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KANSAS CITY, MO PUBLIC LIBRARY

RADIATION, LIGF;: AND

ILLUMINATION

A SERIES OF ENGINEERING LECTURES

DELIVERED AT UNION COLLEGE

BY

CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ, A.M., PH.D.

COMPILED AND EDITED BY

JOSEPH LaROY HAYDEN

THIRD EDITION 239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., LTD.

6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST

1918

E. C.

COPYRIGHT, 1909, 1918, BY THE

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

THE following lectures weregiven as a course of instruction to

the senior students in electrical engineering at Union University.

They are however intended not merely as a text-book of

illuminating engineering, nor as a text-book on the physics of

light and radiation, but rather as an exposition, to some extent,

from the engineering point of view, of that knowledge of light

and radiation which every educated man should possess, the

engineer as well as the physician or the user of light. For this

purpose they are given in such form as to require no special

knowledge of mathematics or of engineering, but mathematical the important results of the work of the National Bureau of

The lectures have been revised to date before publication, and

text.

which the general reader may safely omit or merely peruse the

intended more particularly for the illuminating engineer, but

XI, which by their nature are somewhat mathematical, and are

scribed in plain language, with the exception of Lectures Xand

formalism has been avoided and the phenomena have been de-

Standards, contained in its recent bulletins, fully utilized.

SOHBNBCTADY, September, 1909.

CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ.

COMPILER'S PREFACE.

stenographer A SERIES of was eight present experimental and no lectures manuscript on "Light prepared andRadia- by the

tion" were delivered by Dr. Steinmetz in the winter of 1907-8

before the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. Unfortunately no

lecturer. A far more extended course of experimental lectures

washowevergivenby Dr. Steinmetz at Union University in the

winter minating of Engineering, 1908-9, on "Radiation, " and has been Light, compiled Illumination and edited and Illu- in

the following.

the Two theoretical additionallectures side of illuminating havebeen added engineering: thereto Lecture by Dr. Stein- X on

metz to make the treatment of the subject complete even from

"Light With Flux the exception and Distribution" of the latter and two Lecture lectures XI the on following "Light

Intensity and Illumination." These two lectures give the

element^ of the mathematical theory of illuminating engineering,

book contains practically no mathematics, but discusses the

subjects Illuminating in plain Engineering" and generally has understood been given language. in a paper before th<

The subject matter of Lecture XII on "Illumination anc

Illuminating Engineering Society; the other lectures are ne^

in their form and, as I believe, to a considerable extent also ir

their contents. SCHENECTADY, September, 1909.

in as perfect a manner as possible.

Book Company, which has spared no effort to produce the boo!

Great thanks are due to the technical staff of the McGraw-Hil

drawn of the experiments to scale, as far convenient as possible, for the so as reader to make or lecturer. the repetitioi

data on the apparatus have been given, and the illustration!

In describing the experiments, numerical and dimensiona

JOSEPH L. R. HAYDEN.

CONTENTS.

I. NATURE AND DIFFERENT FORMS OF RADIATION.

1. Radiation as energy.

2. Measurement of the velocity of light.

Nature of light. VECTURE II. RELATION OF BODIES TO RADIATION.

6.

radiation.

7. The electric waves.

8. The spectrum of radiation covering 60 octaves.

3.

4. Difference of wave length with differences of color.

Meas-

urement of wave length and of frequency. Iridescence.

The ether.

5. Polarization proving light a transversal vibration. Double

refraction.

The visible octave of radiation. Ultra-red and ultra-violet

9. Electric waves of single frequency, light waves of mixed

frequency.

10. Resolving mixed waves into spectrum.

Refraction.

11. Relation of refractive index to permeabilityand dielectric

constant.

12. Spectrum.

13. Continuous spectrum. Line spectrum. Band spectrum.

Combination spectra.

14. Reflection, absorption and transmission.

15. Conversion of absorbed radiation into heat and light.

16. Transmitted light.

17. Opaque colors and transparent colors.

18. Objective color and subjective color.

19. Effect of excess and of deficiency of certain wave length

of the illuminant on the opaque and the transparent

colors.

vii

1

2

4

7 6

15 9

16

20

21

24

25 26

29

30 32

31

33

34

viii

CONTENTS.

