF TEXTILE MATERIAL TRUNKS, SUIT-CASES..., ETC, NES BELTS AND BANDOLIERS OF LEATHER OR COMPOSITION LEATHER WOOD, NES SAWN OR CHIPPED LENGTHWISE, SLICED OR PEELED, >6MM THICK CONIFEROUS WOOD SAWN OR CHIPPED LENGTHWISE, SLICED OR PEELED, >6MM THICK PLYWOOD, EACH PLY =<6MM THICK, NES --- SPLINTS FOR EXECULISIVE USE IN THE MANUFACTUER OF MATCH STICS --- SPLINTS FOR EXECULISIVE USE IN THE MANUFACTUER OF MATCH STICS Corks and stoppers of natural cork Semi-bleached or bleached coniferous chemical wood pulp, soda..., nes Newsprint, in rolls or sheets PAPER&PAPERBOARD,NOT CONTAIN..FIBRES:WEIGHT>=40G/M2 BUT<150G/M2IN SHEETS PAPER&PAPERBOARD,NOT CONTAIN..FIBRES:WEIGHT>=40G/M2 BUT<150G/M2IN SHEETS Unbleached kraftliner, uncoated, in rolls or sheets Sack kraft paper (excl. unbleached), uncoated, in rolls or sheets Folding cartons, boxes and cases, of non-corrugated paper or paperboard Registers, account books,order and receipt books, of paper, paperboard Exercise-books Exercise-books Printed books, brochures, leaflets, etc, in single sheets Printed books, brochures, leaflets, etc, in single sheets Printed books, brochures, leaflets and similar printed matter, nes --- LOTTERY TICKETS Multiple or cabled yarn of viscose rayon, nprs OTHER WOVEN FABRICS OF SYNTH'C YARN >=85% TEXTRD/NON-TEXTRD POLYSTR FILMNT OTHER WOVEN FABRICS OF SYNTH'C YARN >=85% TEXTRD/NON-TEXTRD POLYSTR FILMNT Tyre cord fabric of high tenacity yarn of nylon or other polyamides MEN'S OR BOYS' JACKETS... OF OTHER TEXTILES, NES, KNITTED OR CROCHETED T-SHIRTS, SINGLETS, ETC, OF OTHER TEXTILES, NES, KNITTED OR CROCHETED T-SHIRTS, SINGLETS, ETC, OF OTHER TEXTILES, NES, KNITTED OR CROCHETED MEN'S OR BOYS' JACKETS AND BLAZERS OF OTHER TEXTILES, NES MEN'S OR BOYS' TROUSERS, BREECHES, ETC, OF COTTON Babies' garments and clothing accessories of other textiles, nes Blankets (excl. electric blankets), etc, of synthetic fibres Bedspreads (excl. knitted or crocheted) --- MOSQUITO NETS OF COTTON (NOT KNITTED OR CROCHETED ) --- MOSQUITO NETS OF COTTON (NOT KNITTED OR CROCHETED ) --- MOSQUITO NETS OF COTTON

Germany China China China Australia Austria China India Latvia Spain Sweden Russian Federation India Indonesia Sweden Russian Federation India Indonesia China India United Kingdom United Kingdom United States India China China China China China China Indonesia China China China China China Viet Nam Viet Nam Viet Nam

0.00 493732. 00 650417. 00 0.00 155649. 00 137392 7.00 193900 4.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 652431. 00 629492 4.00 297103 4.00 107982 9.00 186829 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

13339.02 245938.15 228230.02 436154.15 2495880.00 6831697.00 10407191.79 674718.85 595983.00 27195.00 2326810.00 1079786.00 1449875.58 6053540.54 1776725.00 4394962.00 380331.50 317913.25 3004617.18 4446799.43 69872.50 69872.50 263327.09 95943.00 296295.00 14122554.07 3362633.13 370416.00 184322.84 1165458.95 928127.86 704197.71 919926.65 1317657.72 2305269.07 1042629.58 1974985.50 124453.00 424103.00

2154943.26 5246797.51 6110835.58 15195319.92 15229651.82 37881858.27 61771908.30 5678848.06 3803222.68 3915002.30 12384540.56 6860313.56 10720951.17 47456892.56 10432300.68 28346261.27 4777094.15 4273944.78 19173557.97 32519758.01 3728706.15 3728706.15 44320909.75 5288023.84 11122762.01 400661591.47 89158944.54 11617845.73 17077852.38 41952595.28 15753908.66 29580183.26 51680792.01 51076920.76 27045631.98 29376263.08 195158417.77 12155650.33 41448590.81

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63049310 63049310 64021900 64029900 66019900 70132900 71189000 72029900 72072000 72083900 72104900 72141000 72142000 73069000

--- MOSQUITO NETS OF SYNTHETHIC FIBRES (NOT KNITTED OR CROCHETED ) --- MOSQUITO NETS OF SYNTHETHIC FIBRES (NOT KNITTED OR CROCHETED ) SPORT FOOTWEAR, NES, OF RUBBER OR PLASTICS FOOTWEAR, NES, NOT COVERING THE ANKLE, OF RUBBER OR PLASTICS UMBRELLAS AND SUN UMBRELLAS, NES Drinking glasses (excl. of lead crystal) Coin of legal tender Ferro-alloys, nes Semi-products of iron or non-alloy steel, >=0.25% carbon Flat/hot-rolled iron/steel,in colis, width >=600mm, not pickled,<3mm thick FLATROLLED IRON/STEEL,WID.>=600MM,ZINC PLATED/COATED(EXC.ELECTROPLATED)NES Iron or non-alloy steel bars and rods, forged, IRON/STEEL BARS & RODS,HOTROLLED,TWISTED/WITH DEFORMTNS FROM ROLLING PROC. Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, riveted, of iron or steel, nes

Venezuela Viet Nam China China China China United Kingdom Turkey Turkey India India United Arab Emirates Turkey China

0.00 0.00 365602 1.00 118333 00.00 456663 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

414365.00 585900.00 1390500.81 5691930.20 2020327.24 3207650.81 288890.40 12340930.00 7997800.00 1401320.00 24330613.00 1.00 40779329.00 7089575.00

38362346.30 57278523.71 35149468.56 136160390.84 32158831.28 15728142.16 15323041.20 51110909.73 38196854.47 5912433.56 199313671.55 380.10 184116075.07 40746397.34

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