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Toma, S.; Capocchi, L.; Capolino, G.-A.

, "Wound-Rotor Induction Generator Inter-Turn Short-Circuits Diagnosis Using a New Digital Neural Network," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.60, no.9, pp.4043,4052, Sept. 2013 doi: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2229675 Abstract: This paper deals with a new transformation and fusion of digital input patterns used to train and test feedforward neural network for a wound-rotor three-phase induction machine windings short-circuit diagnosis. The single type of short-circuits tested by the proposed approach is based on turn-to-turn fault which is known as the first stage of insulation degradation. Used input/output data have been binary coded in order to reduce the computation complexity. A new procedure, namely addition and mean of the set of same rank, has been implemented to eliminate the redundancy due to the periodic character of input signals. However, this approach has a great impact on the statistical properties on the processed data in terms of richness and of statistical distribution. The proposed neural network has been trained and tested with experimental signals coming from six current sensors implemented around a setup with a prime mover and a 5.5 kW wound-rotor three-phase induction generator. Both stator and rotor windings have been modified in order to sort out first and last turns in each phase. The experimental results highlight the superiority of using this new procedure in both training and testing modes. keywords: {asynchronous generators;electric machine analysis computing;fault diagnosis;machine insulation;neural nets;power generation faults;binary code;current sensor;digital input pattern;digital neural network;insulation degradation;interturn short circuit diagnosis;power 5.5 kW;prime mover;turn-to-turn fault;wound rotor induction generator;wound rotor three phase induction generator;Artificial neural networks;Neurons;Rotors;Sensors;Stator windings;Training;Backpropagation;data preprocessing;digital measurements;fault diagnosis;feedforward neural network;induction generators;rotor current;stator current;winding short-circuits}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6359911&isnumber=6512583 Opathella, C.; Singh, B; Cheng, D.; Venkatesh, B., "Intelligent Wind Generator Models for Power Flow Studies in PSSE and PSSSINCAL," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.28, no.2, pp.1149,1159, May 2013 doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2211043 Abstract: Wind generator (WG) output is a function of wind speed and three-phase terminal voltage. Distribution systems are predominantly unbalanced. A WG model that is purely a function of wind speed is simple to use with unbalanced three-phase power flow analysis but the solution is inaccurate. These errors add up and become pronounced when a single three-phase feeder connects several WGs. Complete nonlinear three-phase WG models are accurate but are slow and unsuitable for power flow applications. This paper proposes artificial neural network (ANN) models to represent type-3 doublyfed induction generator and type-4 permanent magnet synchronous generator. The proposed approach can be readily applied to any other type of WGs. The main advantages of these ANN models are their mathematical simplicity, high accuracy with unbalanced systems and computational speed. These models were tested with the IEEE 37-bus test system. The results show that the ANN WG models are computationally ten times faster than nonlinear accurate models. In addition, simplicity of the proposed ANN WG models allow easy integration into commercial software packages such as PSSE and PSSSINCAL and implementations are also shown in this paper. keywords: {Artificial neural networks;Biological system modeling;Computational

modeling;Generators;Mathematical model;Neurons;Wind speed;Artificial neural networks;power distribution systems;power flow;wind power generators}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6302218&isnumber=6504806 Gastli, A.; Ahmed, M.M., "ANN-Based Soft Starting of Voltage-Controlled-Fed IM Drive System," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.20, no.3, pp.497,503, Sept. 2005 doi: 10.1109/TEC.2004.841522 Abstract: Soft starters are used as induction motor controllers in compressors, blowers, fans, pumps, mixers, crushers and grinders, and many other applications. Soft starters use ac voltage controllers to start the induction motor and to adjust its speed. This paper presents a novel artifical neural network (ANN)-based ac voltage controller which generates the appropriate thyristors' firing angle for any given operating torque and speed of the motor and the load. An ANN model was designed for that purpose. The results obtained are very satisfactory and promising. The advantage of such a controller are its simplicity, stability, and high accuracy compared to conventional mathematical calculation of the firing angle which is a very complex and time consuming task especially in online control applications. keywords: {induction motor drives;machine control;neurocontrollers;starting;thyristors;torque;voltage control;ANN-based soft starting;artificial neural networks;blowers;compressors;crushers;fans;grinders;induction motor;induction motor controllers;mixers;online control applications;pumps;thyristor firing angle;torque;voltage controlledfed IM drive system;AC generators;Compressors;Fans;Grinding machines;Induction generators;Induction motors;Neural networks;Thyristors;Torque control;Voltage control;AC voltage controller;artificial neural network (ANN);firing angle;induction motor;soft starter;thyristor}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1495520&isnumber=32134 Malerba, D.; Esposito, F.; Ceci, M.; Appice, A., "Top-down induction of model trees with regression and splitting nodes," Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on , vol.26, no.5, pp.612,625, May 2004 doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2004.1273937 Abstract: Model trees are an extension of regression trees that associate leaves with multiple regression models. In this paper, a method for the data-driven construction of model trees is presented, namely, the stepwise model tree induction (SMOTI) method. Its main characteristic is the induction of trees with two types of nodes: regression nodes, which perform only straight-line regression, and splitting nodes, which partition the feature space. The multiple linear model associated with each leaf is then built stepwise by combining straight-line regressions reported along the path from the root to the leaf. In this way, internal regression nodes contribute to the definition of multiple models and have a "global" effect, while straight-line regressions at leaves have only "local" effects. Experimental results on artificially generated data sets show that SMOTI outperforms two model tree induction systems, M5' and RETIS, in accuracy. Results on benchmark data sets used for studies on both regression and model trees show that SMOTI performs better than RETIS in accuracy, while it is not possible to draw statistically significant conclusions on the comparison with M5'. Model trees induced by SMOTI are generally simple and easily interpretable and their analysis often reveals interesting patterns. keywords: {learning by example;regression analysis;trees (mathematics);benchmark data sets;data driven construction;global effect;internal regression nodes;learning by example;multiple linear

model;multiple regression models;regression trees;splitting nodes;stepwise model tree induction method;straight line regression;top down induction;Induction generators;Linear regression;Machine learning;Neural networks;Pattern analysis;Piecewise linear approximation;Piecewise linear techniques;Regression tree analysis;Statistics;Tree data structures;Algorithms;Artificial Intelligence;Cluster Analysis;Computer Simulation;Decision Support Techniques;Information Storage and Retrieval;Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted;Pattern Recognition, Automated;Reproducibility of Results;Sensitivity and Specificity}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1273937&isnumber=28505 Tsang, E. C C; Yeung, D.S.; Lee, J.W.T.; Huang, D. M.; Wang, X. Z., "Refinement of generated fuzzy production rules by using a fuzzy neural network," Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.34, no.1, pp.409,418, Feb. 2004 doi: 10.1109/TSMCB.2003.817033 Abstract: Fuzzy production rules (FPRs) have been used for years to capture and represent fuzzy, vague, imprecise and uncertain domain knowledge in many fuzzy systems. There have been a lot of researches on how to generate or obtain FPRs. There exist two methods to obtain FPRs. One is by painstakingly, repeatedly and time-consuming interviewing domain experts to extract the domain knowledge. The other is by using some machine learning techniques to generate and extract FPRs from some training samples. These extracted rules, however, are found to be nonoptimal and sometimes redundant. Furthermore, these generated rules suffer from the problem of low accuracy of classifying or recognizing unseen examples. The reasons for having these problems are: 1) the FPRs generated are not powerful enough to represent the domain knowledge, 2) the techniques used to generate FPRs are pre-matured, ad-hoc or may not be suitable for the problem, and 3) further refinement of the extracted rules has not been done. In this paper we look into the solutions of the above problems by 1) enhancing the representation power of FPRs by including local and global weights, 2) developing a fuzzy neural network (FNN) with enhanced learning algorithm, and 3) using this FNN to refine the local and global weights of FPRs. By experimenting our method with some existing benchmark examples, the proposed method is found to have high accuracy in classifying unseen samples without increasing the number of the FPRs extracted and the time required to consult with domain experts is greatly reduced. keywords: {fuzzy neural nets;fuzzy systems;knowledge acquisition;knowledge based systems;knowledge representation;learning (artificial intelligence);fuzzy neural network;fuzzy production rules;fuzzy systems;machine learning techniques;uncertain domain knowledge;Automatic control;Fuzzy control;Fuzzy logic;Fuzzy neural networks;Fuzzy systems;Induction generators;Machine learning;Power generation;Production;Refining}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1262513&isnumber=28229 Karanayil, B.; Rahman, M.F.; Grantham, C., "An implementation of a programmable cascaded low-pass filter for a rotor flux synthesizer for an induction motor drive," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.19, no.2, pp.257,263, March 2004 doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2003.823181 Abstract: This paper investigates a programmable cascaded low pass filter for the estimation of rotor flux of an induction motor, with a view to estimate the rotor time constant of an indirect field orientation controlled induction motor drive. Programmable cascaded low pass filters have been traditionally used in stator flux oriented vector control of the induction motor. This paper extends the