LECTURE III. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION.

Visibility.

20. The eye.

21. Dependence of sensitivityofthe eye onthe color.

Mechan-

ical equivalent of light.

different colors.

Comparison of intensities of

22. Sensitivity curves of eye for different intensities.

23. Change of shape of sensitivity curve with intensity.

24. Harmful effect of excessive radiation power.

25. Protective action of eye.

26. Specific high frequency effect beginning in blue.

27. Perception of ultra-violet light.

violet.

28. Arcs as producers of ultra-violet

Harmful effects of ultra-

rays.

Pathological and Therapeutic Effects of Radiation.

29. Power effect and specific high frequency effect.

30. Light as germicide and disinfectant.

LECTURE IV. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION.

Chemical Effects.

31. Indirect chemical action by energy of radiation. , Direct

chemical action.

32. Chemical action of rod and yellow rays in supplying the

energy of plant life. Destructivenotion of high frequency

on plant life.

Physical Effects.

33. Fluorescence and phosphorescence.

PAGE

37

45 50 40

43

48

51

52

55

57

59

03

64

66

LECTUKE V. TEMPKHATUKK RAWATION.

34. Production of radiation by boat,

35. Increase ofintensityandfrequencywith temperature.

36. Efficiency and temperature,

37. Carbon incandescent lamp.

38. Evaporation below boiling point.

Allotropic modifications

of carbon.

39.

40.

41.

Normal temperature of temperatures radiation, by radiation,

Colored body radiation.

Measurement

42. Colored radiation and heat luminescence.

70 70

73

78

HI

M

85

89

90

CONTENTS.

Ix

PAGE

96 94

98

" 101

105

106

LECTURE VI. LUMINESCENCE.

Fluorescence and Phorphorescenee.

43. Radioluminescence.

Electroluminescence.

Thermolumi-

Chemical phos-

44. Pyroluminescence. nescence. Physical Chemical phosphorescence. luminescence.

phorescence. Biological phosphorescence.

45. Electroluminescence of gases and vapors.

Disruptive Conduction.

46. Geissler tube and spark. Disruptive voltage.

47. Change from spark to Geissler glow.

ContinuousConduction.

48. Nature of continuous or arc conduction.

49. Distinction between arc and spark discharge.

50. Continuity at negative.

51. Rectification of alternating voltages by arcs,

52. Efficiency and color.

Ill

113 122

117

54. 55. Most Arc most efficient efficient light method producer. of light production.

53.

positive, limitation in the available materials.

Electro-conduction from negative, long life, non-consuming

LECTURE VII. FLAMES AS ILLUMINANTS.

56. Hydrocarbon flames.

57. Effect of rapidity of combustion and of flame shape on

smokiness.

58. Effect of oxygen atom in the hydrocarbon molecule on

luminosity.

59. Mixture of hydrocarbon with air.

60. Chemical luminescence.

61. Flames with separate radiator.

LECTURE VIII. ARC LAMPS AND ARC LIGHTING.

Volt-Ampere Characteristics ofthe Arc,

62. Arc length and voltage.

63. General equations of the arc.

Stability Curves oj the Arc.

64. Instability on constant voltage.

65.

Equations of the vapor arc.

Arc Length and Efficiency.

67.

66. Maximum Maximum efficiency efficiency length length of of carbon luminous arc, arc.

123

125 126

128

133 130 132

134

135

137

140

142

145 148

146

X

CONTENTS.

LECTURE VIII. ARC LAMPS AND ARC LIGHTING (Continued).

Arc Lamps.

68. The elements of the arc lamp.

69. Differential arc lamp.

70. Series arc lamp.

71. Luminous arc lamp.

Arc Circuits.

72. Constant reactance. potential and constant current. The mercury

arc rectifier system.

The arc machine.

73. The constant current transformer. The constant current

LECTURE IX. MEASUREMENT OF LIGHT AND RADIATION.

74. Measurement of radiation as power.

75. Light a physiological quantity.

76. Physiological feature involved in all photometric methods.

77. Zero method photometers.

78. Comparison of lights,

79. Flicker photometer.

80. The luminometer.

81. Primary standards of light.

82. Proposed primary standards.

Incandescent lamp

83. Illumination and total flux of light.

photometry. 87. Symmetrical and approximately symmetrical distribution.

