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THEORY AND CALCULATIONS

OF

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS

THEORYAND CALCULATIONS

OF

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS

BY

CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ, A. M., PH. D,

KDITION

SIXTH IMPUEHSION

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

NEW YORK; 370 SEVENTH AVENUE

LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVEEIE ST., E. C. 4

1917

COPYRIGHT, 1917, BY THE

MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

PBINTB0 IN THE UNITED HTATEB OF AMBHICA

MAPLE PRESS - YORK

PREFACE

In the twenty years since the first edition of "Theory and Cal-

culation of Alternating Current Phenomena" appeared, elec-

trical engineering has risen from a small beginning to the world's creased many fold, so that subjects, which twenty years ago could

be dismissed with a few pages discussion, now have expanded

universal knowledge energy of electrophysics transmission, and distribution electrical and engineering supply, and has our in-

greatest industry; electricity has found its field, as the means of

and been require devised tin and extensive have found knowledge their place by every in the electrical theory of electrical engineer.

In the following volume I have discussed the most important

characteristics of the numerous electrical apparatus, which have

While many of them have not yet reached any

engineering. considered as continuations, or rather as parts of "Theory and

ume, "Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits," may be

In some; respects, the following work, and its companion vol-

of apparatus.

way, with the characteristics of the less frequently used types

necessary for the electrical engineer to be familiar, in a general

industrial importance, experience has shown, that not infre-

quently apparatus, which had been known for many years but

had not found any extensive 4

,

practical use, become, with changes

of industrial conditions, highly important.

It

is therefore

Calculation whon rewriting of Alternating it recently for Current the /)th Phenomena." edition, it became With necessary the 4th

edition, which appeared nine years ago, "Alternating Current three volumes: "Alternating Current Phenomena," "Electric

Circuits," and "Electrical Apparatus,"

Phenomena" had reached about the largest practical bulk, and

to subdivide it into three volumes, to include at least the most

necessary structural elements of our knowledge of electrical

engineering.

The subject matter thus has been distributed into

CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ,

CAMP MOHAWK, VIBLK'B CKKKK,

July, 1017.

CONTENTS

PAOE

PREFACE

CHAPTER T. SPEED CONTROL OP INDUCTION MOTORS.

/. Starting and Acceleration

1. constant The problems speed of over high wide torque range over of load wide range Starting of speed, by armature and of

rheostat *

2. A, Temperature starting device Temperature rise increasing

secondary resistance with increase of current Calculation of

motor

3. Calculation of numerical instance Its discussion -Estimation

of required temperature rise

4. B. Hysteresis starting device Admittance of a closed mag-

netic circuit \vith negligible eddy current loss

5. torque curve with that of temperature starting Totalsecondary device Close

impedance of motor with hysteresis starting device

Calculation of numerical instance Discussion- Similarity of

6.

speed (L Eddy regulation current starting Disadvantage device- of Admittance impairment of ofpowerfactor magnetic cir-

and apparent efficiency, due to introduction ofreactance Re-

quired Increase of magnetic density

cuit with high eddy current losses and negligible hysteresis

Totalsecondaryimpedance ofmotorwitheddy current starting

deviceNumerical instance

7. of Double magnetic maximum density of to torque get output curve Relation Close speed to double regulation- squirrel

High torque efficiency -Poor power factor, requiring increase 9, Speed control by variation of the effective frequency: con-

catenationBy changing the number of poles: rnultispeed

cage motor and deep bar motor

//. Constant Speed Operation

H. Speed control by armature resistance Disadvantage of in-

eoiwUncy of speed with load Use of condenser in armature or

secondary- -Use of pyro-eleetric resistance

motors

11, B. Condenserspeed control control Effect of condenser in secondary,

speed

pyro-

olectric conductor Close speed regulation of motor Limita-

tion of pyro-eloctrio conductors

10, A. Pyro-electric

Characteristic

of

1

2

4

5

6

8

10

12

13

14

viii

CONTENTS

Calcula- 15. Discussion of the change of motor constants due to a change of

thenumber of poles, with series connection of all primary turns

Magnetic density and inferior performance curves at lower

giving high current and torque at resonarxce speed

tion of motor

.