use of this filter to estimate the rotor flux for the indirect field orientation control by generating rotor flux estimates from stator flux estimates. This is achieved by using a three-stage programmable cascaded low pass filter. The three-stage programmable cascaded low-pass filter investigated in this paper has resulted in excellent estimation of rotor flux in the steady-state and transient operation of an indirect field oriented drive. The estimated rotor flux data have also been used for the on-line rotor resistance identification with artificial neural network. Modeling and experiment results presented in this paper demonstrate this method of estimating rotor flux clearly. keywords: {cascade networks;induction motor drives;low-pass filters;machine vector control;magnetic flux;neural nets;power engineering computing;programmable filters;rotors;artificial neural networks;indirect field orientation control;induction motor drive;online rotor resistance identification;programmable cascaded low-pass filter;rotor flux synthesizer;stator flux oriented vector control;Induction generators;Induction motor drives;Induction motors;Low pass filters;Machine vector control;Position control;Rotors;Stators;Steady-state;Synthesizers}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1271307&isnumber=28467 Mohamadian, M.; Nowicki, E.; Ashrafzadeh, F.; Chu, A.; Sachdeva, R.; Evanik, E., "A novel neural network controller and its efficient DSP implementation for vector-controlled induction motor drives," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.39, no.6, pp.1622,1629, Nov.-Dec. 2003 doi: 10.1109/TIA.2003.819441 Abstract: An artificial neural network controller is experimentally implemented on the Texas Instruments TMS320C30 digital signal processor (DSP). The controller emulates indirect field-oriented control for an induction motor, generating direct and quadrature current command signals in the stationary frame. In this way, the neural network performs the critical functions of slip estimation and matrix rotation internally. There are five input signals to the neural network controller, namely, a shaft speed signal, the synchronous frame present and delayed values of the quadrature axis stator current, as well as two neural network output signals fed back after a delay of one sample period. The proposed three-layer neural network controller contains only 17 neurons in an attempt to minimize computational requirements of the digital signal processor. This allows DSP resources to be used for other control purposes and system functions. For experimental investigation, a sampling period of 1 ms is employed. Operating at 33.3 MHz (16.7 MIPS), the digital signal processor is able to perform all neural network calculations in a total time of only 280 s or only 4700 machine instructions. Torque pulsations are initially observed, but are reduced by iterative re-training of the neural network using experimental data. The resulting motor speed step response (for several forward and reverse step commands) quickly tracks the expected response, with negligible error under steady-state conditions. keywords: {digital control;digital signal processing chips;induction motor drives;learning (artificial intelligence);machine vector control;multilayer perceptrons;neurocontrollers;stators;1 ms;280 mus;33.3 MHz;DSP implementation;DSP resources;Texas Instruments TMS320C30 digital signal processor;computational requirements minimisation;direct current command signals;forward step commands;indirect field-oriented control;induction motor;iterative re-training;matrix rotation;motor speed step response;neural network controller;neural network output signals;quadrature axis stator current;quadrature current command signals;reverse step commands;shaft speed signal;slip estimation;stationary frame;steady-state conditions;synchronous frame;three-layer neural network controller;torque pulsations;vector-controlled induction motor drives;Artificial neural networks;DC generators;Digital signal processing;Digital signal processors;Induction generators;Induction motor drives;Induction motors;Instruments;Neural networks;Signal generators},

URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1248245&isnumber=27952 Karayaka, H.; Keyhani, A.; Heydt, G.; Agrawal, B.; Selin, D., "Neural Network-Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from Online Disturbance Data," Power Engineering Review, IEEE , vol.21, no.9, pp.62,62, Sept. 2001 doi: 10.1109/MPER.2001.4311621 Abstract: A novel technique to estimate and model rotor-body parameters of a large steam turbine generator from real time disturbance data is presented. For each set of disturbance data collected at different operating conditions, the rotor body parameters of the generator are estimated using an output error method (OEM). Artificial neural network (ANN)-based estimators are later used to model the nonlinearities in the estimated parameters based on the generator operating conditions. The developed ANN models are then validated with measurements not used in the training procedure. The performance of estimated parameters is also validated with extensive simulations and compared against the manufacturer values. keywords: {Artificial neural networks;Circuit simulation;Equivalent circuits;Fault detection;Induction generators;Induction motors;Neural networks;Parameter estimation;Rotors;Voltage;Parameter identification;artificial neural networks;large utility generators;rotor body parameters}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4311621&isnumber=20535 Tsang, E. C C; Wang, X.Z.; Yeung, D.S., "Improving learning accuracy of fuzzy decision trees by hybrid neural networks," Fuzzy Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.8, no.5, pp.601,614, Oct 2000 doi: 10.1109/91.873583 Abstract: Although the induction of fuzzy decision tree (FDT) has been a very popular learning methodology due to its advantage of comprehensibility, it is often criticized to result in poor learning accuracy. Thus, one fundamental problem is how to improve the learning accuracy while the comprehensibility is kept. This paper focuses on this problem and proposes using a hybrid neural network (HNN) to refine the FDT. This HNN, designed according to the generated FDT and trained by an algorithm derived in this paper, results in a FDT with parameters, called weighted FDT. The weighted FDT is equivalent to a set of fuzzy production rules with local weights (LW) and global weights (GW) introduced in our previous work (1998). Moreover, the weighted FDT, in which the reasoning mechanism incorporates the trained LW and GW, significantly improves the FDTs' learning accuracy while keeping the FDT comprehensibility. The improvements are verified on several selected databases. Furthermore, a brief comparison of our method with two benchmark learning algorithms, namely, fuzzy ID3 and traditional backpropagation, is made. The synergy between FDT induction and HNN training offers new insight into the construction of hybrid intelligent systems with higher learning accuracy keywords: {decision trees;fuzzy set theory;learning (artificial intelligence);neural nets;FDT;FDT induction;GW;HNN;HNN training;LW;backpropagation;comprehensibility;fuzzy ID3;fuzzy decision tree induction;fuzzy production rules;global weights;hybrid intelligent systems;hybrid neural networks;learning accuracy;local weights;Algorithm design and analysis;Databases;Decision trees;Entropy;Fuzzy neural networks;Fuzzy sets;Induction generators;Knowledge acquisition;Neural networks;Production}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=873583&isnumber=18902 Lavrac, N.; Ganberger, D.; Turney, P., "A relevancy filter for constructive induction," Intelligent Systems

and their Applications, IEEE , vol.13, no.2, pp.50,56, Mar/Apr 1998 doi: 10.1109/5254.671092 Abstract: Some machine-learning algorithms enable the learner to extend its vocabulary with new terms if, for a given a set of training examples, the learner's vocabulary is too restricted to solve the learning task. We propose a filter, called the Reduce algorithm, that selects potentially relevant terms from the set of constructed terms and eliminates terms that are irrelevant for the learning task. Restricting constructive induction (or predicate invention) to relevant terms allows a much larger explored space of constructed terms. The elimination of irrelevant terms is especially well-suited for learners of large time or space complexity, such as genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks. To illustrate our approach to feature construction and irrelevant feature elimination, we applied our proposed relevancy filter to the 20- and 24-train East-West Challenge problems. The experiments show that the performance of a hybrid genetic algorithm, RL-ICET (Relational Learning with ICET), improved significantly when we applied the relevancy filter while pre-processing the data set keywords: {computational complexity;feature extraction;filtering theory;genetic algorithms;learning by example;relevance feedback;vocabulary;East-West Challenge problems;RL-ICET;Reduce algorithm;constructed term space;constructive induction;data set pre-processing;extendable vocabulary;feature construction;hybrid genetic algorithm;irrelevant feature elimination;machinelearning algorithm;performance;predicate invention;relational learning;relevancy filter;relevant terms;space complexity;time complexity;training examples;Artificial neural networks;Computer aided software engineering;Councils;Filters;Genetic algorithms;Induction generators;Machine learning;Space exploration;Switches;Vocabulary}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=671092&isnumber=14787 Simoes, M.G.; Bose, B.K.; Spiegel, Ronald J., "Design and performance evaluation of a fuzzy-logic-based variable-speed wind generation system," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.33, no.4, pp.956,965, Jul/Aug 1997 doi: 10.1109/28.605737 Abstract: Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms, have recently shown promise in the application of power electronic systems. The paper describes the control strategy development, design and experimental performance evaluation of a fuzzy logic-based variable-speed wind generation system that uses a cage-type induction generator and double-sided PWM power converters. The system can feed a utility grid maintaining unity power factor at all conditions or can supply an autonomous load. The fuzzy logic-based control of the system helps to optimize efficiency and enhance performance. A complete 3.5 kW generation system has been developed, designed and thoroughly evaluated by laboratory tests in order to validate the predicted performance improvements. The system gives excellent performance and can easily be translated to a larger size in the field keywords: {AC-AC power convertors;PWM power convertors;asynchronous generators;control system synthesis;fuzzy control;machine control;machine testing;power station control;wind power plants;wind turbines;3.5 kW;PWM AC-AC power conversion;cage-type induction generator;control performance;control strategy development;double-sided PWM power converter;fuzzy logic control;performance evaluation;unity power factor;utility grid;variable-speed wind generation system;Artificial intelligence;Artificial neural networks;Control systems;Electric variables control;Fuzzy control;Fuzzy logic;Fuzzy systems;Genetic algorithms;Induction generators;Power electronics}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=605737&isnumber=13302