84. Arc lamp photometry.

85. Discussion.

Mean spherical, horizontal, downwards, maxi-

mum, hemispherical candle power.

LECTURE X. LIGHT FLUX AND DISTRIBUTION.

86.

88.

Light cal radiator. flux, light flux density, light intensity.

Calculation of light flux from meridian cum of Asymmetri-

Distribution 89. Calculation Curves of of distribution Radiation. curves.

uniform brilliancy.

Point or sphere of

90. Straight line or cylindrical radiator,

91. Circular line or cylinder.

PAGE

151

153

160 157

160

163

360

107

109

178 170

.172

175

177

178

179

182

184

180 188

187

190

tOfi

197

CONTENTS.

xi

LECTURE Shadows. X. LIGHT FLUX AND DISTRIBUTION (Continued).

93. Circular shade opposite and symmetrical to circular radia-

tor.

94. Calculation of the meridian curves of a circular radiator, for

different sizes of a symmetrical circular shade, and for Diffraction, Diffusion and Refraction.

Circular different shade distances concentric of it. with end of linear radiator.

95.

Reflection.

96.

97.

Regular Irregular reflection. reflection.

98. Reflector with regular and irregular reflection.

99. Purpose of reducing tho brilliancy of the illuminant.

100. Effect of the shape of the diffusing globe on the distribu-

tion curve. Intensity Curves for Uniform Illumination.

101. Prismatic refraction and reflection.

LECTURE XI. LIGHT INTENSITY AND ILLUMINATION.

102. Calculation of intensity distribution of illuminant for

uniform total, horizontal and vertical illumination.

.103. Uniform illumination of limited area.

Street Illumination by Arcs,

Room 104. Illumination DincuHsiou of by problem. Incandescent Lamps.

105. Combined effect of successive lamps.

106. Distribution curve of lamp.

intensity of direct light.

Calculation ofresultant total

107. Reflection from walls and ceiling.

108. Total directed and diffused illumination.

PAGE

202

206

210

215 212

218

221

223

224

226

229

234

238

242

246

251

Horizontal Table Illumination by Incandescent Lamps.

xii

CONTENTS.

LECTURE XIL ILLUMINATION AND ILLUMINATING ENGINEERING,

110. Physical and physiological considerations.

111. Light flux density. Illumination.

Brilliancy.

112.

Physical problems. Ceilings and walls. Reflectors, diffus-

ing globes, diffracting shades, etc.

t

113. Objective illumination.

Subjective illumination.

Con-

114.

115.

116.

117.

Intrinsic brilliancy.

Differences traction of in pupil. intensity and in color.

direct lighting.

Fatigue.

Direct and in-

Control of color

differences.

diffused light.

Shadows and their control.

Directed and

Direction mination, of shadows.

Color sensitivity in relation to required intensity of illu-

118. Domestic lighting.

119. The twofold problem of domestic lighting: daylight mid

artificial light.

120.

Street lighting.

121. Defects of present Htreet lighting.

122. Tower lighting.

LECTURE XIII.

PHWIOMXWM^ PHOUUOMB OF IU,UMINATW<

KNGINHBHING,

123. Physical Hide of illuminating engineering,

1'hysiologieal

problems,

32*1. Physiological difleroneo between <Uffuno<l ntul (tireded large extent.

light.

125% IndofmitonoHH of diffused light. HlmdowH cant by dlffuwtl

120.

Equivalent daylight. <Kffuioii Equivalent by using dilTiiHion wwrnl nrar light light wim% our< 4 n of

127. Unociual

diffusion

in

different

<lin*ofionH.

(lomplex

128, Phymologioftl light <iiHlrilmtion.

12ft. Phyniologicuilly, light not a vector quantity,

256

259

260

201

203

205

207

20t)

272 270

271

27't

27<1

277

27K

270

2H1

2HH

2K<t

KADIATION, LIGHT, AND

ILLUMINATION.

LECTURE I.

NATURE AND DIFFERENT FORMS OF RADIATION.

