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UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
BY
A. M., PH. D,
&
BOUVEEIE
ST., E. C. 4
1917
INC.
MAPLE PRESS
YORK
PREFACE
In the twenty years since the first edition of " Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena" appeared, electrical engineering has risen from a small beginning to the world's greatest industry; electricity has found its field, as the means of universal energy transmission, distribution and supply, and our
and electrical engineering has inthat subjects, which twenty years ago could be dismissed with a few pages discussion, now have expanded and require tin extensive knowledge by every electrical engineer.
knowledge
creased
of electrophysics
fold, so
many
I have discussed the most important numerous electrical apparatus, which have been devised and have found their place in the theory of electrical While many of them have not yet reached any engineering.
characteristics of the
industrial
importance, experience has shown, that not infrewhich had been known for many years but apparatus, quently had not found any extensive practical use, become, with changes
4
,
It is therefore conditions, highly important. necessary for the electrical engineer to be familiar, in a general way, with the characteristics of the less frequently used types
of
industrial
of apparatus.
In some; respects, the following work, and its companion volume, "Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits," may be considered as continuations, or rather as parts of "Theory and
Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena." With the 4th edition, which appeared nine years ago, "Alternating Current Phenomena" had reached about the largest practical bulk, and
who n rewriting it recently for the /)th edition, it became necessary to subdivide it into three volumes, to include at least the most
necessary structural elements of our knowledge of electrical The subject matter thus has been distributed into engineering. three volumes: "Alternating Current Phenomena," "Electric Circuits," and "Electrical Apparatus,"
CONTENTS
PAOE
PREFACE
CHAPTER
T.
1.
The problems of high torque over wide range of speed, and of constant speed over wide range of load Starting by armature
rheostat
*
.......................
A, Temperature starting device Temperature rise increasing secondary resistance with increase of current Calculation of motor 3. Calculation of numerical instance Its discussion Estimation of required temperature rise 4. B. Hysteresis starting device Admittance of a closed magnetic circuit \vith negligible eddy current loss Total secondary impedance of motor with hysteresis starting device 5. Calculation of numerical instance Discussion Similarity of torque curve with that of temperature starting device Close speed regulation Disadvantage of impairment of power factor and apparent efficiency, due to introduction of reactance Required Increase of magnetic density 6. (L Eddy current starting deviceAdmittance of magnetic circuit with high eddy current losses and negligible hysteresis Total secondary impedance of motor with eddy current starting
2.
.......................
..............
.....
...........
deviceNumerical
7.
instance
...............
Double maximum of torque curve Close speed regulationHigh torque efficiency Poor power factor, requiring increase
of magnetic density to get output
............
Speed Operation
Speed control by armature resistance Disadvantage of ineoiwUncy of speed with load Use of condenser in armature or
secondary Use of pyroeleetric resistance Speed control by variation of the effective frequency: concatenationBy changing the number of poles: rnultispeed
.........
12
9,
10,
motors A. Pyroelectric speed control Characteristic of pyroClose speed regulation of motor Limitaolectric conductor
tion of pyroeloctrio conductors Condenser speed control Effect of condenser in secondary,
........ ................
13
..............
14
11, B.
viii
CONTENTS
PAGE
giving high current and torque at resonarxce speed
tion of
12.
Calcula16
motor
of
Equations
motor
.
Equation of torque
Speed range of
17
maximum
13.
torque
Numerical instance
denser
14.
Fractional pitch winding, and switchC. Multispeed motors ing of six groups of coils in each phase, at a change of the number of poles
.
. .
20
change of motor constants due to a change of the number of poles, with series connection of all primary turns Magnetic density and inferior performance curves at lower
speeds
.
21
16.
Change
of constants for
torque at all speeds connection 17. Instance of 4 = 6 f 8 pole motor
discussion
22
CHAPTER
II.
18. Superposition of
19.
20.
21.
22.
torque curves of high resistance low reactance, and low resistance high reactance squirrel cage to a torque curve with two maxima, at high and at low speed Theory of multiple squirrel cage based on the use of the true induced voltage, corresponding to the resultant flux which Double squirrel cage inducpasses beyond the squirrel cage tion motor Relations of voltages and currents in the double squirrel cage induction motor Equations, and method of calculation Continued: torque and power equation
of numerical instance
27
28
29 30
31
23. Calculation
24.
25.
26.
motor, speed and load curves motor Equation between the voltages and currents in the triple squirrel cage induction motor Calculation of voltages and currents .... ... Equation of torque and power of the three squirrel cages, and
.
32 34 35
their resultant
27. Calculation of numerical instance of triple squirrel cage induction motor Speed and load curves
37
37
CHAPTER
III.
CONCATENATION.
Cascade or Tandem Control of Induction Motors
28. Synchronizing of concatenated couple at half The two speeds of a couple of equal motors
CONTENTS
speeds of a couple of unequal motors
Internally concatenated
ix
PAGE
motor
...
40
29. Generator equation of concatenated couple above half synchronism Second range of motor torque near full synchron
ism
30.
31.
32.
33.
Generator equation above full synchronism Ineffisecond motor speed range Its suppression by resistance in the secondary of the second motor General equation and calculation of speed and slip of concatenated couple Calculation of numerical instances Calculation of general concatenated couple Continued
ciency of
41
42 44 45 46
and power
of the
of the
couple
35.
Numerical instance
47 48
motor Continuation of windings into one stator and one rotor winding Fractional pitch No interference of magnetic flux required Limitation of available speed Hunt motor 37. Effect of continuation of two or more motors on the characteristic constant and the performance of the motor.'
36. Internally concatenated
49
50
CHAPTER IV.
38.
Large exciting current and low power factor of low speed induction motors and motors of high overload capacity
Instance Induction machine corresponding to synchronous machine excited by armature reaction, induction machine secondary corre:
52
39.
sponding to synchronous machine field Methods of secondary excitation direct current, commutator, synchronous machine, commutating machine, condenser 40. Discussion of the effect of the various methods of secondary excitation on the speed characteristic of the induction motor
.
53 55
to
Synchronous
Relation of
exciting admittance and selfinductive impedance as induction motor, to synchronous impedance and coreloss as synchronous
42.
43. 44.
motor Danielson motor Fundamental equation of synchronous motor Condition of unity power factor Condition of constant field excitation Equations of power input and output, and efficiency .... Numerical instance of standard induction motor converted to synchronous Load curves at unity power factor excitation and
.
.
57
60
61
at constant excitation
45.
62
Numerical instance of low speed high excitation induction motor converted to synchronous motor Load curves at unity
CONTENTS
PAGE
46.
power factor and at constant field excitation Comparison with induction motor Comparison of induction motor and synchronous motor regardIng armature reaction and synchronous impedance Poor induction motor makes good, and good induction motor makes poor synchronous motor
Induction Motor Concatenated with Synchronous
67
69
47.
Synchronous characteristic and synchronizing speed of concatenated couple Division of load between machines The synchronous machine as small exciter
. . .
71
Equation of concatenated couple of synchronous and induction motor Reduction to standard synchronous motor equation 49. Equation of power output and input of concatenated couple 50. Calculation of numerical instance of 56 polar high excitation induction motor concatenated to 4 polar synchronous
48.
. . .
72 74
75
51. Discussion.
at
all
loads,
at
constant
76
Concatenated couple with commutating machine asynchronous Series and shunt excitation Phase relation adjustable
variables with concatenated
Speed control and power factor control Two independent commutating machine, against one with synchronous machine Therefore greater variety of speed and load curves 53. Representation of the commutating machine by an effective impedance, in which both components may be positive or negative, depending on position of commutator brushes ... 54. Calculation of numerical instance, with commutating machine
series excited for reactive antiinductive voltage
78
80
Load curves
82
and
their discussion
Shunted capacit3r neutralizing lagging current of induction motor Numerical instance Effect of wave shape distortion Condenser in tertiary circuit of singlephase induction motor
required
Condensers in secondary circuit Large amount of capacity by low frequency 56. Numerical instance of low speed high excitation induction motor with capacity in secondary Discussion of load curves
57.
84
and of speed Comparison of different methods of secondary excitation, by power factor curves: low at all loads; high at all loads, low at light, high at heavy loads By speed: synchronous or constant speed motors and asynchronous motors in which the speed
decreases with increasing load
,
86
88
CONTENTS
Induction Motor with Commutator
xi
PAGE
58.
frequency current in induction motor secondary Its low frequency component Full frequency reactance for rotor winding The two independent variables: voltage and phase Speed control and power factor correction, depending on brush position 59. Squirrel cage winding combined with commutated winding Heyland motor Available only for power factor control Its
full
Wave shape
of
commutated
89
limitation
91
CHAPTER
60.
V.
Quadrature magnetic flux of singlephase induction motor produced by armature currents The torque produced by it The exciting ampereturns and their change between synchronism and standstill 61. Relations between constants per circuit, and constants of the Relation thereto of the constants of total polyphase motor the motor on singlephase supply Derivation of the singlephase motor constants from those of the motor as threephase or
quarterphase motor
62. Calculation of
93
94 96
motor
63.
The
different
Phase splitting devices; inductive devices; monocyclic devices; phase converter 64. Equations of the starting torque, starting torque ratio, voltampere ratio and apparent starting torque efficiency of the
65.
96
98 singlephase induction motor starting device The constants of the singlephase induction motor with starting 100 device
66.
The
effective starting
Its
motor
67.
'
approximation
Equa103
Numerical instance of resistance in one motor circuit, with 104 motor of high and of low resistance armature Calculation of 69. Capacity and inductance as starting device
68.
106 values to give true quarterphase relation Numerical instance, applied to motor of low, and of high arma108 ture resistance 71. Series connection of motor circuits with shunted impedance
70.
Equations,
ratio
calculations
of
conditions
of
maximum
torque 109
Numerical instance
External inductive devices
Internal in
73.
Shading
Ill 112
xil
CONTENTS
PAGE
114 74. Calculations of voltages, torque, torque ratio and efficiency 75. Numerical instance of shading coil of low, medium and high resistances, with motors of low, medium and high armature
.
.
resistance
76.
116
Applied to threephase
motor
.
117 Equations of voltages, currents, torque, and torque efficiency 77. Instance of resistance inductance starting device, of condenser
motor, and of production of balanced threephase triangle by 120 capacity and inductance 78. Numerical instance of motor with low resistance, and with .121 high resistance armature Discussion of acceleration
.
.
CHAPTER
VI.
Voltage Regulation
and Output
drop in the line and transformer impedance on the motor Calculation of motor curves as affected 123 by line impedance, at low, medium and high line impedance 80. Load curves and speed curves Decrease of maximum torque and of power factor by line impedance Increase of exciting current and decrease of starting torque Increase of resistance
79. Effect of the voltage
.
required for
maximum
2.
starting torque
126
Frequency Pulsation
81. Effect of frequency pulsation Slight decrease of torque Great increase of current at light load
3.
maximum
131
Load and
Stability
82.
The two motor speed at constant torque load One unstable and one stable point Instability of motor, on constant torque 132 load, below maximum torque point
83. Stability at all speeds, at load requiring torque proportional to square of speed: ship propellor, centrifugal pump Three
speeds at load requiring torque proportional to speed Two stable and one unstable speed The two stable and one unstable branch of the speed curve on torque proportional to
speed
84.
...
stability function of the character of the load
134
136
Motor
General
.
,
Singlephase motor
85. Effect of the speed of generator regulation on maximum output of induction motor, at constant voltage Stability coefficient of motor Instance 137
CONTENTS
86. Relation of
xiii
87.
PAGE motor torque curve to voltage regulation of system Regulation coefficient of system Stability coefficient of 138 system Effect of momentum on the stability of the motor Regulation of overload capacity Gradual approach to instability 141
.
.
CHAPTER
88.
VII.
HIGHER HARMONICS
IN INDUCTION MOTORS.
Component torque curves due to the higher harmonics of the impressed voltage wave, in a quarterphase induction motor; their synchronous speed and their direction, and the resultant 144 torque curve 89. The component torque curves due to the higher harmonics of the impressed voltage wave, in a threephase induction motor
. . .
True threephase and sixphase winding The singlephase 147 torque curve of the third harmonic 90. Component torque curves of normal frequency, but higher number of poles, due to the harmonics of the space distribution of the winding in the airgap of a quarterphase motor Their direction and synchronous speeds 150 91. The same in a threephase motor Discussion of the torque components due to the time harmonics of higher frequency and normal number of poles, and the space harmonics of normal 154 frequency and higher number of poles 92. Calculation of the coefficients of the trigonometric series representing the space distribution of quarterphase, sixphase and 155 threephase, full pitch and fractional pitch windings
93. Calculation of numerical values for
0,
J, MJ
pitch defi
ciency,
157
CHAPTER
VII.
common secondary
159
resistance
95.
Equation
stat
of
motor torque,
and synchronizing
secondary rheo160
common
Stable and unstable position Maxisynchronizing power at 45 phase angle Numerical 163 instance
mum
CHAPTER IX.
97.
Tendency to drop into synchronism, of single circuit induction motor secondary Motor or generator action at synchronism Motor acting as periodically varying reactance, that is, as reaction machine Low power factor Pulsating torque below synchronism, due to induction motor and reaction machine
torque superposition
166
xlv
CONTENTS
HYSTERESIS MOTOR.
PAGE magnetic field Equations 168 Motor below, generator above synchronism 99. Derivation of equations from hysteresis law Hysteresis torque 169 of standard induction motor, and relation to size 100. General discussion of hysteresis motor Hysteresis loop 170 collapsing or expanding
98. Rotation of iron disc in rotating
CHAPTEK X.
CHAPTER XI.
101.
singlephase induction
Performance and method of operation of rotary terminal Motor Relation of motor speed to 172 brush speed and slip corresponding to the load
power motor with high starting and accelerating torque, by auxiliary 173 motor carrying brushes
.
CHAPTER
XII.
103.
The
current transformer
cases
trical
Induction motor and transformer special Simultaneous transformation between primary elec
and secondary electrical power, and between electrical and mechanical power Transformation of voltage and of fre176 quency The airgap and its effect
number
of turns
and
exciting
current
105. Derivation of the general alternating current transformer
177
109.
The
curve
characteristic
curves: regulation
curve,
compounding
Connection of frequency converter with synchronous machine, and compensation for lagging current Derivation of 186 equation and numerical instance 110. Oversynchronous operation Two applications, as double synchronous generator, and as induction generator with low 190 frequency exciter 111. Use as frequency converter Use of synchronous machine or induction machine as second machine Slip of frequency 191 Advantage of frequency converter over motor generator 112. Use of frequency converter Motor converter, its advantages and disadvantages Concatenation for multispeed operation 192
. .
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XIII.
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION GENERATOR.
xv
113. Induction
generator
114. Excitation of induction
in secondary above synchronism 195 115. Frequency and power relation Frequency converter and synchronous induction generator 196 198 1 16. Generation of two different frequencies, by stator and by rotor 117. Power relation of the two frequencies Equality of stator and rotor frequency: double synchronous generator Low rotor frequency: induction generator with low frequency exciter,
voltage
198
arma
120.
201 Synchronous induction generator with low frequency excitation (a) Stator and rotor fields revolving in opposite direc203 tion Equations (&) In the same direction 121. Calculation of instance, and regulation of synchronous induc204 tion generator with oppositely revolving fields 122. Synchronous induction generator with stator and rotor fields revolving in the same direction Automatic compounding and overcompounding, on noninductive load Effect of inductive
load
123.
205
fields re
207 209
CHAPTER XIV.
between singlephase and polyphase requires energy Capacity, inductance and momentum for energy 212 storage Their size and cost per Kva 126. Industrial importance of phase conversion from singlephase to
125. Conversion
atorage
213 polyphase, and from balanced polyphase to singlephase Definition of monocyclic as a system of polyphase voltages with essentially singlephase flow of energy Relativity of the term The monocyclic triangle for single.
.
.
phase motor starting 128. General equations of the monocyclic square 129. Resistance inductance monocyclic square
214 216
Numerical
in.
218 stance on inductive and on noninductive load Discussion 130. Induction phase converter Reduction of the device to the 220 simplified diagram of a double transformation 222 131. General equation of the induction phase converter
xvi
CONTENTS
PAGE
132. Numerical
instance
Inductive load
Discussion
and com223
induction motor railway Discussion of its regulation Synchronous phase converter and singlephase generation
....
226
by
Control of the unbalancing of voltage due to singlephase load, stationary induction phase balancing with reverse rotation
.
.
.
227 Synchronous phase balancer. by heating of armature coils By double frequency pulsation of armature reaction Use of squirrel cage winding in field Its size Its effect on the 229 momentary short circuit current
136. Limitation of the phase converter in distributing singlephase load into a balanced polyphase system Solution of the
problem by the addition of a synchronous phase balancer to the 230 synchronous phase converter Its construction
137.
of
Comparison of singlephase generator with polyphase generator and phase converter Apparatus economy 232
CHAPTER XV.
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIERS.
138. Rectifiers for battery charging For arc lighting The arc machine as rectifier Rectifiers for compounding alternators
For starting synchronous motors Rectifying commutator Differential current and sparking on inductive load Resistance bipass Application to alternator and synchronous motor 234 139. Open circuit and short circuit rectification Sparking with open circuit rectification on inductive load, and shift of brushes 237 140. Short circuit rectification on noninductive and on inductive load, and shift of brushes Rising differential current and flashIng around the commutatorStability limit of brush position, between sparking and flashing Commutating e.m.f resulting from unsymmetrical short circuit voltage at brush shift
.
Sparkless rectification
141. Short circuit
239
commutation in high inductance, open circuit commutation in low inductance circuits Use of double brush
Effect of
loadThomson Houston
Storage battery charging
rectifier
arc
. ,
machine
142. Reversing
243
Half wave
rectifier
and
fiers
its
former
disadvantage by unidirectional magnetization of transThe two connections full wave contact making rectiDiscussion of the two types of full wave rectifiers
arc rectifier
The mercury
245
CONTENTS
rectifiers
xvii
connected threephase rectifier Delta connected threephase rectifier Star connected quarterphase rectifier Quarterphase rectifier with independent phases Ring connected quarterphase rectifier Wave shapes and their discussion
PAGE
Sixphase rectifier
250
144.
Ring connection or independent phases preferable with a large number of phases Thomson Houston arc machine as constant current alternator with threephase star connected rectifier Brush arc machine as constant current alternator with
145.
connection 254 shunt at gaps of polyphase ring connected Derivation of counter e.m f from synchronous morectifier tor Leblanc's Panchahuteur Increase of rectifier output with 255 increasing number of phases 146. Discussion: stationary rectifying commutator with revolving brushes Permutator Rectifier with revolving transformer
quarterphase
rectifiers in series
Counter
e.m.f.
Use
of
rectifying
synchronous motor for phase splitting in feeding commutator: synchronous converter Conclusion 257
.
CHAPTER XVI.
147.
REACTION MACHINES.
.
.
260 Synchronous machines operating without field excitation motor without field excitation depending on phase angle between resultant rn.m.f. and magnetic
flux,
caused by polar
.
. .
.
field
structure
Energy component
.
of
reactance
149.
150.
...
261
of
262 magnetic circuit Types of reaction machines Synchronous induction motor Reaction machine 263 as converter from d.c. to a.c 151. Wave shape distortion in reaction machine, due to variable 264 reactance, and corresponding hysteresis cycles
.
Make and
break
of
152. Condition of generator and of motor action of the reactance 267 machine, as function of the current phase
....
...
machine equation
maximum power
Numerical instance 154. Current, power and power factor 155. Discussion Structural similarity with inductor machine
,
CHAPTER XVII.
INDUCTOR MACHINES.
machine type
Induction
by
pulsating
274
of inductor type,
158.
The magnetic
machine, calculation of
276
xviii
CONTENTS
PAGE
inductor alternator The Alexanderson high frequency inductor alternator for frequencies of 100,000 279 cycles and over
of
.
159.
160.
The Eickemeyer type of inductor machine with bipolar field The converter from direct current to high frequency alternating
current of the inductor type
.
280
and high
frequency generation of pulsating amplitude. Its use as amplifier Amplification of telephone currents by high fre281 quency inductor in radio communication 162. Polyphase excitation of inductor, and the induction motor 282 inductor frequency converter 163. Inductor machine with reversing flux, and magneto communication Transformer potential regulator with magnetic com284 mutation
164.
165.
The interlocking pole type of field design in alternators and 286 commutating machines Relation of inductor machine to reaction machine Half synchronous operation of standard synchronous machine as inductor machine 287
SURGING OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS.
CHAPTER XVIII.
166. Oscillatory adjustment of synchronous motor to changed condition of load Decrement of oscillation Cumulative oscil
lation
by negative decrement
.
.
167. Calculation of equation of electromechanical resonance 168. Special cases and example
...
its
.
.
and pulsation
of
effect
behind
.
cause
CHAPTER XIX.
171.
172.
Types of alternatingcurrent motors Equations of coil revolving in an alternating field 173. General equations of alteraatingcurreat motor
174. Polyphase induction motor, equations
175. Polyphase induction motor, slip, power, torque 176. Polyphase induction motor, characteristic constants 177. Polyphase induction motor, example
178. Singlephase induction motor, equations 179. Singlephase induction motor, continued 180. Singlephase induction motor, example
.312
313 314 316 318 319 320 321 323 324 327 327 330
181. Polyphase shunt motor, general 182. Polyphase shunt motor, equations 183. Polyphase shunt motor, adjustable speed motor 184. Polyphase shunt motor, synchronous speed motor
185. Polyphase shunt motor, phase control by it 186. Polyphase shunt motor, shortcircuit current 187. Polyphase series motor, equations 188. Polyphase series motor,
under brushes
example
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XX.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS.
xix
PAGE
189. General: proportioning of parts of a.c. different from d.c 190.
commutator motor
331
Power
quired
factor:
low
selfinduction
191.
332
of the singlephase
192.
commutator motor Compensation and overcompensation Inductive compensation Possible power factors 336 Field winding and compensating winding: massed field winding and distributed compensating winding Undercompensation at brushes, due to incomplete distribution of comcircuits
The three
pensating winding
193. Fractional pitch armature winding to secure complete local compensation Thomson's repulsion motor Eickemeyer in
338
339
varying speed singlephase commutator motors: conductive and inductive compensation; primary and secondary excitation; series and repulsion motors Winter Eichberg Latour motor Motor control by voltage variation and by
Types
of
195. 196.
341
flux
and
its
....
345
Commutation: e.m.f. of rotation and e.m.f. of alternation 347 Polyphase system of voltages Effect of speed Commutation determined by value and phase of short circuit 349 current High brush contact resistance and narrow brushes Commutator leads Advantages and disadvantages of resist351 ance leads in running and in starting Counter e.m.f. in commutated coil: partial, but not com.
354
200.
Commutating
field
tions: quadrature
201. Local
and phase
rela
356
commutating pole Neutralizing component and reversing component of commutating field Discussion of motor 358 types regarding commutation 202. Motor characteristics: calculation of motor Equation of current, torque, 203. Speed curves
361
of
motor
Numerical instance
Hysteresis loss increases, short circuit current decreases 364 power factor
204. Increase
of
field
magnetism, by
366
205. Compensation for phase displacement and control of power factor by alternating current commutator motor with lagging Its use in induction motors and field flux, as effective capacity
other apparatus
206. Efficiency
and
losses: the
two kinds
of core loss
370 370
xx
CONTENTS
PAGE
207. Discussion of
208.
209.
motor types: compensated series motors: conductive and inductive compensation Their relative advan371 tages and disadvantages to Not flux adapted motors: quadrature lagging Repulsion series speeds much above synchronism Combination type: 373 motor repulsion Constructive differences Possibility of changing from type to 375 with change of speed or load
type,
210.
Other commutator motors: shunt motor Adjustable speed factor compensation: polyphase induction motor Power
211.
212.
213.
377 Heyland motor WinterEichberg motor Most general form of singlephase commutator motor, with two 381 stator and two rotor circuits and two brush short circuits 382 motor of General equation Their application to the different types of singlephase motor
.
.
216. Discussion of
Study
Continued of commutation
Commutation current
and phase, on commutation commutation current
series repulsion
225. 226.
383 385 388 391 394 395 397 398 403 404 406 408 411
414 415
4 IS
419
CHAPTER XXI.
230.
Change of converter ratio by changing position angle between 422 brushes and magnetic flux, and by change of wave shape A. Variable ratio by change of position angle between com422 mutator brushes and resultant magnetic flux 231. Decrease of a.c. voltage by shifting the brushes By shifting the magnetic flux Electrical shifting of the magnetic flux by
.
232.
422 varying the excitation of the several sections of the field pole Armature reaction and commutation Calculation of the resultant armature reaction of the converter with shifted mag.
netic flux
233.