Angeline, P.J.; Saunders, G.M.; Pollack, J.B., "An evolutionary algorithm that constructs recurrent neural networks," Neural Networks, IEEE Transactions on , vol.5, no.1, pp.54,65, Jan 1994 doi: 10.1109/72.265960 Abstract: Standard methods for simultaneously inducing the structure and weights of recurrent neural networks limit every task to an assumed class of architectures. Such a simplification is necessary since the interactions between network structure and function are not well understood. Evolutionary computations, which include genetic algorithms and evolutionary programming, are population-based search methods that have shown promise in many similarly complex tasks. This paper argues that genetic algorithms are inappropriate for network acquisition and describes an evolutionary program, called GNARL, that simultaneously acquires both the structure and weights for recurrent networks. GNARL's empirical acquisition method allows for the emergence of complex behaviors and topologies that are potentially excluded by the artificial architectural constraints imposed in standard network induction methods keywords: {optimisation;recurrent neural nets;GNARL;evolutionary algorithm;evolutionary programming;genetic algorithms;population-based search methods;recurrent neural networks;Artificial intelligence;Ash;Computer architecture;Evolutionary computation;Genetic algorithms;Genetic programming;Induction generators;Network topology;Recurrent neural networks;Search methods}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=265960&isnumber=6672 Umbaugh, S.E.; Moss, R.H.; Stoecker, W.V., "Applying artificial intelligence to the identification of variegated coloring in skin tumors," Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE , vol.10, no.4, pp.57,62, Dec. 1991 doi: 10.1109/51.107171 Abstract: The importance of color information for the automatic diagnosis of skin tumors by computer vision is demonstrated. The utility of the relative color concept is proved by the results in identifying variegated coloring. A feature file paradigm is shown to provide an effective methodology for the independent development of software modules for expert system/computer vision research. An automatic induction tool is used effectively to generate rules for identifying variegated coloring. Variegated coloring can be identified at rates as high as 92% when using the automatic induction technique in conjunction with the color segmentation method.<> keywords: {artificial intelligence;computer vision;expert systems;medical diagnostic computing;skin;artificial intelligence;automatic diagnosis;automatic induction tool;color information;color segmentation method;computer vision;expert system;feature file paradigm;skin tumors;software modules;variegated coloring identification;Artificial intelligence;Cancer;Classification algorithms;Decision trees;Expert systems;Humans;Induction generators;Neural networks;Skin neoplasms;Virtual colonoscopy}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=107171&isnumber=3269

Mesemanolis, Athanasios; Mademlis, Christos, "A Neural Network based MPPT controller for variable speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems," Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MEDPOWER 2012), 8th Mediterranean Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 1-3 Oct. 2012 doi: 10.1049/cp.2012.2034 Abstract: In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller for Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) is proposed, that achieves fast and reliable tracking of the optimum rotational speed of the turbine and accomplishes maximum power harvesting from the incident wind. The proposed control system can be implemented on any WECS and requires minimum training for the ANN as well as a small number of artificial neurons. During the training of the ANN, the WECS needs to operate simultaneously with a wind measurement system, until a sufficient amount of data is collected on all operating regions of the wind turbine and the wind turbine characteristics are determined. Next, the ANN is trained, having the rotational speed of the shaft and the power output of the generator as input signals. As a result, the wind turbine can be driven to the optimum rotor speed very fast and with high precision so as the MPPT controller can follow the fast dynamics of the wind speed. Several simulation results are presented for the validation of the effectiveness of the suggested MPPT control scheme and demonstrate the operational improvements. keywords: {Artificial neural network;Induction generator;Maximum power point tracking;Variable speed drive;Wind energy conversion system}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6521875&isnumber=6521842 Brahmi, J.; Krichen, L.; Ouali, A., "Sensorless control of PMSG in WECS using artificial neural network," Systems, Signals and Devices, 2009. SSD '09. 6th International Multi-Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,8, 23-26 March 2009 doi: 10.1109/SSD.2009.4956689 Abstract: This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) observer for a speed sensorless permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in wind energy conversion system (WECS). In order to perform maximum power point tracking control of the wind generation system, it is necessary to drive wind turbine at an optimal rotor speed. From the aspect of reliability and increase in cost, wind velocity sensor is not preferred too. Wind and rotor speeds sensorless operating methods for wind generation system using observer are proposed only by measuring phase voltages and currents. Maximum wind energy extraction is achieved by running the wind turbine generator in variable-speed mode. The robustness of the ANN against stator resistance variation is studied. keywords: {artificial intelligence;control engineering computing;direct energy conversion;electric current measurement;machine vector control;neural nets;observers;optimal control;permanent magnet generators;power control;synchronous generators;voltage measurement;wind power plants;wind turbines;artificial neural network;maximum power point tracking control;observer;phase current measurement;phase voltage measurement;sensorless control;speed sensorless permanent magnet synchronous generator;variable-speed mode;wind energy conversion system;wind generation system;wind turbine generator;wind velocity sensor;Artificial neural networks;Optimal control;Permanent magnets;Rotors;Sensorless control;Synchronous generators;Wind energy;Wind energy generation;Wind speed;Wind turbines;MPPT;Sensorless control;WECS;artificial neural network observer}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4956689&isnumber=4956638

Yanjun Yan; Kamath, G.; Osadciw, L.A.; Benson, G.; Legac, P.; Johnson, P.; White, E., "Fusion for modeling wake effects on wind turbines," Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1489,1496, 6-9 July 2009 Abstract: Wind turbine wakes cause power reduction and structural loading. A data-driven approach is proposed for wake modeling to provide the azimuth, angular spread, and intensity of wakes. We introduce three wind speed difference definitions for wake analysis. The wake identification is automated using morphological imaging operators. The wake pattern is complicated by multiple neighboring turbines. Four fusion schemes are proposed to draw a complete picture. A similarity based clustering enhances the final fusion result by treating clusters, each with specific features, equally. keywords: {aerodynamics;image processing;mechanical engineering computing;wakes;wind turbines;data-driven approach;morphological imaging operators;multiple neighboring turbines;power reduction;similarity based clustering;structural loading;wake analysis;wake effects modeling;wake identification;wake pattern;wind turbines;Automation;Azimuth;Image processing;Potential energy;Renewable energy resources;Wind energy;Wind farms;Wind power generation;Wind speed;Wind turbines;Automation;Fusion;Image Processing;Wake;Wind Turbine}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5203854&isnumber=5203583 Fernandez, E.; Mabel, M.C., "Analysis of the Influence of Control Parameters on Wind Farm Output: a Sensitivity Analysis using ANN Modelling," Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, 2006. PEDES '06. International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,4, 12-15 Dec. 2006 doi: 10.1109/PEDES.2006.344289 Abstract: Wind energy planners are interested in studies that highlight the impact of control input parameters on the output of wind farms. Yet, there are few studies highlighting such investigations. It has been observed that wind energy programs are being actively pursued in most developing countries. In India, one of the states that is actively involved in wind energy power generation programs is Tamil Nadu. Within this state, Muppandal area is one of the identified regions where wind farms concentration is being encouraged. keywords: {neurocontrollers;power generation control;sensitivity analysis;wind power;wind power plants;ANN modelling;India;Muppandal area;Tamil Nadu;power generation;sensitivity analysis;wind energy planner;wind farm control;Artificial neural networks;Government;Helium;Sensitivity analysis;Wind energy;Wind energy generation;Wind farms;Wind power generation;Wind speed;Wind turbines;ANN models;Impact Assessment;Sensitivity Analysis;Wind Power Generation;Wind farms}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4147996&isnumber=4147830 Phan Quoc Dzung; Anh Nguyen Bao; Hong-Hee Lee, "New artificial neural network based direct virtual torque control and direct power control for DFIG in wind energy systems," Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2011 IEEE Ninth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.219,227, 5-8 Dec. 2011 doi: 10.1109/PEDS.2011.6147250 Abstract: This paper presents direct power control (DPC) strategy for controlling power flow, direct virtual torque control (DVTC) strategy for synchronizing double-fed induction generator (DFIG) with grid and voltage oriented control (VOC) for controlling voltage of link capacitor. All strategies are implemented on artificial neural network (ANN) controller to decrease the time of calculation in comparison with the conventional DSP control system. The essence of three strategies is selection appropriate voltage vectors on the rotor side converter. The network is divided in two types: fixed weight and supervised models. The simulation results on a 4-kW machine are explained using

MATLAB/SIMULINK together with the Neural Network Toolbox. keywords: {asynchronous generators;load flow control;machine control;microcontrollers;neurocontrollers;power control;power convertors;power generation control;torque control;voltage control;wind power plants;ANN controller;DFIG;DPC strategy;DSP control system;DVTC strategy;Matlab-Simulink;VOC;artificial neural network controller;direct power control;direct virtual torque control;double-fed induction generator;link capacitor voltage;neural network toolbox;power 4 kW;power flow control;rotor side converter;voltage oriented control;wind energy systems;Artificial neural networks;Hysteresis;Neurons;Rotors;Stators;Torque;Training;Artificial Neural Network (ANN);Direct Power Control (DPC);Direct Virtual Torque Control (DVTC);Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG);Grid-side converter (GSC);Rotor-side converter (RSC)}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6147250&isnumber=6146804 Mohseni, M.; Niassati, N.; Tajik, S.; Afjei, E., "A novel method of maximum power point tracking for a SRG based wind power generation system using AI," Power Electronics and Drive Systems Technology (PEDSTC), 2012 3rd , vol., no., pp.330,335, 15-16 Feb. 2012 doi: 10.1109/PEDSTC.2012.6183350 Abstract: A novel maximum power point tracking technique is introduced in this study, for a wind power generation system, based on switched reluctance generator. This method is based on the rotor speed control of the SRG, by adjusting the excitation current with respect to the wind speed, using an artificial neural network (ANN). In order to achieve best performance, considering the non-linear nature of the SRG wind power generation system, processes of optimization are performed, using the genetic algorithm (GA). Results obtained by the optimizations were used to train the ANN. The presented MPPT method is then modeled and simulated, in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment, in order to investigate and verify its performance. keywords: {genetic algorithms;maximum power point trackers;neural nets;power engineering computing;reluctance generators;rotors;velocity control;wind power plants;AI;ANN;GA;MATLAB/SIMULINK;MPPT method;SRG wind power generation system;artificial neural network;genetic algorithm;maximum power point tracking method;nonlinear nature;optimization processes;rotor speed control;switched reluctance generator;Energy loss;Optimized production technology;Switches;Wind power generation;Artificial Neural Network;Genetic Algorithm;Maximum Power Point Tracking;Switched Reluctance Generator;Wind Power Generation}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6183350&isnumber=6183296 Ren, Y. F.; Bao, G. Q., "Control Strategy of Maximum Wind Energy Capture of Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Generator Based on Neural-Network," Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2010 Asia-Pacific , vol., no., pp.1,4, 28-31 March 2010 doi: 10.1109/APPEEC.2010.5448343 Abstract: The wind power varies mainly depending on the wind speed. Many methods have been proposed to track the maximum power point (MPPT) of the wind, such as the fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN) and Neuro-Fuzzy. In this paper, a variable speed wind generator MPPT based on artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. It is designed as a combination of the generator speed forecasting model and neural network. The ANN is used to predict the optimal speed rotation using the variation of the wind speed and the generator speed as the inputs. The wind energy control system employs a permanent magnet synchronous generator connected to a DC bus using a power