12. Equations of motor Equation of torque

Speed range of

maximum torque .

13. Numerical instance Voltampere capacity of required con-

14.

denser

C. Multispeed motors Fractional pitch winding, and switch-

ing of six groups of coils in each phase, at a change of the num-

ber of poles

.

.

.

speeds

.

16. Change of constants for approximately constant maximum

torque at all speeds Magnetic density and change of coil

connection

17. Instance of 4 -=- 6 -f- 8 pole motor Numerical calculation and

discussion

CHAPTER II. MULTIPLE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR.

18. Superposition oftorque curves of high resistance low reactance,

19.

induced and low voltage, resistance corresponding high reactance to squirrel the resultant cage to flux a torque which

curvewithtwomaxima, at high and at low speed

Theory of multiple squirrel cage based on the use of the true

passes beyond the squirrel cage

tion motor

Double squirrel cage induc-

20. Relations of voltages and currents in the double squirrel cage

induction motor

21. Equations, and method of calculation

22. Continued: torque and power equation

24. Calculation of numerical instance of double squirrel cage 25. Calculation Calculation of of numerical voltages and instance currents of triple squirrel cage induc-

23.

motor, speed and load curves Triple squirrel cage induction

motor

Equation between the voltages and currents in the triple

26.

27.

squirrel cage induction motor

.

Equation of torque and power of the three squirrel cages, and

their resultant

tion motor Speed and load curves

CHAPTER III. CONCATENATION.

PAGE

17 16

18

20

21

22

23

28 27

29

30

31

34 32

35

37

37

Cascade or Tandem Control of Induction Motors

28. Synchronizing of concatenated couple at half synchronism

The two speeds of a couple of equal motors and the three

CONTENTS

ix

PAGE

40

41

42

44

45

46

48 47

49

50

52

53 55

speeds of a couple of unequalmotors Internally concatenated

motor

.

ism Generator equation above full synchronism Ineffi-

ciency General of equation second and motor calculation speed range of speed and slip of con-

Its suppression by

resistance in the secondary ofthesecond motor

catenated couple

of general concatenated couple

Continued

couple

29. Generator equation of concatenated couple above half syn-

chronism Second range of motor torque near full synchron-

30.

32.

31. Calculation of numerical instances

33. 34. Calculation Calculation of torque and power of the two motors, and of the

35. Numerical instance

36. Internally concatenated motor Continuation of windings into

one stator and one rotor winding Fractional pitch No inter-

ference of magnetic flux required Limitation of available

speed Hunt motor 39. commutating machine, condenser

37.

Effect of continuation of two or more motorson the character-

CHAPTER istic IV. constant INDUCTION and the MOTOR performance WITH SECONDARY of the motor.' EXCITATION.

38.

Large duction exciting motors current and motors and low of power high factor overload of low capacity speed in-

Instance

Induction machine corresponding to synchronous machine ex-

cited byarmature reaction, induction machinesecondary corre-

sponding to synchronous machine field Methods of secondary

excitation : direct current, commutator, synchronous machine,

40. Discussion of the effect of the various methods of secondary

excitation on the speed characteristic of the induction motor .

Induction Motor Converted to Synchronous

41. Conversion of induction to synchronous motor Relation of

exciting admittance and self-inductive impedance as induction

motor, to synchronous impedance and coreloss as synchronous

motor Danielson motor

42. Fundamental equation of synchronous motor Condition of

unitypower factor Condition of constant field excitation

43. Equations of power input and output, and efficiency

44. Numerical instance of standard induction motor converted to

synchronous Load curves at unitypowerfactor excitationand

at constant excitation

-57

60

61

62

45. Numerical instance of low speed high excitation induction

motor converted to synchronous motor Load curves at unity

CONTENTS

power factor and at constant field excitation Comparison

46. induction with induction motormakes motor good, and good induction motormakes

Comparison ofinduction motorandsynchronousmotorregard- Induction Motor Concatenated with Synchronous

poor synchronous motor 49. 48. 47. synchronous machine as small exciter . 50. synchronous motor excitation

Ing armature reaction and synchronous impedance Poor

Synchronous characteristic and synchronizing speed of con-

catenated couple Division of load between machines The

.