426
directions of shift flux, the one spoiling, the other
The two
CONTENTS
xxi
PAGE improving commutation Demagnetizing armature reaction and need of compounding by series field 429 B. Variable ratio by change of the wave shape of the Y voltage 429 234. Increase and decrease of d.c. voltage by increase or decrease of maximum a.e. voltage by higher harmonic Illustration 430 by third and fifth harmonic 235. Use of the third harmonic in the threephase system Transformer connection required to limit it to the local converter
circuit
arc
432
of
236. Calculation
converter
wave
resulting
from reversal of
. .
435 436
Armature
normal
reaction and commutation Proportionality of resultant armature reaction to deviation of voltage ratio from
437
flux of
239.
Commutating
armature reaction
of
high
a.c.
voltage
Combination of both converter types, the wave shape distortion for raising, the flux shift for lowering the a.c. voltage Use of two pole section, the main pole and the regulating pole 437
.
240. Heating
and rating
standard converter
241. Calculation of the voltages and currents in the regulating pole
439 440
converter
242. Calculating of differential current,
and
of relative
heating of
armature
coil
442
444 243. Average armature heating of n phase converter 244. Armature heating and rating of threephase and of sixphase
regulating pole converter 245. Calculation of phase angle giving
rating 246. Discussion of conditions giving Numerical instance
445
minimum
heating or maxi
mum
446
minimum
heating
Design
448
CHAPTER XXII.
UNIPOLAR MACHINES.
Homopolar Machines
Acyclic Machines
The 247. Principle of unipolar, homopolar or acyclic machine problem of high speed current collection Fallacy of unipolar
induction in stationary conductor Immaterial whether magnet standstill or revolves The conception of lines of magnetic
force
248. Impossibility of the coil wound unipolar machine magnetic induction in turn must be alternating
All electroIllustration
450
of unipolar induction by motion on circular track 249. Discussion of unipolar machine design type type Auxiliary airgap Double structure Series
452
Drum
and
.
disc
connec.
.
454
xxii
CONTENTS
PAGE machine adapted for low voltage, or for large size high speed machines Theoretical absence of core loss Possibility of large core loss by eddies, in core and in collector rings, by 456 pulsating armature reaction 251. Circular magnetization produced by armature reaction Liability to magnetic saturation and poor voltage regulation Compensating winding Most serious problem the high speed 457 collector rings 458 252. Description of unipolar motor meter
250. Unipolar
.
.
, .
CHAPTER XXIII.
REVIEW.
list
253. Alphabetical
characteristics,
principal
...
459
CHAPTER XXIV.
254. Little used
CONCLUSION.
and unused types of apparatus Their knowledge important due to the possibility of becoming of great industrial importance Illustration by commutating pole machine 255. Change of industrial condition may make new machine types important Example of induction generator for collecting numerous small water powers 256. Relative importance of standard types and of special types of machines 257. Classification of machine types into induction, synchronous, commutating and unipolar machines Machine belonging to two and even three types
. .
472
473
474
474 477
INDEX
1. Speed control of induction motors deals with two problems: to produce a high torque over a wide range of speed down to standstill, for starting and acceleration; and to produce an
and this speed is synchronism at noload. At speeds below full speed, and at standstill, the torque of the motor is low and the current high, that is, the startingtorque efficiency and especially the apparent startingtorque efficiency are low.
Where
current, necessary, the induction motor thus requires the use of a resistance in the armature or secondary, just as the direct
current shunt motor, and this resistance must be a rheostat, that is, variable, so as to have maximum resistance in starting,
at least in a number of successive steps, cut out the resistance during acceleration. This, however, requires a wound secondary, and the squirrelcage type of rotor, which is the simplest, most reliable and therefore most generally used, is not adapted for the use of a starting rheostat. With the squirrelcage type of induction motor, and always with large motors starting thus is usually done
and gradually, or
in a
by lowering the impressed voltage by autotransformer, often number of successive steps. This reduces the starting
but correspondingly reduces the starting torque, as does not change the apparent startingtorque efficiency.
current,
it
The higher the rotor resistance, the greater is the starting torque, and the less, therefore, the starting current required for
1
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
a given torque when starting by autotransformer. However, and poorer speed high rotor resistance means lower efficiency resistance the limits this and permissible economically regulation,
in the rotor or secondary.
Discussion of the starting of the induction motor by armature rheostat, and of the various speedtorque curves produced by various values of starting resistance in the inductionmotor
" of Alternatingsecondary, are given in Theory and Calculation current Phenomena" and in "Theoretical Elements of Electrical
7
Engineering.'
As seen, in the induction motor, the (effective) secondary resistance should be as low as possible at full speed, but should at standstill very high compared to the fullspeed be
high value and gradually decrease during acceleration, to maintain To avoid the constant high torque from standstill to speed. inconvenience and complication of operating a starting rheostat,
various devices have been proposed and to
increases with inproduce a resistance, which automatically and higher at standstill. creasing slip, and thus is low at full speed,
cient of resistance, such as iron and other pure metals, operated at high temperature, gives this effect to a considerable extent: with increasing slip, that is, decreasing speed of the motor, the
If
considerably in temperathe temperature and of increase the current, secondary ture, by therewith the resistance increases. Approximately, the temperature rise, and thus the resistance
it rises
rise of
may
sented by:
r
(1
aii
).
As
illustration,
:
constants
is
shown
as
in Fig. 1,
SPEED CONTROL
Suppose now a resistance, r, is inserted in series into the secondary circuit, which when cold that is, at lightload equals the internal secondary resistance:
but increases so as to double with 100 amp, passing through This resistance can then be represented by:
r
it.
= =
(1
0.1 (1
+ if 10+ if 10~
4
)
),
FIG.
1.
by
posi
and the
motor then
is:
(2)
To
calculate the
characteristics for this varying resistuse the feature, that a change of the secondary re
motor
slip, s,
in proportion
to the change of resistance, but leaves the torque, current, powerfactor, torque efficiency, etc., unchanged, as shown on page " 322 of Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering."
We
3 ,
thus calculate the motor for constant secondary resistance, r but otherwise the same constants, in the manner discussed on 7 " page 318 of Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering/
4
This gives curve
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
of Fig.
1.
At any value
is:
2
of torque, T, corre
sponding to
slip, s,
\/&i
&2
2
>
(2)
the value of
r'i,
and from
this the
new
(3)
s'
r'i
ri.
The
torque, T, then
is
1.
gives curve
of Fig.
torque over the entire range Curve B has twice the slip at load, as A, as
of slip, s', and plotted against the value As seen, B gives practically constant from near full speed, to standstill.
its
resistance has
been doubled.
were made r Assuming, now, that the internal resistance, x external as = added rest the and 0.05, as low as possible, n = the r coefficient: giving 0.05, resistance of high temperature
3.
,
total resistance
(4)
= 0.1, at lightThis gives the same resistance as curve A: r\ of the resistance cold. load, where ii is small and the external part But with increasing load the resistance, r'i, increases, and the
motor gives the curve shown as C in Fig. 1. As seen, curve C is the same near synchronism as A, but in due to the increased starting gives twice as much torque as A,
resistance.
thus are directly comparable: both have the same constants and same speed regulation and other performance at and during speed, but C gives much higher torque at standstill
C and A
acceleration.
For comparison, curve A! has been plotted with constant resistance r\ 0.2, so as to compare with B. Instead of inserting an external resistance, it would be preferable to use the internal resistance of the squirrel cage, to increase in value
by temperature
rise,
motor shown
At
0.217; while cold, the re153; thus r\ standstill, it is: ii = This represents a resistance rise of 117 0.1. sistance is: r'i
per cent.
At a temperature
this represents a
maximum temperature
335C.
As
seen,
SPEED CONTROL
by going
to temperature of about
350C.
which naturally would require fireproof construction it becomes possible to convert curve A into C, or A into B, in Fig. 1. Probably, the high temperature would be permissible only in the end connections, or the squirrelcage end ring, but then, iron could be used as resistance material, which has a materially higher temperature coefficient, and the required temperature rise thus would probably be no higher.
B. Hysteresis Starting Device
Instead of increasing the secondary resistance with increasing slip, to get high torque at low speeds, the same result can be produced by the use of an effective resistance, such as the effect4.
ive or equivalent resistance of hysteresis, or of eddy currents. As the frequency of the secondary current varies, a magnetic
circuit energized
by the secondary
s.
frequency At a given current, ii, the voltage required to send the current through the magnetic circuit is proportional to the frequency, that is, to s. Hence, the susceptance is inverse proportional
to
s:
of the slip,
yJThe angle
(q
of hysteretic advance of phase, a, and the powerin a closed magnetic circuit, are independent of the factor, and vary relatively little with the magnetic density frequency,
and thus the current, over a wide range, 1 thus may approximately be assumed as constant. That is, the hysteretic conductance
is
= V
tan
a.
(6)
circuit
of negligible resistance and negligible eddycurrent losses, at the frequency of slip, s, is given by:
Y'
 jb = V (tan
1
 j)
.x
J, ; (tanj)
Theory and Chapter XII.
l
.6
frt\
(7)
"
Calculation
of
Alternatingcurrent
Phenomena,"
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Assuming tan a
0.6,
which
is
mag
(0.6
J),
the exciting admittance at slip, s. Assume then, that such an admittance, F', is connected in series into the secondary circuit of the induction motor, for the pur
pose of using the effective resistance of hysteresis, which increases with the frequency, to control the motor torque curve.
The
total secondary
r7f Z/ 1
.
impedance then
yf
is
*7 JL. l\ f
+S
where
full
Y =
jb
is
frequency, and
y
5.
V0 + b
2
2.
For
illustration,
:
of the
constants
0.2 j;
0.05
+ +
0.15 j; 0.15 j;
full
is
frequency admittance,
Y = gjb;
and assume:
g
6
= =
0.664;
thus,
by
(8)
Z\ =
The
fering
(0.05
0.11
a)
0.335
js.
(9)
now be
motor with
from the standard motor only in that Z\ is not constant, and the proper value of r i; a? and m has to be used for every
3
slip, s.
SPEED CONTROL
For comparison is shown, as T in dotted lines, the torque curve of the motor of constant secondary resistance, and of the
f
,
constants:
= ZQ = Zi =
7o
0.01
0.01
0.1
0.1 j;
j',
+ 0.3 + 0.3 j;
As
standstill
seen, the hysteresis starting device gives higher torque at and low speeds, with less slip at full speed, thus a
FIG. 2.
Speed curves
of induction
starting device.
T? the efficiency, 7 the apparent the torque efficiency and 7' the apparent torqiie
However, T corresponds to a motor of twice the admittance That is, to get approximately and half the impedance of T e the same output, with the hysteresis device inserted, as without it, requires a rewinding of the motor for higher magnetic density, the same as would be produced in T by increasing the voltage
.
\/2 times.
It is interesting to note in
1,
that
the change in the torque curve at low and medium speed, produced by the hysteresis starting device, is very similar to that produced by temperature rise of the secondary resistance; at
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the slip, while the speed, however, the hysteresis device reduces it unchanged. leaves device temperature The foremost disadvantage of the use of the hysteresis device in Fig. 3 as p. is the impairment of the powerfactor, as seen resistance representing the effective the of The introduction
is
higher
than the
resistance,
characteristics.
Comparing
"
Theoretical
FIG. 3.
Load curves
of induction
motor with
7
Engineering/ which gives the load curves of T of Fig. 2, it is seen that the hysteresis starting device reduced the maximum powerfactor, p, from 91 per cent, to 84 per cent.,
Elements
f
of Electrical
Assuming that, instead of using a welllaminated magnetic and utilizing hysteresis to give the increase of effective resistance with increasing slip, we use a magnetic circuit having
6.
circuit,
iron, or
very high eddycurrent losses: very thick laminations or solid we directly provide a closed highresistance secondary winding around the magnetic circuit, which is inserted into the
inductionmotor secondary for increasing the starting torque.
SPEED CONTROL
same law
9
the
The susceptance of the magnetic circuit obviously follows as when there are no eddy currents. That is:
At a given
currents,
is
current,
ii,
energizing the magnetic circuit, the inalso the voltage producing the eddy
proportional to the frequency. The currents are proportional to the voltage, and the eddycurrent losses, thereThe eddyfore, are proportional to the square of the voltage.
independent of the frequency. magnetic circuit consuming energy by other currents (and secondary currents in permanent closed eddy of negligible hysteresis loss, thus is represented, as circuits),
current conductance,
g,
thus
is
The admittance
of a
function of the
slip,
by the
expression:
Y'
= gj~ s
(11)
Connecting such an admittance in series to the inductionmotor secondary, gives the total secondary impedance:
Z =
',
Z,
+
2j3\
= Ax +
Assuming
:
+j
=
/*!
*
,
'
(12)
&.
(13)
That
is,
circuit at full
45 phase angle of the exciting circuit of the magnetic frequency which corresponds to complete screen
magnet
core
we
get:
Fig. 4 shows the speed curves, and Fig. 5 the load curves, calculated in the standard manner, of a motor with eddycurrent
= F = Z = Zi =
6
100; o.03
0.3 j;
jf;
0.033
0.033
+ 0.1 + 0.1 j;
63;
10
thus:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
curious shape: a seen, the torque curve has a very maximum at second a and cent, higher 7 maximum at per slip,
7.
As
standstill.
all speeds, and pracefficiency is very high at to fairly close of standstill from cent, at 82 constant per tically
The torque
speed,
full
when
it
increases.
.Sj;
100
.o
FIG. 4.
Speed curves
of induction
But the powerfactor is very poor, reaching a maximum of 78 per cent, only, and to get the output from the motor, required rewinding it to give the equivalent of a \/3 times as high voltage. 1 For comparison, in dotted lines as T is shown the torque curves As seen, in of the standard motor, of same maximum torque. the motor with eddycurrent starting device, the slip at load is very small, that is, the speed regulation very good. Aside from
the poor powerfactor, the motor constants would be very
satisfactory.
By
secondary
SPEED CONTROL
11
and the starting torque reduced, the depression in the torque curve between fullspeed torque and starting torque eliminated,
etc.
circuit,
the magnetic
secondary
may
be used,
this case, instead of relying on eddy currents, a definite secondary circuit could be utilized, in the form of a second
and in
squirrel cage
embedded deeply
is,
a double
squirrelcage motor.
FIG. 5.
Load curves
of induction
starting device.
Chapter
shall see speedtorque curves of the character as the use of the rotor iron as magnetic cirshown in Fig. 4. is somewhat reduced, cuit, the impairment of the powerfactor
II,
we
By
motor becomes
industrially
important.
eddy currents for increasing the effective resistance at low speeds, is by the use of deep rotor bars. By building the rotor with narrow and deep slots filled
further
way
of utilizing
with solid deep bars, eddy currents in these bars occur at higher That is, the curfrequencies, or unequal current distribution. bars at the high of the rent flows practically all through the top
12
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
with, a high resistfrequency of low motor speeds, thus meeting thus decreasing and motor With increasing speed ance. into the bar, current the deeper penetrates secondary frequency, throughout uniformly it until at full speed passes practically somewhat but resistance low of circuit a in the entire
bar,
increased reactance.
The deepbar
and the double
which usually
discussed
is
device construction, the eddycurrent starting are very similar thus construction squirrelcage
and the double squirrel cage, the most economical arrangement, thus will be
Chapter
II.
more
fully in
II.
CONSTANTSPEED OPERATION
8.
motor, that
speed is practically constant for all loads, with increasing load, from synchronism at decreasing slightly It thus has the same speed characteristics as the directnoload. current shunt motor, and in principle is a shunt motor. In the directcurrent shunt motor, the speed may be changed
its
in the field, change of by: resistance in the armature, resistance multivolt supply circuit, the voltage supply to the armature by a as a threewire system, etc. In the induction motor, the speed can be reduced by inserting resistance into the armature or secondary, just as in the direct
current shunt motor, and involving the same disadvantages: the reduction of speed by armature resistance takes place at a sacrifice of efficiency, and at the lower speed produced by armature resistance, the power input is the same as it would be with the same motor torque at full speed, while the power output is
reduced by the reduced speed. That is, speed reduction by armature resistance lowers the efficiency in proportion to the lowering of speed. The foremost disadvantage of speed control by armature resistance is, however, that the motor ceases to be a constantspeed motor, and the speed varies with the load: with a given value of armature resistance, if the load and with it the armature current drops to onehalf, the speed reduction of the motor, from full speed, also decreases to onehalf, that is, the motor speeds up, and if the load comes off, the motor runs up to practically full speed. Inversely, if the load increases, the
speed slows
down proportional to the load. With considerable resistance in the armature, the induction
SPEED CONTROL
motor thus has rather
istic,
13
series characteristic
speed is limited by synchronism. Series resistance in the armature thus is not suitable to produce steady running at low speeds. To a considerable extent, this disadvantage of inconstancy of
except that
its
speed can be overcome: (a) By the use of capacity or effective capacity in the motor secondary, which contracts the range of torque into that of approximate resonance of the capacity with the motor inductance,
fairly constant speed, independent of the load, at various speed values determined by the value of the capacity. (6) By the use of a resistance of very high negative tempera
ture coefficient in the armature, so that with increase of load and current the resistance decreases by its increase of temperature,
loss of efficiency
9. There is no method of speed variation of the induction motor analogous to field control of the shunt motor, or change of the armature supply voltage by a multivolt supply system. The field excitation of the induction motor is by what may be That is, the same voltage, impressed called armature reaction. upon the motor primary, gives the energy current and the field exciting current, and the field excitation thus can not be varied without varying the energy supply voltage, and inversely. Furthermore, the noload speed of the induction motor does not depend on voltage or field strength, but is determined by
synchronism. The speed of the induction motor can, however, be changed: (a) By changing the impressed frequency, or the effective
frequency.
(6) By changing the number of poles of the motor. Neither of these two methods has any analogy in the directcurrent shunt motor: the directcurrent shunt motor has no frequency relation to speed, and its speed is not determined by the
of poles, nor is it feasible, with the usual construction of directcurrent motors, to easily change the number of poles.
number
In the induction motor, a change of impressed frequency correspondingly changes the synchronous speed. The effect of a change of frequency is brought about by concatenation of the
14
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
motor with a second motor, or by internal concatenation of the motor: hereby the effective frequency, which determines the between noload or speed, becomes the difference
synchronous
is
more
fully discussed in
Chapter
III.
As the noload or synchronous speed of the induction motor of the number of poles depends on the number of poles, a change if in a 60cycle induction motor, motor the Thus, speed. changes the the number of poles is changed from four to six and to eight, to 900 revolutions per and 1200 to 1800 from is changed speed
minute.
This method of speed variation of the induction motor, by most convenient, and such changing the number of poles, is the "multispeed motors" are extensively used industrially,
A. Pyroelectric
10.
Speed Control
or secondary Speed control by resistance in the armature but at not is the constant, that has the disadvantage speed consumed the of thus and voltage load of current, a change by the armature resistance, and therefore the speed changes* To give constancy of speed over a range of load would require a resistance, which consumes the same or approximately the same voltage at all values of current. A resistance of very with increase of high negative temperature coefficient does this:
and
current and thus increase of temperature, the resistance decreases, if the decrease of resistance is as large as the increase of
and therefore current, the voltage consumed by the resistance, the motor speed, remains constant. " Some pyroelectric conductors (see Chapter I, of Theory
) have negative temperature coefficients sufficiently high for this purpose. Fig. 6 shows the currentresistance characteristic of a pyroelectric conductor, consisting of cast silicon (the same of which the characteristic
and Calculation
of Electric Circuits
77
is
given as rod II in Fig. 6 of "Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits")' Inserting this resistance, half of it and one and onehalf of it into the secondary of the induction motor of constants Z l = 0.1 +0.3j 0.3 0.1 0.1 j;Z* e = 110; 7o = 0.01
:
gives the speedtorque curves shown in Fig. 7, The calculation of these curves is as follows:
The speed
0,
SPEED CONTROL
15
FIG. 6.
PYROELECTRIC RESISTANCE
SPE"E'D
<
=110.
0.1
3>
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8 O.a
0.9
1
7.
Speed control
of induction
motor by
pyroelectric conductor,
speed curves
16
is
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
calculated in the usual
way
as described
"
Theoretical Elements of
slip, s,
is ii
Electrical
value of
current
vV +
a 22
To
this
of the pyroelectric conductor, sponds, by Fig. 6, the resistance, r, the slip in proportion to the increases and the insertion of r thus
^r^'
where
n =
0.1 in the
TI
where
slip at torque,
r\.
T with
f
shortcircuited armature, or
resistance,
is Fig. 7, very close constantspeed regulation wide a over the resistance, of use the pyroelectric produced by motor speeds up. range of load, and only at lightload the
As seen from
below Thus, good constantspeed regulation at any speed be would low to produced down speeds, very synchronism, at a corresponding sacrifice of efficiency, however by the use of suitable pyroelectric conductors in the motor armature.
is
The only objection to the use of such pyroelectric resistances the difficulty of producing stable pyroelectric conductors, and permanent terminal connections on such conductors.
B. Condenser Speed Control
11. The reactance of a condenser is inverse proportional to the frequency, that of an inductance is directly proportional to the frequency. In the secondary of the induction motor, the frequency varies from zero at synchronism, to full frequency at is inserted into the standstill. If, therefore, a suitable capacity
secondary of an induction motor, there is a definite speed, at which inductive reactance and capacity reactance are equal and opposite, that is, balance, and at and near this speed, a large
current is taken by the motor and thus large torque developed, while at speeds considerably above or below this resonance speed, the current and thus torque of the motor are small.
The use
of a capacity, or
an
tion cell or
aluminum
cell)
in the inductionmotor
secondary
should therefore afford, at least theoretically, a means of speed control by varying the capacity.
SPEED CONTROL
Let, In
17
an induction motor:
g
TQ
TI
YQ
Zi
= =
jb
=
Q
ZQ =
+ jx = + jxi =
and
let
The
frequency the condenser, C, be inserted into the secondary circuit. capacity reactance of C is
at full frequency,
of slip,
s.
The
s,
thus
is
Zi'ri+^as!*)
and the secondary current:
___
__
sE_
__
$e
2 ),
'
(2)
=
where
:
jE (ai
 ja
= =
a2
(4)
(k\
SXi
j
is
The
same
the
= EY
/i
is:
"
18
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
(ri
+ sr + ^i +
)
jf
SXQ
or, absolute:
+
The torque
of the
sro)
+
is
:
(sxi
sx
motor
T =
and, substituting (4) and (6):
ai
+ (/c\
s#i
sa;o
As seen, this torque is a maximum in the range of slip, s, where the second term in the denominator vanishes, while for values of s, materially differing therefrom, the second term in the denominator is large, and the torque thus small.
That
is,
given by:
SXl
+ SXQ _
/
that
is:
TT
and
so
(8)
1,
that
is,
maximum
torque near
(9)
standstill, for:
XQ
XL
13.
of a
Z =
0.01
0.1 j,
Zi
0.1
0.3 j,
SPEED CONTROL
for the values of capacity reactance
:
19
0,
denoted respectively
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
motor
is
assumed to be varied
with the change of capacity, so as to give the same torque for all values of capacity.
maximum
is
given, at the
=
(ri
r )>
(*BI
*CO
~)'
IN
SECONDARY
d').
7
\
\
1.0
.8
xi
circuit.
FIG. 8.
At
full
frequency, with the same voltage impressed upon the its voltampere capacity, and thus its 60eycle rating,
20
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
As
seen,
a very large amount of capacity is required for speed This limits its economic usefulness, and makes the control. desirable. use of a cheaper form of effective or equivalent capacity
C. Multispeed
14.
Motors
of poles, in
The change
of speed
the multispeed induction motor, involves the use of fractionalwhich is of full pole pitch for pitch windings: a primary turn, fractional pitch for a smaller is a given number of motor poles, full pitch for a larger number number of poles, and more than rotor or secondary, if the to The same then applies of poles. and most frequently usual The containing a definite winding. secondary obviously has no definite
is
number
of
As an
illustration
may
and eight poles. changing between the that primary winding is fullpitch for the sixAssuming each .that primary turn covers onesixth of the is, polar motor, circumference. motor Then, for the fourpolar motor, the it is is pitch, for the eightpolar motor primary winding as same the is latter which pitch. effectively pitch Suppose now the primary winding is arranged and connected
four, six
a sixpolar threephase winding. Comparing it with the turns, arranged as a fourpolar threephase windeach phase or eightpolar threephase winding, the turns of ing,
as
same primary
can be grouped in six sections: Those which remain in the same phase when changing to a
winding for different number of poles. Those which remain in the same phase, but are reversed when
changing the number of poles. Those which have to be transferred to the second phase. Those which have to be transferred to the second phase in the
reverse direction.
Those which have to be transferred to the third phase. Those which have to be transferred to the third phase
reverse direction.
in the
The problem of multispeed motor design then is, so to arrange the windings, that the change of connection of the six coil groups of each phase, in changing from one number of poles to another, is accomplished with the least number of switches.