converter is presented. The performance of the control system with the proposed ANN controller is tested for wind speed variation. System simulation results have confirmed the functionality and performance of this method. keywords: {fuzzy neural nets;maximum power point trackers;neurocontrollers;permanent magnet generators;power convertors;power generation control;synchronous generators;wind turbines;DC bus;artificial neural network;direct-drive wind turbine generator;fuzzy logic;generator speed forecasting model;maximum power point trackers;neuro-fuzzy;permanent magnet synchronous generator;power converter;wind energy capture;wind energy control;wind speed;Artificial neural networks;Control systems;Energy capture;Fuzzy logic;Predictive models;Wind energy;Wind energy generation;Wind forecasting;Wind speed;Wind turbines}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5448343&isnumber=5448125 Vale, Z.A.; Morais, H.; Faria, P.; Soares, J.; Sousa, T., "LMP based bid formation for virtual power players operating in smart grids," Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE , vol., no., pp.1,8, 24-29 July 2011 doi: 10.1109/PES.2011.6039853 Abstract: Power system organization has gone through huge changes in the recent years. Significant increase in distributed generation (DG) and operation in the scope of liberalized markets are two relevant driving forces for these changes. More recently, the smart grid (SG) concept gained increased importance, and is being seen as a paradigm able to support power system requirements for the future. This paper proposes a computational architecture to support day-ahead Virtual Power Player (VPP) bid formation in the smart grid context. This architecture includes a forecasting module, a resource optimization and Locational Marginal Price (LMP) computation module, and a bid formation module. Due to the involved problems characteristics, the implementation of this architecture requires the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are used for resource and load forecasting and Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) is used for energy resource scheduling. The paper presents a case study that considers a 33 bus distribution network that includes 67 distributed generators, 32 loads and 9 storage units. keywords: {energy resources;load forecasting;particle swarm optimisation;power engineering computing;power markets;smart power grids;LMP based bid formation;artificial intelligence techniques;artificial neural networks;bid formation module;distributed generation;energy resource scheduling;evolutionary particle swarm optimization;forecasting module;liberalized markets;load forecasting;locational marginal price;resource optimization;smart grids;virtual power players;Artificial neural networks;Contracts;Electricity supply industry;Energy resources;Smart grids;Wind forecasting;Artificial Intelligence;Artificial Neural Networks;Energy Resources Management;Intelligent Power Systems;Locational Marginal Prices (LMP);Particle Swarm Optimization}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6039853&isnumber=6038815 Abdel-Khalik, A.S.; Elserougi, A.; Massoud, A.; Ahmed, S., "Control of doubly-fed induction machine storage system for constant charging/discharging grid power using artificial neural network," Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2012), 6th IET International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 27-29 March 2012 doi: 10.1049/cp.2012.0177 Abstract: A large-capacity low-speed flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) basically consists of a wound-rotor induction machine, and a back-to-back converter

for rotor excitation. It has been promoted as a challenging storage system for power system applications such as grid frequency support/control, power conditioning, and voltage sag mitigation. This paper presents a power control strategy to charge/discharge a flywheel doubly-fed induction machine storage system (FW-DFIM) to obtain a constant power delivered to the grid. The proposed controller is based on conventional vector control, where an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop the required rotor current component based on the required grid power level and the flywheel instantaneous speed. This technique is proposed for power levelling and frequency support to improve the quality of the electric power delivered by wind generators, where a constant power level can be delivered to the grid for a predetermined time depending on the required power level and the storage system inertia. The controller is designed to avoid overloading stator as well as rotor circuits while the flywheel charges/discharges. The validity of the developed concept in this paper, along with the effectiveness and viability of the control strategy, is confirmed by computer simulation using Matlab/Simulink for a medium voltage 10MJ/1000hp FW-DFIM example. keywords: {Doubly-fed induction machine;ac machines;flywheel storage system;neural network;vector control}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6242026&isnumber=6241991 Dong Lei; Wang Lijie; Hu Shi; Gao Shuang; Liao Xiaozhong, "Prediction of Wind Power Generation based on Chaotic Phase Space Reconstruction Models," Power Electronics and Drive Systems, 2007. PEDS '07. 7th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.744,748, 27-30 Nov. 2007 doi: 10.1109/PEDS.2007.4487786 Abstract: The development of wind generation has rapidly progressed over the last decade, but it must be integrated into power grids and electric utility systems. However, it cannot be dispatched like conventional generators because the power generated by the wind changes rapidly because of the continuous fluctuation of wind speed and direction. So it is very important to predict the wind power generation. This paper discusses why the wind power generation can be predicted in short-term, and how to setup the construction of an ANN (artificial neural network) prediction model of wind power based on chaotic time series. The analysis of modeling with low dimensions nonlinear dynamics indicates that time series of wind power generation have chaotic characteristics, and wind power can be predicted in short-term. Phase space reconstruction method can be used for ANN model design. The data from the wind farm located in the Saihanba China are used for this study. keywords: {chaos;load forecasting;neural nets;nonlinear dynamical systems;phase space methods;power system simulation;time series;wind power plants;ANN prediction model;artificial neural network;chaotic phase space reconstruction models;chaotic time series;electric utility systems;nonlinear dynamics;power grids;wind farm;wind power generation;Artificial neural networks;Chaos;Mesh generation;Power generation;Power grids;Power system modeling;Predictive models;Wind energy;Wind energy generation;Wind power generation;chaotic dynamic system;forecast;neural network;wind power prediction}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4487786&isnumber=4487657

Muyeen, S. M.; Hasanien, H.M.; Tamura, J., "Reduction of frequency fluctuation for wind farm connected power systems by an adaptive artificial neural network controlled energy capacitor system,"Renewable Power Generation, IET , vol.6, no.4, pp.226,235, July 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2010.0126 Abstract: Frequency fluctuations are a major concern for transmission system operators and power grid companies from the beginning of power system operation due to their adverse effects on modern computer-controlled industrial systems. Because of the huge integration of wind power into the power grid, frequency fluctuations are becoming a serious problem, where randomly varying wind power causes the grid frequency fluctuations of the power system. Therefore, in this paper, the minimisation of the frequency fluctuation of a power system, including a wind farm, is proposed using an energy capacitor system (ECS). A scaled-down, multi-machine power system model from Hokkaido prefecture, Japan, is considered for the analysis. A novel adaptive artificial neural network (ANN) controller is considered for controlling the DC-bus connected ECS. The control objective is to standardise the line power of the wind farm, taking into consideration the frequency deviation. The effects of wind power penetration levels, as well as load variations, are also analysed. The proposed control method is verified by simulation analysis, which is performed with PSCAD/EMTDC using real wind speed data. The adaptive ANN-controlled ECS was found to be an effective means of diminishing the frequency fluctuation of multi-machine power systems with connected wind farms. keywords: {adaptive control;neurocontrollers;power capacitors;power generation control;power grids;wind power plants;ANN controller;DC-bus connected ECS;PSCAD-EMTDC;adaptive ANNcontrolled ECS;adaptive artificial neural network controlled energy capacitor system;adaptive artificial neural network controller;computer-controlled industrial systems;grid frequency fluctuation reduction;load variations;power grid companies;power system operation;scaled-down multimachine power system model;transmission system operators;wind farm connected power systems;wind power penetration levels;wind speed data}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6291071&isnumber=6291068 Alexiadis, M.C.; Dokopoulos, P.S.; Sahsamanoglou, H. S., "Wind speed and power forecasting based on spatial correlation models," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.14, no.3, pp.836,842, Sep 1999 doi: 10.1109/60.790962 Abstract: Wind energy conversion systems (WECS) cannot be dispatched like conventional generators. This can pose problems for power system schedulers and dispatchers, especially if the schedule of wind power availability is not known in advance. However, if the wind speed can be reliably forecasted up to several hours ahead, the generating schedule can efficiently accommodate the wind generation. This paper illustrates a technique for forecasting wind speed and power output up to several hours ahead, based on cross correlation at neighboring sites. The authors develop an artificial neural network (ANN) that significantly improves forecasting accuracy comparing to the persistence forecasting model. The method is tested at different sites over a year keywords: {correlation methods;forecasting theory;neural nets;power generation planning;power generation scheduling;power system analysis computing;wind;wind power;wind power plants;artificial neural network;cross correlation;forecasting accuracy;power system dispatchers;power system schedulers;spatial correlation models;wind power availability schedule;wind power forecasting;wind power generation;wind speed forecasting;Artificial neural networks;Job shop scheduling;Power system modeling;Power system stability;Predictive models;Weather forecasting;Wind energy;Wind energy