Equation of concatenated couple ofsynchronous and induction

motor Reduction to standard synchronous motor equation .

Equation of power output and input of concatenated couple .

Calculation of numerical instance of 56 polar high excitation

51. induction motor concatenated to 4 polar synchronous at constant

Discussion.

High power factor at

all loads,

52.

Series Induction and Motor shunt Concatenated excitation with Phase Commutating relation adjustable Machine

Concatenated couple withcommutatingmachineasynchronous

Speed control and power factor control Two independent

53. variableswith Representation concatenated of the commutating commutatingmachine, machine by an against effective one

withsynchronous machine Therefore greater variety of speed

and load curves

impedance, in which both components may be positive or

negative, depending on position of commutator brushes

54. Calculation of numerical instance, with commutating machine

series excited for reactive anti-inductive voltage Load curves 55. Condenser in tertiary circuit ofsingle-phase induction motor

and their discussion

Induction Motor with Condenser in Secondary Circuit

Shunted capacit3 r neutralizing lagging current of induction

motor Numericalinstance

Effect ofwaveshape distortion

Condensers in secondary circuit Large amount of capacity

required by low frequency

56. motor Numerical with instance capacity of in secondary low speed high Discussion excitation of load induction curves

and of speed

57. Comparison of different methods of secondary excitation, by

power factor curves: low at all loads; high at all loads, low at

light, high atheavyloads Byspeed: synchronous or constant

speed motors and asynchronous motors in which the speed

decreases with increasing load ,

,

,

PAGE

67

69

71

72 74

75

76

80 78

82

84

86

88

CONTENTS

xi

Induction Motor with Commutator

58. Waveshape of commutated full frequency current in induction

motor secondary Its low frequency component Full fre-

quency reactance for rotor winding The two independent

variables: voltage and phase Speed control and power factor limitation

Heyland motor Available only for power factor control Its

correction, depending on brush position

Squirrel cage winding combined with commutated winding

59.

CHAPTER V. SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOK.

60. Quadrature magnetic flux ofsingle-phase induction motor pro-

duced by armature currents The torque produced by it

The excitingampere-turns and their changebetween synchron-

ism and standstill

61.

62.

phasemotorconstantsfromthoseofthe Calculation Relations between of performance constants curves per circuit, of motor single-phase and as constants three-phaseor induction of the

total polyphase motor Relation thereto of the constants of

the motor on single-phase supply Derivation of the single-

quarter-phase motor

motor Torque and power

63. The different methodsof starting single-phase induction motors

Phase splitting devices; inductive devices; monocyclic de- device

vices; phaseconverter

Equations of the starting torque, starting torque ratio, volt-

ampere ratio and apparent starting torque efficiency of the

single-phase inductionmotor startingdevice

64.

66. The The constants effective starting of the single-phaseinductionmotorwith impedance of the single-phase induction starting 67. quarter-phase

65.

motor Its approximation Numerical instance

Phase splitting devices Series impedances with parallel con-

nections of the two circuits of a

motor Equa-

68. ' tions Numerical instance of resistance in one motor circuit, with

motor of high and of low resistance armature

69. Capacity and inductance as starting device Calculation of

values to give true quarter-phase relation

70. Numerical instance, applied to motor of low, and of high arma-

71. ture Equations, resistance calculations of conditions of maximum torque

72. Inductive Series connection devices of External motor circuits inductive with shunted devices impedance Internal in-

ratio Numerical instance

ductive devices

PAGE

89

91

93

96 94

96

98

100

101

103

106 104

108

Ill 109

xil

74.

75.

76.

77.

CONTENTS

resistances, Calculations with ofvoltages, motors torque, of low, torque medium ratio and and high efficiency armature

Numerical instance of shading coil of low, medium and high

resistance

PAGE

114

116

motor, Monocyclic and of starting production device of balanced Applied to three-phase three-phase triangle motor by

Equations Instance of of resistance voltages, inductance currents, torque, starting andtorque device, of efficiency condenser . 117

capacity and inductance

120

78. Numerical instance of motor with low resistance, and with

high resistance armature

Discussion of acceleration

.121

CHAPTER VI. INDUCTION MOTOR REGULATION AND STABILITY.