SPEED CONTROL
15. Considering
21
the change of motor constants when changing speed by changing the number of poles. Assuming that at all speeds, the same primary turns are connected in series,
now
and are merely grouped differently, it follows, that the selfinductive impedances remain essentially unchanged by a change of the number of poles from n to n'. That is;
ZQ
l
= Z'o, Z = Z'L
flux per pole
With the same supply voltage impressed upon the same number
of series turns, the
magnetic
remains unchanged
there:
number
&_
B
magnetic
"
rf
therefore, the ampereturns per pole required for producing the flux, also must be proportional to the number of poles:
n
However, with the same
total
number
of turns, the
number
of poles:
of
number
N^n N
of poles:
ZJH)
n''
In consequence hereof, the exciting currents, at the same impressed voltage, are proportional to the square of the number
n^_
ioo
n2
number
of poles :
The magnetic flux per pole remains the same, and thus the magneticflux density, and with it the hysteresis loss in the primary core, remain the same, at a change of the number of
poles.
The tooth
number
of poles, as the
number
of teeth,
22
poles.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Since the tooth densities must be chosen sufficiently low not to reach saturation at the highest number of poles, and their core loss is usually small compared with that in the primary core that the core loss of itself, it can be assumed approximately,
the motor
of the
the same, at the same impressed voltage, regardless This means, that the exciting conof poles. not does change with the number of poles. ductance, g, f n poles, we change to n poles, or by the of if motor in a Thus,
is
number
ratio
ri
>
from
to
ZQ Zi Fo
16.
= = =
7'
Tl
+ JXQ, + JXi,
jb,
= = Z Fo =
ZQ
1
TQ
Ti
 ja*b.
+ JXQ. + JXL
However, when changing the number of poles, the pitch winding changes, and allowance has to be made herefore in the constants: a fractionalpitch winding, due to the partial
of the
neutralization of the turns, obviously has a somewhat higher exciting admittance, and lower selfinductive impedance, than
a fullpitch winding. As seen, in a multispeed motor, the motor constants at the higher number of poles and thus the lower speed, must be
materially inferior than at the higher speed, due to the increase of the exciting susceptance, and the performance of the motor,
and
especially its powerfactor and thus the apparent efficiency, are inferior at the lower speeds.
When
all
turns for
all
speeds,
and using the same impressed voltage, torque in synchronous watts, and power are essentially the same at all speeds, that is, are decreased for the lower speed and larger number of poles
only as far as due to the higher exciting admittance. The actual torque thus would be higher for the lower speeds, and approximately inverse proportional to the speed. As a rule, no more torque is required at low speed than at
high speed, and the usual requirement would be, that the multispeed motor should carry the same torque at all its running speeds, that is, give a power proportional to the speed.
SPEED CONTROL
for the larger
23
is
all
speeds, that
FIG. 9.
Load curves
is,
approximately equal, then the magnetic flux per pole and the density in the primary core decreases with increasing number of poles, while that in the teeth increases, but less than at constant
impressed voltage. The change of constants, by changing the number of poles by the ratio
:
n'
n
thus
is:
from:
YQ,
to
aZo
and the characteristic constant is changed from $ to a?$. 17. As numerical instance may be considered a 60cycle 100volt motor, of the constants:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
MULTISPEED INDUCTION
6 POLES 1200 REV.
AM 8 MULTISPEED INDUCTION MOTOR /
speed
curve
motor,
of
multi
FIG.
11.
Load curves
of multi
middle
REV.
1800
FIG. 12.
Comparison
motor.
SPEED CONTROL
Four
poles,
25
r + jx = 0.1 + 0.3 j; + 0.3 j; Y = g  jb = 0.01  0.05 j. Six poles, 1200 rev.: Z = r + j# = 0.15 + 0.45 j; Zi = n + jxi = 0.15 + 0.45 j; F = g jb = 0.0067 ~ 0.0667 j. = r + = 0.2 + 0.6 j; Eight poles, 900 rev.: Z = 0.2 + 0.6 j; 7 = g  # = 0.005  0.1 j. Zi = ri + ja?!
1800 rev.:
Z =
Q
Zi
= ri+jxi =
0.1
Q
jx<>
Figs. 9, 10 and 11 show the load curves of the motor, at the three different speeds. Fig. 12 shows the load curves once more,
18001200900 REV
not
100L
.KW.
.9.
90.
S._80.
_50.
_30.
900100011001200130014001500160017001800
FIG, 13.
with
all
torque in synchronous watts (referred to full speed or fourpolar synchronism) as abscissae, to give a better comparison. S denotes the speed, I the current, p the powerfactor and 7 the apparent efficiency. Obviously, carrying the same load, that
is,
giving the
i
same torque
power
output, and in a multispeed motor the maximum power output should be approximately proportional to the speed, to operate Thereat all speeds at the same part of the motor characteristic. the power fore, a comparison of the different speed curves by
output does not show the performance as well as a comparison on the basis of torque, as given in Fig. 12.
26
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
As seen from
Fig. 12, at the high speed, the motor performance excellent, but at the lowest speed, powerfactor and apparent
is
efficiency are already low, especially at lightload. The three current curves cross at the lowest speed, the
:
motor
;
takes most current at noload, as the exciting current is highest at higher values of torque, obviously the current is greatest at
the highest speed, where the torque represents most power. The speed regulation is equally good at all speeds. Fig. 13 then shows the speed curves, with revolutions per minute as abscissae, for the three numbers of poles. It gives
current, torque
and power
is
as ordinates,
maximum
nearly the same at all three speeds, while torque current and power drop off with decrease of speed.
CHAPTER
II
secondary, by small bars of highresistance material located close to the periphery of the rotor. Such a motor has a great slip of
speed under load, therefore poor efficiency and poor speed regubut it has a high starting torque and torque at low and intermediate speed. With a low resistance fairly highreactance secondary, the slip of speed under load is small, therefore efficiency and speed regulation good, but the starting torque and torque at low and intermediate speeds is low, and the current
lation,
in starting and at low speed is large. To combine good starting with good running characteristics, a noninductive resistance is used in the secondary, which is cut out during acceleration. This, however, involves a complication, which is undesirable
in many cases, such as in ship propulsion, etc. By arranging then two squirrel cages, one highresistance lowreactance one,
consisting
iron,
of
highresistance bars close to the rotor surface, bars, located deeper in the armature
7
that is, inside of the first squirrel cage, and thus of higher reactance, a "double squirrelcage induction motor' is derived, which to some extent combines the characteristics of the highThat is, at startresistance and the lowresistance secondary.
ing and low speed, the frequency of the magnetic flux in the armature, and therefore the voltage induced in the secondary winding is high, and the highresistance squirrel cage thus carries considerable current, gives good torque and torque efficiency, while the lowresistance squirrel cage is ineffective, due to its high reactance at the high armature frequency. At speeds near synchronism, the secondary frequency, being that of slip, is low, and the secondary induced voltage correspondingly low. The highresistance squirrel cage thus carries little current and gives In the lowresistance squirrel cage, due to its low little torque. reactance at the low frequency of slip, in spite of the relatively
27
28
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
e.m.f., considerable current is
low induced
produced, which
is
Such double squirrelcage inducwhich to some extent is a a thus curve, motor tion torque gives the of curve the of highresistance and that torque superposition two has maxima, one at low lowresistance of the squirrel cage,
effective in producing torque.
speed,
and another near synchronism, therefore gives a fairly the entire speed range good torque and torque efficiency over
from standstill to full speed, that is, combines the good features Where a very high starting torque requires of both types. first the torque maximum, near standstill, and large size locating
and high
second torque
maximum
very close
to synchronism, the drop of torque between the two maxima may be considerable. This is still more the case, ivhen the motor
is,
that is, a very required to reverse at full speed and full power, or at or near at full is backward, speed required high torque = be used, that a this In 2. may $ squirrel cage triple case, slip three squirrel cages inside of each other: the outermost, of
is
high resistance and low reactance, gives maximum torque below standstill, at backward rotation; the second squirrel cage, of
resistance and medium reactance, gives its maximum moderate speed; and the innermost squirrel cage, of at torque low resistance and high reactance, gives its torque at full speed,
medium
most
squirrel cage, so as to avoid the excessive reactance of a closed magnetic circuit, that is, have the magnetic leakage flux
or selfinductive flux pass an air gap. 19. In the calculation of the standard induction motor, it is usual to start with the mutual magnetic flux, $, or rather with
the voltage induced by this flux, the mutual inductive voltage $ = e, as it is most convenient, with the mutual inductive
voltage, e, as starting point, to pass to the secondary current by the selfinductive impedance, to the primary current and primary impressed voltage by the primary selfinductive impedance and
exciting admittance. In the calculation of multiple squirrelcage induction motors, it is preferable to introduce the true induced voltage, that is,
the voltage induced by the resultant magnetic flux interlinked with the various circuits, which is the resultant of the mutual
and the
selfinductive
circuit.
INDUCTION MOTOR
29
gradually building up to the primary, circuit. The advantage hereof is, that the current in every secondary circuit is in
phase
circuit,
and
is
ii
=
TI
>
where TI is the resistance of the circuit. As ei is the voltage induced by the resultant of the mutual magnetic flux coming from the primary winding, and the selfinductive flux corresponding to the i&i of the secondary, the reactance, x it does not
any more in the equation of the current, and e\ is the voltage due to the magnetic flux which passes beyond the circuit in which e\ is induced. In the usual inductionmotor theory, the mutual magnetic flux, $, induces a voltage, E, which produces a current, and this current produces a selfinductive flux, $'j,
enter
tracts
giving rise to a counter e.m.f. of selfinduction I&i, which subfrom E. However, the selfinductive flux, <'i, interlinks
with the same conductors, with which the mutual flux, $, interlinks, and the actual or resultant flux interlinkage thus is $1 = $'i, and this produces the true induced voltage ei = E from which the multiple squirrelcage calculation starts. 1 I&i,
<
$2
/2 Zz
= =
and
$i
li
=
=
selfinductive impedance at full frequency, reduced to the primary circuit. true induced voltage in outer squirrel cage, reduced
+ jx* =
to full frequency,
current,
TI
and
Zi
$
I$Q
selfinductive impedance at full frequency, reduced to primary circuit. voltage induced in secondary and primary circuits by
+ jxi =
mutual magnetic
flux,
= Jo = ZQ = YO =
primary current, r + jxo = primary self inductive impedance, and = primary exciting admittance. ff jb
Circuits",
^ee' "Electric
Apparatus,
Chapter
XII.
Beactance
of
Induction
30
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The leakage
reactance,
is that due x*, of the inner squirrel cage inner the in current the cage, squirrel by which passes between the two squirrel cages, and does not include the reactance due to the flux resulting from the current, J2 which beyond the outer squirrel cage, as the latter is
passes
squirrel cages,
It is then, at slip s:
72
= =
^I
(1)
+ /TV
/i
0)
T
/2
/I
TV +V *OV
J
W
/Q^
and:
E = $ + jo;i
3
(/i
Q
+ /)
(5)
TTT
j[T/
jT^
^r/ QJt
/\ v//
\
The leakage flux of the outer squirrel cage is produced by the m.m.f. of the currents of both squirrel cages, /i /2, and the reactance voltage of this squirrel cage, in (5), thus IBJXI (/i /a)
seen, the difference between E l and J 2 is the voltage induced by the flux which leaks between the two squirrel cages, in
As
the path of the reactance, # 2 or the reactance voltage, #2/2? the difference between $ and #1 is the voltage induced by the rotor
,
This has the flux leaking outside of the outer squirrel cage. is the reactance thus reactance and the m.m.f. /i voltage xi, /a> The difference between Q and $ is the voltage #1 (/i /2).
/o.
(4)
and
(5) .are
the
voltages reduced to full frequency; the actual voltages are s times as high, but since all three terms in these equations are
(6) follows:
(7)
(9)
INDUCTION MOTOR
where:
a\
31
=
=
:
1
TlT2,
&2
/,
J. 5!  o
J
(10)
\ri
r2
r2
(ID
where:
(12)
and the
total
primary current
is (3)
(13)
where:
0,= + i
(14)
(6)
(r
where
+
(16)
hence, absolute:

(17)
9
io
"0 *
+
i
/I
.
O\
(lo)
22.
of current
(19)
(20)
32
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
:
D D +D
2
l9
(21)
P =
(Herefrom subtracts the
output.)
(i
s)
D.
(22)
power
is:
Po
cjd*),
(23)
Q =
T>
effi
Q,
TO
23. As illustrations are shown, in Pigs. 14 and 15, the speed curves and the load curves of a double squirrelcage induction motor, of the constants:
e = Z = Z = = 2 7 =
Q
l
110 volts;
0.5
0.01
0.1 j;
$
to
2,
that
is,
from
The
total torque as well as the two individual torques are shown on the speed curve. These curves are derived by calculating, for
the values of
5
$':
0,
INDUCTION MOTOR
33
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
,6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
FIG. 14.
1.0
1.5
20
2.5
30
35
40
45
50
55
KW
FIG. 15.
Load curves
34:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS

the values:
r3
r2
Z> 2
s)
,
D =
P = Po =
and:
P_
Di
(1
e2
D,
,0
P D
Po
Pa'Po'C' C' Q*
Triple Squirrelcage Induction.
24. Let:
Motor
= voltage, / = current, and Z = r * = flux, jx = selfinductive impedance, at full frequency and reduced to primary circuit, and let the quantities of the innermost squirrel cage be
denoted by index
3,
the outer squirrel cage by 1, of the primary circuit mutual inductive quantities without index.
by 2, of by 0, and the
Also
let:
==
jb
at slip s:
m (D
INDUCTION MOTOR
current in the middle squirrel cage:
35
/2
~
r2
2
;
v (2) y
=
~J~~>
(3)
primary current:
/o
= /
__
__
+
I
/2
+ /i + Y E.
Q
(4)
The
771
T
/
/C\
T
i^
7"
777
777
*

/iC\
7*
[
777
777
[
/T
j
f7\
EQ
where
#3
is
= E
Zo/0,
(8)
the reactance due to the flux leakage between the third and the second squirrel cage; x% the reactance of the leak
age flux between second and first squirrel cage; a?i the reactance of the first squirrel cage and XQ that of the primary circuit, that XQ corresponds to the total leakage flux between primary is, X*
and outer most squirrel cage. E$, E 2 and $1 are the true induced voltages in the three squirrel cages, E the mutual inductive voltage between primary and secondary, and E Q the primary impressed voltage
25.
From
equations
(1) to (8)
then follows:
(9)
(10)
where:
ai
(12)
2
i
36
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
# =
(14)
where:
(15)
62
&2
+
:
^
I
TB
= YE
x
+ J6
2)
(flf
 Jb)
(16)
where
C]
(17)
and the
total
primary current, by
(4)
(18)
where:
4 JL
S
2
(19)
iC 3
,
=
where:
#3
(di
+ jdz)
fro
ja;o)
(20)
(21)
by
(8)
= E3
where:
(22)
(23)
INDUCTION MOTOR
hence, absolute:
37
+
ei
_
(J 2
2
,
= =
e3
AoTlz"?.
is;
(25) (26)
(27)
26.
The torque
*;
(28)
and that
D, =
;
is:
(30)
D=
and the power:
the power input
is:
D,
(1
+ D + Da,
2
(31)
P =
Po
a)
D,
(32)
= =
/#,, / /'
es
2
(diflri
:
+ dtfj),
T>
(33)
Q =
io.
(34)
j>
the torque
effi
yj*
V power
efficiency * pr
efficiency TT
27. As illustrations are shown, in Figs. 16 and 17, the speed and the load curves of a triple squirrelcage motor with the
constants:
e = Z = Z = Z2 = Z3 = Fo =
1
110 volts;
0.1
0.8
0.2
0.05
0.01
+

0.8 ,7;
0.1 j;
38
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
TRIPLE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED CURVES
.1
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
FIG. 16.
LOAD CURVES
FIG. 17.
Load curves
INDUCTION MOTOR
39
the speed curves are shown from s ~ to s = 2, and on them, the individual torques of the three squirrel cages are shown in addition to the total torque.
for the
the values:
S*X%Xz
>
Co
+
=
2
firs!
bi
=
==
&i
63
t>2
&2
1
2
ei
ea
2
(fli
+ +a
2
2 ),
.5,5. ~+ + I" +
OU 2
j
Cl,
*t
3
(
O rz
D=
Oi
Di
(1
P=
V ~
and
+ D2 + D
s)
3,
D,
60^0?
P_
I)
P D
Po
PO'PO'Q'Q'Q'
CHAPTER
III
CONCATENATION
Cascade or Tandem Control of Induction Motors
of the first motor second motor, the second is connected to the primary of the the with motor a voltage and frequency machine operates as The first machine. the of it the secondary by impressed upon first machine acts as general alternatingcurrent transformer or frequency converter (see Chapter XII), changing a part of the primary impressed power into secondary electrical power for the supply of the second machine, and a part into mechanical work. The frequency of the secondary voltage of the first motor, and thus the frequency impressed upon the second motor, is the frequency of slip below synchronism, s. The frequency of the secondary of the second motor is the difference between its im
28. If of
Thus, if both motors are s, and its speed. connected together mechanically, to turn at the same speed, of poles, the secondary fre1 5, and have the same number 1, hence equal to zero at quency of the second motor is 2 s = its synchronism at motor reaches s That is, the second 0.5. At this speed, its torque becomes zero, the power half speed. component of its primary current, and thus the power component of the secondary current of the first motor, and thus also the torque of the first motor becomes zero. That is, a system of two concatenated equal motors, with shortcircuited secondary of the second motor, approaches half synchronism at noload, in the same manner as a single induction motor approaches synchronism. With increasing load, the slip below half synchronism increases. In reality, at half synchronism, s = 0.5, there is a slight torque produced by the first motor, as the hysteresis energy current of the second motor comes from the secondary of the first motor, and therein, as energy current, produces a small torque. More generally, any pair of induction motors connected in concatenation divides the speed so that the sum of their two
pressed frequency,
40
CONCATENATION
respective speeds approaches synchronism at noload; or,
41
still
more
generally,
any number
of
run at such speeds that the sum of their speeds approaches synchronism at noload. With mechanical connection between the two motors, concatenation thus offers a means of operating two equal motors at
full efficiency at half speed in tandem, as well as at full speed, in parallel, and thereby gives the same advantage as does series parallel control with directcurrent motors.
of different
number
nected together, concatenation allows three speeds that of the one motor alone, that of the other motor alone, and the speed of concatenation of both motors. Such concatenation of two motors of different numbers of poles, has the disadvantage that at the two highest speeds only one motor is used, the other idle, and the
apparatus economy thus inferior. However, with certain ratios of the number of poles, it is possible to wind one and the same motor structure so as to give at the same time two different
For instance, a fourpolar and an eightof poles: in this case, one and the same motor strucand winding; polar ture can be used either as fourpolar motor, with the one winding, or as eightpolar motor, with the other winding, or in concatenation of the two windings, corresponding to a twelvepolar speed.
numbers
Such "internally concatenated motors thus give three different limitation is, that speeds at full apparatus economy. The only be produced can ratios and economically certain speed speeds only
"
by
of
internal concatenation.
At half synchronism, the torque of the concatenated couple two equal motors becomes zero. Above half synchronism, the second motor runs beyond its impressed frequency, that is, becomes a generator. In this case, due to the reversal of current in the secondary of the first motor (this current now being out29.
When half synchronism. second the of approaching full synchronism, the generator torque becomes very motor, at least if its armature is of low resistance,
becomes an induction generator above
small, as this
to the second motor) flowing or generator current with regards its torque becomes negative also, that is, the concatenated couple
machine is operating very far above its synchronous With regards to the first motqr it thus begins to act speed. that is, the first merely as an impedance in the secondary circuit, machine ^becomes a motor dg&m. Thus, somewhere between
(
'
42
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and synchronism, the torque of the first motor motor still has a small negative or this speed, the torque of the above little A generator torque. about at twothirds synzero becomes concatenated couple motors and above of lowresistance chronism with a couple
half synchronism
the concatenated couple again gives a positive or motor a small negative torque though the second motor still returns
this,
torque
full
generator,
synchronism. Above more becomes synchronism, the concatenated couple once to the contributes motor first the but practically only
full
below full syngenerator torque above and the motor torque chronism. Thus, while a concatenated couple of induction motors has two operative motor speeds, half synchronism and full synchronism, the latter is uneconomical, as the second motor
holds back, and in the second or full synchronism speed range, it is more economical to cut out the second motor altogether, by shortcircuiting the secondary terminals of the first motor.
resistance in the secondary of the second motor, the maximum torque point of the second motor above half syn
With
chronism
is
becomes motor, is shifted closer to full synchronism, and the motor torque in the second speed range, below full synchronism, That is, with high resistis greatly reduced or even disappears. ance in the secondary of the second motor, the concatenated couple becomes generator or brake at half synchronism, and
remains so at
full
all
its
braking torque
shown
in Fig. 19, with high resistance in the armature or secondary of the second motor,
Fig. 18, with lowresistance armature,
illustrate this.
and
30. The numerical calculation of a couple of concatenated induction motors (rigidly connected together on the same shaft or the equivalent) can be carried out as follows
:
Let:
n
f
s*
number
n = number of pairs
43
ratio of poles,
(1)
/ = supply frequency.
Full synchronous speed of the
first
motor then
is:
So
=
motor:
(2)
of the second
<S'o
=
and thus speed
ratio (1
s) of
(3)
At
speed
slip s
is:
the
first
motor,
its
S =
(!*)& (!)
iL
(4)
and the frequency of its secondary circuit, and thus the frequency of the primary circuit of the second motor:
is:
llr
is
synchronous
nt
(1
5)
=
n
is
:
.
=
n
)
\n
J.
and the
slip of
frequency thus
s'
s (1
a)
s',
a.
(5)
This
slip of
becomes
zero, that
is,
the
* 
iTT
C6)
44
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
in this case is:
The speed
(1
so)
(7)
31. If:
0=1,
that
is,
as for instance
n
it is:
= =
n'
4,
so
0.5,
while at
full
synchronism:
~"
"~
n
If:
2,
n = n7 =
it Is:
4,
8,
= ?
3
that
*/n 4
if:
0.5,
8,
n = n7 =
it is:
4,
45
That is, is, corresponding to a twelvepolar motor again. as regards to the speed of the concatenated couple, it is immaterial in which order the two motors are concatenated.
32. It is then, in a concatenated
motor couple
>
of pole ratio:
a
if:
= n
n
slip of first
motor below
circuit of
full
first
synchronism.
motor is of full frequency. primary circuit of the first motor is of frequency s. secondary primary circuit of the second motor is of frequency s. secondary circuit of the second motor is of frequency s
the
a)
a.
Synchronism of concatenation
is
reached at:
_
1
Let thus:
CQ
voltage impressed of
g
g'
YQ
F'o
jb
= Zo =
jV
TQ
+ JXQ
= = =
motor primary; admittance of first motor; exciting admittance of second motor; exciting
first
selfinductive
impedance
of
first
motor
primary;
Z'Q
r'o
+ jx'o =
self inductive
primary;
Zi
Z'\
=
=
TI
+ jxi =
+ jx\ =
all
selfinductive
impedance
motor second
ary;
r\
selfinductive
secondary. these quantities reduced to the same turns per circuit, and to full frequency, as usual.
Assuming
If:
number
of
counter e.m.f generated in the second motor by magnetic flux, reduced to full frequency.
e
.
its
mutual
It is then:
__
^e
[s
(1
+ a) 
a] e
_ 
46
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
:
where
QF
rMaq _ +
.
o)
(1
a]
m m = rV + sV (s
/'ooeF' =
e
a)
a)
(10)
(/#'),
(ID
hence, primary current, of second motor, and also secondary current of first motor:
/'o
= =
/i
e (61
 #),
/']
+ /'oo
(12)
where
&!! + &2 = a* +
^ o,
+ js
+
(13)
the impedance of the circuit comprising the primary of the second, and the secondary of the first motor, is:
Z = ZS +
Z'
(n
+
:
r' )
(a?,
^o),
(14)
hence, the counter e.m.f., or induced voltage in the secondary of the first motor, of frequency is
sE l 
se
+ hZ,
=
where:
e (ci
+ jc
a ),
(15)
'o) 61
(16)
33.
The primary
**
motor
is:
V 00 = &IJ/"Ci
e(di
j
jds),

(17)
_
i
where:
^
r1
(18)
47
motor, or supply
first
Jo
= =
Ii
+ /oo
e (/i
 #2),
(19)
where
fz
&2
<
of the first
motor, or supply
(21)
where
yz
''a
*v(jj i
 mf 'OJ2J
I
(22)
and, absolute:
e
VVi 2
+^
2 2
,
(23)
thus:
Tp"
^24)
Substituting now this value of e in the preceding, gives the values of the currents and voltages in the different circuits. 34. It thus is, supply current:
power input:
Po
voltampere input:
etc.
is:
The
motor
__.
/
T
.