generation;Wind forecasting;Wind speed}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=790962&isnumber=17195 Walker, R. C.; Early, H. C., "HalfMegampere MagneticEnergyStorage Pulse Generator," Review of Scientific Instruments , vol.29, no.11, pp.1020,1022, Nov 1958 doi: 10.1063/1.1716044 Abstract: Energy is stored in the magnetic field of a large aircore transformer having a very low impedance, tightly coupled secondary winding. The energy can be effectively delivered in less than 5 msec to a noninductive load, having a resistance of less than 10-4 ohm. URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5049249&isnumber=5049224 Methaprayoon, K.; Yingvivatanapong, C.; Wei-jen Lee; Liao, J.R., "An Integration of ANN Wind Power Estimation Into Unit Commitment Considering the Forecasting Uncertainty," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.43, no.6, pp.1441,1448, Nov.-dec. 2007 doi: 10.1109/TIA.2007.908203 Abstract: The development of wind power generation has rapidly progressed over the last decade. With the advancement in wind turbine technology, wind energy has become competitive with other fuel-based resources. The fluctuation of wind, however, makes it difficult to optimize the usage of wind power. The current practice ignores wind generation capacity in the unit commitment (UC), which discounts its usable capacity and may cause operational issues when the installation of wind generation equipment increases. To ensure system reliability, the forecasting uncertainty must be considered in the incorporation of wind power capacity into generation planning. This paper discusses the development of an artificial-neural-network-based wind power forecaster and the integration of wind forecast results into UC scheduling considering forecasting uncertainty by the probabilistic concept of confidence interval. The data from a wind farm located in Lawton City, OK, is used in this paper. keywords: {neural nets;power engineering computing;power generation planning;power generation scheduling;wind power plants;ANN model;Lawton City;artificial-neural-network;forecasting uncertainty;power generation planning;unit commitment;unit commitment scheduling;wind energy;wind power estimation;wind power forecaster;wind power generation;wind turbine technology;Capacity planning;Fluctuations;Power generation;Reliability;Uncertainty;Wind energy;Wind energy generation;Wind forecasting;Wind power generation;Wind turbines;Artificial neural network (ANN);confidence interval;short-term wind power forecast;wind forecast uncertainty}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4385004&isnumber=4384978 Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, T.H., "Modeling extreme ultraviolet suppression of electrostatic analyzers," Review of Scientific Instruments , vol.81, no.4, pp.045111,045111-8, Apr 2010 doi: 10.1063/1.3378685 Abstract: In addition to analyzing energy-per-charge ratios of incident ions, electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) for spaceborne time-of-flight mass spectrometers must also protect detectors from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the Sun. The required suppression rate often exceeds 1:107 and is generally established in tests upon instrument design and integration. This paper describes a novel technique to model the EUV suppression of ESAs using photon ray tracing integrated into SIMION, the most commonly used ion optics design software for such instruments. The paper compares simulation results with measurements taken from the ESA of the Mass instrument flying onboard the Wind

spacecraft. This novel technique enables an active inclusion of EUV suppression requirements in the ESA design process. Furthermore, the simulation results also motivate design rules for such instruments. keywords: {mass spectrometers;space vehicle electronics;ultraviolet spectrometers;0760Rd;0775+h;0787+v}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5457935&isnumber=5442927 Fidalgo, J.N.; Peas Lopes, J.A.; Miranda, V., "Neural networks applied to preventive control measures for the dynamic security of isolated power systems with renewables," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.11, no.4, pp.1811,1816, Nov 1996 doi: 10.1109/59.544647 Abstract: This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based approach for the definition of preventive control strategies of autonomous power systems with a large renewable power penetration. For a given operating point, a fast dynamic security evaluation for a specified wind perturbation is performed using an ANN. If insecurity is detected, new alternative stable operating points are suggested, using a hybrid ANN-optimization approach that checks several feasible possibilities, resulting from changes in power produced by diesel and wind generators, and other combinations of diesel units in operation. Results obtained from computer simulations of the real power system of Lemnos (Greece) support the validity of the developed approach keywords: {control system analysis computing;control system synthesis;diesel-electric power stations;neurocontrollers;optimal control;power system analysis computing;power system control;power system security;power system stability;wind power plants;artificial neural network;autonomous power systems;computer simulation;control design;control simulation;dynamic security evaluation;isolated power systems;optimization approach;preventive neurocontrol strategy;renewable energy resources;wind-diesel hybrid power systems;Artificial neural networks;Control systems;Hybrid power systems;Neural networks;Performance evaluation;Power system control;Power system dynamics;Power system measurements;Power system security;Power systems}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=544647&isnumber=11903 Karayaka, H.B.; Keyhani, A.; Agrawal, B.L.; Selin, Douglas A.; Heydt, G.T., "Identification of armature, field, and saturated parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from operating data," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.15, no.2, pp.181,187, Jun 2000 doi: 10.1109/60.866997 Abstract: This paper presents a step by step identification procedure of armature, field and saturated parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time operating data. First, data from a small excitation disturbance is utilized to estimate armature circuit parameters of the machine. Subsequently, for each set of steady state operating data, saturable mutual inductances L ads and Laqs are estimated. The recursive maximum likelihood estimation technique is employed for identification in these first two stages. An artificial neural network (ANN) based estimator is used to model these saturated inductances based on the generator operating conditions. Finally, using the estimates of the armature circuit parameters, the field winding and some damper winding parameters are estimated using an output error method (OEM) of estimation. The developed models are validated with measurements not used in the training of ANN and with large disturbance responses keywords: {damping;inductance;machine windings;maximum likelihood estimation;neural nets;power

system analysis computing;recursive estimation;steam turbines;turbogenerators;armature parameters;artificial neural network;damper winding parameters;excitation disturbance;field parameters;generator operating conditions;output error method;parameters identification;recursive maximum likelihood estimation;saturable mutual inductances estimation;saturated parameters;steady state operating data;steam turbine-generator;training;Artificial neural networks;Circuits;Damping;Maximum likelihood estimation;Parameter estimation;Shape;Shock absorbers;State estimation;Steady-state;Voltage}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=866997&isnumber=18774 Fraile-Ardanuy, J.; Wilhelmi, J.R.; Fraile-Mora, J.J.; Perez, J.I., "Variable-speed hydro generation: operational aspects and control," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.21, no.2, pp.569,574, June 2006 doi: 10.1109/TEC.2005.858084 Abstract: The potential advantages of variable-speed hydroelectric generation are discussed in this article. Some general aspects concerning the efficiency gains in turbines and the improvements in plant operation are analyzed. The main results of measurements on a test loop with an axial-flow turbine are reported. Also, we describe the control scheme implemented, which is based on artificial neural networks. To confirm the practical interest of this technology, the operation of a run-of-theriver small hydro plant has been simulated for several years. Substantial increases in production with respect a fixed-speed plant have been found. keywords: {hydraulic turbines;hydroelectric power stations;neurocontrollers;power generation control;artificial neural networks;axial-flow turbines;hydroplants;plant operation improvements;test loop;variable-speed hydrogeneration;Artificial neural networks;Costs;Hydraulic turbines;Hydroelectric power generation;Power generation;Production;Propellers;Synchronous generators;Testing;Wind energy generation;Artificial neural network (ANN);operation limits of hydroturbines;regenerative frequency converters;variable-speed hydro generation}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1634606&isnumber=34276 Lepri, S.T.; Nikzad, S.; Jones, T.; Blacksberg, J.; Zurbuchen, T.H., "Response of a delta-doped chargecoupled device to low energy protons and nitrogen ions," Review of Scientific Instruments , vol.77, no.5, pp.053301,053301-9, May 2006 doi: 10.1063/1.2198829 Abstract: We present the results of a study of the response of a delta-doped charge-coupled device (CCD) exposed to ions with energies less than 10 keV. The study of ions in the solar wind, the majority having energies in the 15 keV range, has proven to be vital in understanding the solar atmosphere and the near Earth space environment. Delta-doped CCD technology has essentially removed the dead layer of the silicon detector. Using the delta-doped detector, we are able to detect H+ and N+ ions with energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV in the laboratory. This is a remarkable improvement in the low energy detection threshold over conventional solid-state detectors, such as those used in space sensors, one example being the solar wind ion composition spectrometer (SWICS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft, which can only detect ions with energies greater than 30 keV because of the solid-state detectors minimum energy threshold. Because this threshold is much higher than the average energy of the solar wind ions, the SWICS instrument employs a bulky high voltage postacceleration stage that accelerates ions above the 30 keV detection threshold. This stage is massive, exposes the instrument to hazardous high voltages, and is therefore problematic

both in terms of price and its impact on spacecraft resources. Adaptation of delta-doping technology in future space missions may be successful in reducing the need for heavy postacceleration stages allowing for miniaturization of space-borne ion detectors. keywords: {charge-coupled devices;cosmic ray apparatus;position sensitive particle detectors;solar atmosphere;solar cosmic ray particles;solar radiation;solar wind;2940Gx;9660Vg}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5002805&isnumber=5002795 Pena, F.L.; Duro, R.J., "A virtual instrument for automatic anemometer calibration with ANN based supervision," Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on , vol.52, no.3, pp.654,661, June 2003 doi: 10.1109/TIM.2003.814703 Abstract: A fully automatic anemometer calibrator intended for performing fast and accurate calibrations has been developed to fulfill the increasing demand and strict requirements of the wind energy industry. Different sensors are connected to a computer where a virtual environment acquires and processes the incoming signals and controls a wind tunnel, allowing the calibration of the anemometer at the pre-selected air speed values. An important part of the resulting complex virtual environment is a supervising system, based on artificial neural networks and able to check and handle the possible malfunctions and deviations within the calibration process. keywords: {anemometers;calibration;geophysics computing;neural nets;virtual instrumentation;wind tunnels;artificial neural network supervision;automatic anemometer calibration;computerised sensor;virtual instrument;wind energy;wind tunnel;AC motors;Artificial neural networks;Associate members;Calibration;Electrical equipment industry;Fluid flow measurement;Hardware;Instruments;Virtual environment;Wind energy}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1213644&isnumber=27281 Maene, N.; Cornelis, J.; Biermans, F.; Van den Bosch, A., "Quench experiments on superconductive coils," Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.21, no.2, pp.702,705, Mar 1985 doi: 10.1109/TMAG.1985.1063746 Abstract: A set of four similar superconductive coils of 166 mm inner winding diameter were wetwound with NbTi wire for subsequent application in various configurations: one single coil, a pair of coils or all four coils stacked on top of each other and connected in series. The height of the winding was 41 mm and the thickness 9 mm. The detailed observation of the time-dependence of the current and voltage with a data processing system yielded information on the time scale of the quench propagation. In the single coil and the pair of coils the time dependence of the quench resistance with time was derived from an analysis of the current and the coil voltages during the transient. With the four coils the time required for the current to decrease from 90 % to 10 % gets shorter with increasing quench current. Variations of 1.6 s to 0.3 s were observed in this configuration. At the maximum current a magnetic induction of at least 2.5 T was reached in a volume of over 2.5 litres. The selfinductance of this system was 1.28 Henry and the stored energy attained 22 kJ. keywords: {Superconducting coils;Boring;Magnetic flux;Niobium compounds;Superconducting coils;Superconducting magnets;Superconductivity;Testing;Titanium compounds;Voltage;Wire}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1063746&isnumber=22874 Fouad, R. H.; Ashhab, M. S.; Mukattash, A.; Idwan, S., "Simulation and energy management of an experimental solar system through adaptive neural networks," Science, Measurement & Technology,