1. Radiation is aform of energy, and, assuch, canbeproduced

from other forms of energy and converted into other forms of

energy.

The most convenient form of energy for the production of rad- transparent to the radiation may be interposed between the

ever, the. energy is not heat but radiation, and a body which is applies to any radiation.

If we do not feel the radiation of a

by an opaque body, it ceases to be radiation; thesame,however,

but radiation energy, and becomes heat only when, intercepted

used, therefore are wrong: the so-called radiant heat is not heat

"heat radiation'' and "radiant heat/ 7 which are occasionally

lamp and the hand and remains perfectly cold. The terms

mercurylamp orthat of themoon as heat, while we feel that of a

much coal fire, greater; it is merely a sufficiently because sensitiveheat-measuring the total energy of the latter instrument, is very

as a bolometer, shows the heat produced by the interception of

the rays of the mercury lamp or the rays of the moon.

and is felt as such. Onthewayfrom thelamp to the hand,how-

intercepted bythehand is destroyed, that is, converted into heat,

Thus iation in is an heat incandescent energy, and lamp, radiation the heat when energy destroyed produced by by being the

intercepted by an opaque body, usually is converted into heat.

into electric radiation. current in the resistance of the filament, is converted

If I hold my hand near the lamp, the radiation

The most conspicuous form of radiation is light, and, therefore,

it was in connection with this form that the laws of radiation

were first studied.

1

2

RADIATION, LIGHT, AND ILLUMINATION.

2. The first calculations of the velocity of light were made by

astronomers in the middle of the eighteenth century, from the

observations that seen from of the the eclipses earth they of the pass moons behind of Jupiter. Jupiter and A number so are from their observations

of moonsrevolvearound the planet Jupiter, some ofthemso close

eclipsed at every revolution. As the orbits of Jupiter's moons

were calculated

tion, the time

by the law of gravita-

disappear from sight,

at which the moonMshould

'

M

x--r x

FIG. 1.

when seen from theearth E, by passingbehind Jupiter, 7 (Tig. ]),

could be exactly calculated.

It was found, however, that some-

times the moon disappeared earlier, sometimes later than cal- ASB of the orbit of the earth around tho sun tf, or by about

opposite case, the siclo earth of is the further sun from distant Jupiter, from at Jupilor B. Now, by Uio in tho diameter latter sec. of 195,000,000 195,000,000 and 195,000,000 miles miles. and mikvs tho Seventeen delay in 3 (MO of and 17} sec. min. one-third thus thus givas must min. a velocity bo nre due 10>10 to of

culated, and the difference between earliest and ktost disappear-

ance amounts to about 17 min.

It was also found that tho

disappearance of the moon behind Jupiter omiirol earlior when

the earth was at the same wide of the sun as Jupiter, at A, while

the latest disappearance occurred when the (Uirt.li wan on the

the time taken by the light to travenso tho additional distance

milos per sec. forated with holes in at tho its periphery, dink to a mirror A lamp Af located L wends at its a light con-

,

light of

i or 188,000

IIMU

Later, the velocity For of light instance, was measured let, in Fig. directly 2, D be in a anumber clwk per-

of different ways.

through a hole H

,195,000,000

~

, 00 AAA

-i

siderabledistance, forinstance5 miles; there the light is reflected

NATURE AND DIFFERENT FORMS OF RADIATION. 3

and the mirror is adjusted so that the reflected beam of

passes through another hole Hi of the disk into the telescope T.

light

If thedisk is turned half thepitch of theholes thelight is blotted

out as a tooth stands in front of both thelamp and the telescope.

Again turning the disk half the pitch of the holes in the same

I

U-=--r rznnii

f

5j*ILJ?

FIG. 2.

direction the light reappears. If thedisk is slowlyrevolved, alter- but sees a steady and uniform light; then increasing the speed

eye is no longer able to distinguish the in-lividual flashes of light

creases so that morethanfrom 10 to 20holes pass persecond, the

nate light and darkness will be observed, butwhen the speedin-

still more the light grows

This means when a hole

fainter and finally entirely

disappears.