It
=
The
torque of the first motor
2 e a3
is
48
hence, the
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
total torque of
T =
Z"
Ti
(a,
:
Ci/i
C 2 /2),
P =
etc.
(I
s)
T,
efficiencies,
As instances are
calculated,
and shown in
+ 1.4
FIG. 18.
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
00.10.20.30.40.50.00.7
torque curves of the concatenated couple of two equal motors: a = 1, of the constants: e == 110 volts.
Y' = = Z Z' = = Z Z\ =
Q l
Y =
0.01
0.1
0.1
0.1 j;
+ 0.3 j; + 0.3J.
and the supply current. Fig. 19 shows the speed torque curves of the same concatenated couple with an additional resistance r = 0.5 inserted into
the secondary of the second motor. The load curves of the same motor, Fig. 18, for concatenated running, and also separately the load curves of either motor,
CONCATENATION
Engineering."
36. It
49
number
both
primary, receiving the supply voltage, and at the same time with an nf polar shortcircuited secondary winding. The rotor is wound with an npolar winding as secondary to the npolar
primary winding, but this npolar secondary winding is not shortcircuited, but connected to the terminals of a second
FIG. 19.
This latter thus n'polar winding, also located on the rotor. receives the secondary current from the npolar winding and acts as n'polar primary to the shortcircuited stator winding as
secondary.
n'polar,
This gives an npolar motor concatenated to an and the magnetic structure simultaneously carries an npolar and an n'polar magnetic field. With this arrangement " of internal concatenation," it is essential to choose the number of poles, n and n', so that the two rotating fields do not interfere
with each other, that is, the n'polar field does not induce in the npolar winding, nor the npolar field in the n'polar winding. This is the case if the one field has twice as many poles as the field. other, for instance a fourpolar and an eightpolar If such a fractionalpitch winding is used, that the coil pitch is suited for an npolar as well as an n'polar winding, then the same winding can be used for both sets of poles. In the stator,
the equipotential points of a 2ppolar winding are points of opposite polarity of a ppolar winding, and thus, by connecting together the equipotential points of a 2 ppolar primary winding,
50
this winding
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
becomes at the same time a ppolar shortcircuited
the secondary current of winding. On the rotor, in some slots, the of current n'polar winding flow the the ttpolar and primary in flow slots other in opposite direction, In the same direction, can be omitted In turns the and the in thus neutralize latter, the structure as of use for in be would but concatenation put f desired. is such where Thus, n of or motor of n, poles,
single
ment
and
winding
winding also is sufficient, and this arrangewith single stator and single rotor concatenation of internal the use of two separate motors, than efficient more is thus
single
better constants, as the selfinductive imof onethird of is the rotor less, due to the omission pedance of neutralize the currents motor). which (Hunt in the turns concatenation internal of this of The disadvantage arrangement
gives
somewhat
with single stator and rotor winding is the limitation of the available speeds, as it is adapted only to 4 5 8 * 12 poles and * H> tbe last thereof, thus to speed ratios of 1 *
Such internally concatenated motors may be used advantagerunously sometime as constantspeed motors, that is, always of motors for large very in slowspeed very concatenation, ning
number
of poles.
37. Theoretically,
any number
of motors
may be concatenated.
It is rarely economical,
however, to go beyond two motors in the with as increasing number of motors, the concatenation, constants of the concatenated system rapidly become poorer.
If:
YQ = ZQ = Zi =
are the constants of a motor,
g
7*0
 j6,
ri
+ j$Q, + fai,
:
and we denote
(r
=*
ZQ
+ Zi~
=
+ ri) + j Oo + + jx
a?i)
which char
if
(approximately)
7'
CONCATENATION
as the motor.
first
51
motor
The
total selfinductive
series
:
impedance
Z"
both motors in
= =
2 Z;
is:
is, four times as high as in a single motor; in other words, the performance characteristics, as powerfactor, etc., are very much inferior to those of a single motor.
that
With three motors in concatenation, the constants system of three motors are:
of the
y"z"
In other words, or nine times higher than in a single motor. the characteristic constant increases with the square of the number of motors in concatenation, and thus concatenation
of very
more than two motors would be permissible only with motors good constants. The calculation of a concatenated system of three or more motors is carried out in the same manner as that of two motors, by starting with the secondary circuit of the last motor, and
of
building
circuit of
the
first
motor,
CHAPTER
IV
transnating supply voltage, just as in the alternatingcurrent a wattless is current former. As the alternating magnetizing reactive current, the result is, that the alternatingcurrent input the Into the induction motor is always lagging, the more so, is given by the magnetizing current total the of a part larger To secure good powerfactor in an induction motor, current.
the magnetizing current, that is, the current which produces the magnetic field flux, must be kept as small as possible. This means as small an air gap between stator and rotor as mechanicof primary turns per pole, ally permissible, and as large a number
as economically permissible. is, as large a pole pitch, In motors, in which the speed compared to the motor output is not too low, good constants can be secured. This, however, is not possible in motors, in which the speed is very with the outlow, that is, the number of poles large compared be kept reasons for economical thus must the and pole pitch put, small as for instance a 100hp. 60cycle motor for 90 revoluor where the requirement of an excessive tions, that is, 80 poles momentary overload capacity has to be met, etc. In such motors which of necessity the exciting current or current at noload is a very large part of is practically all magnetizing current fullload current, and while fair efficiencies may nevertheless be
that
secured, powerfactor and apparent efficiency necessarily are very low. As illustration is shown in Fig. 20 the load curve of a typical
eo
F =
Z = Zi =
500. 0.02
0.1
0,1
0.6
j.
selfinductive
+ 0.3 + 0.3 j.
j.
INDUCTION MOTOR
53
As seen, at fullload of 75 kw. output, the efficiency is 80 per cent., which is fair for a slowspeed motor. But the powerfactor is 55 per cent., the apparent efficiency only 44 per cent., and the exciting current is 75 per cent, of fullload current.
This motorload curve may be compared with that of a typical induction motor, of exciting admittance:
7o
given on page 234 of
current
"
0.01
0.1 j,
Phenomena" 5th
LOW SPEED
=
of Alternating
of "Theoretical
INDUCTION MOTOR
500
FIG. 20.
Elements
difference.
of Electrical Engineering/'
39. In the synchronous machine usually the stator, in cornmutating machines the rotor is the armature, that is, the element to which electrical power is supplied, and in which electrical power is converted into the mechanical power output of the motor. The rotor of the typical synchronous machine, and the stator of the commutating machine are the field, that is, in them no electric power is consumed by conversion into mechanical
work, but their purpose is to produce the magnetic field flux, through which the armature rotates. In the induction machine, it is usually the stator, which is the
54
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
electric power and converts it primary, that is, which receives inducthe primary or stator of the into mechanical power, and the of armature synchrothe to tion machine thus corresponds or rotor of the nous or commutating machine. In the secondary of the frequency currents induction machine, lowfrequency the magnetic field flux of slipare induced by the primary, but traverses the primary which current is produced by the exciting machine may be induction the Thus or armature or stator.
field is produced considered as a machine in which the magnetic a synchronous to and corresponds by the armature reaction, and the shortcircuited are coils field the machine, in which armature reaction by lagging currents in the
field
produced by
armature.
As the rotor
machine,
field
structurally to the
machine by passing
machine corresponds synchronous or commutating excitation thus can be given to the induction a current through the rotor or secondary and
of the
of its function of givthereby more or less relieving the primary excitation. field the ing Thus in a slowspeed induction motor, of very high exciting an current and correspondingly poor constants, by passing the rotor or secondary, exciting current of suitable value through the primary can be made noninductive, or even leading current current in the rotor at produced, or with a lesser exciting least the powerfactor increased. Various such methods of secondary excitation have been pro
some extent used. direct current through the rotor for excitation. a Passing In this case, as the frequency of the secondary currents is the the frequency is zero, frequency of slip, with a direct current, the motor becomes a synchronous motor. that
posed, and to
1.
is,
Excitation through commutator, by the alternating supply armature. current, either in shunt or in series to the At the supply frequency, /, and slip, s,the frequency of rotation and thus of commutation is (1  s)f, and the full frequency cur2.
commutator thus give in the rotor the  s) / tf, that is, the frequency of (1 frequency, /
3.
a lowfrequency synchronous machine is mounted on the inductionmotor shaft, and its armature connected into the indueIf
INDUCTION MOTOR
55
tionmotor secondary, the synchronous machine feeds lowfrequency exciting currents into the induction machine, and thereby permits controlling it by using suitable voltage and phase. If the induction machine has n times as many poles as the synchronous machine, the frequency of rotation of the synchro
nous machine
is
 that
ti
How
ever, the frequency generated by the synchronous machine must be the frequency of the inductionmachine secondary currents,
that
is,
the frequency of
:
slip s.
1
Hence
<j S '
or:
= _J__
n
that
is, the concatenated couple is synchronous, that is, runs at constant speed at all loads, but not at synchronous speed, but at
constant
4.
slip r
r7' 1 +
Concatenation with a lowfrequency commutating machine. a commutating machine is mounted on the inductionmotor shaft, and connected in series into the inductionmotor secondary, the commutating machine generates an alternating voltage of the frequency of the currents which excite its field, and if the field is excited in series or shunt with the armature, in the circuit of the induction machine secondary, it generates voltage at the frequency of slip, whatever the latter may be. That is, the induction motor remains asynchronous, increases in slip with
If
increase of load.
5.
Excitation
by a condenser
induction motor.
As the magnetizing current required by the induction motor is a reactive, that is, wattless lagging current, it does not require a generator for its production, but any apparatus consuming leading, that is, generating lagging currents, such as a condenser, can be used to supply the magnetizing current. 40. However, condenser, or synchronous or commutating machine, etc., in the secondary of the induction motor do not merely give the magnetizing current and thereby permit powerfactor control, but they may, depending on their design or application, change the characteristics of the induction machine, as regards to speed and speed regulation, the capacity, etc*
56
If
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
by synchronous
or
is
this volinserted into the secondary of the induction machine, the slip, the the load, with varied speed, be constant, or
tage
etc.,
may
at any phase relation from more, such voltage may be inserted 90 behind the secondary inserted is If this voltage zero to 360. current,
it
characteristics.
Further
makes
the voltage is inserted If, however, of the induction induced voltage the secondary in phase with but merely lowers the on effect no it has powerfactor, machine, to the the speed of the motor if in phase, raises it if in opposition and hereby secondary induced voltage of the induction machine,
creases the powerfactor.
from a commutating permits speed control, if derived to the For instance, by a voltage in phase with and proportional increased motor can be secondary current, the drop of speed of the and seriesmotor characteristics secured, in the same manner as
machine.
by the insertion of resistance in the inductionmotor secondary. The difference however is, that resistance in the inductionmotor as it secondary reduces the efficiency in the same proportion The control. and thus is inefficient for speed lowers the
speed, does insertion of an e.m.f., however, while lowering the speed,
not lower the efficiency, as the power corresponding to the lowered and returned as output speed is taken up by the inserted voltage Or, by inserting a of the synchronous or commutating machine. to the induced voltage proportional to the load and in opposition maintained be can constant, secondary voltage, the motor speed or increased with the load, etc. If then a voltage is inserted by a commutating machine in the inductionmotor secondary, which is displaced in phase by angle a from the secondary induced voltage, a component of this volthe other comtage: sin a, acts magnetizing or demagnetizing, the or speed, and thus decreasing ponent cos a, acts increasing be various effects can produced. As the current consumed by a condenser is proportional to the reactance is frequency, while that passing through an inductive
:
inverse proportional to the frequency, when using a condenser in the secondary circuit of the induction motor, its effective im
slip is:
where # 2
is
full
frequency.
INDUCTION MOTOR
For
s
57
0,
S
3
oo
,
that
is,
synchronism. For:
or
it is:
is
maximum.
The power
output thus is a maximum not when approaching synchronism, as in the typical induction motor, but at a speed depending on the
slip,
fa 2
V^' \a/i
,
and by varying the capacity reactance, # 2 various values of resonance slip, So, thus can be produced, and thereby speed control of the motor secured. However, for most purposes, this is uneconomical, due to the very large values of capacity required.
Induction Motor Converted to Synchronous
41.
If,
full
speed, a direct
secondary circuit, unless heavily loaded and of high secondary resistance and thus great slip, it drops into synchronism and runs as synchronous motor. The starting operations of such an induction motor in conversion to synchronous motor thus are (Fig. 21)
current
sent through
its
:
First step: secondary closed through resistance: Second step: resistance partly cut out:
A.
B.
C. Third step: resistance all cut out: Fourth step: direct current passed through the secondary: D.
In this case, for the last or synchronousmotor step, usually the directcurrent supply will be connected between one phase and the other two phases, the latter remaining shortcircuited This arrangement retains to each other, as shown in Fig. 21, D. a shortcircuit in the rotor now the field in quadrature with
the excitation, which acts as damper against hunting (Danielson
motor).
58
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
In the synchronous motor, Fig. 21, D, produced from the induction motor, Fig. 21, C, it is:
Let:
7 =
Z =
Q
l
jb
of the induction
r
+ JXQ =
Z = n + jxi
A/W
AATV
AAVAAAr
AA/V
FIG. 21.
Starting of induction
The secondary resistance, ri, is that of the field exciting winding, thus does not further come into consideration in calculating the
motor
curves, except in the efficiency, as iiVi is the loss of power in the field, if ii == field exciting current. x\ is of little further importance, as the frequency is zero. It represents the magnetic
leakage between the synchronous motor poles. TO is the armature resistance and # the armature selfinductive
reactance of the synchronous machine. However, x is not the synchronous impedance, which enters the equation of the synchronous machine, but is only the selfinductive part of
it,
The
INDUCTION MOTOR
59
mutual inductive part of the synchronous impedance, or the effective reactance of armature reaction, a?', is not contained in XQ. The effective reactance of armature reaction of the synchronous machine, %', represents the field excitation consumed by the armature m.m.f., and is the voltage corresponding to this field excitation, divided by the armature current which consumes this
field excitation.
the exciting susceptance, is the magnetizing armature current, divided by the voltage induced by it, thus, &', the effective reactance of synchronousmotor armature reaction, is the reciprocal of the exciting susceptance of the induction machine.
6,
The
machine
as synchronous
motor thus
X
is;
+X *o + gf
XQ
The
etc.,
exciting conductance, g, represents the loss by hysteresis, As synchronous machine, this in the iron of the machine.
by the mechanical power, and not electrically, and the hysteresis loss in the induction machine as synchronous motor thus is: e*g.
loss is supplied
We
thus have:
of the constants, per phase:
self inductive
YQ Zo
Z\
g
r
7*1
jb,
+ JXQ, + jxi,
rotor, be
by passing
direct current
Armature resistance
Synchronous impedance: x
Total power consumed in
XQ
+ 7
(1)
field excitation:
P=
where
i
n,
(2)
Power consumed by
hysteresis
P=
60.
(3)
60
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
42, Let, in a synchronous motor:
Eo = impressed voltage,
E =
Z =
J =
it is
counter
voltage,
r
2*1
e.m.f.,
or
nominal
induced
+ jx =
jf 2
synchronous impedance,
current,
then:
or:
E ~ EQor,
ZI
= =
j
e
eo
= =
= =
(e
4.
n +
n'i
#4)2 4.
(^
(arii
2 )2 2
rea i axigj^
(g)
(7)
(eo
xi^
*2)
[eo
real axis].
Equations (6) and (7) are the two forms of the fundamental equation of the synchronous motor, in the form most convenient for the calculation of load and speed curves. In (7), ii is the energy component, and 4 the reactive component of the current with respect to the impressed voltage, but not with respect to the induced voltage; in (6), i\ is the energy component and i 2 the reactive component of the current with respect to the induced voltage, but not with respect to the
impressed voltage.
The
is
in equation (7).
Thus:
at noload, for
ii
Equation
thus of the
factor at
all
(8) gives
field
= e^ as was to be expected. the variation of the induced voltage and excitation, required to maintain unity power0, this gives: e
is,
loads, that
currents,
i\.
From
(8) follows:
tl
e&
"II,'
\^
"'""'
>
GQ
y/A\
(9)
INDUCTION MOTOR
is
61
e.m.f.,
e,
Thus, the minimum possible value of the counter given by equating the square root to zero, as
:
= x e
e.m.f.,
e,
that
is,
constant
or, if
r,
x, is
and
(ID
The maximum value, which the energy current, ii, can have, at a given counter e.m.f., e is given by equating the square root to zero, as:
y
t,
vU
(12)
it is,
For:
ii
0,
or at noload,
CQ
by
(11):
and
Equations (9) and (12) give two values of the currents i\ iz of which one is very large, corresponds to the upper or
f
unstable part of the synchronous motorpower characteristics shown on page 325 of "Theory and Calculation of Alternatingcurrent Phenomena," 5th edition.
43. Denoting, in equation (5)
:
E=
and
again choosing $0 = " e je = ( eo
>
e'
 je",
becomes
n* 2 ),
is:
:
(13)
eo,
n\
a&" 2 )
j (ai
(14)
and the
electric
= /E = e<#i,
Qj
//'
(15)
is:
62
hence by (14):
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Pi
ii
(e<>
n'i
xi z )
+ i* (xii 
ria),
(16)
Pi
where:
i*r loss.
(17)
is,
The
current in the
field is
io
=
=
eb,
r\.
(18)
hence, the
i r loss
e*b*n.
(19)
The
voltage,
motor
of
mutual induced
P'
in the
e Q *g,
(20)
}
synchronous motor, the nominal induced voltage, e does not correspond to any flux, but may be very much higher, than corresponds to the magnetic flux, which gives the hysteresis
as
it
and the hysmore nearly represented by e^g (20). The difference, however, is that in the synchronous motor the hysteresis loss is supplied by the mechanical power, and not the
loss,
teresis loss
thus
is
electric
The
power, as in the induction motor. net mechanical output of the motor thus
is:
P =
P!
io*ri
P'
(21)
efficiency,
powerfactor
and apparent
= Fo = Z =
60
500 volts;
0.01
0.1
0.1 j;
Zi
0.1
+ +
0.3J;
0.3 j.
INDUCTION MOTOR
The load curves
in the
63
Z = r+jx =
0.1
10.3
j.
power output as abscissae, with the directcurrent excitation, and thereby the counter e.m.f., e, varied with the load, so as to
maintain unity powerfactor.
The calculation is made in tabular form, by calculating for various successive values of the energy current (here also the total current) ii, input, the counter e.m.f., e, by equation (8)
:
(500
0.1 iiY
is
100.61
ii
2
,
PO
eoii
500
i\.
From
in
by
(17), (19)
;
and
(20):
armature resistance:
0.1 ii 2
in field resistance:
0.001 6 2 ;
2.5 kw.;
:
hysteresis loss:
p =
and herefrom the
as
e,
500
ii
2.5
0.1 *i 2
0.001 e 2
efficiency.
i, the nominal induced voltage which here is the true efficiency,
efficiency
as y.
nominal induced voltage has to be varied very That the with load, indeed, almost proportional thereto. greatly excitathe field in this motor, is, to maintain unity powerfactor tion has to be increased almost proportional to the load.
As
It is interesting to investigate
what load
characteristics are
given
at constant field excitation, that is, constant nominal induced voltage, e, as this would usually represent the
by operating
operating conditions.
64
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
90
100
110
120
130
140 KW.
FIG. 22.
Load curves
tion
INDUCTION MOTOR
65
Figs. 24 and 25 thus give the load characteristics of the motor, at constant field excitation, corresponding to:
= =
2
5
e
e
For
the
3,
from zero up to
field excitation,
maximum
=500 (Z =
.1
410.3 j)
SYNCHRONOUS
FIG. 24.
Load curves Tat constant excitation 2e, of standard induction motor converted to synchronous motor.
as given
by equation
(11):
z* 2
(12),
i%, is
calculated
by equation
Fig. 24:
Fig. 25:
i2
= =
48.5
48.5
is:
The
Q =
Po
eoi;
66
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
by (21), and herefrom efficiency 77, and apparent efficient, 7, calculated and plotted. powerfactor p Figs. 24 and 25 give, with the power output as abscissae, the total current input, efficiency, powerfactor and apparent
the power output given
efficiency.
24 and 25, the constants of the motor as synchronous motor with constant excitation, are very bad: the noload current is nearly equal to fullload current, and power
As seen from
Figs.
INDUCTION MOTOR
e
5e
Z?.'l
Yj.Ol.1J
K3J
FIG. 25.
Load curves
at constant excitation 5
e,
of
standard induction
and apparent efficiency are very low except in a narrow range just below the maximum output point, at which the motor drops out of step.
factor
Thus this motor, and in general any reasonably good induction motor, would be spoiled in its characteristics, by converting it into a synchronous motor with constant field excitation.
In Fig. 23 are shown, for comparison, in dotted lines, the apparent efficiency taken from Figs. 24 and 25, and the apparent efficiency of the machine as induction motor, taken from Fig. 22.
INDUCTION MOTOR
67
45, As further instance, consider the conversion into a synchronous motor of a poor induction motor: a slowspeed motor of very high exciting current, of the constants:
= To = ZQ =
60
500; 0.02
0.1 0.1
0.6 j;
Zi
+ 0.3 j] + 0.3J.
of this
FIG. 26.
Load curves of lowspeed highexcitation induction motor converted to synchronous motor, at unity powerfactor excitation.
it lias
the constants:
Z =
0.1
1.97
j.
Calculated in the same manner, the load curves, when varying the field excitation with changes of load so as to maintain unity powerfactor, are given in Fig. 26, and the load curves for
constant
field excitation
are given in Fig. 27. As seen, the increase of field excitation required to maintain
68
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
while still unity powerfactor, as shown by curve e in Fig. 26, induction this in motor, less much is poor very considerable, than it was in the good induction motor Figs. 22 to 25. The constantexcitation load curves, Fig. 27, give characteristics,
duction motor.
The
efficiency
is
to be expected, but the powerfactor, p, is very greatly improved at all loads, is 96 per cent, at fullload, rises to unity above full
FIG. 27.
Load curve of lowspeed highexcitation induction motor converted to synchronous motor, at constant field excitation.
load (assumed as 75 kw.) and is given at quarterload already higher than the maximum reached by this machine as straight
induction motor.
For comparison,
efficiency,
in Fig. 28 are shown the curves of apparent with the power output as abscissae, of this slowspeed
motor, as: I as induction motor (from Fig. 20); SQ as synchronous motor with the field excitation varying to maintain unity powerfactor (from Fig. 26) ; S as synchronous motor with constant field excitation (from
Fig. 27).
INDUCTION MOTOR
As seen,
tically as
,
69
below
It
it
good as varying unity powerfactor excitation, S drops only at partial load, though even there it is very greatly
thus follows:
converting it into a synchronous motor, by passing a direct current through the rotor, a good induction motor is spoiled, but
By
is,
50.
.40.
A
4*'
INDUCTION MOTOR SYNCHRONOUS, UNITY POWER FACTOR 30. SYNCHRONOUS, CONSTANT EXCITATION CSoSYNCHR.CONCAT.INDUCT., UNITY P.P. C8 SYNCHR.CONCAT.1NDUCT., CONSTANT EXC :ciT_20.
I
S 8
20
SO
50
60
70
80
90
100
1 .0
FIG. 28.
Comparison
of apparent efficiency
of high
excitation induction
of secondary excitation,
46. The reason for the unsatisfactory behavior of a good induction motor, when operated as synchronous motor, is found in the excessive value of its synchronous impedance.