IET, vol.6, no.6, pp.427,431, November 2012 doi: 10.1049/iet-smt.2011.0201 Abstract: In this study, the authors consider a solar system which consists of a solar trainer that contains a photovoltaic panel, a DC centrifugal pump, flat plate collectors, storage tank, a flowmeter for measuring the water mass flow rate, pipes, pyranometer for measuring the solar intensity, thermocouples for measuring various system temperatures and wind speed meter. The various efficiencies of the solar system have been predicted by an artificial neural network (ANN) which was trained with historical data. The ANN fails to predict the efficiencies accurately over the long-time horizon because of system parts degradation, environmental variations, date changes within the year from the modelling date and presence of modelling errors. Therefore the ANN is adapted using the error between the ANN-predicted efficiency and the efficiency measurement from the appropriately selected sensors and efficiency laws to update the network's parameters recursively. The adaptation scheme can be performed online or occasionally and is based on the Kaczmarz's algorithm. The adaptive ANN capability is demonstrated through computer simulation. URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6356016&isnumber=6355496 Opathella, C.; Singh, B; Cheng, D.; Venkatesh, B., "Intelligent Wind Generator Models for Power Flow Studies in PSSE and PSSSINCAL," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.28, no.2, pp.1149,1159, May 2013 doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2211043 Abstract: Wind generator (WG) output is a function of wind speed and three-phase terminal voltage. Distribution systems are predominantly unbalanced. A WG model that is purely a function of wind speed is simple to use with unbalanced three-phase power flow analysis but the solution is inaccurate. These errors add up and become pronounced when a single three-phase feeder connects several WGs. Complete nonlinear three-phase WG models are accurate but are slow and unsuitable for power flow applications. This paper proposes artificial neural network (ANN) models to represent type-3 doublyfed induction generator and type-4 permanent magnet synchronous generator. The proposed approach can be readily applied to any other type of WGs. The main advantages of these ANN models are their mathematical simplicity, high accuracy with unbalanced systems and computational speed. These models were tested with the IEEE 37-bus test system. The results show that the ANN WG models are computationally ten times faster than nonlinear accurate models. In addition, simplicity of the proposed ANN WG models allow easy integration into commercial software packages such as PSSE and PSSSINCAL and implementations are also shown in this paper. keywords: {Artificial neural networks;Biological system modeling;Computational modeling;Generators;Mathematical model;Neurons;Wind speed;Artificial neural networks;power distribution systems;power flow;wind power generators}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6302218&isnumber=6504806

Pinto, J. O P; Bose, B.K.; da Silva, L.E.B., "A stator-flux-oriented vector-controlled induction motor drive with space-vector PWM and flux-vector synthesis by neural networks," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.37, no.5, pp.1308,1318, Sep/Oct 2001 doi: 10.1109/28.952506 Abstract: A stator-flux-oriented vector-controlled induction motor drive is described where the spacevector pulsewidth modulation (SVM) and stator-flux-vector estimation are implemented by artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs, when implemented by dedicated hardware application-specific integrated circuit chips, provide extreme simplification and fast execution for control and feedback signal processing functions in high-performance AC drives. In the proposed project, a feedforward ANN-based SVM, operating at 20 kHz sampling frequency, generates symmetrical pulsewidth modulation (PWM) pulses in both undermodulation and overmodulation regions covering the range from DC (zero frequency) up to square-wave mode at 60 Hz. In addition, a programmable cascaded low-pass filter (PCLPF), that permits DC offset-free stator-flux-vector synthesis at very low frequency using the voltage model, has been implemented by a hybrid neural network which consists of a recurrent neural network (RNN) and a feedforward neural network (FFANN). The RNN-FFANN-based flux estimation is simple, permits faster implementation, and gives superior transient performance when compared with a standard digital-signal-processor-based PCLPF. A 5 HP open-loop volts/Hzcontrolled drive incorporating the proposed ANN-based SVM and RNN-FFANN-based flux estimator was initially evaluated in the frequency range of 1.0-58 Hz to validate the performance of SVM and the flux estimator. Next, the complete 5 HP drive with stator-flux-oriented vector control was evaluated extensively using the PWM modulator and flux estimator keywords: {PWM invertors;feedforward neural nets;frequency control;induction motor drives;lowpass filters;machine vector control;magnetic flux;neurocontrollers;recurrent neural nets;stators;voltage control;1 to 58 Hz;20 kHz;5 hp;60 Hz;ANN;DC offset-free stator-flux-vector synthesis;application-specific integrated circuit chips;artificial neural networks;digital-signalprocessor;feedback signal processing functions;feedforward ANN-based SVM;feedforward neural network;flux estimator;flux-vector synthesis;frequency control;hybrid neural network;neural networks;overmodulation region;programmable cascaded low-pass filter;recurrent neural network;sampling frequency;space-vector PWM;space-vector pulsewidth modulation;square-wave mode;stator-flux-oriented vector control;stator-flux-oriented vector-controlled induction motor drive;stator-flux-vector estimation;symmetrical pulsewidth modulation pulses generation;transient performance;undermodulation region;very low frequency;voltage control;voltage model;Feedforward neural networks;Frequency estimation;Frequency synthesizers;Induction motor drives;Neural networks;Pulse width modulation;Recurrent neural networks;Space vector pulse width modulation;Stators;Support vector machines}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=952506&isnumber=20592 Rahman, M.A.; Ashraful Hoque, M., "Online self-tuning ANN-based speed control of a PM DC motor," Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on , vol.2, no.3, pp.169,178, Sep 1997 doi: 10.1109/3516.622969 Abstract: This paper presents an online self-tuning artificial-neural-network (ANN)-based speed control scheme of a permanent magnet (PM) DC motor. For precise speed control, an online training algorithm with an adaptive learning rate is introduced, rather than using fixed weights and biases of the ANN. The complete system is implemented in real time using a digital signal processor controller board (DS1102) on a laboratory PM DC motor. To validate its efficacy, the performances of the

proposed ANN-based scheme are compared with a proportional-integral controller-based PM DC motor drive system under different operating conditions. The comparative results show that the ANNbased speed control scheme is robust, accurate, and insensitive to parameter variations and load disturbances keywords: {DC motors;adaptive control;angular velocity control;feedforward neural nets;neurocontrollers;permanent magnet motors;real-time systems;self-adjusting systems;tuning;DC motors;adaptive learning;biases;digital signal processor controller;feedback;feedforward neuralnetwork;online self-tuning;permanent magnet motors;real time system;speed control;Adaptive control;Artificial neural networks;Control systems;DC motors;Digital control;Digital signal processors;Programmable control;Real time systems;Signal processing algorithms;Velocity control}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=622969&isnumber=13554 Nguyen, C.T.-C.; Howe, R.T., "An integrated CMOS micromechanical resonator high-Q oscillator," SolidState Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.34, no.4, pp.440,455, Apr 1999 doi: 10.1109/4.753677 Abstract: A completely monolithic high-Q oscillator, fabricated via a combined CMOS plus surface micromachining technology, is described, for which the oscillation frequency is controlled by a polysilicon micromechanical resonator with the intent of achieving high stability. The operation and performance of micromechanical resonators are modeled, with emphasis on circuit and noise modeling of multiport resonators. A series resonant oscillator design is discussed that utilizes a unique, gain-controllable transresistance sustaining amplifier. We show that in the absence of an automatic level control loop, the closed-loop, steady-state oscillation amplitude of this oscillator depends strongly upon the dc-bias voltage applied to the capacitively driven and sensed resonator. Although the high-Q of the micromechanical resonator does contribute to improved oscillator stability, its limited power-handling ability outweighs the Q benefits and prevents this oscillator from achieving the high short-term stability normally expected of high-Q oscillators keywords: {CMOS analogue integrated circuits;Q-factor;circuit stability;micromachining;micromechanical resonators;oscillators;Si;circuit model;integrated CMOS polysilicon micromechanical resonator;monolithic high-Q oscillator;multiport resonator;noise;stability;surface micromachining;CMOS technology;Circuit noise;Circuit stability;Frequency;Integrated circuit technology;Micromachining;Micromechanical devices;Oscillators;Resonance;Semiconductor device modeling}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=753677&isnumber=16274 Verma, R.; Del Vecchio, D.; Fathy, H.K., "Development of a Scaled Vehicle With Longitudinal Dynamics of an HMMWV for an ITS Testbed," Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on , vol.13, no.1, pp.46,57, Feb. 2008 doi: 10.1109/TMECH.2008.915820 Abstract: This paper applies Buckingham's pi theorem to the problem of building a scaled car whose longitudinal and power-train dynamics are similar to those of a full-size high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The scaled vehicle uses hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to capture some of the scaled HMMWV dynamics physically, and simulates the remaining dynamics onboard in real time. This is performed with the ultimate goal of testing cooperative collision avoidance algorithms on a testbed comprising a number of these scaled vehicles. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this HIL-based scaling approach.