HQ is in front of the lamp, a beam of

light passes throughthe hole. Duringthe timetakenbythelight

to travel the 10 miles to the mirror and back, the disk D has

moved moved, away, and the and hole a tooth ffv which is now was in front in front of the of telescope the telescope and

when the light from the lamp passed through the hole HQ, has a hole into the telescope, but not through the same hole Hl

reflected from the mirror At again passes through the center of

throughwhich it would have passed with the disk stationary, but

through the next hole f/2, that IB, the disk has moved a distance

at twice the speed at which it had disappeared. Then the light

appears ag dn, and increases in brilliancy, reaching a maximum

equal to the pitch of one hole while the light traveled 10 miles.

Assume; for instance, that the disk D has 200 holes and makes

intercepts the light. Therefore, at the speed at which the light

disappears, the time it takes the disk to move half the pitch of a

hole is equal to the time it takes the light to travel 10 miles.

Increasing still further the velocity of the disk D, the light

4

RADIATION, LIGHT, AND ILLUMINATION.

94 rev. per

sec. at the moment when the light has again reached

In this case, 200 X 94 = 18,800 holes pass the

full brilliancy

hole telescope is per second, and the time of motion by the pitch of one

18;800

Sec., and as this is the time required by the light

to travel 10 miles, this gives the velocity of light as 10 -*- -^^

or 188,000 miles per sec.

The velocity of light in air, or rather in empty space, thus is

188,000 miles or 3 X 1010 cm. per sec.

For electrical radiation, the velocity has been measured by

Herz, and found to be the same as the velocity of light, and there

is substances). very good evidence that all radiations travel with the same plain the radiations of radium, etc. Euler and others explained

the light as a wave motion. Which of these explanations Ls

bardment. This theoryhas been revived in recent years to ex-

velocity through space (except perhaps the rays of radioactive

3. Regarding the nature of radiation, two theories have been

proposed. Newton suggested that light rays consisted of

extremely

giving

minute material particles thrown off by the light-

bodies with enormous velocities, that is, a kind of bom-

each correct other,that can be experimentally is, two equal beams decided of light in the together following give manner: abeam

Assuming light to be a bombardment of minute particles, if wo

combine two rays of light in the same path they must add to

of twice the amplitude. If, however, wo assume light is a wave

motion, then two equal beams of light add to one of twice the

only in case the waves are in phase, as Al and /^ in

If, however, the two beamsA2 and 7i2 are not

amplitude

Fig. 3 add to (7r

in with phase, each their other, resultant their resultant C2 is less Ls zero, than that their is, sum, they and blot if each the

two beams A3 and B3 in Fig. 3 happen to be iu opposition

(180 degrees apart), that is, one-half wave length out of phase

slightly other out. curved plate 5, touching each other at C, and illuminate

Assuming now we take a plain glass plate A (Fig. 4) and a

them by a beam of uniform light

as the yellow light given by

coloring the flame of a bunsen burner with somo sodium Halt

a part of the light 6, is then reflected from the lower surface of

NATURE AND DIFFERENT FORMS OF RADIATION. 6

the curved glass plate B, apart c, passes out of it, and is reflected

from the upper surface of the plain glass plate A.

7

\

\

Ba

A beam of

FIG. 3.

reflected light a, thus is a combination of a beam 6 and a beam c.

The two beams of light which combine to a single one, a, differ

from each other in phase by twice the distance between the two

glass plates. At those points di9 d2, etc. at which the distance

4,

between the two glass plates is } wave length, or

, f, etc., the

two component beams of a would differ by i, f , |, etc. wave

lengths, and thus would blot each other out, producingdarkness,

6

RADIATION, LIGHT, AND ILLUMINATION.

while at those points where the distance between the glass plates

is |, 1, Ij, etc. wave lengths, and the two component beams a

thus differ in phase by a full wave or a multiple thereof, they

would add.

If, therefore, light is awavemotion, suchastructure

would show the contact point C of the plates surrounded by Measuring the curvature of the plate 5, and the diameter

alternate dark rings, d, and bright rings, y.

This is actually the

case, and therefore this phenomenon, called "interference"

proves of the dark light rings to be d, a the wave distance motion, between and has the lead plates to the B universal and A at

acceptance of the Eulerian theory.

the dark rings d, can be calculated and as this distance is one-

quarter wave length, or an odd multiple thereof, the