Exciting admittance in the induction motor, and synchronous impedance in the synchronous motor, are corresponding quantities, representing the magnetizing action of the armature cur
In the induction motor, in which the magnetic field is produced by the magnetizing action of the armature currents, very high magnetizing action of the armature current is desirable, so as to produce the magnetic field with as little magnetizing currents.
rent as possible, as this current is lagging, and spoils the powerIn the synchronous motor, where the magnetic field is factor. produced by the direct current in the field coils, the magnetizing
action of the armature currents changes the resultant field excitation, and thus requires a corresponding change of the field current
to overcome
it,
reaction, the
more
70
has the
field
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
proper excitation.
current to be changed with the load, to maintain That is, low armature reaction is necessary. In other words, in the induction motor, the armature reaction magnetizes, thus should be large, that is, the synchronous react
ance high or the exciting admittance low; in the synchronous interferes with the impressed field be should thus low, that is, the synchronous impedexcitation,
ance low or the exciting admittance high. Therefore, a good synchronous motor makes a poor induction motor, and a good induction motor makes a poor synchronous motor, but a poor induction motor one of high exciting admitmakes a fairly good synchronous motor. tance, as Fig. 20 Here a misunderstanding must be guarded against: in the theory of the synchronous motor, it is explained, that high
synchronous reactance is necessary for good and stable synchronousmotor operation, and for securing good powerfactors at all A synchronous motor of low loads, at constant field excitation. synchronous impedance is liable to be unstable, tending to hunt and give poor powerfactors due to excessive reactive currents. This apparently contradicts the conclusions drawn above in the comparison of induction and synchronous motor. However, the explanation is found in the meaning of high and
low synchronous reactance, as seen by expressing the synchronous reactance in per cent. the percentage synchronous reactance is the voltage consumed by fullload current in the synchronous
:
reactance, as percentage of the terminal voltage* When discussing synchronous motors, we consider a synchronous reactance of 10 to 20 per cent, as low, and a synchronous
at 75 kw. outabout 180 amp. At a synchronous reactance of x = 10.3, this gives a synchronous reactance voltage at fullload current, of 1850, or a synchronous reactance of 370 per cent. In the poor motor, Figs. 20, 26 and 27, fullload current is about 200 amp., the synchronous reactance x = 1.97, thus the reactance voltage 394, or 79 per cent., or of the magnitude of good
reactance of 50 to 100 per cent, as high. In the motor, Figs. 22 to 25, fullload current
put
is
synchronousrinotor operation. That is, the motor, which as induction motor would be considered as of very high exciting admittance, giving a low synchro
INDUCTION MOTOR
motor
71
design, be considered as a high synchronous impedance motor, while the good induction motor gives as synchronous motor a synchronous impedance of several hundred per cent., that is far beyond any value which ever would be considered in synchronousmotor design.
= =
g
ro
jb
+ JXQ
= =
=
pedance, secondary selfinductive impedance at full frequency, reduced to primary, and let the secondary circuit of this induction machine be connected to the armature terminals of a synchronous machine mounted on the inductionmachine shaft, so that the inductionmotor secondary currents traverse the synchronousmotor arma
Z =
TI
+ jxi
ture,
and
let:
Z%
r* 2
+ jxz
machine.
synchronous machine then is the frequency of the inductionmotor secondary, that is, the frequency The synchronousmotor frequency of the inductionmotor slip.
The frequency
of the
synchronousmotor rotation, or
times
the frequency of inductionmotor rotation, if the induction motor has n times as many poles as tin synchronous motor.
Herefrom follows:
1
''
or:
that
is,
slip, s
~
(2)
of synchronism.
72
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Thus the machine couple has synchronousmotor characteristics, and runs at a speed corresponding to synchronous speed of a motor having the sum of the inductionmotor and synchronousmotor poles as number of poles. If n = 1, that is, the synchronous motor has the same number
of poles as the induction motor,
s
1
= =
0.5,
0.5,
the concatenated couple operates at half synchronous speed, and shares approximately equally in the power output. If the induction motor has 76 poles, the synchronous motor
that
is,
four poles, n
19,
and:
s
= =
0.05, 0.95,
that
is,
of a 76polar machine, thus at synchronous speed of an 80polar machine, and thus can be substituted for an 80polar induction
motor.
In this case, the synchronous motor gives about 5 per cent., the induction motor 95 per cent, of the output; the synchronous motor thus is a small machine, which could be considered as a synchronous exciter of the induction machine. 48. Let:
EQ Ei
= =
+ je"o = + je"i
=
upon
in
e\
frequency.
E*
e'z
+ je"t =
ji" Q
nominal
induced voltage
= =
i\
i\
= =
Jx
ji'\
rent in synchronous motoi* Z* the at Denoting by impedance, Z, frequency, s, it is: Total impedance of secondary circuit, at frequency, s:
Z*
= =
Zi
Oi
+ Zz + r + j(aa +
s
2)
z 2),
(3)
INDUCTION MOTOR
in
73
#o
in
= E +
l
Zo/o;
(4)
secondary circuit:
aEi
= =
sE*
Z'li;
(5)
and, current:
/o
/i
+
:
YE,.
(6)
From
(6) follows:
/!
= =
7^i,
(7)
S#l
S#2
^/O ~
Z'Ftfi,
hence
+
(&
Z'Y
w ^o=
and, transposed:
+ sZ + ZZ
Q
^p^j?
= ^2
'
Y) Jo '
(l
or:
+ f F)
+[f + Z
(l
+ y F)]
/o,
(9)
Denoting:
Xi
+ X% =
X*
and:
it is,
^o
(1
Z'F)
= ^2
H (2'
^o
Z'ZaF)
"/o,
(12)
74
Denoting:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
TTW*' ""
1
(14)
as a voltage
of the
which
is
(15)
and substituting
(14)
and
E =# This
is
ZI Q
(16)
the standard synchronousmotor equation, with imand pressed voltage, E Q) current, /o, synchronous impedance, Z, E. nominal induced voltage, = e Q as base line, and Choosing the impressed voltage,
+ je =
2
( eo
n'
a?i"o)
~j
^./ o
G^'o
//
'"o),
(17)
and, absolute:
6
( eo
rtfi o
__
Xo ^/, o)2
roi
o)2<
(lg)
From this equation (18) the load and speed curves of the concatenated couple can now be calculated in the same manner as in any synchronous motor. That is, the concatenated couple, of induction and synchronous
motor, can be replaced by an equivalent synchronous motor of the constants, 6, e, Z and / 49. The power output of the synchronous machine is
.
:
P =
2
//,,
&/',
where:
/a+jb, c+jd/'
uct:
denotes the effective component of the doublefrequency prod" Theory and Calculation of Alternatingbd); see (ac
current Phenomena,
JJ
of the induction
Pl =
thus, the total
//!, (1
?!/',
(20)
P=
=
//i,
P! + P 2 sE z + (1 
tWi
(21)
INDUCTION MOTOR
substituting (7) into (21)
:
75
P =
from
(8) follows:
/J
 YE
=
#!
1}
sE*
(1
)#!/';
(22)
(s
+
(1
Z*F)
Z/
and substituting
P =
from
(4) follows:
/J
Ftfi,
#a
+ ZT) Zo/0,
Z'/o/';
(23)
EI
= EQ
and substituting
P =
/J
(1
7)
7#o, ^o
(1
+ ZY) Jo (2 + Z +
s
.
ZoZ'T)/'.
(24)
(24) gives the power output, as function of impressed and supply current, J voltage, $QJ The power input into the concatenated couple is given by:
Equation
Po
or,
=
So
/#>,
7oA
as base line:
(25)
choosing
Po
e i' Q .
(26)
is
or voltampere input
e io,
given by:
(27)
Q =
where
:
to
is
V^'o
+ i"o*
From
apparent
50.
P, Po and
efficiency.
Q now
of the slowspeed 80polar induction motor of Fig. 20, by a small synchronous motor concatenated into its secondary circuit.
Impressed voltage:
eo
500 volts.
Choosing a fourpolar synchronous motor, the induction machine would have to be redesigned with 76 poles, giving:
n
s
= =
19,
0.05.
76
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
With the same
rotor diameter of the induction machine, the
to the number pole pitch would be increased inverse proportional the square with decreased of poles, and the exciting susceptance thereof, thus giving the constants:
frequency:
Z2 =
this gives, for s
r2
+ jx =
2 a)
0.02
0.2 j
0.05:
=
and:
Z'
( ri
+ r + js (si + x,} =
0.12
+ 0.025 j,
= /
+ jV =
=
o
2.4
0.5 j,
2 = r+jx =
and from
(14)
:
0.84
1.4 j,
* ~
6
1.32
'
1.29
=
L84
1.4t"
thus:
j^r
(500
0.84 i'o
+

'
(1.4
0.84i"
2 )
,
(28)
P =
// (0.830
0.048 j)
(508
(10
270 j),
32 j)
/o (0.241
+ 0.326 j)/'.
(29)
51. Fig. 29 shows the load curves of the concatenated couple, under the condition that the synchronousmotor excitation and thus its nominal induced voltage, 62, is varied so as to maintain
unity powerfactor at
all
"
this gives
0;
from equation
(28)
5^ =
(500
0.84 i'o) 2
1.96 iV,
INDUCTION MOTOR
77
FIG. 29.
FIG. 30,
Load curves
78
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
/(0.8361
t'o
P =
=
10)
+ 3 (0.048 i'o +
=
0.241
z' )
270),
i'o)
j (32
*'o
(0.048
+ 0.326 + 270)
o/
the curve, e Z} of the nominal induced voltage, However, overexcited at all loads. be has to motor synchronous increases again, e z first decreases, reaches a minimum and then so that with of wide a over load, constant range thus is fairly should excitation good results, constant give of this type motor, concatenated the of curves couple load the shows then Fig. 30 of the overexcitation on synchronous constant for excitation, motor of 70 per cent., or
850
volts.
slip,
must be kept in mind, that e 2 is the voltage reduced to full induction machine: At the frequency and turn ratio 1 :1 in the s = 0.05, the actual voltage of the synchronous motor would
(It
be se z = 42.5 volts, even if the number of secondary turns of the induction motor equals that of the primary turns, and if, as less turns in the secondary usual, the induction motor is wound for than in the primary, the actual voltage at the synchronous motor
terminals
is still
lower.)
Fig. 30:
is
As seen from
the powerfactor
to the maximum output load, from less than onetenth load up thus is practically motor into the current the and input point,
proportional to the load. The load curves of this concatenated couple thus are superior to those, which can be produced in a synchronous motor at con*
stant excitation.
For comparison, the curve of apparent efficiency, from Fig. 30, It merges indistinguishably into the is plotted as CS in Fig. 28. unity powerfactor curve, 5o, except at its maximum output
point.
Machine
cially of the
it
While the alternatingcurrent commutating machine, espepolyphase type, is rather poor at higher frequencies, becomes better at lower frequencies, and at the extremely low
52.
it is
practically as
INDUCTION MOTtiR
79
good as the directcurrent commutating machine, and thus can be used to insert lowfrequency voltage into the inductionmotor
secondary.
With
is
series excitation,
approximately proportional to the secondary current, and the speed characteristic of the induction motor remains essentially the same: a speed decreasing from synchronism at noload, by a slip, s, which increases with the load. With shunt excitation, the voltage of the commutating machine
is approximately constant, and the concatenated couple thus tends toward a speed differing from synchronism. In either case, however, the slip, s, is not constant and independ
ent of the load, and the motor couple not synchronous, as when using a synchronous machine as second motor, but the motor
couple
is
machine, with regards to the secondary current which traverses depends on the relation of the commutator brush position with regards to the field excitation of the respective phases, and and 2r, that is, the thereby can be made anything between voltage inserted by the commutating machine can be energy voltage in phase reducing the speed or in opposition to the inductionmotor induced voltage increasing the speed; or it may be a reactive voltage, lagging and thereby supplying the inductionmotor magnetizing current, or leading and thereby still further lowering the powerfactor. Or the commutating machine voltage may be partly in phase modifying the speed and partly in quadrature modifying the powerfactor. Thus the commutating machine in the inductionmotor secondary can be used for powerfactor control or for speed
control or for both.
It is interesting to
chine in the inductionmotor secondary gives two independent variables: the value of the voltage, and its phase relation to the
of freedom.
current of its circuit, and the motor couple thus has two degrees With the use of a synchronous machine in the
inductionmotor secondary this is not the case; only the voltage of the synchronous machine can be controlled, but its phase adjusts itself to the phase relation of the secondary circuit, and the synchronousmotor couple thus has only one degree of free
dom.
The reason
is:
80
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is the induction machine, the phase of the synchronous machine a fixed has thus the fixed in space, by synchronousmotor poles, relation with regards to the inductionmotor primary system. the inductionmotor secondary has no fixed position
As, however, relation with regards to the primary, but can have supposition the voltage has no fixed position with
slip,
synchronousmotor
and current, regards to the inductionmotor secondary voltage in the relation the on assume thus can any position, depending if we assume that the synchronousThus circuit. secondary
motor field were shifted in space by a position degrees (electrical) this would shift the phase of the synchronousmotor voltage by a degrees, and the inductionmotor secondary would slip in position by the same angle, thus keep the same phase relation with
:
In the couple with a commutating machine as secondary motor, however, the position of the brushes fixes the relation between commutatingmachine voltage and secondary current, and thereby imposes a definite phase relation in the secondary circuit, irrespective of
the relations between secondary and primary, and no change of
relative position between primary and secondary can phase relation of the commutating machine.
change this
Thus the commutating machine in the secondary of the inducmachine permits a far greater variation of conditions of of speed and operation, and thereby gives a far greater variety load curves of such concatenated couple, than is given by the use of a synchronous motor in the inductionmotor secondary. 53. Assuming the polyphase lowfrequency commutating machine is seriesexcited, that is, the field coils (and compensatAssuming ing coils, where used) in series with the armature.
tion
also that
its use.
magnetic saturation
is
The induced voltage of the commutating machine then proportional to the secondary current and to the speed.
Thus:
is
62
pii
(1)
the commutatingmachine voltage at full synchronous speed, where i\ is the secondary current and p a constant depending on the design. At the slip, s, and thus the speed (1 s), the commutating
is:
62
(1
a) pii.
(2)
INDUCTION MOTOR
:
81
As this voltage may have any phase relation with regards to the current, ii, we can put
#2
where:
(Pi
+ W*)h
2
2
(3)
P
and:
vW + p
co
(4)
tan
is
^2
Pi
/ ^
5\ '
the angle of brush shift of the commutating machine. (Pi JPs) is of the nature and dimension of an impedance,
Z =
At the speed (1 s), the commutating machine
impedance:
(1
Pi
+ J>
(6)
commutating machine.
represented
by the
8) p*.
effective
8)
Z =
(1
8)
Pl
+j (1 ~
(7)
It
of the
Z =
Pi as well as p%
Pi
+ jp*,
may be negative as well as positive. the is, energy component of the effective impedance, or the effective resistance, pi, of the commutating machine, may be This simply means, that negative, representing power supply. the commutator brushes are set so as to make the commutating
That
machine an
If
l
if
pi
is
positive.
o, the commutating machine is a producer of wattless p or reactive power, inductive for positive, antiinductive for
commutating machine thus becomes identical with that of the straight induction motor with shortcircuited secondary, except that in place of the secondary inductive impedance of the induction motor is substituted the total impedance of the secondary
circuit, consisting of:
1.
The secondary
selfinductive
impedance
of
the induction
machine.
82
2.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The
selfinductive
impedance of the commutating machine and reactance of armature and of field, and compensating winding, where such exists. 3. The effective impedance representing the commutating
comprising resistance
machine.
It
in (1)
and
(2)
the reslip, s,
sistance
YQ = g
Zo
jb
+ JXQ = + jxi
==
Zi
TI
reduced
to
full
frequency.
Z2 =
r2
+ jx% =
selfinductive
impedance of
Z =
pi
+ jp&
effective
impedance reprethe
voltage
in
senting
The
Z*
s,
then
s) (pi
is:
(n
+ jsxi) +
(r 2
+ jsxz) +
(1
+ jp
2)
and,
if
chosen as base
the mutual inductive voltage of the induction motor line, e, in the customary manner,
is:
is
11
where:
n G>1
~
ifi
(#1" ja 2 ) e 3
(9)
* fri
+ ^2 +
(1
a) pi]
(10)
INDUCTION MOTOR
and:
83
The remaining calculation is the same as on page 318 of "Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering," 4th edition. As an instance, consider the concatenation of a lowfrequency
commutating machine to the lowspeed induction motor, Fig.
20.
are:
Impedances
= = = Z = Z2 =
o
Fo Zo
l
500; 0.02
0.1
0.6J; +0.3J;
0.1
0.02
+ 0.3j; + 0.3 j;
^
IN
SECONDARY,
Y ^.02.6j
Zt =
.1
.Qj
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 KW
FIG. 31.
Load curves of highexcitation induction niotor concatenated with commutating machine as reactive antiinductive impedance.
That is, the commutating machine is adjusted to give only reactive lagging voltage, for powerfactor compensation.
It
then
is:
Z*
0.12
of this
+ j [0.6 s 
0.2 (1
a)].
Fig. 31.
As
84
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
seen, powerfactor
and apparent efficiency rise to high values, and even the efficiency is higher than in the straight induction motor. thus the apparent However, at lightload the powerfactor and as in the conmanner same the in much efficiency falls off, very
catenation with a synchronous motor. of speed at It is interesting to note the relatively great drop more remains nearly the load heavier at speed lightload, while imantiinductive of characteristic a is constant. This general the shared and by inductionmotor secondary, in the
pedance use of an electrostatic condenser in the secondary. For comparison, on Fig. 28 the curve of apparent efficiency of this motor couple is shown as CC.
Induction Motor with Condenser in Secondary Circuit
is, produces lagging the to used be can lagging component supply reactive current, and motor improve the induction thereby the of current of
55.
constant current, at constant impressed voltage and frequency, and as the lagging component of inductionmotor current inof creases with the load, the characteristics of the combination motor and shunted condenser thus change from leading current over unity powerfactor to lagging current at overload. at
noload,
As the condenser is an external apparatus, the characteristics of the induction motor proper obviously are not changed by a
shunted condenser.
illustration is shown, in Fig. 32, the slowspeed induction motor Fig. 20, shunted by a condenser of 125 kva. per phase. and apparent efficiency, Fig. 32 gives efficiency, 17, powerfactor, p,
As
the combination of motor and condenser, assuming an that is, 0.5 per cent, efficiency of the condenser of 99.5 per cent., = 0.5 j, that is, a condenser 0.0025 loss in the condenser, or Z
7, of
just neutralizing the magnetizing current. However, when using a condenser in shunt, it
must be
realized
frequency, and therefore, harmonics greatly distorted, that is, contains considerable higher condenser may produce especially harmonics of high order^the
considerable higherrfre^ueney currents,
&nd thus
by, Distortion
INDUCTION MOTOR
of the current
85
so that in extreme
may actually lower the powerHowever, with the usual commercial voltage wave shapes, this is rarely to be expected. In singlephase induction motors, the condenser may be used in a tertiary circuit, that is, a circuit located on the same member
factor.
FIG. 32.
Load curves
of highexcitation induction
condenser.
tion therefrom,
and energized by induction from the secondary. circuit in mutual induction also with the can be used for starting the singlephase motor, and
fully discussed in Chapter V. condenser may also be used in the secondary of the induction motor. That is 3 the secondary circuit is closed through a con
more
denser in each phase. As the current consumed by a condenser is proportional to the frequency, and the frequency in the secondary circuit varies, decreasing toward zero at synchronism, the current
of the
consumed by the condenser, and thus the secondary current motor tends toward zero when approaching synchronism,
86
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and peculiar speed characteristics result herefrom in such a motor. At a certain slip, s, the condenser current just balances
the reactive lagging currents of the induction motor, resonance may thus be said to exist, and a very large current flows into the
all
Above this is produced. motor, and correspondingly large power thus the power and current the "resonance speed," however, resonance the below also speed. rapidly fall off, and so It must be realized, however, that the frequency of the sec
at speed, thus a ondary is the frequency of slip, and is very low far is greater than would required, very great condenser capacity condenser across the be sufficient for compensation by shunting low the view of In frequency and low the primary terminals.
condenser voltage of the secondary circuit, the electrostatic the but this for electrolytic use, generally is at a disadvantage better adapted. condenser, that is, the polarization cell, appears
66. Let then, in
eQ
Y =
Q
Q
g
TQ
jb
Z =
Z\
+ jx
= =
primary
TI
jxi
and
the secondary circuit be closed through a condenser of capacity reactance, at full frequency:
let
Z2
7*2
y#2,
r 2 representing the energy loss in the condenser, usually is and can be neglected in the electrostatic condenser, small very so that
where
2T 2
=
is
jx 2
The inductive
that
reactance,
a?i,
# 2 inverse proporis, slip, s, and the capacity reactance, tional thereto, and the total impedance of the secondary circuit,
the
at slip,
s,
thus
is
(1)
(2)
INDUCTION MOTOR
where:
1
87
~~
a*
(5)
(3)
and:
m=
All the further calculations of the
motor
characteristics
now
are the
same
= 7o = ZQ = Zi =
eQ
+ 0.3 j] + 0.3j;
Z*
thus giving:
0.1
=  0.012 j,
0.3
Us j(*
)
/
Fig. 33 shows the load curves of this motor with condenser in the secondary. As seen, powerfactor and apparent effi
ciency are high at load, but fall off at lightload, being similar in character as with a commutating machine concatenated to
the induction machine, or with the secondary excited by direct current, that is, with conversion of the induction into a synchro
nous motor.
Interesting is the speed characteristic: at very lightload the speed drops off rapidly, but then remains nearly stationary over a wide range of load, at 10 per cent. slip. It may thus be said, that the motor tends to run at a nearly constant speed of 90 per
cent, of
synchronous speed.
The apparent efficiency of this motor combination is plotted once more in Fig. 28, for comparison with those of the other motors, and marked by C.
Different values of secondary capacity give different operating speeds of the motor: a lower capacity, that is, higher capacity
88
reactance,
speed, and
xz,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
gives a greater slip, s, that is, lower operating inversely, as was discussed in Chapter I.
improving a motor of high exciting current and thus low powerfactor, such
as a slowspeed motor.
57. It is interesting to compare, in Fig. 28, the various methods of secondary excitation of the induction motor, in their effect in the powerfactor and thus the apparent efficiency of
The apparent
= 500
Y =.02 .65
ASYNCHRONOUS
10
%0
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120 130
140
150
160
170
180
FIG. 33.
Load curves
of highexcitation induction
in
secondary
circuits.
1.
Low
apparent efficiency at
all
excitation, So.
Concatenation to synchronous motor with unity powerfactor Concatenation to synchronous motor with constant excitation,
CS.
Low
apparent
efficiency
at
lightloads,
high
apparent
INDUCTION MOTOR
efficiency at load, that
is,
89
(1)
and
rising
up
to
(2).
Hereto belong:
tion,
at constant excita
These three curves are very similar, the points calculated for the three different motor types falling within the narrow range between the two limit curves drawn in Fig. 28. Regarding the speed characteristics, two types exist the motors SQ, S, CS Q and CS are synchronous, the motors /, CC and C are
:
asynchronous. In their efficiencies, there is little difference between the different motors, as is to be expected, and the efficiency curves
are almost the
commutated threephase
which is a lowfrequency wave, shown dotted in Fig. 34 B, and which has the frequency of slip, s, or, in other words, the commutated current, J5, can be resolved into a current of frequency, s, and a higher harmonic of irregular wave shape.
Thus, the effect of lowfrequency currents, of the frequency of slip, can be produced in the inductionmotor secondary by
impressing
brushes.
full
frequency upon
it
The secondary circuit, through commutator and brushes, can be connected to the supply source either in series to the primary,
90
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and thus gives seriesmotor
characteristics,
characteristics.
In either case, two independent variables exist, the value of the voltage impressed upon the commutator, and its phase, and the phase of the voltage supplied to the secondary circuit may be varied, either by varying the phase of the impressed the brushes on voltage by a suitable transformer, or by shifting the commutator and thereby the relative position of the brushes with regards to the stator, which has the same effect. with such a commutator motor, while the resultant
is
of the
low frequency
FIG. 34.
Commutated
motor
secondary.
of slip, the actual current in each secondary coil is of full frequency, as a section or piece of a fullfrequency wave, and thus
it
meets in the secondary the fullfrequency reactance. That is, the secondary reactance at slip, $, is not: Z* = TI jsxi, but is: Z* = TI jxi, in other words is very much larger than in the
motor with
shortcircuited secondary.
such motors with commutator always require powerfactor compensation, by shifting the brushes or choosing the impressed voltage so as to be antiinductive. Of the voltage supplied to the secondary through commutator
Therefore,
and brushes, a component in phase with the induced voltage lowers the speed, a component in opposition raises the speed,
and by varying the commutator supply voltage, speed control of such an induction motor can be produced in the same manner and of the same character, as produced in a directcurrent motor
INDUCTION MOTOR
by varying the
if
91
field excitation. Good constants can be secured, in addition to the energy component of impressed voltage, used for speed control, a suitable antiinductive wattless component
is
used.
However, this type of motor in reality is not an induction motor any more, but a shunt motor or series motor, and is more " fully discussed in Chapter XIX, on General Alternatingcurrent
Motors.
77
ing connected to commutator and brushes, a shortcircuited Instead of squirrelcage winding is used on the secondary.
this,
the commutator segments may be shunted by resistance, which gives the same effect, or merely a squirrelcage winding used, and on one side an end ring of very high resistance employed, and the brushes bear on this end ring, which thus acts as commutator. In either case, the motor is an induction motor, and has the
essential characteristics of the induction motor, that
is,
slip, s,
from synchronism, which increases with the load; however, through the commutator an exciting current can be fed into the motor from a fullfrequency voltage supply, and in this case, the current supplied over the commutator does not meet the fullfrequency reactance, x\ of the secondary, but only the lowfrequency reactance, sxi, especially if the commutated winding is in the same slots with the squirrelcage winding: the shortcircuited squirrelcage winding acts as a shortcircuited secondary to the highfrequency pulsation of the commutated current, and therefore makes the circuit noninductive for these highfrequency
9
That is, in the shortcircuited conpulsations, or practically so. ductors, local currents are induced equal and opposite to the
total resultant of the currents in each slot thus
highfrequency component of the commutated current, and the is only the low
frequency current.