keywords: {automobiles;collision avoidance;transportation;cooperative collision avoidance algorithms;hardware-in-the-loop simulation;high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle;intelligent transportation systems;longitudinal dynamics;pi theorem;power-train dynamics;scaled car;scaled vehicle;Collision avoidance;Control systems;DC motors;Drives;Hidden Markov models;Propellers;Shafts;Testing;Torque converters;Vehicle dynamics;Buckingham's $pi$ theorem;drivetrain;hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4453934&isnumber=4453916 Selvaganapathy, P.; Yit-shun Leung Ki; Renaud, P.; Mastrangelo, C.H., "Bubble-free electrokinetic pumping," Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of , vol.11, no.5, pp.448,453, Oct 2002 doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2002.803415 Abstract: Bubble-free electroosmotic flow (fr-EOF) of aqueous electrolytes in microfluidic channels with integrated electrodes is demonstrated. Undesirable electrolytic bubble formation is avoided by applying a periodic, zero net charge current to generate a nonzero average potential between the electrodes. Electrokinetic pressure generated in this active segment of the microchannel drives now upstream and downstream where electric field is absent. Flow rates commensurate with theoretical predictions for EOF driven by a dc voltage equivalent to the average net potential have been measured. By significantly reducing driving potentials and liquid exposure time to strong electric fields, fr-EOF opens the way for fully integrated, versatile micro total analysis systems (TAS). keywords: {chemical analysis;electrokinetic effects;microelectrodes;microfluidics;micropumps;aqueous electrolytes;bubble-free electrokinetic pumping;driving potentials;electroosmotic flow;integrated electrodes;liquid exposure time;micro total analysis systems;microfluidic channels;nonzero average potential;Biochemical analysis;Chemical analysis;Circuits;Electrodes;Electrokinetics;Microchannel;Microfluidics;Reservoirs;System-on-achip;Voltage}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1038838&isnumber=22266 Wilsen, C.B.; Luginsland, J.W.; Yue-Ying Lau; Antonsen, T.M.; Chernin, D.P.; Tchou, P.M.; Keyser, M.W.; Gilgenbach, R.M.; Ludeking, L.D., "A simulation study of beam loading on a cavity," Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on , vol.30, no.3, pp.1160,1168, Jun 2002 doi: 10.1109/TPS.2002.801623 Abstract: Beam loading exerts a strong influence on the operation of high-power and medium-power microwave sources. This paper reports a simulation study of beam loading on a cavity using the twodimensional particle-in-cell code, MAGIC. We vary the beam voltage, the beam current, the degree of current modulation on the dc beam before the beam enters the cavity, and the degree of charge neutralization on the beam. We deduce the beam-loaded quality factor Q and the beam-loaded resonant frequency from a Lorentzian fit of the numerical data on the gap voltage response as a function of the driving frequency. The MAGIC simulations have revealed several unanticipated results. The beam loading is observed to be a function of perveance. Constant perveance beams, of varying voltage and current, exercise about the same degree of beam loading on the model klystron cavity (except, of course, for the cases with very small beam current). The inclusion of an ac component on the dc beam current has no effect on the degree of beam loading; neither does the neutralization of the electron beam. Many of these simulation results cannot be explained by existing theories that ignore ac space charge effects. keywords: {klystrons;microwave generation;Lorentzian fit;MAGIC two-dimensional particle-in-cell

code;ac space charge effects;beam current;beam loading;beam voltage;beam-loaded quality factor;beam-loaded resonant frequency;cavity;charge neutralization;constant perveance beams;current modulation;gap voltage response;high-power microwave sources;klystron cavity;medium-power microwave sources;simulation study;Electron beams;Klystrons;Load modeling;Nuclear electronics;Optical modulation;Particle beams;Power engineering and energy;Q factor;Resonant frequency;Voltage}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1158352&isnumber=25945 Belfore, L.A., II; Arkadan, A., "A methodology for characterizing fault tolerant switched reluctance motors using neurogenetically derived models," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.17, no.3, pp.380,384, Sep 2002 doi: 10.1109/TEC.2002.801999 Abstract: This paper examines the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic algorithms (GAs) to develop discrete time dynamic models for fault free and faulted switchedreluctance-motor (SRM) drive systems. The results of using the ANN-GA-based (neurogenetic) model to predict the performance characteristics of a prototype SRM drive motor under normal and abnormal operating conditions are presented and verified by comparison to test data. keywords: {electric machine analysis computing;electrical faults;fault diagnosis;fault tolerance;finite element analysis;genetic algorithms;neural nets;reluctance motor drives;artificial neural networks;discrete time dynamic models;fault tolerant SRM characterisation;fault-free SRM drives;faulted SRM drives;genetic algorithms;neurogenetically derived models;switched reluctance motors;Artificial neural networks;Circuit faults;Coupling circuits;DC motors;Fault tolerance;Genetic algorithms;Magnetic circuits;Reluctance machines;Reluctance motors;Synchronous motors}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1033965&isnumber=22204 Lobbia, R.B.; Gallimore, A.D., "High-speed dual Langmuir probe," Review of Scientific Instruments , vol.81, no.7, pp.073503,073503-9, Jul 2010 doi: 10.1063/1.3455201 Abstract: In an effort to temporally resolve the electron density, electron temperature, and plasma potential for turbulent plasma discharges, a unique high-speed dual Langmuir probe (HDLP) has been developed. A traditional single Langmuir probe of cylindrical geometry (exposed to the plasma) is swept simultaneously with a nearby capacitance and noise compensating null probe (fully insulated from the plasma) to enable bias sweep rates on a microsecond timescale. Traditional thin-sheath Langmuir probe theory is applied for interpretation of the collected probe data. Data at a sweep rate of 100 kHz are presented; however the developed system is capable of running at 1 MHznear the upper limit of the applied electrostatic Langmuir probe theory for the investigated plasma conditions. Large sets (100000 sweeps at each of 352 spatial locations) of contiguous turbulent pla sma properties are collected using simple electronics for probe bias driving and current measurement attaining 80 dB signal-to-noise measurements with dc to 1 MHz bandwidth. Near- and far-field plume measurements with the HDLP system are performed downstream from a modern Hall effect thruster where the timeaveraged plasma properties exhibit the approximate ranges: electron density ne from (11015) (51016) m-3, electron temperature Te from 1 to 3.5 eV, and plasma potential Vp from 5 to 15 V. The thruster discharge of 200 V (constant anode potential) and 2 A (average discharge current) displays strong, 2.2 A peak-to-peak, current oscillations at 19 kHz, characteristic of the thruster breathing mode ionization instability. Large amplitude discharge current fluctuations are typical for most Hall

thrusters, yet the HDLP system reveals the presence of the same 19 kHz fluctuations in ne(t), Te(t), and Vp(t) throughout the entire plume with peak-to-peak divided by mean plasma properties that average 94%. The propagation delays between the discharge current fluctuations and the corresponding plasma density fluctuations agree well with expected ion transit-times observed with distinct plasma waves traveling away from the thruster at velocities >10 km/s. keywords: {Langmuir probes;discharges (electric);ionisation;plasma density;plasma fluctuations;plasma magnetohydrodynamics;plasma sheaths;plasma temperature;plasma transport processes;plasma turbulence;5225Gj;5225Jm;5230Cv;5235Ra;5270Ds;5280-s}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5520365&isnumber=5506841 Marsh, P.; Pavlidis, D.; Kyushik Hong, "InGaAs-Schottky contacts made by in situ plated and evaporated Pt-an analysis based on DC and noise characteristics," Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on , vol.45, no.2, pp.349,360, Feb 1998 doi: 10.1109/16.658666 Abstract: The choice of plated versus evaporated Pt Schottky anode formation technology is shown to have a significant impact on junction quality and the noise temperature of InGaAs mixer diodes. The investigated diode layers were grown in-house via Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) on an S.I. InP wafer. For anode diameters at and below 2 m, plated anodes clearly show superior fabrication (~80%) yields relative to evaporated (below ~5%). DC and low-/high-frequency noise characteristics were compared, as functions of DC current drive, for plated versus evaporated InGaAs Schottky contacts at 10 Hz-100 kHz and 1.4 GHz for 4- and 6- m anode diameters. Plated anodes show distinctly lower ideality factors of ~1.2 versus ~1.4-1.66 for evaporated anodes. Plated Schottky contacts showed 5.5 dB lower noise levels in the range of 10 Hz-100 kHz and a lower noise temperature (220 K versus 360 K) at 1.4 GHz. Overall, relative to conventional evaporated Pt, plated Pt anode technology offers superior fabrication yield and should lead to higher receiver sensitivity especially when low IF frequencies are used keywords: {III-V semiconductors;Schottky barriers;Schottky diode mixers;electroplated coatings;gallium arsenide;indium compounds;platinum;semiconductor device noise;semiconductormetal boundaries;vapour deposited coatings;1.4 GHz;10 Hz to 100 kHz;2 to 6 micron;DC characteristics;DC current drive;InGaAs mixer diode;InGaAs-Schottky contacts;InP;MOVPE;Pt Schottky anode formation technology;Pt-InGaAs;SI InP wafer;fabrication yields;ideality factors;in situ evaporated Pt;in situ plated Pt;junction quality;metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy;noise characteristics;noise temperature;plated anodes;receiver sensitivity;Anodes;Epitaxial growth;Epitaxial layers;Fabrication;Indium gallium arsenide;Indium phosphide;Noise level;Schottky barriers;Schottky diodes;Temperature}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=658666&isnumber=14348 Shimamura, Y.; Udeshi, Kabir; Long Que; Jaehyun Park; Gianchandani, Y.B., "Impact behavior and energy transfer efficiency of pulse-driven bent-beam electrothermal actuators," Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of , vol.15, no.1, pp.101,110, Feb. 2006 doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2005.863696 Abstract: This paper investigates the dynamics of bent-beam electrothermal actuators and their use in impact actuation of other micromechanical elements, and in particular the issue of energy efficiency achieved by temporal variations in electrical drive signals. A transient thermal model of an actuator beam shows that the uniformity of temperature profile is greater when activating with short electrical