80. 79. Load pedance curves on the and 1. motor Voltage speed Regulation curves Calculation and of motor Output curves as affected

Effect of the voltage drop in the line and transformer im-

and of power factor by line impedance Increase of exciting

current and decrease of starting torque Increase of resistance

required for maximum starting torque

2. Frequency Pulsation

81. Effect of frequency pulsation Slight decrease of maximum

torque Great increase of current at light load

3. Load and Stability

82. The two motor speed at constant torque load One unstable

and one stable point Instability of motor, on constant torque

load, below maximum torque point

83. Stability at all speeds, at load requiring torque proportional to

square of speed: ship propellor, centrifugal pump

Three

speeds at load requiring torque proportional to speed Two

84. stable stable branch and one of unstable the speed speed curve The on two torque stable proportional and one un- to of induction motor, at constant voltage

Stability coefficient

85. Effect of the speed of generator regulation on maximum output

4. Generator Regulation and Stability

Motor stability function of the character of the load General

conditionsof stabilityand instability

by line impedance, at low, medium Decrease and high of maximum line impedance torque . 123

126

131

132

speed

134

Single-phase motor . , 136

CONTENTS

xiii

PAGE

138

141

144

86. Relation of motor torque curve to voltage regulation of system

Regulation coefficient of system

system

Stability coefficient of

87. Effect of momentum on the stability of the motor Regulation

of overload capacity

Gradual approachto instability

.

.

CHAPTER VII. HIGHER HARMONICS IN INDUCTION MOTORS.

88.

Component torque curves due to the higher harmonics of the 90. the impressed voltage wave, in athree-phaseinduction motor 91. tion The same of the in winding a three-phase in the air-gap motor of Discussion a quarter-phase of the motor torque 92. Calculation Calculation of of the numerical coefficients values of the for trigonometric 0, J, MJ M series pitch repre- defi-

impressed voltage wave, in a quarter-phase induction motor;

their synchronous speed and their direction, and the resultant

torque curve .

.

.

The component torque curves due to the higher harmonics of

True three-phase and six-phase winding The single-phase

torque curve of the third harmonic

Component torque curves of normal frequency, but higher

number Their direction of poles, and due synchronous to the harmonics speeds of the space distribu-

components due to the time harmonics of higher frequency

andnormalnumber of poles, andthespaceharmonics ofnormal

frequency and higher number ofpoles

senting the space distribution of quarter-phase, six-phase and

three-phase, full pitch and fractionalpitchwindings

ciency, up to the 21st harmonic

89.

147

150

155 154

157

159

160

163

93.

CHAPTER VII. SYNCHRONIZING INDUCTION MOTORS.

94. Synchronizinginductionmotorswhen usingcommonsecondary

resistance

95. Equation of motor torque, total torque and synchronizing

torque of two induction motors with common secondary rheo-

stat

96. Discussion of equations Stable and unstable position Maxi-

mum synchronizing power at 45 phase angle Numerical

instance

CHAPTER IX. SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR.

97. Tendency to drop into synchronism, of single circuit induction

motorsecondary Motor or generator action at synchronism

Motor acting as periodically varying reactance, that is, as

reaction machine Low power factor Pulsating torque below

synchronism, due to induction motor and reaction machine

xlv

CONTENTS

CHAPTEK X. HYSTERESIS MOTOR.

98. Rotation of iron disc in rotating magnetic field Equations

Motor below, generator above synchronism

99. Derivation ofequationsfrom hysteresislaw Hysteresis torque

of standard induction motor, and relation to size

100. General discussion of hysteresis motor Hysteresis loop

collapsing or expanding

PAGE

168

169

170

CHAPTER XI. ROTARYTERMINAL SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS.