Such shortcircuited squirrel cage in addition to the commutated winding, makes the use of a commutator practicable for powerfactor control in the induction motor. It forbids, however, the use of the commutator for speed control, as due to the
shortcircuited winding, the motor must run at the slip, s, corresponding to the load as induction motor. The voltage impressed upon the commutator, and its phase relation, or the brush position, thus must be chosen so as to give only magnetizing, but
92
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
effects,
no speed changing
freedom.
and
one degree of
of this
method
of secondary excita
tion of an induction motor, by a commutated winding in addition to the shortcircuited squirrel cage, is that secondary excitation is advantageous for powerfactor control especially in
tor
many poles, and in such, the commutabecomes very undesirable, due to the large number of poles. With such motors, it therefore is preferable to separate the commutator, placing it on a small commutating machine of a few poles, and concatenating this with the induction motor. In motors of only a small number of poles, in which a commutator would be less objectionable, powerfactor compensation is rarely needed. This is the foremost reason that this type of motor (the Heyland motor) has found no greater application.
slowspeed motors of very
CHAPTER V
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION
60.
MOTOH
As more
induction motor, in
and " Theory and Calculation of Alternatingcurrent Phenomena/' the singlephase induction motor has inherently, no torque at standstill, that is, when used without special device to produce such torque by converting the motor into an unsyming"
fully discussed in the chapters on the singlephase " Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineer
The magnetic flux at standstill a singlephase alternating flux of constant direction, and the line of polarization of the armature or secondary currents, that is, the resultant m.m.f. of the armature currents, coincides with the axis of magnetic flux impressed by the primary circuit. When revolving, however, even at low speeds, torque appears in the singlephase induction motor, due to the axis of armature
metrical ployphase motor, etc.
is
polarization being shifted against the axis of primary impressed magnetic flux, by the rotation. That is, the armature currents, lagging behind the magnetic flux which induces them, reach their maximum later than the magnetic flux, thus at a time when their conductors have already moved a distance or an angle away from coincidence with the inducing magnetic flux. That is,
if
90
flux,
and reach
the
their
maximum
(1
s)
flux, at
slip, s,
mum
of the
in the position
A component flux. behind the direction of armature currents then magnetizes in the direction at right angles (electrically) to the main magnetic flux, and the armature currents thus produce a quadrature magnetic flux, increasing from zero at standstill, to a maximum at synchronism,
and approximately proportional to the quadrature component of the armature polarization, P:
90
s)
electrical degrees
Psin(l
*)J
93
94
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The torque
of the singlephase
flux
motor then is produced by the the on energy currents induced by action of the quadrature flux. is thus the main flux, and proportional to the quadrature flux by produced the At synchronism, quadrature magnetic flux main the to magnetic becomes the armature currents equal
produced by the impressed singlephase voltage (approximately, in reality it is less by the impedance drop of the exciting current of the in the armature conductors) and the magnetic disposition at synchronism idenbecomes thus motor induction singlephase tical with that of the polyphase induction motor, and approxi
mately so near synchronism. The magnetic field of the singlephase induction motor thus field at may be said to change from a singlephase alternating at intermediate field an rotating over unsymmetrical standstill, field at full speed. speeds, to a uniformly rotating excitation of the singletotal the voltampere At synchronism, is the same as in the polyphase motor at the thus motor phase same induced voltage, and decreases to half this value at standone of the two quadrature components of still, where only
magnetic flux
exists.
at synchronism, to twice joint impedance of all phases, this value at standstill, since at synchronism all the secondary to the one primary circuit, while at standcircuits
from the
still
corresponds.
61. Hereby the singlephase motor constants are derived from the constants of the same motor structure as polyphase motor.
Y = ZQ =
Zi
g
r
jb
+ J$Q
= =
ri
+ jxi =
primary exciting admittance; primary selfinductive impedance; secondary selfinductive impedance (reduced to the pri
is:
 Y
(Z,
+ ZJ.
(1)
The
total, or resultant
95
the motor, that is, the joint admittance respectively impedance of all the phases, then is
:
In a threephase motor:
7 =
3 F,
(2)
In a quarterphase motor:
F =
2 Y,
(3)
it is
then: at syn
O'
Y' Z'
= F, = 2
(4)
(5)
at standstill:
1:
F'
=
o ==
i70 , (6)
Zr 1
2 Zo , o 7 o ^ /il"j
= F
(^o
(7)
approximately, that is, assuming linear variation of the constants with the speed or slip, it is then: at slip, s:
F'
7' J
=
==
F(1J),' 27 * "Oy
(8)
F'=3F(1),
(9)
96
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
In a quarterphase motor:
F'
=27(1=
ZQ,
I),
(10)
Thus the
is
higher, that
characteristic constant, #', of the singlephase motor in its performance than the is, the motor inferior
good
polyphase motor; but the quarterphase motor makes just as or poor a singlephase motor as the threephase motor. 62. The calculation of the performance curves of the singlephase motor from its constants, then, is the same as that of the
polyphase motor, except that; In the expression of torque and of power, the term (1 s) is added, which results from the decreasing quadrature flux, and it thus is:
Torque:
T'
= T (1  *) = (1s) aie\
(I
(11)
Power:
P =P
f
s)
(1
s)
2
a ie *.
(12)
However, these expressions are approximate only, as they assume a variation of the quadrature flux proportional to the
speed.
As the singlephase induction motor is not inherently Such are: selfstarting, starting devices are required.
63.
(a)
Mechanical starting.
in starting a singlephase induction motor it is not necesas in a synchronous motor, to bring it up to full speed, but sary, the motor begins to develop appreciable torque already at low
As
speed,
it is
by hand,
of high
and
if
By
motor.
This has the great objection of requiring a commutator, and a commutatingmachine rotor winding instead of the common inductionmotor squirrelcage winding. Also, as series motor,
the liability exists in the starting connection, of running away;
97
as shunt motor, sparking is still more severe. used to a limited extent only.
(c)
Thus
this
method
By
This requires a secondary system, which is electrically unsymmetrical with regards to the primary system, and thus, since the secondary is movable with regards to the primary, requires means of changing the secondary circuit, that is, commutator brushes shortcircuiting secondary coils in the position of effective
torque,
and opencircuiting them in the position of opposing torque. this method leads to the various forms of repulsion series and of shunt characteristic. of motors, It has the serious objection of requiring a commutator and a corresponding armature winding; though the limitation is not
Thus
quite as great as with the series or shunt motor, since in the repulsion motors the armature current is an induced secondary
current, and the armature thus independent of the primary system regards current, voltage and number of turns. (d) By shifting the axis of magnetism, that is producing a magnetic flux displaced in phase and in position from that inducing the armature currents, in other words, a quadrature magnetic flux, such as at speed is being produced by the rotation. This method does not impose any limitation on stator and rotor design, requires no commutator and thus is the method
detail.
arrangements proposed for producing a quadrature or starting flux can be grouped into three classes: A. Phasesplitting Devices. The primary system of the singlephase induction motor is composed of two or more circuits displaced from each other in position around the armature circumference, and combined with impedances of different inductance factors so as to produce a phase displacement between them. The motor circuits may be connected in series, and shunted by the impedance, or they may be connected in shunt with each other, but in series with their respective impedance, or they may be connected with each other by transformation, etc. B. Inductive Devices. The motor is excited by two or more circuits which are in inductive relation with each other so as to produce a phase displacement.
infinite variety of
The
98
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
This inductive relation may be established outside of the motor take place in the by an external phasesplitting device, or may
An essentially reactive quadrature of the motor, and used to energize outside voltage is produced in the circuit motor, either directly through a a crossmagnetic
Devices.
with the main voltage separate motor coil, or after combination or quarterof threephase to a system of voltages approximate
phase relation. D. Phase Converter. By a separate external phase converter the singlephase supply usually of the inductionmachine type a into is converted polyphase system. Such phase converter may be connected in shunt to the motor,
or
may
be connected in
series thereto.
This arrangement requires an auxiliary machine, running idle, however. It therefore is less convenient, but has the advantage to of being capable of giving full polyphase torque and output the motor, and thus would be specially suitable for railroading.
64. If:
$0
= main
magnetic flux of singlephase motor, that is, magnetic flux produced by the impressed singlephase voltage, and
auxiliary
<i>
starting device,
and
if
w $
=
=
and
fluxes,
proportional to:
co
sin
tn
sin <;
(13)
flux,
the same motor as polyphase motor, with the magnetic $0, the torque is
:
To
is:
1
or, if:
=
^0
sin
sin <,
(15)
is,
99
flux,
in time
and
in space, it is:
T = ai^o,
and
startingtorque ratio:
(16)
As the magnetic
fluxes are proportional to the impressed volsame number of turns, it is: starting
T =
beoe sin
r
/
co
sin
\1^/
/>
sin
sin
<A
(19)
where
e
e
impressed singlephase voltage, voltage impressed upon the auxiliary or starting winding, reduced to the same
number and
e
f
of turns as the
main winding,
and the comparison is made with the torque of a quarterphase motor of impressed voltage, 60, and the same number of turns, Or, if by phasesplitting, monocyclic device, etc., two voltages, 61 and e 2 are impressed upon the two windings of a singlephase
,
induction motor,
it is:
Starting torque:
T =
and, startingtorque ratio
:
beie* sin
sin
<t>
(20)
<
~
#0
sin
cosing
(21)
where eo is the voltage impressed upon a quarterphase motor, with which the singlephase motor torque is compared, and all
100
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
number
of turns
these voltages, ei, e% e Q> are reduced to the same of the circuits, as customary.
If
then:
Q =
QQ =
voltamperes input of the singlephase motor with starting device, and voltamperes input of the same motor
 VO
(22)
is
is
the ratio of the apparent startingtorque efficiency of the singlephase motor with starting device, to that of the same motor as polyphase motor, v may thus be called the apparent
torqw efficiency of the singlephase motorstarting device. In the same manner the apparent power efficiency of the starting device would result by using the power input instead of the
voltampere input. 65. With a starting device producing a quadrature voltage,
e',
(24)
o
is
The quadrature
flux:
e
1
te
(25)
an exciting current, equal to t times that of the main voltage in the motor without starting device, the exciting current
requires
at standstill is:
e,Y'
^
ratio,
t,
101
Y'
in the
^(1
=
+t);
(27)
at standstill is
~~
(28)
and thus
in the singlephase induction motor with starting device producing at standstill the ratio of quadrature voltage to main
voltage
slip, s:
Y'
Fi
s(1
,r
t)
},'
(29)
However, these expressions (29) are approximate only, as they assume linear variation with s, and furthermore, they apply only under the condition, that the effect of the starting device does
not vary with the speed of the motor, that is, that the voltage ratio, t, does not depend on the effective impedance of the motor. This is the case only with a few starting devices, while many depend upon the effective impedance of the motor, and thus with the great change of the effective impedance of the motor with increasing speed, the conditions entirely change, so that no general equations can be given for the motor constants. 66. Equations (18) to (23) permit a simple calculation of the starting torque, torque ratio and torque efficiency of the singlephase induction motor with starting device, by comparison with the same motor as polyphase motor, by means of the calculation of the voltages, e', e\, e%, etc., and this calculation is simply that
of a
compound
tion
motor as an
alternatingcurrent circuit, containing the inducThat is, since the only effective impedance.
determining factor in the starting torque is the voltage impressed upon the motor, the internal reactions of the motor do not come into consideration, but the motor merely acts as an effective impedance. Or in other words, the consideration of the internal
102
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is
eliminated
polyphase motor.
In calculating the
effective
same as an alternatingcurrent transformer, still, we consider the and use the equivalent circuit of the transformer, as discussed in Chapter XVII of "Theory and Calculation of Alternatingcurrent Phenomena." That is, the induction motor is considered as
i}
z,
FIG, 35.
The equivalent
motor.
impressed voltage, with a shunt of the admittance, the two impedances, as shown in Fig. 35. The effective impedance then is
:
between
(30)
approximately, this
is
Za =
(31)
This approximation (31), is very close, if Zi is highly inductive, as a shortcircuited lowresistance squirrel cage, but ceases to be a satisfactory approximation if the secondary is of high resistance,
for instance, contains a starting rheostat. As instances are given in the following the correct values of the
impedance, Z, from equation (30), the approximate value (31), and their difference, for a threephase motor without the resistance starting resistance, with a small resistance, with a and high resistance: giving maximum torque at standstill,
effective
103
A:
z:
za
0.2
0.1 3 0.1
+ 0,3 3
0.1
0.25
1.6
06+ 0.3;
A.
+ 3; + 0.3;
195
0.336 661
0.35
+ 06; + 6;
+06; +06;
0.005
07
1.7
014 039
0.008; 0.004;
020;
+0.3;
1.552+0.804;
0.148+0.204;
PHASESPLITTING DEVICES
Parallel Connection
and
of equal effective
impedance:
Z =
These two motor
+ jx.
with each
FIG. 36.
Diagram
motor
circuits.
the
other between the same singlephase mains of voltage, e Q but first motor circuit contains in series the impedance
,
Zi
ri
+ jxi,
as
shown diagrammatically in Fig. 36. The two motor currents then are:
/i
= 7FrV and
I
'
Z
2,
+ Z,
(32)
h+/
(33)
coils:
104
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and
Zi
(34)
2*2
:
is
given by
//
(35)
^2
f
T =
in the
fr
ei e 2 sin $;
(36)
e
,
impressed
(37)
per
circuit, it is
To
hence, the torque ratio
:
fceo
2
,
= ^i ^o
sin 4.
(38)
The
is:
io
=
y>
(39)
io,
(40)
while the voltamperes of the singlephase motor, inclusive starting impedances, are:
Q =
thus:
g
e i,
(41)
2^
^
:
(42)
(43)
68.
of effective
impedance
Z
thus:
z
=, r
+jx =
0.1
0.3J,
0.316,
105
and assume, as the simplest case, a resistance, a motor circuit. That is:
Zi
It is
0.3, inserted
0,
(44)
then
(32):/
=
r
+jx
0.1
+ 0.3 j ^
= =
=
r
+ a + jx
~
0.4
+ 0.3 j
=
(33):
(l3j),
/
i
= 6o(1.6eo(2.64.2j),
4.94
r
e e
;
1.2 j);
(34)
fa
&i
=
==::
E =
2
+^
,.
01
0.3
j.
60,
^2
0.632
60 ;
0.52
0.36 j,
0.36
sin
(38):
(43)
:
<t>
arrangement gives 46 per cent., or nearly half as starting torque per voltampere taken from the supply circuit, as the motor would give as polyphase motor. However, as polyphase motor with lowresistance secondary, the starting torque per voltampere input is low. With a highresistance motor armature, which on polyphase supply gives a good apparent startingtorque efficiency, v would be much lower, due to the lower angle, <. In this case, however, a reactance, +ja, would give fairly good startingtorque efficiency. In the same manner the effect of reactance or capacity inserted into one of the two motor coils can be calculated.
this
Thus
much
As instances are given, in Fig. 37, the apparent torque efficiency, of the singlephase inductionmotor starting device consisting v, of the insertion, in one of the two parallel motor circuits, of
various amounts of reactance, inductive or positive, and capacity
106
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
motor
of
impedance:
Z =
0.1
0.3;
of the
motor impedance
Z =
0.3
+ 0.1;
circuit,
motor
JUO
4.
HR
46 45
44
48.
.2
42
43
44
N3413 45 46 47
CAPAC TV
4.4
4.6
INDUCTANCE (RESISTANCE)
41.0
41.2
41.4
41.6
41.8
143j
42.0
FIG. 37.
Apparent startingtorque
efficiencies
parallel connection of
motor
of phasesplitting device,
circuits.
and
inversely. 69. Higher values of startingtorque efficiency are secured by the use of capacity in the one, and inductance in the other motor
It is obvious that by resistance and inductance alone, phase displacement between the two component currents, and thus true quarterphase relation, can not be reached. As resistance consumes energy, the use of resistance is justified
circuit.
90
107
only due to its simplicity and cheapness, where moderate starting torques are sufficient, and thus the startingtorque efficiency For producing high starting torque with high less important. startingtorque efficiency, thus, only capacity and inductance
would come into consideration. Assume, then, that the one impedance
z2
is
a capacity:
jk,
= 
fc,
or:
Z2 = 
(45)
ever
while the other, xi, may be an inductance or also a capacity, whatmay be desired
:
Zi
= +jx
l9
(46)
(35)
[r
(a?!
j(k 
x)
.
*
( (
True
<t>
e\
and
e2,
or angle,
o requires
7
cos
thus:
(xi
(p
0,
x} (k
a?)
r2
is,
(48)
and the two voltages, e\ and e%, are equal, that phase system of voltages is produced, if in
(34):
a true quarter
[Z
[
+Z =
l]
[Z
Zt],
where the
This gives
r2
or:
(a*
z)
= =
r2
+
x
(fc
x)
2
,
Xl
+x
x k
x
x
>
(49)
hence,
by
(48)
xi
+
Xi
= k = r+ = r
*=
r,
\
J
(50)
x.
Thus, if x
Xi, also
must be a capacity.
108
70. Thus, let:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
motor
in a lowresistance
Z = r + jx = = 0.4, Z 2 =  0.4j,
fc
0.1
xi
Zi
= = 
0.3J,
0.2,
0.2
j,
that
(34)
:
is,
= =
e%
2.23 e
5,
that
is,
the torque
r ^
is five
supply.
gQ
0.1
+
=
o.i j'
_ __fO ~ o.i
o.i j
I
that
is,
10 e Q
i,
== "y
=: 3. 16 60,
3
v
= =
1.58,
3.16,
that
or starting torque is, the apparent startingtorque efficiency, per voltampere input, of the singlephase induction motor with starting devices consisting of two capacities giving a true quarterphase system, is 3.16 as high as that of the same motor on a
quarterphase voltage supply, and the circuit is noninductive in starting, while on quarterphase supply, it has the powerfactor 31.6 per cent, in starting,
In a highresistance motor:
Z =
it is:
0.3
0.1.7,
Z*
that
is,
= 0.4, xi = =  0.4 j, Z 2 =
is
0.2,
+0.2.7,
= =
= = =
0.743 e
0.555, 3.33 60,
i
io
3.16
Co?
5
v
0.527,
1.055,
109
little
This highresistance motor gives 5.5 per cent, more torque per voltampere input, with unity powerfactor, on singlephase supply, than it gives on quarterphase supply with 95 per cent,
powerfactor.
The value found for the lowresistance motor, t = 5, is however not feasible, as it gives: e\ = 62 = 2.23 eo, and in a quarterphase motor designed for impressed voltage, e the impressed Thus the motor voltage, 2.23 60, would be far above saturation. would have to be operated at lower supply voltage singlephase,
,
0i
= 3.16. At t, though the same value of v the of the 0o, impressed voltage singlephase circuit would be about 45 per cent, of eo, and then it would be: t = 1. Thus, in the lowresistance motor, it would be preferable to
and then give lower
62
operate the two motor circuits in series, but shunted by the two different capacities producing true quarterphase relation.
Series Connection
71.
The
with two
coils in
FIG. 38.
Diagram
motor
of different powerfactor, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 38, can be carried out in the same way as that of parallel connection,
it is
more convenient
term admittance" instead of impedance. That is, let the effective admittance per motor
coil
equal:
110
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
coils
J 72 =
it is
* '? 1
1'
02
fit,
j
\
(52)
then:
___J*__,
F
(53)
F!
+
:
F2
and
^"'
E = y
y
2
i
(54)
The phase
difference
between E\ and
<
thus
is
given
by
(55)
w (cos + j sin 0)
and herefrom follows
cuit:
v. t, q and As instance consider a motor
y2 ^
>
of effective
admittance per
cir
with the two circuits connected in series between singlephase mains of voltage, eo, and one circuit shunted by a noninductive
resistance of conductance,
g^.
What
is
value of
g\
gives
maximum
starting torque,
and what
this torque?
It is:
am
+ gi
 jb
 jt>
hence:
tan
sin
+
,
ffi)
+
,
<^
gi
(58)
111
sn
<
~
(20
+ 00' + 4&
and
for
maximum,
^=
thus
:
'
gi
= =
2y
+5 vV =
6.32,
(60)
or,
substituting back:
,
(59):
^^ =
0.18.
(61)
As in singlephase operation, the voltage, e Q is impressed upon the two quadrature coils in series, each coil receives only about
,
~=.
V2
of a quarterphase
~j~>
0.36.
advised to study the possibilities of capacity and reactance (inductive or capacity) shunting the two motor maximum torque, those giving true coils, the values giving the torque and apparent torque and quarterphase relation,
The reader
is
efficiencies
secured thereby.
B.
INDUCTIVE DEVICES
same admittance.
in series with the one, the other (2) with
The one
circuit (1) is
coils
wound on the same magnetic circuit, the other of two of turns, ni and w 2 of the two coils, number the By proportioning
.
which thus are interlinked inductively with each other on the external magnetic circuit, M, a considerable phase displacement
112
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
can be procoils, and thus starting torque that is, a armature, a with highresistance duced, especially rheostat. motor with starting A full discussion and calculation of this device is contained in
" the paper on the Singlephase Induction A. I. E. E, Transactions, 1898.
Motor/
page 63,
0)
FIG.
39.
External inductive
device.
FIG. 40.
Diagram
of shading coil.
The exciting system of the motor consists of a stationary primary coil and a stationary secondary coil, shortcircuited upon the itself (or closed through an impedance), both acting upon
revolving secondary. The stationary secondary can either cover a part of the pole "
face excited
then called a shading as the primary, but is angularly coil," or it has the same pitch or 60), displaced therefrom in space, by less than 90 (usually 45
by the primary
coil,
and
is
The shading
the simplest of
devices,
coil,
all
as
shown diagrammatically
in Fig. 40, is
and therefore very extensively used, though it gives only a small starting torque, and that at a low apparent startingsmall torque efficiency. It is almost exclusively used in very fan motors, motors which require little starting torque, such as and thus industrially constitutes the most important singlephase induction motorstarting device. 73. Let, all the quantities being reduced to the primary number of turns and frequency, as customary in induction machines:
ZQ = Y =
+ JXQ
jb
= primary = primary
113
jV = primary
If the reluctivity of the shaded portion of the pole 1 as that of the unshaded, then Y Y; in general, if
the same
b pole,
ratio of reluctivity of
Y'
b either
=
b
67,
1,
or,
sometimes,
is
>
1,
if
made
g1
jbi
Y2 =
g%
jb%
secondary or shading
coil,
YI and YZ thus refer to the selfinductive impedances, in which the energy component is due to effective resistance, and Y and Y' refer to the mutual inductive Impedances, in which the energy component is due to hysteresis and eddy currents. a = shaded portion of pole, as fraction of total pole; thus
Zo,
(1
If:
a)
= unshaded
portion of pole.
= = E2 = Io =
e
f; l
impressed singlephase voltage, voltage induced by flux in unshaded portion of pole, voltage induced by flux in shaded portion of pole,
primary current,
eo
it is
then:
= #1
+ #2 +
ZoJo.
(62)
The secondary
= ^7i.
(63)
The primary
pole:
/oo
^a
=
#1
(
(64)
thus:
/o
/i
+ /oo
Yl +
J^}'
(65)
114
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
current under the shaded portion of the pole
I'i
is:
The secondary
frYi.
is:
Z
.
(66)
The
h
The
= E Y2
(67)
'
and this gives the angle, $, of phase displacement between the two component voltages, $1 and $2= 1, and If, as usual, &
If
0.5,
that
is,
it is:
rT
74.
=:
TT
\*
V
Assuming now, as first approximation, Z Q = 0, that is, neglecting the impedance drop in the singlephase primary coil which obviously has no influence on the phase difference between the component voltages, and the ratio of their values, that is,
on the approximation of the devices to polyphase relation
it is:
77T
(
then
/TON
Jjf
n
thus,
from
(70)
+Y+ F
eQ
(73)
I
115
1;
0.5;
2
7.
