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A Fundamenta Approach 5th Edition

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PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE
rTH EDMON
UPDATE
AGI, AASHTO; IBC 2009 Codes Version
EDWARD G. NAWY= depth of equivalent rectangular stress block.
Ap = area enclosed by outside perimeter of con-
crete cross secticn,
Ag = gross area of seccion, in?
Ay, = area of shear reinforcement parallel to flex-
ural tension reinforcement, in?
= Effective cross-sectional area within a joint,
in a plane parallel to plane of reinforce-
‘ment generating shear in the joint. The joint
depth shail be the overall depth of the column.
Where a beam frames into a support of larger
width, the effective width of the joint shall not
exceed the smaller of:
(a) beam width plus the joint depth
(b) twice the smaller perpendicular distance
from the longitudinal axis of the beam to
the column side.
Ay = total area of longitudinal reinforcement to re-
sist torsion, in?
A,, = area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel r
sisting tensile force N,.. in?
A, = gross area enclosed by shear flow path, in?
Ayy = area enclosed by centerline of the outermost
closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in.
Ap, = area of prestressed reinforcement in tension
A, = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement,
in?
Ay, = area of compression reinforcement, in?
= total cross-sectional area of transverse reir
forcement (including cross-ties) within spacing
sand perpendicular to dimension h,
|, = area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting tor-
sion within a distance s, in?
total cross-sectional area of transverse rein-
forcement (stirrup or tie) within a spacing s
and perpendicular to plane of bars being.
spliced or developed, in.?
area of shear reinforcement within a distance
8, or area of shear reinforcement perpendicu-
lar to flexural tension reinforcement within a
distance s for deep flexural members, in?
‘a of shear-friction reinforcement, in?
A,q = area of shear reinforcement parallel to flex-
ural tension reinforcement within a distance
b = width of compression face of member, in.
= perimeter of critical section for slabs and foot
ings, in,
», = width of that part of cross section containing
the closed stirrups resisting torsion.
, = width of cross section at contact surface being
investigated for horizontal shear.
web width, or diameter of circular section, in.
¢ = distance from extreme compression fiber to
neutral axis, in.
¢; = size of rectangular or equivalent rectangular
column, capital, or braccet measured in the di-
rection of the span for which moments are
being determined, in.
¢, = size of rectangular or ecuivalent rectangular
column, capital, or braccet measured trans-
verse tothe direction of the span for which
‘moments are being determined, in
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of tension rein‘orcement, in
distance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of compressior reinforeement, in.
d, = nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing
strand, in
hickness of concrete cover measured from ex-
treme tension fiber to center of bar or wire lo-
cated closest thereto, in
tance from extreme compression fiber to
centroid of prestressed -einforcement
€ = eccentricity of load parallel to axis of member
‘measured from centroid of cross section.
modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
E, = modulus of elasticity of bar reinforcement, psi.
‘modulus of elasticity of prestressing reinforce-
‘ment.
Sf = specified 28-day compressive strength of con-
crete, psi
uy = average strength to be used as basis for select
ing concrete proportions, psi.
‘equired average compressive strength of con-
crete used as the basis for selection of con-
crete proportions, psi
quare root of specified compressive strength
of conerete, psi
-ompressive strength ofconcrete at time of
initial prestress, psi.
‘Vf: = square root of compressive strength of con-
crete at time of initial prestress, ps.
Jig = average splitting tensile strength of light-
weight aggregate concrete, psi‘fz = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme
fiber of section where tensile siress is caused
by externally applied loads, ps
= compressive stress in concrete due to effective
prestress forces only (after allowance for all
prestress losses) at extreme fier of section
where tensile stress is caused by externally ap-
plied loads, psi
‘fo, = stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal
strength,
Ju = specified tensile strength of prestressing ten-
dons, psi
‘uy = Specified yield strength of prestressing ten-
dons, psi
J, = modulus of rupture of concrete, psi
f= tensile strength of concrete, psi
‘f, = specified yield strength of nonprestressed re-
inforcement, psi
= specified yield strength of transverse, rein-
forcement, psi
‘hn = overall thickness of member, in.
J = moment of inertia of section resisting exter-
nally applied factored loads, in
‘moment of inertia about centroidal axis of
gross section of beam, in.
1, = moment of inertia of cracked section trans
formed to concrete, in
= effective moment of inertia for computation
of deflection, in
= moment of inertia of gross concrete section,
about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforce-
‘ment, in
k = effective length factor for compression mem-
bers.
K,, = flexural stiffness of beam; moment per unit ro-
tation
flexural stiffness of column; moment per unit
rotation
flexural stiffness of equivalent column; mo:
‘ment per unit rotation,
flexural stiffness of slab; moment per unit ro.
tation,
torsional stiffness of torsional member; mo-
‘ment per unit rotation.
jevelopment length of standard hook in ten-
sion, measured from critical section to outside
end of hook (straight embedment length be-
tween critical section and start of hook [point
of tangency| plus radius of bend and one bar
diameter). in
= IX applicable modification factors,
M, = maximum moment in member at stage deflec-
tion is computed,
= factored moment to be used for design of
compression member.
M, = moment due to dead load.
M,, = cracking moment.
nominal moment strength,
maximum factored moment at section due to
externally applied loads.
M,, = factored moment at section,
n = modular ratio of elasticity.
= EJB, or EgJE.
N, = factored axial load normal to cross section oc-
curring simultaneously with V,; to be taken as
positive for compression, negative for tension,
ind to include effects of tension due to creep
ind shrinkage.
Ny = factored tensile force applied at top of bracket
or corbel acting simultaneously with V,, to be
taken as positive for tension.
P,, = nominal axial load strength at balanced strain
conditions,
P. = critical buckling load.
P,, = nominal axial load strength at given e
ity.
Pup = Outside perimeter of the conerete cross-sec
tion A, in
Pa = perimeter of centerline of outermost closed
transverse torsional reinforcement, in.
= radius of gyration of cross section of a com:
pression member.
spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in
direct parallel to longitudinal reinforcement,
thickness of a wall of a hollow section, in
factored torsional moment at section,
nominal shi
r strength provided by concrete.
nominal shear strength provided by concrete
when diagonal cracking results from combined
shear and moment
V.. = nominal shear strength provided by concrete
when diagonal cracking results from excessive
Principal tensile stress in web.
V,, = shear force at section due to unfactored dead
load.
/, = vertical component of effective prestress force
at section.
nominal shear strength provided by shear re-
inforcement
factored shear force at section.

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