101. Performance and method of operation of rotary terminal

single-phase induction Motor Relation of motor speed to

brush speed and slip corresponding to theload

. 173 172

102. Application of theprincipleto a self-startingsingle-phase power

motor with high starting and accelerating torque, by auxiliary

motor carrying brushes

CHAPTER XII. FREQUENCY CONVERTER OR GENERAL ALTERNATING

CURRENT TRANSFORMER.

103.

The principle of the frequency converter or general alternating current

104. Relation of e.m.f., frequency, number of turns and exciting

105. Derivation of the general alternating current transformer

Transformer equations and induction motor equations, special

current transformer

Induction motorand transformer special

cases Simultaneous transformation between primary elec-

trical and secondary electrical power, and between electrical

and mechanical power Transformation of voltage and of fre-

quency The air-gap and its effect

cases thereof

176

177

178

106. Equation of power of general alternating currenttransformer . 182

107. Discussion: between synchronism and standstill Backward

driving Beyond synchronism Relation between primary

electrical, secondary electrical and mechanical power

.184

108. Calculation of numerical instance

109. The characteristic curves: regulation curve, compounding

induction synchronous curve Connection machine generator, as of frequency second and as machine induction converter Slip generator with of synchronous frequency with low

equation machine, and and numerical compensation instance for lagging current Derivation of

frequency exciter

Use as frequency converter Use of synchronous machine or

110. Over-synchronous operation Two applications, as double

111.

Advantage of frequency converter overmotor generator

185

186

190

191

112. Use of frequency converter Motor converter, its advantages

CONTENTS

xv

CHAPTER XIII. SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR.

PAGE

194

195

196

113. Induction machine as asynchronous motor and asynchronous

generator

Excitation of induction machine by constant low frequency Stanley induction generator

118. Connection of rotor to statorbycommutator Relation of fre-

quencies and powers to ratio of number of turns of stator and

114.

115.

116.

117.

voltage in secondary Operation below synchronism, and

above synchronism

Frequency and power relation Frequency converter and syn-

chronous induction generator

Generation oftwo differentfrequencies, bystator andbyrotor . 198

Power relation of the two frequencies Equality of stator and

rotor frequency: double synchronous generator Low rotor

frequency: induction generator with low frequency exciter,

rotor

198

199

201

203

204

. 205 209

207

119. Double synchronous alternator General equation Its arma-

ture reaction

120. Synchronous induction generator with low frequency excita-

tion

tion

(a) Stator and rotor fields revolving in opposite direc-

(&) In the same direction Equations

121. Calculation of instance, and regulation of synchronous induc-

tion generator with oppositely revolving fields

122. Synchronous induction generator with stator and rotor fields

revolving in the same direction Automatic compounding and

123. over-compounding, Equations of synchronous on non-inductiveload induction generator Effect with of inductive fields re-

load

volving in the same direction

124. Calculation of numerical instance storage

.

.

CHAPTER XIV. PHASE CONVERSION AND SINGLE-PHASE GENERATION.

125.

Conversionbetweensingle-phase andpolyphase requires energy

atorage Capacity, inductance and momentum for energy

Their size and cost per Kva

126. Industrial importance ofphase conversionfrom single-phase to

polyphase, andfrombalancedpolyphase to single-phase

127. Monocyclic devices Definition of monocyclic as a system of

polyphase voltages with essentiallysingle-phase flow of energy

Relativity of the term The monocyclic triangle for single-

phase motor starting

128. 129. Resistance General equations inductance of the monocyclic monocyclic square square Numerical in-

212

213

214

216

stance on inductive and on non-inductive load Discussion . 218

130. Induction phase converter Reduction of the device to the

simplified diagram of a double transformation

220

xvi

CONTENTS

132. Numerical instance Inductive load Discussion and com-

parisons with monocyclic square

133. Series connection of induction phase converter in single-phase

induction motor railway Discussion of its regulation

PAGE

223

226

134. Synchronous phase converter and single-phase generation

Control of the unbalancing of voltagedueto single-phase load,

by stationary induction phase balancing with reverse rotation

135. 136. problembythe andphase converter addition Apparatuseconomy of asynchronousphasebalancer