+2F+F
+4F+
Fl
2 Fi
2 Fi
7,'
(74)
y,'
is,
+27 +4F+
and the primary current, or singlephase supply current substituting (73) into (65) :
by
fo
60
(75)
or, for:
1;
0.5:
(76)
2
lo
=
2 Fx
+4F+ F
and herefrom
follows,
by reducing to absolute
11
'
a
2
'
'
(77)
F+
it is:
F+ F =
F',
(70):
IT
Y = m
e
(cos
sin
(78)
Y'
(73):
(79)
F
(75):
r
*
_ ~
yo
(80)
T = Q =
and
for a quarterphase motor, with voltage
j= impressed per
116
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
,
circuit, neglecting
the primary impedance, z to be comparable with the shadedcoil singlephase motor, it is:
,
V2

vo~
^F+
, oV
y,/,
To
thus:
= A,
61^2
V sm
(55>,
As instances are given in the following table the component voltages, ei and e 2 the phase angle, $, between them, the primary current, io, the torque ratio, t, and the apparent startingwith the constants torque efficiency, v, for the shadedpole motor
75.
,
:
60
Y =
100; 0.001
0.01
j.
= =
1,
that
0.5,
is, uniform air gap. that is, half the pole is shaded.
And
motor armatures
Yi Yi
Fi
:
= = =
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.01
0,02
0.03
0.03
jf,
0.02
0.01
j,
phase angle, 4>, and thus the starting torque, t, are greatest with the combination of lowresistance armature and highresistance shading coil, and of highresistance armature with lowresistance shading coil; but in the first case
the torque
is
in opposite direction
accelerating coil
from what
117
is,
is
high startingtorque efficiencies, but its foremost advantage is the extreme simplicity. The voltage due to the shaded portion of the pole, e%, is less than that due to the unshaded portion, ei, and thus a somewhat
higher torque the pole: a >
may
0.5.
A larger air gap: b > 1, under the shaded portion of the pole, or an external noninductive resistance inserted into the shading
coil,
at a sacrifice of powerfactor particularly with highresistance armature and lowresistance shading coil.
&Q
100 volts; a
Yz'
6l'
0.5; 6
1;
Y =
0.001
0.01
j.
YI'.
62,'
<j>'
to'
t.l
VI
two impedances are displaced in phase from each forming with the main voltage a voltage triangle. The altitude of this triangle, or the voltage, go, between the com
118
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
connection of the two impedances, and a point inside of the are equal), is voltage, e (its middle, if the two impedances is a teazer and a voltage in quadrature with the main voltage, the monocyclic voltage or quadrature voltage of limited energy system, e, Ei, E 2 that is, it is of and drops if power is taken off from it. (See
mon
main
Chapter XIV.) Let then, in a threephase wound motor, operated singlephase with monocyclic starting device, and shown diagrammatically in Fig. 42:
e
voltage
==
impressed
between
singlephase
FIG. 41.
lines,
Monocyelic
triangle.
Y =
I'l,
circuit,
and
and
F E2 and
two impedances
E.olo
E,
FIG. 42.
Ji,
fJ
/ 2 and I s = currents in the three motor circuits. and / = voltage and current of the quadrature circuit from the common connection of the two impedances,
to the motor.
119
It is then, counting the voltages and currents in the direction indicated by the arrows of Fig. 42
:
/O
/'l
/'2
/2
~
]
/I,"
(81)
substituting:
/'i
= EiY
lt
(82)
h =
gives:
 EJ
Y
l
Y,
thus:
=m
(cos
<j>
+j
sin
(83)
This gives the phase angle, <, between the voltages, Since: of the monocyclic triangle.
$1 and
2}
it is,
by
(83)
$0 =
(5^2
+
and the
device:
 F2 F2 + 2 F
(86)
"
V+
Z
i
2)
'u'v JT 2
Il9>' ^ +
J:
(87)
As with the balanced threephase motor, the quadrature component of voltage numerically
is
\/3> it is,
120
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
numerical value of the imaginary term of
Ej the
ratio
the torque
is:
^~
(88)
The voltampere
ratio is:
=3?'
thus the apparent startingtorque efficiency:
(89)
(90)
etc.
Three cases have become of special importance: where (a) The resistancereactance monocyclic starting device; one of the two impedances, Z\ and Z 2) is a resistance, the other an inductance. This is the simplest and cheapest arrangement,
77.
current consumpgives good starting torque, though a fairly high tion and therefore low startingtorque efficiency, and is therefore
very extensively used for starting singlephase induction motors. After starting, the monocyclic device is cut out and the power consumption due to the resistance, and depreciation of the powerfactor due to the inductance, thereby avoided. " This device is discussed on page 333 of Theoretical Elements
of Electrical Engineering
77
may
be
considered as a monocyclic starting device, in which one of the two impedances is a capacity, the other one is infinity. The capacity usually is made so as to approximately balance the magit
netizing current of the motor, is left in circuit after starting, as does not interfere with the operation, does not consume power,
and compensates for the lagging current of the niotor, so that the motor has practically unity powerfactor for all loads. This motor gives a moderate starting torque, but with very good startingtorque efficiency, and therefore is the most satisfactory singlephase induction motor, where very high starting torque is not needed. It was extensively used some years ago, but went out
of use
and
it is
due to the trouble with the condensers of these early days, therefore again coming into use, with the development
121
and inductance, a balanced threeBy be can and thereby a starting torque produced, phase triangle on motor the of to that threephase voltage supply, with equal an apparent startingtorque efficiency superior to that of the
threephase motor. Assuming thus
:
YI = +jbi = y = j5 2 = Y =gjb.
2
capacity,
^
inductance,
If
e}
EI,
E^
is
a balanced threephase
tri
angle,
(92)
a
VI) =
61
+ 2 6) V3  j (62 +
62
61
2g
0;
thus:
&2
 bi + 26 = + &i  20 V3 =
0,
0;
hence:
thus,
if:
> g V3,
be a capacity
also;
if
Z 2 must
,
is
is
an
highresistance motor:
(a)
(b)
Y=
 jb =
j,
Y = gjb~3j,
122
it is
:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
= =
61
62
= =
4.732, capacity,
1.268, capacity,
(86)
&i
2> 2
It
is,
by
and
(92)
thus:
h
it is,
= =
=
1,
as
was to be expected.
e (g
3.16 e;
:
however, by (87)
/
thus:
i
= e(3ffj&);
i
=
:
4.243
6,
= = =
9.06
6,
and by
thus
(89)
q
= =
0.448,
q
w
0.956,
1.046.
2.232,
Further discussion of the various singlephase induction motorstarting devices, and also a discussion of the acceleration of the motor with the starting device, and the interference or noninterference of the starting device with the quadrature flux and thus torque produced in the motor by the rotation of the armature, is
given in a paper on the "Singlephase Induction Motor/' A. I. E. E. Transactionsj 1898, page 35, and a supplementary paper on "Notes on Singlephase Induction Motors/' A. I. E. E. Trans1900, page 25.
CHAPTER
VI
79.
calculated
terminals.
Load and speed curves of induction motors are usually and plotted for constantsupply voltage at the motor
In practice, however, this condition usually is only approximately fulfilled, and due to the drop of voltage in the stepdown transformers feeding the motor, in the secondary and the primary supply lines, etc., the voltage at the motor terminals drops more or less with increase of load. Thus, if the voltage at the primary terminals of the motor transformer is constant, and such as to give the rated motor voltage at fullload, at noload the voltage at the motor terminals is higher, but at overload lower by the voltage drop in the internal impedance of the transformers.
If
the voltage
is
distri
bution, the drop of voltage in the line adds itself to the impedance drop in the transformers, and the motor supply voltage thus varies still more between noload and overload.
With a drop
of constant potential and the motor terminals, assuming the circuit such as to give the rated motor voltage at fullload, the
voltage at noload and thus the exciting current is higher, the voltage at overload and thus the maximum output and maximum torque of the motor, and also the motor impedance current, that the is, current consumed by the motor at standstill, and thereby
starting torque of the motor, are lower than on a constantpotential
supply.
is
motor
Hereby then the margin of overload capacity of the reduced, and the characteristic constant of the motor,
or the ratio of exciting current to shortcircuit current, is increased, that is, the motor characteristic made inferior to that
given at constant voltage supply, the more so the higher the voltage drop in the supply circuit. Assuming then a threephase motor having the following con0.1 j; primary stants: primary exciting admittance, Y = 0.01 0.3 j; secondary selfinducself inductive impedance, Z = 0.1
123
124
tive impedance,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Zi
110 volts, 0.3 j; supply voltage, e Q watts per phase. and rated output, 5000 Assuming this motor to be operated: resistance and 4 per 1. By transformers of about 2 per cent, of good regulation, transformers that cent, reactance voltage, is,
0.1
with constant voltage at the transformer terminals. and 15 per 2. By transformers of about 2 per cent, resistance
very poorly regulating transthe transformer primaries. formers, at constant supply voltage at
cent, reactance voltage, that
is,
3.
and
about 8 per cent, resistance, 40 per cent, reactance voltage in line and transformers between generator and motor. This gives, in complex quantities, the impedance between the motor terminals and the constant voltage supply:
1.
2. 3.
z = Z = Z =
0.04
0.04
0.16
j,
j, j.
It is assumed that the constant supply voltage is such as to at fullload. give 110 volts at the motor terminals of the curves and The load motor, when operating under speed the with that these conditions, impedance, Z, in series between is,
the motor terminals and the constant voltage supply, ei, then can be calculated from the motor characteristics at constant terminal voltage,
eo,
as follows:
<?
,
At slip, motor is
lent
s,
,
z"
effective or equivais z
then
T,
and, in
complex quantities,
ZQ =
^
Zo
(cos
+ j sin 0),
and the
thus
total
im
line,
is:
or, in
absolute values:
ei,
is:
125
If e is
and
the voltage required at the motor terminals at fullload, the current, zi the total impedance at fullload, it is:
FIG. 43.
Inductionmotor load curves corresponding to 110 volts at motor terminals at 5000 watts load.
is:
of the
motor under
this condieo,
by multiplying
is,
all
by the ratio of the actual terminal voltage to the fullload terminal voltage, and the torque and power by multiplying with
126
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and the
efficien
obviously remain unchanged. In this manner, in the three cases assumed in the preceding,
and 45.
80. It is seen that,
Fig. 43, the
maximum
even with transformers of good regulation. torque and the maximum power are ap
FIG 44.
O
Inductionmotor load curves corresponding to 110 volts at motor terminals at 5000 watts load.
The values corresponding to constant termipreciably reduced. nal voltage are shown, for the part of the curves near maximum
maximum power, in Figs. 43, 44, and 45. In Figs. 46, 47, 48, and 49 are given the speedtorque curves of the motor, for constant terminal voltage, Z = 0, and the three cases above discussed; in Fig. 46 for shortcircuited
torque and
secondaries, or running condition; in Fig. 47 for 0.15 ohm; in Fig. 48 for 0.5 ohm; and in Fig. 49 for 1.5 ohms additional resistance inserted in tfie armaiure.
As
and transand
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
127
FIG. 45.
Inductionmotor load curves corresponding to 110 volts at motor terminals at 500 watts load.
128
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
especially the starting torque, which, with shortcircuited armature, in the case 3 drops to about onethird the value given at
FIG. 47.
FIG. 48.
Inductionmotor speed torque characteristics with a resistance of 0.5 ohm in secondary circuit.
resistance giving
maximum
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
129
minal voltage, with high impedance in the supply, the starting torque drops so much that the maximum torque is shifted to about half synchronism. In induction motors, especially at overloads and in starting,
it
therefore
sible
is important to have as low impedance as posbetween the point of constant voltage and the motor
terminals.
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500

.
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Slip Fraction of
Synchronism
FIG. 49.
Inductionmotor speed current characteristics with a resistance of 1.5 ohms in secondary circuit.
maximum
power, maxi
mum
and
torque, starting torque, exciting current and starting current are given for above motor, at constant terminal voltage
for the three values of impedance in the supply lines, for such supply voltage as to give the rated motor voltage of 110 In the first volts at full load and for 110 volts supply, voltage.
case,
torque drop
down
to their fullload
values with the highest line impedance, and far below fullload values in the latter case.
130
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
PH
W o
O p o
fc
^
o"
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
2.
131
FREQUENCY PULSATION
the frequency of the voltage supply pulsates with motor speed can not appreciably follow the pulsations of frequency, the motor current and torque also pulsate; that is, if the frequency pulsates by the fraction,
81. If
sufficient rapidity that the
above and below the normal, at the average slip, s, the actual s p and s p and motor current and slip pulsates between
p,
FIG. 50.
torque pulsate between the values corresponding to the slips, s If then the average slip s < p, at minimum p and s p. frequency, the actual slip, s p, becomes negative; that is, the
motor momentarily generates and returns energy. As instance are shown, in Fig. 50, the values of current and of torque for maximum and minimum frequency, and for the
average frequency, for p = 0.025, that is, 2.5 per cent, pulsation of frequency from the average. As seen, the pulsation of current is moderate until synchronism is approached, but be
132
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
comes very large near synchronism, and from slip, s = 0.025, up to synchronism the average current remains practically constant, thus at synchronism is very much higher than the current The average torque also drops someat constant frequency.
what below the torque corresponding to constant frequency, as shown in the upper part of Fig, 50.
3.
voltage and constant frequency the torque polyphase induction motor is a maximum at some definite speed and decreases with increase of speed over that corresponding to the maximum torque, to zero at synchronism; it also decreases with decrease of speed from that at the maximum torque This point, to a minimum at standstill, the starting torque. maximum torque point shifts toward lower speed with increase
82.
of the of the resistance in the secondary circuit, and the starting torque thereby increases. Without additional resistance inserted in the secondary circuit the maximum torque point, however, lies at fairly high speed not very far below synchronism, 10 to 20 per cent, below synchronism with smaller motors of good efficiency. Any value of torque between the starting torque and the maximum torque is reached at two different speeds. Thus in a threephase motor having the following constants impressed = 110 volts; exciting admittance, Y = 0.01 0.1 j; e.m.f., 6
:
At constant
0.1 0.3 j, and secondary impedance, primary impedance, ZQ 0.3 y, the torque of 5.5 synchronous kw. is reached Zi = 0.1 at 54 per cent, of synchronism and also at the speed of 94 per cent, of synchronism, as seen in Fig. 51. When connected to a load requiring a constant torque, irrespective of the speed, as when pumping water against a constant head by reciprocating pumps, the motor thus could carry the load at two different speeds, the two points of intersection of the horizontal line, I/, in Fig. 51, which represents the torque consumed by the load, and the motortorque curve, D. Of these two points, d and c, the lower one, d, represents unstable con
ditions of operation; that is, the motor can not operate at this speed, but either stops or runs up to the higher speed point, c, at which stability is reached. At the lower speed, d, a momen
tary decrease of speed, as by a small pulsation of voltage, load, etc., decreases the motor torque, Z>, below the torque, L, required
by the
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
so Its torque further decreases, and
loses
it
133
still
slows
down
more,
more torque, etc., until it comes to a standstill. Inversely, a momentary increase of speed increases the motor torque, D, beyond the torque, L, consumed by the load, and thereby causes an acceleration, that is, an increase of speed. This increase of speed, however, increases the motor torque and thereby the speed still further, and so on, and the motor increases in speed up to the point, c, where the motor torque, D, again becomes
FIG. 51.
Speedtorque characteristics of induction, motor and load for determination of the stability point.
equal to the torque consumed by the load. A momentary increase of speed beyond c decreases the motor torque, D, and thus limits itself, and inversely a momentary decrease of speed below
c increases the motor torque, D, beyond L, thus accelerates and recovers the speed; that is, at c the motor speed is stable. With a load requiring constant torque the induction motor
thus
unstable at speeds below that of the maximum torque but stable above it; that is, the motor curve consists of two branches, an unstable branch, from standstill, t, to the maxiis
point,
134
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
mum
from the maximum torque point, m, and a stable branch, to synchronism. torque point, m, of the 83. It must be realized, however, that this instability is a function of curve inductionmotor the of speed lower branch to a the nature of the load, and as described above applies only motor the a load Such L. constant a torque, load
requiring at low could not start (except by increasing the motor torque but when brought up to the in resistance secondary), speeds by 51. a speed above d would carry the load at speed, c, in Fig. is such as to require a motor the on load the If, however, of the speed, as shown torque which increases with the square of a constant part p consists that in is, Fig. 51, by curve, C, as when driving a and part, of quadratic etc.)
(friction
bearings,
a ship's propeller or driving a centrifugal pump, then the induction motor is stable over the entire range of speed, from standstill to synchronism. The motor then starts, with the load represented by curve C, and runs up to speed, c. At a higher load, to speed, b and with represented by curve J3, the motor runs up excessive overload, curve A, the motor would run up to low nature would stop point a, only, but no overload of such
}
speed, the motor, but merely reduce its speed, and inversely, it would always start, but at excessive overloads run at low speed only.
Thus
but
in this case
no unstable branch
of the
motor curve
exists,
it is
With a load requiring a torque which increases proportionally to the speed, as shown by C in Fig. 52, that is, which consists of a constant part, p, and a part proportional to the speed, as when driving a directcurrent generator at constant excitation,
connected to a constant resistance as load as a lighting systhe motor always starts, regardless of the load provided that the constant part of the torque, p, is less than the starting With moderate load, C, the motor runs up to a speed, torque. With very heavy load, A the motor starts, c, near synchronism. but runs up to a low speed only. Especially interesting is the
tem
in Fig. case of an intermediary load as represented by line intersects the motortorque curve, D, in three points, 52. motor gives the &i, 62, &$; that is, three speeds exist at which the
torque required by the load: 24 per cent., 60 per cent., and 88 per cent, of synchronism. The speeds 6j and 63 are stable, the speed 6 2 unstable. Thus, with this load the motor starts from standstill, but does not run up to a speed near synchronism, but
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
135
accelerates only to speed b it and keeps revolving at this low speed (and a correspondingly very large current). If, however, the load is taken off and the motor allowed to run up to synchronism or near to it, and the load then put on, the motor slows
down only to speed 6 3 and carries the load at this high speed; hence, the motor can revolve continuously at two different speeds, bi and 63, and either of these speeds is stable; that is, a momen,
SPEED
01
FIG. 52.
02
03
0.4
015
06
07
08
091.
by the load, and thus limits itself, and inversely a demotor speed increases its torque beyond that corresponding to the load, and thus restores the speed. At the intermediary speed, 62, the conditions are unstable, and a momentary increase of speed causes the motor to accelerate up to speed 63, a momentary decrease of speed from b% causes the motor to slow down to speed &j, where it becomes stable again. In the speed range between 6 2 and 63 the motor thus accelerates up to 63, in the speed range between 62 and 61 it slows down to 61. For this character of load, the inductionmotor speed curve, D, thus has two stable branches, a lower one, from standstill, t, to the point n, and an upper one, from point m to synchronism,
required
crease of
136
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
where
motor curve, D; these two required starting torque, p, on to the unstable the branch, from n to are stable branches separated by
m, on which the motor can not operate.
of stability of motor speed character of the tion not only motorspeed curve but also of the if the and to the curve, relation its motorspeed of the load in
84.
The question
thus
is
a func
is less than the change of motor torque with the change of speed is stable, condition the the load, change of the torque required by
otherwise
stability,
it is
unstable; that
is,
it
must be
dL dD < jg
to give
where
is
by the load
at speed, S.
01
FIG. 53.
02
03
T
015
06
07
08
09
1.
Occasionally on polyphase induction motors on a load as represented in Fig. 52 this phenomenon is observed in the form that the motor can start the load but can not bring it up to
More frequently, however, it is observed on singlespeed. phase induction motors in which the maximum torque is nearer to synchronism, with some forms of starting devices which decrease in their effect with increasing speed and thus give motorspeed characteristics of forms similar to Fig. 53. With a torquespeed curve as shown in Fig. 53, even at a load requiring
middle one
constant torque, three speed points may exist of which the In polyphase synchronous motors and is unstable. converters, when starting by alternating current, that is, as
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
137
induction machines, the phenomenon is frequently observed that the machine starts at moderate voltage, but does not run up to
synchronism, but stops at an intermediary speed, in the neighborof half speed, and a considerable increase of voltage, and thereby of motor torque, is required to bring the machine beyond the dead point, or rather "dead range,' of speed and make it run up to synchronism. In this case, however, the phenomenon
hood
is
complicated by the effects due to varying magnetic reluctance (magnetic locking), inductor machine effect, etc.
Instability of such character as here described occurs in elecmany instances, of which the most typical is the
tric circuits in
It occurs whenever electric arc in a constantpotential supply. the effect produced by any cause increases the cause and thereby becomes cumulative. When dealing with energy, obviously
the effect must always be in opposition to the cause (Lenz's Law), as result of the law of conservation of energy. When dealing with other phenomena, however, as the speedtorque
relation or the voltampere relation, etc., instability due to the
effect assisting
cumulative,
may
it, and thus becoming and frequently does exist, and causes
either indefinite increase or decrease, or surging or hunting, as and XI, of " Theory and more fully discussed in Chapters
85. If the voltage at the inductionmotor terminals decreases with increase of load, the maximum torque and output are decreased the more the greater the drop of voltage. "But even if the voltage at the induction motor terminals is maintained constant, the maximum torque and power may be reduced essentially, in a manner depending on the rapidity with which the
voltage regulation at changes of load is effected by the generator or potential regulator, which maintains constancy of voltage, and the rapidity with which the motor speed can change, that is,
momentum of the motor and its load. This instability of the motor, produced by the generator regulation, may be discussed for the case of a load requiring constant torque at all loads, though the corresponding phenomenon may exist at all classes of load, as discussed under 3,
the mechanical
and
may
138
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The torque curve of the induction motor at constant terminal voltage consists of two branches, a stable branch, from the maximum torque point to synchronism, and an unstable branch,
that a branch at which the motor can not operate on a load requiring constant torque, from standstill to maximum torque.
is,
With increasing
then
slip, s,
the current,
i,
in the
is
motor
increases.
If
D =
p
positive
on the
stable,
negative on the unstable branch of the motor curve, and this rate of change of the torque, with change of current, expressed
as fraction of the current,
is
:
* *'
"
1 D
^D.
'
di
it
may
If
be called the
is positive,
stability coefficient of
the motor.
caused by an increase of slip, s, that is, by a decrease of speed, increases the torque, D, and thereby checks the decrease of speed, and inversely, that is, the
ks
an increase
of
i,
motor
If,
is stable.
is negative, an increase of i causes a decrease D, thereby a decrease of speed, and thus further increase of i and decrease of D; that is, the motor slows down with increasing rapidity, or inversely, with a decrease of i, accelerates with
however, k 8
of
is, is
unstable.
decreases
watts
first rapidly and then, slowly, until an output of 7000 approached, and then rapidly drops below zero; that is, the motor becomes unstable and drops out of step, and speed,
is
by the arrows
The
stability coefficient,
its
fc,
loadcarrying capacity. Obviously, if the terminal voltage of the motor is not constant, but drops with the load, as discussed in 1, a different stability coefficient results;
motor regarding
which intersects the zero line at a different and lower torque. 86. If the induction motor is supplied with constant terminal voltage from a generator of close inherent voltage regulation
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
and
circuit
139
of a size very large compared with the motor, over a supply of negligible impedance, so that a sudden change of of
change of the terminal voltage of the motor, the stability curve, k s of Fig. 54 gives the performance of the motor. If, however,
\
Y 0.010.1 j
7 = 0.1+ 0.3 3
180
TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE Z0.04 + 0.1J REGULATION COEFFICIENT OF SUPPLY & r = j STABILITY COEFFICIENT OF MOTOR &* 1 $f STABILITY COEFFICIENT OF SYSTEM k MAXIMUM OUTPUT POINT
170
180
150
14
130
120
no
100
90
80
70
00
50
40
30
20
10
FIG. 54.
at a change of load
and thus
of
of the supply voltage to constancy at the motor terminals requires a finite time, even if this time is very short, the maximum output of the motor is reduced thereby, the more so the more
rapidly the motor speed can change. Assuming the voltage control at the motor terminals effected
140
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
by hand regulation of the generator or the potential regulator In the circuit supplying the motor, or by any other method which is slower than the rate at which the motor speed can adjust itself
to a change of load, then, even if the supply voltage at the motor terminals is kept constant, for a momentary fluctuation
motor speed and current, the supply voltage momentarily varies, and with regard to its stability the motor corresponds not to the condition of constant supply voltage but to a supply voltage which varies with the current, hence the limit of stability is reached at a lower value of motor torque. At constant slip, s, the motor torque, D, is proportional to the
of
2 If by a variation of slip square of the impressed e.m.f. ? e caused by a fluctuation of load the motor current, i, varies by di, if the terminal voltage, e remains constant the motor torque, D,
. t
varies
by the
fraction k s
If,
=
jj jr>
however, by the variation of current, di, the impressed e.m.f., e, of the motor varies, the motor torque, 2 being proportional to e still further changes, proportional to
the motor.
the change
total
that
is,
by the
fraction
fc r
7 jre* di
e d^
yj
and the
the
di, of
current,
thus
is
&o
k8
kr
Hence, if a momentary fluctuation of current causes a momentary fluctuation of voltage, the stability coefficient of the motor = ks is changed from k 3 to k k r and as k r is negative, the increase of current, i the stability decreases with voltage, e, coefficient of the system is reduced by the effect of voltage regulation of the supply, k rt and k y thus can be called the regulation
kr
the
its regulation,
In Fig. 54 is shown the regulation coefficient, fc r of the supply system of the motor, at 110 volts maintained constant at the motor terminals, and an impedance, Z ~ 0.16 + 0.8 j, between motor terminals and supply e.m.f. As seen, the regulation coefficient of the system drops from a maximum of about 0.03,
,
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
at noload,
141
down
very wide range. resultant stability coefficient, or stability Coefficient of the = k 8 k r , as shown in Fig. 54, system of motor and supply, & thus drops from very high values at lightload down to zero at
latter value, over a
The
the load at which the curves, k s and fc r in Fig. 54 intersect, or at 5800 kw., and there become negative; that is, the motor drops out of step, although still far below its maximum torque point, as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 54.
