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Anjali Plawat , Assistant Professor Dept of Elect. & Comm. Invertis University,Bareilly Inderpreet Kaur Assistant Professor Dept of Elect. & Comm. M.J.P.R.U, Bareilly Juhi Agarwal Student (EC Branch) Invertis University,Bareilly


Design equilateral triangular micro strip antenna with co-axial feed is proposed here. Triangular patch is designed on FR4 and RT DUROID substrate of thickness 0.15mm and the substrate height is 3.2 mm. After calculating the various parameters such as effective dielectric constant, effective side length and actual length, the antenna impedance is matched to 50 ohm of coaxial feed. The VSWR and return loss are observed followed by the radiation pattern. The VSWR, Input Impedance, radiation pattern and return loss are simulated here using CST Software.

II. Theoretical Considerations

The design of equilateral triangular micro strip antenna operating at the resonant frequencies according the different material ( = 4.4) & ( = 2.32) has been accomplished by using the design equations in [6]. These equations were used to design the triangular micro strip antenna. The determination of the side length of the equilateral triangular was determined by solving the following design equations.

Key Words:
pattern, CST.

Micro strip antenna, Co axial Feed, radiation

I. Introduction
For the most wireless Communication System a low profile, small size, low cost antenna is required. But the drawback of it,itslimited impedance Bandwidth [1]. However, a plenty of study is done on rectangular & circular patch. Triangular patch has similar radiation proposed to that of rectangular, with the advantages of being more directives with compactness in size. It is well known that the equilateral triangular micro strip patch is physically smaller than rectangular patch designed for the same frequency. Major disadvantage of antenna is narrow B.W. and low efficiency. Much intensive research has been done in recent years to develop Bandwidth enhancement techniques. These techniques include the utilization of thick substrates with low dielectric constant [4] The analysis of this design is based on the cavity model. Where, (1)



III. Antenna Design Consideration

Fig 1. Shows the basic geometry of the equilateral triangular patch. The formulations are first proposed on glass epoxy substrate with relative permittivity ( = 4.4) with side length of the patch is 27 mm. The substrate height is 6 mm and the thickness is .6mm. The feed point is taken at (x= 26mm, y= 26mm) with a coaxial probe of diameters 4.7mm & 1.3 mm respectively. Further, proposed on RT- Duroid 5870 substrate with relative permittivity ( = 2.32) with above said dimensions and feed point. Fig.1 Top view of patch with Coaxial probe


For the RT DUROID 5870 (


Result and Discussion

Fig 2.

Return Loss

Fig 3. VSWR

(B) For the GLASS EPOXY ( = 4.4)

Fig 4. Real part (Impedance)

Fig 5. Imaginary part (Impedance)

Fig 7. Retur n loss

Fig 8. VSWR

Fig 6. Radiation Patter n

Fig 9. Real part (Impedance)

Fig 7.

3D Patter n


Proposed Work

For Bandwidth enhancement using many other techniques like cutting the slots of different size like, U slot,V slot ,Rectangular slot etc.

Fig. 10. Imaginary part (Impedance) REFERENCES 1. 2. Constantine A Balanis ,Antenna Theory Analysis and Design(John Willey & Sons Inc., New York),1982 Chen,W.K.F.Lee,and J.S.Dahele, Therotical and Expermenital studies of the Resonant Frequencies of the equilateral Triangular Microstrip Antenna, IEEE Trans. On Antenna and Propagation ,Vol. AP -40,1992 ,p.p.1253-1256 Dahle,J.S and K.F.Lee,On the resonant frequency of the triangular Patch Antenna, IEEE Trans. on Antenna and Propagation, Vol. AP-35,1987,p.p.100101. James,J.R.and Hall, P.S.Handbook of Microstrip Antennas (Peter Peregrinus) Lee K.F.K-M.Luk and J.S Dahele , Characteristics of the Equilateral Triangular Patch Antenna, IEEE Trans.on Antenna and Propagation ,Vol. AP-36, 1988,PP.1510-1518. R.garg,P,Bhartia,I .Bhal and A.Ittipiboon,Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Artech House,Norwood, 2001


Fig 11. 3D Patter n 4. 5.


Fig 12. Radiation Patter n The proposed antenna has been simulated using CST Software. Fig (2) & Fig. (7) Shows the variation of return loss with frequency. Plot results show the frequency 3.55 GHz, with return loss 36 db and frequency 4.43 GHz, with return loss 40 db. And we get the VSWR less than 2 (vswr < 2), impedance approx. to 50 ohm matched. Fig. 6 & Fig. 12 shows the radiation pattern and Fig. 7 & Fig.11 shows the 3-D view of radiation pattern for FR4 & RT DUROID substrate respectively.