pulses, which results in larger achievable displacements and forces. A dynamic force analysis reveals that using a train of pulses, referred to as a burst pulse, for activation achieves significant impact forces due to high velocities at the point of impact. The analytical trends are confirmed through experimental observations of microfabricated metal test structures in which actuators work against bistable mechanisms. Measurements of 2 mm and 3mm long actuators show that pulsed activation results in >5 reduction in energy consumption, with the activation energy falling from over 1000 J at dc activation, to less than 200 J using a 0.2-ms voltage pulse. The actuators however consume higher instantaneous power levels at shorter pulses, which may inhibit the use of pulses less than 1 ms in width. Further, the energy consumption through burst activation is 70% that of a single pulse, if sufficient impact forces are generated. keywords: {beams (structures);impact (mechanical);microactuators;temperature distribution;transient analysis;0.2 ms;2 mm;3 mm;activation energy;bent-beam electrothermal actuators;bistable mechanisms;bistable structure;burst activation;burst pulse drive;dynamic force analysis;energy consumption;energy transfer efficiency;impact actuation;impact behavior;impact forces;single pulse drive;temperature profile;transient thermal model;Actuators;Electrothermal effects;Energy consumption;Energy efficiency;Energy exchange;Micromechanical devices;Pulse measurements;Space vector pulse width modulation;Temperature;Thermal force;Bent-beam electrothermal actuator;bistable structure;burst pulse drive;single pulse drive}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1588912&isnumber=33485 Tang, J.; Green, S.R.; Gianchandani, Y.B., "Miniature Wireless Magnetoelastic Resonant Motor With Frequency Selectable Bidirectional Rotation," Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of , vol.22, no.3, pp.730,738, June 2013 doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2013.2242253 Abstract: This paper presents the analysis, fabrication, and experimental results of wirelessly actuated chip-scale rotary motors. Two designs are described. Design M is actuated by a $phi 8$ -mm magnetoelastic stator lithographically micromachined from Metglas 2826MB-bulk-foil with 25 $muhbox{m}$ thickness. It operates at a resonant frequency of 11.35 kHz while 3-Oe dc and 2-Oe amplitude ac magnetic fields are applied. The measured rotation speed, start torque, calculated driving step size, and payload are 44 r/min, 2 $hbox{nN} cdot hbox{m}$, $approx$23 mdeg, and 9 mg, respectively. Design S uses a stator that is a sandwich of Si ($phi 8$ mm diameter and 65 $muhbox{m}$ thickness) and magnetoelastic foil ($phi 8$ mm diameter and 25 $muhbox{m}$ thickness) to tailor the stiffness. The typical resonant frequencies of clockwise (CW) mode and counterclockwise (CCW) mode are 6.1 and 7.9 kHz, respectively. The CCW mode provides a rotation rate of about 100 r/min, start torque of 30 $ hbox{nN} cdot hbox{m}$, and driving step size of 74 mdeg while 8-Oe dc and 6-Oe amplitude ac magnetic fields are applied. Bidirectional rotation is realized by switching the applied frequency, thereby exciting the stator in a slightly different mode shape. Design S shows at least 43-mg payload capability. $hfill$[2012-0207] keywords: {Amorphous magnetic materials;Magnetic resonance;Magnetostriction;Silicon;Stators;Magnetostrictivity;Metglas;photochemical machining (PCM);transient liquid phase bonding}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6469149&isnumber=6521375 Rubaai, A.; Kotaru, R., "Adaptation learning control scheme for a high-performance permanentmagnet stepper motor using online random training of neural networks," Industry Applications, IEEE

Transactions on , vol.37, no.2, pp.495,502, Mar/Apr 2001 doi: 10.1109/28.913714 Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of controlling the speed of a permanent-magnet stepper motor assumed to operate in a high-performance drives environment. An artificial neural network (ANN) control scheme which uses continual online random training (with no offline training) to simultaneously identify and adaptively control the speed of the stepper motor is proposed. The control scheme utilizes two three-layer feedforward ANNs: (1) a tracker identification neural network which captures the nonlinear dynamics of the motor over any arbitrary time interval in its range of operation; and (2) a controller neural network to provide the necessary control actions to achieve trajectory tracking of the motor speed. The inputs to the controller neural network are not constructed from the actual motor/load dynamics, but as a feedback signal, from the estimated state variables of the motor supplied by the neural identifier and the reference trajectory to be tracked by the actual speed. A full nonlinear model (with no simplifying assumptions) is used to model the motor dynamics, and to the best of the authors' knowledge this represents the first such attempt for this device. This paper also makes use of a very realistic and practical scheme to estimate and adaptively learn the noise content in the speed-load torque characteristic of the motor. Simulations reveal that the neural controller adapts and generalizes its learning rate to a wide variety of loads, in addition to providing the necessary abstraction when measurements are contaminated with noise keywords: {AC motor drives;adaptive control;angular velocity control;feedback;feedforward neural nets;learning (artificial intelligence);machine control;neurocontrollers;permanent magnet motors;stepping motors;AC motors;ANN;adaptation learning control scheme;adaptive control;arbitrary time interval;artificial neural network control scheme;continual online random training;controller neural network;estimated state variables;feedback signal;high-performance drives environment;high-performance permanent-magnet stepper motor;learning rate;neural networks;nonlinear dynamics;nonlinear model;online random training;speed control;speed-load torque characteristic;three-layer feedforward ANN;tracker identification neural network;Artificial neural networks;Feedforward neural networks;Neural networks;Neurofeedback;Noise measurement;Signal processing;State estimation;State feedback;Torque;Trajectory}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=913714&isnumber=19724 Wen-Han Juan; Pang, S.W., "Released Si microstructures fabricated by deep etching and shallow diffusion," Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of , vol.5, no.1, pp.18,23, Mar 1996 doi: 10.1109/84.485211 Abstract: A novel etch-diffusion process is developed for fabricating high-aspect-ratio Si structures for microsensors. This is accomplished by first dry etching narrow gap Si microstructures using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source, followed by a shallow B diffusion to fully convert the etched microstructures to p++ layer. Microstructures up to 40 m deep with 2-m-wide gaps were etched with a Cl2plasma generated using the ECR source. Vertical profile and smooth morphology were obtained at low pressure. A shallow B diffusion at 1175C for 5.5 h. was then carried out to convert the 40-mthick resonant elements to p++ layer. A second dry etching step was used to remove the thin p++ layer around the bottom of the resonant elements, followed by bonding to glass and selective wet etch. Released high-aspect-ratio Si microsensors with thicknesses of 35 m have been demonstrated. At atmospheric pressure, only 5 Vdc driving voltage is needed for 2.5 m vibration amplitude, which is less than the 10 Vdc required to drive 12-m-thick resonators fabricated by conventional dissolved wafer process

keywords: {diffusion;elemental semiconductors;micromechanical resonators;microsensors;semiconductor doping;semiconductor technology;silicon;sputter etching;1175 C;5 V;Cl2 plasma;ECR source;Si microstructures;Si:B;deep etching;fabrication;microsensors;p++ layers;resonant elements;selective wet etch;shallow diffusion;Bonding;Cyclotrons;Dry etching;Electrons;Microsensors;Microstructure;Morphology;Plasma applications;Plasma sources;Resonance}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=485211&isnumber=10351 Hellen, Edward H.; Axelrod, Daniel, "An automatic focus/hold system for optical microscopes," Review of Scientific Instruments , vol.61, no.12, pp.3722,3725, Dec 1990 doi: 10.1063/1.1141542 Abstract: A system for maintaining longterm focus of samples under highmagnification quantitative observation in an epiillumination optical microscope is described. A negative feedback signal is generated from focusdependent changes in the backreflection of an offaxis HeNe laser. This reflection is intercepted by a small prism downbeam from the standard trinocular head, and detected by a small twophotodiode array. Spontaneous drifts in sample focus (presumably due to thermal and mechanical relaxations) are detected as a nonzero difference signal, which is used to drive a dc motor mechanically coupled to the finefocus knob of the microscope. This system has several advantages: (1) it is completely compatible and nonobstrusive with concurrent data acquisition of sample intensities; (2) it requires no alteration of the sample, sample stage, or objective; (3) it monitors the focal position of sample areas very near to those under observation; (4) it is inexpensive. In an experimental test, the system can hold a thin glass coverslip sample (a common substrate for biological cell cultures) to within 0.5 m of its preset focus position, well within the depth of focus of the microscope. Without the system, such samples typically drift several micrometers over periods of 10 min. In response to a disturbance of the focus knob, the system can restore the focus to within 0.5 m of the preset position. keywords: {0760Pb;4278Dg;8780+s;BIOPHYSICS;CONTROL SYSTEMS;DESIGN;FEEDBACK;FLUORESCENCE;FOCUSING;HELIUM-NEON LASERS;MONITORING;OPTICAL MICROSCOPES;REFLECTION;SAMPLE HOLDERS;STRESS RELAXATION}, URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4988820&isnumber=4988809