,
Thus, at constant voltage maintained at the motor terminals is slower in its action than the retardation of a motorspeed change by its mechanical momentum, the motor behaves up to 5800 watts output in exactly the same manner as if its terminals were connected directly to an unlimited source of constant voltage supply, but at this point, where the slip is only 7 per cent, in the present instance, the motor suddenly drops out of step without previous
warning, and comes to a standstill, while at inherently constant terminal voltage the motor would continue to operate up to 7000 watts output, and drop out of step at 8250 synchronous
watts torque at 16 per cent. slip. By this phenomenon the maximum torque of the motor thus is reduced from 8250 to 6300 synchronous watts, or by nearly
25 per cent. 87. If the voltage regulation of the supply system is more rapid than the speed change of the motor as retarded by the momentum of motor and load, the regulation coefficient of the
system as regards to the motor obviously is zero, and the motor thus gives the normal maximum output and torque. If the regulation of the supply voltage, that is, the recovery of the terminal voltage of the motor with a change of current, occurs at
about the same rate as the speed of the motor can change with a change of load, then the maximum output as limited by the stability coefficient of the system is intermediate between the minimum value of 6300 synchronous watts and its normal value
The more rapid the recovery of of 8250 synchronous watts. the voltage and the larger the momentum of motor and load, the less is the motor output impaired by this phenomenon of Thus, the loss of stability is greatest with hand instability.
regulation, less with automatic control by potential regulator, the more so the more rapidly the regulator works; it is very little
142
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
with compounded alternators, and absent where the motor terminal voltage remains constant without any control by pracand absence of voltage drop tically unlimited generator capacity
Comparing the
the stability former conditions of operation of Fig. 54, it is seen that the remains the that stability line is, intersects the zero very steeply, and the motor high until very close to the maximum torque point, without maximum its to torque close loaded thus can be up the intersects fc however, The curve, of
stability. impairment zero line under a sharp
,
motor load and stability coefficient, k,, of the the assumed under entire the of system coefficient, Ao,
the limit of angle, that is, long before the stability of the system has case this in reached is stability out of step by dropped so close to zero that the motor may drop due of case the in instability Thus, some momentary pulsation.
to the regulation of the system, the maximum output point, as found by test, is not definite and sharply defined, but the stability this decrease the motor gradually decreases to zero, and during out at some point. Experimentally the difference between
drops the dropping out by approach to the limits of stability of the motor proper and that of the system of supply is very marked
by the
thus
is
necessary to guard
phenomenon by
beyond normal
before every increase of load, and then gradually decrease the voltages again to normal.
A serious reduction of the overload capacity of the motor, due to the regulation of the system, obviously occurs only at very high impedance of the supply circuit; with moderate impedance
the curve, k r is much lower, and the intersection between k r and k s occurs still on the steep part of k s and the output thus is not materially decreased, but merely the stability somewhat reduced
,
when approaching maximum output. This phenomenon of the impairment of stability of the induction motor by the regulation of the supply voltage is of practical importance, as similar phenomena occur in many instances.
Thus, with synchronous motors and converters the regulation of the supply system exerts a similar effect on the overload capacity, and reduces the maximum output so that the motor drops out of step, or starts surging, due to the approach to the In this case, with synstability limit of the entire system.
INDUCTIONMOTOR REGULATION
143
chronous motors and converters, increase of their field excitation frequently restores their steadiness by producing leading currents and thereby increasing the powercarrying capacity of the supply system, while with surging caused by instability
synchronous motor the leading currents produced by increase of field excitation increase the surging, and lowering the
of the
field excitation
CHAPTER
HIGHER HARMONICS
88.
VII
IN INDUCTION
MOTORS
calculation of induction motors, Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineeras discussed in " Theory and Calculation of Alternatingcurrent ing" and in That is based on the assumption of the sine wave.
is,
Phenomena/' it is assumed that the voltage impressed upon the motor the current, are per phase, and therefore the magnetic flux and sine waves, and it is further assumed, that the distribution of
the winding on the circumference of the armature or primary,
sinusoidal in space.
it is
is
the case,
While in most cases this is sufficiently not always so, and especially the space or airgap
distribution of the magnetic flux may sufficiently differ from sine lower shape, to exert an appreciable effect on the torque at and action motor where consideration and require speeds,
braking action with considerable power the entire range of speed. Let then
:
is
required throughout
ei cos
<
+e
(74>
cos (3 $
ar)
aa)
cos (9
+
<t>
<? 5
e9
cos (5
aB)
.
.
e7
cos
(1)
<xg)
be the voltage impressed upon one phase of the induction motor. If the motor is a quarterphase motor, the voltage of the
or
behind the
first
motor
~j
+
<
e3
cos f 3
7?r
<
^
\
)
3 )
+ 62 cos
,
<p
ar
e^
cos 7
1
/
 ^
a?
+ eg cos
.
/^
(
<t>
55
9*"
ei
cos
* cos ( 7
<
+ es cos
a?
flux
<t>
a3
+~ +e
<#>
cos 5
a&
.
+6
sists of
+e
cos ( 9
ad
(2)
The magnetic
a
series of
component
HIGHER HARMONICS
to the successive components.
145
The secondary currents induced and the torque produced by the secondary currents, thus show the same components. Thus the motor torque consists of the sum of a series of
by these component
fluxes,
components
or fundamental torque of the motor, given by the usual sinewave theory of the induction motor, and due to the fundamental voltage wave:
61
The main
COS
<p
is
as T\ in Fig. 55, of the usual shape, increasing from standstill, with increasing speed, up to a maximum torque, and
shown
then decreasing again to zero at synchronism. The third harmonics of the voltage waves are:
63
cos (3 $ cos
(3
e$
(4)
As
seen,
these
also
constitute
a quarterphase system of
voltage, but the second wave, which is lagging in the fundamental, is 90 leading in the third harmonic, or in other words,
triple frequency.
the third harmonic gives a backward rotation of the poles with It thus produces a torque in opposite direc
is,
tion to the fundamental, and would reach its synchronism, that zero torque, at onethird of synchronism in negative direction, or at the speed S, = K> given in fraction of synchronous speed.
For backward rotation above onethird synchronism, this triple harmonic then gives an induction generator torque, and the complete torque curve given by the third harmonics thus is as
55.
as),
(5)
B
give again phase rotation in the same direction as the fundamental, that is, motor torque, and assist the fundamental. But synchronism is reached at onefifth of the synchronous speed of
S = +K>
146
fifth
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
harmonic becomes induction generator, due to oversynchronous rotation, and retards. Its torque curve Is shown as
in Fig. 55.
due to
8 =
1^,
that
shown by curve Ti
in Fig. 55.
.BRAK
MOTi
INDUCTION MOTOR
QUARTERPHASE
XX
FIG, 55.
gives positive
motor torque up to
synchronism,
S =
J^,
and above
generator torque, etc. We then have the effects of the various harmonics on the
QUARTERPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
HIGHER HARMONICS
Adding now the torque curves
Tz,
147
to the fundamental torque curve, motor, gives the resultant torque curve, T.
8,
,
r T7
Fig. 55, if the voltage harmonics are considerthe torque curve of the motor at lower speeds, forward and backward, that is, when used as brake, Is rather irregular,
able,
As seen from
showing depressions or "dead points." 89. Assume now, the general voltage wave (1) threephase voltages, and is impressed upon one
of
is
one of the
third
first
of the phases
threephase
is
induction
motor.
47T
phase then
lagging
by
2?r 5
and
phase
e
(1)
ei cos
10
TT
cos
/
J
14
COS
cos(7*3
69
T 
\
7
cos (9
~
<t>
18
7T
61 COS
2r
(*/e
,
cos (3
.
(j>
+
6"
65
COS 5
1
4>
0:5
61 COS (<^
j
(6)
,
4>
a7
a 9)
27T\ )
<^
QJg)
cos f 5
<^
a5
')
+ e^ cos 7 + 69 cos (9
f
<^>
a7
J
4>
ag)
Thus the voltage components of upon the three motor phases, are:
148
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
seen, in this
As
the third
harmonics have no phase rotation, but are in phase with each The fifth harmonic gives other, or singlephase voltages.
backward phase rotation, and thus negative torque, while the seventh harmonic has the same phase rotation, as the funda
= mental, thus adds its torque up to its synchronous speed, S +H, an d above this gives negative or generator torque. The ninth harmonic again is singlephase. harmonics Fig. 56 shows the fundamental torque, T i the higher
f
FIG. 56.
of torque,
T*>
and
T?,
As
seen, the
materially
less,
due to the
harmonic torque. However, while the third harmonic (and its multiples) in the threephase system of voltages are in phase, thus give no phase rotation, they may give torque, as a singlephase induction motor
has torque, at speed, though at standstill the torque is zero. Fig. 57 B shows diagrammatically, as T, the development of the airgap distribution of a true threephase winding, such as used in synchronous converters, etc. Each phase 1, 2, 3, covers
2ir
HIGHER HARMONICS
;
,
149
and its return, 1', 2 3', covers another third of the circumference of two poles, in the lower layer of the armature winding, 180 away from 1, 2, 3. However, this type of true threephase winding
is practically never used in induction or synchronous machines, but the type of winding is used, which is shown as S, in Fig. 57 C. This is in reality a sixphase winding: each of the three
N
1
1o
1o
Q
2
'
lo'
2'
1'o
3'
2J
3'
2'
1n
3'
3'
2'
3'
1o
<? Mil ^a^sSS^
2o
2'
2'
lo
3'
2'
to
3'
2;
FIG. 57.
phases,
1,
poles, or o or
placed
the opposite phase, connected in the reverse direction. Thus the return conductors of phases I, 2, 3 of the upper layer, are shown in the lower layer as 1', 2', 3'; in the upper layer, above r 3', is placed again the phase 1, 2, 3, but connected in the 1', 2
j
reverse direction, and indicated as lo, 2 , 3o. As 1 is connected 7 in the reverse direction to 1, and I is the return of 1, lo is in
150
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
:
lower layer, in I'o, is in the phase with 1', and the return of 1 rotation is: 1, 3, the Thus 1. beneath and phase phase with,
2,
1,3, 2, 1, etc. For comparison, Fig. 57 A shows the usual quarterphase 57 C. the winding, winding, Q, of the same general type as Fig.^ in are phase If then the three third harmonics of 1, 2 and 3 with each other, for these third harmonics the true threephase the diagram shown as T 3 in Fig. 57 D.
phase winding, T, gives As seen, the current flows in one direction, singlephase, throughout the entire upper layer, and in the opposite direction in the action neutralizes, that is, and thus its lower
layer,
magnetizing
winding.
third harmonic diagram of the customary sixphase aras S* in Fig. 57 rangement of threephase winding, S, is shown the case in this singlephase third harE. As alternately
The
seen,
7T
for 60
or
and
in the
exists, of
many
poles
Thus, with the usual threephase inductionmotor winding, a third harmonic in the voltage wave produces a singlephase of motor poles, triple harmonic flux of three times the number and this gives a singlephase motortorque curve, that is, a torque which, starting with zero at standstill, increases to a maximum
in positive direction or assisting, and then decreases again to zero at its synchronous speed, and above this, becomes negative as
Triple frequency with singlephase inductiongenerator torque. a of three times the number synchronous speed of poles gives in a threephase vol= harmonic the third 8 H That is,
tage
may
give a singlephase
speed of oneninth that of the fundamental torque, and in either in Fig. 56. 9 in dotted lines, direction, as shown as
occur only in a
fourwire threephase system, that three phase wires and the neutral.
90. All the torque components produced by the higher harmonics of the voltage wave have the same number of motor poles
HIGHER HARMONICS
151
as the fundamental (except the singlephase third harmonic above discussed, and its multiples, which have three times as
SINE
Qfc
FIG. 58.
air gap,
with
many motor
higher frequency.
fundamental
152
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
frequency, but higher number of pairs of poles than the fundamental, and thus lower synchronous speeds, due to the deviation
of the space distribution of the
sine.
The fundamental motor torque, Ti, of Figs. 55 and 56, is given by a sine wave of voltage and thus of flux, if the winding of each
phase
is
motor
air
gap in a sinusoidal manner, as shown as F under "Sine," in Fig. 58, and the flux distribution of each phase around the circumference of the air gap "Sine," in Fig. 58.
is
sinusoidal also, as
shown
as
$ under
always
of flux
This, however, is never the case, but the winding distributed in a nonsinusoidal manner.
is
The space
and thus
of each phase, along the circumference of the motor air gap, thus can in the general case be represented by a trigonometric
with o> as space angle, in electrical degrees, that is, counting a pair of poles as 2 TT or 360. It is then The distribution of the conductors of one phase, in the motor
series,
:
air
gap:
Q
F =F
{cos
o)
a 3 cos 3
a?
a$ cos
a?
a 7 cos 7
a)
+
that
a 9 cos 9 w
...};
(8)
here the assumption is made, that all the harmonics are in phase, This is pracis, the magnetic distribution symmetrical.
tically always the case, and if it were not, it would simply add phase angle, a m to the harmonics, the same as in paragraphs 88 and 89, but would make no change in the result, as the component torque harmonics are independent of the phase relations between the harmonic and the fundamental, as seen below. In a quarterphase motor, the second phase is located 90
,
or
03
7T
first
phase,
and thus
represented
'**
by the expression
Fojcos(o>
)
+a
cos(3
co
+a
=
Fo cos
co
cos (7
~) + a cos(5 ~) ~ + ~\ + ag cos A)
to
5
co
~
to
+a
cos 3
to
+a
cos s
(9)
HIGHER HARMONICS
153
Such a general or nonsinusoidal space distribution of magnetizing force and thus of magnetic flux, as represented by F and F' can be considered as the superposition of a series of sinusoidal magnetizing forces and magnetic fluxes
}
:
cos cos
co
a 5 cos 5co
co
( co
a 3 cos (3
a 9 cos 9
+ }
 ~\
a & cos ( 5
co
a 7 cos 7
a 7 cos
3
co
(7
CO
5)
a 9 COS (9
co
(10)
The
first
component:
COS
CO,
(10)
customary manner, and represented by TI in Figs. 55 and 56. The second component of space distribution of magnetizing
force:
CLs
COS 3
co,
a 3 cos(3 \
gives a distribution, which
in the to a
co
+ ~)
z!/
'
'
>
makes
three times as
(10),
many
cycles
that
is,
corresponds
motor
many
poles.
This component of
space distribution of magnetizing force would thus, with the fundamental voltage and current wave, give a torque curve reaching synchronism as onethird speed; with the third harmonic
wave, (11) would reach synchronism at oneninth, with the fifth harmonic of the voltage wave at onefifteenth of the normal synchronous speed. In (11), the sign of the second term is reversed from that in (10), that is, in (11), the space rotation is backward from that
of the voltage
of
(10).
S =
The
In other words, (11) gives a synchronous speed of with the fundamental or fullfrequency voltage wave.
third
component
of space distribution
a& cos 5
(
co,
CO
/K $5 COS O
A )
(12)
,
gives a motor of five times as many poles as (10), but with same space rotation as (10), and this component thus would give a
S =
154
In
the
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
S =
same manner, the seventh space harmonic gives ninth space harmonic S = the %, etc. ^f, 91. As seen, the component torque curves of the harmonics
of the space distribution of magnetizing force and magnetic flux in the motor air gap, have the same characteristics as the
component torque due to the time harmonics of the impressed voltage wave, and thus are represented by the same torque
diagrams
:
Fig. 55 for a quarterphase motor, Fig. 56 for a threephase motor. Here again, we see that the threephase motor
is less
liable
by higher haimonics,
may
motor, and give component torques of lower synchronous speed: Time harmonics, that is, harmonics of the voltage wave, which are of higher frequency, but the same number of motor poles, and Space harmonics, that is, harmonics in the airgap distribution, which are of fundamental frequency, but of a higher number of motor poles. Compound harmonics, that is, higher space harmonics of higher time harmonics, theoretically exist, but their torque necessarily is already so small, that they can be neglected, except where they are intentionally produced in the design. We thus get the two classes of harmonics, and their
characteristics
:
HIGHER HARMONICS
155
92. The space harmonics usually are more important than the time harmonics, as the space distribution of the winding in the
motor usually materially differs from sinusoidal, while the deviation of the voltage wave from sine shape in modern electric powersupply systems
negligible.
is
small,
from the
dis
tribution of the winding around the periphery of the motor air " (See gap. Engineering Mathematics/ the chapter on the
trigonometric
series.)
number of the more common winding arrangements are shown in Fig. 58, in development. The arrangement of the conductors of one phase is shown to the left, under F, and the wave shape of the m.m.f and thus the magnetic flux produced by it is shown under $ to the right. The pitch of a turn of the
.
Q
S
0.
0.
This is the threephase winding almost always used in induction and synchronous machines.
T 0. Fullpitch threephase winding: This is the true threephase winding, as used in closedcircuit
in"
little
importance
%,
%,
1/.C?
IX. O O >,
I/
;X2*
seen, the pitch deficiency, p, is denoted by the index. Denoting the winding, F, on the left side of Fig. 58, by the Fourier series:
As
F= F
It
is,
(cos
co
+a
cos 3
a?
+a
i
cos 5
7T
co
+ ar cos 7 +
co
(13)
in general:
/*2~
I
Fodn
If,
then:
156
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
threephase, T); any fractional pitch winding then consists of the superposition
of
two
layers:
n From
co
^ = = 0toco
j.
7T
+
.
WIT
~>
2
and
from
co
to
co
~r>
and the
4^1
A+T
,
PIT
* (J
.
cos nudoo
.
+ JO cos nudu
I
.
7T
PTT
2

/T = 4FI\srnn (
nTT
\g
.
smn + if)+ 2 \q
/
pir\
/7T
PTT\
o 2
)
J
= 8F sin
n?r
n^r
cos
g
^r~) 2
pnTr
, HrN (15) ^ y
as for:
1;
an
1, it is,
substituted in (15):
SF_
7T
=
.
^o_
7T 7?7T sin  cos ~2 q
;
(16)
sm
an
cos
prnr 
=
.
sin
 cos
g
For
fullpitch winding:
p =
It
is,
0,
from
(17)
sm
an
o
sin
HIGHER HARMONICS
and
157
is
:
(19)
COS
2
93.
/i,
l
By
M>
substituting the values: q = 4, 6, 3 and into equation (17), we get the coefficients
0,
},
a n of
the
trigonometric series:
F ~ FQ
cos
co
#3 cos 3
co
a 5 cos 5
co
+a
cos 7
co
} ,
(20)
air
which represents the current distribution per phase through the gap of the induction machine, shown by the diagrams F of
Fig. 58.
The corresponding
a trignometric series:
<J>
by
$o {sin
co
&3 sin
co
6 5 sin 5
co
67 sin 7
co
(21)
in Fig. 58.
that
<3>
however, be derived immediately from the consideration, is the summation, that is, the integral of F:
(22)
and herefrom
follows:
&.
of the series, $.
(23)
and
In the following tables are given the coefficients a n and b n for the winding arrangements of Fig, 58, up to the twentyfirst harmonic. As seen, some of the lower harmonics are very considerable thus may exert an appreciable effect on the motor torque at low speeds, especially in the quarterphase motor.
,
158
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
CHAPTER
VIII
in parallel on the same load, as for instance in threephase railroading, or when securing several speeds by concatenation.
In this case the secondaries of the induction motors may be connected in multiple and a single rheostat used for starting and speed control. Thus, when using two motors in concatenation for speeds from standstill to half synchronism, from half synchronism to full speed, the motors may also be operated on
a single rheostat by connecting their secondaries in parallel. in parallel connection the frequency of the secondaries must be the same, and the secondary frequency equals the slip, it
As
must operate
at the
same
slip,
that
is,
at the
each other. load is such that they can not operate in exact step with each other, obviously separate resistances must be used in the motor When rigidly connectsecondaries, so as to allow different slips. ing the two motors with each other, it is essential to take care that the motor secondaries have exactly the same relative position to their primaries so as to be in phase with each other, just
same frequency
would be necessary when operating two alternators in parallel with each other when rigidly connected to the same shaft or when driven by synchronous motors from the same supply. As in the inductionmotor secondary an e.m.f. of definite frequency, that of slip, is generated by its rotation through the revolving motor field, the inductionmotor secondary is an
as
alternatingcurrent generator, which is shortcircuited at speed and loaded by the starting rheostat during acceleration, and the
of operating two induction motors with their secondaries connected in parallel on the same external resistance is thus the same as that of operating two alternators in parallel. In general, therefore, it is undesirable to rigidly connect inductionmotor secondaries mechanically if they are electrically connected in parallel, but it is preferable to have their mechanical connection
problem
159
160
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
by
belting, etc., so that the
sufficiently flexible, as
motors can
their drop into exact step with each other and maintain step by synchronizing power. of It is of interest, then, to examine the synchronizing power with in connected are which multiple motors two induction their secondaries
same primary impressed voltage. 95. Assume two equal induction motors with their primaries connected to the same voltage supply and with their secondaries
connected in multiple with each other to a common resistance, the exciting current and the volr, and neglecting for simplicity motor primaries as not matethe of in the impedance tage drop
rially affecting
= ri+ jxi = secondary selfinductive impedance at full frequency; s = slip of the two motors, as fraction of synand thus, chronism; e Q = absolute value of impressed voltage
Let Zi
in the
If
then the two motor secondaries are out of phase with each by angle 2 r, and the secondary of the motor 1 is behind in the direction of rotation and the secondary of the motor 2 ahead of the average position by angle r, then
:
r
g1
se
(cos r
+ j sin r) =
the
first
secondary generated
(1)
.m.f. of
motor,
$
And
if
== se Q 2
(cos r
j sin r)
secondary generated
(2)
e.m.f. of the
second motor.
current coming from the first, J 2 = current coming from the second motor secondary, the total current, or current
Ji
r, is:
/
it is
/i
U
0,
(3)
motor secondary
and the
#!
I,Z
IT
(4)
rheostat,
r,
#  hZ 2
IT
0,
(5)
Where
Z = n
+ js
161
and
/! (Z
lir
(5)
and rearranging
gives:
#!
V*
+ r)
(Z
I,r
h
(/t (/i
+ r)
I 2)
= =
0, 0.
#1
#1
hence,
#2 # 2
(Z
+ 2 r) =
0;
0,
 Id Z =
and
*x
(6)
**
__
Z42r~ = l
into equations (6)
/i
/i
y _ ""
Fi
__
^
(7)
?i
^
and
(2)
and substituting
(1)
+
=
12 /2
se Q
= =
{
2 s6
F cos r,
r; (8)
2js6 Fi sin
hence,
/2
is
1
Y cos r +
jYi
sin r}
(9)
fore also the primary load current, that is, the primary current corresponding to the secondary current, and thus, when neglecting the exciting current also the primary motor current,
first,
or lagging, the
se Q
(g cos T
61 sin T)
j (b cos r
is
:
gi sin r)},
(10)
$z
{COST +jsinr},
(11)
where again the upper sign corresponds to the first, the lower to the second motor. The power consumed by the current, /a 1 with the e.m.f., j^ 1 ,
,
11
162
is
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
sum
of the products of the horizontal
the
components, and
of the vertical components, that is, of the real components and of the imaginary components of these two quantities (as a
horizontal
component of one does not represent any power with a vertical component of the other quantity, being in quadrature
therewith)
.
P2
\$*
/2
l
,
where the brackets denote that the sum of the product of the corresponding parts of the two quantities is taken. As discussed in the preceding, the torque of an induction motor, in synchronous watts, equals the power consumed by the primary
counter e.m.f.; that
is:
and substituting
)2
i
(10)
and
== seo 2
{COST (g COST
sin r (b cos r
#7 sin r)}
(12)
a).
The sum
2
t
of the torques of
D =
is:
Di
+D =
2
S6
+ 0) b) sin
(gi
g]
cos 2r}.
(13)
The
ing torque,
2
where,
D =
s
se Q * (bi
r,
(14)
by
(7),
TI
n2r
m
,
mi
b1
=
mi
(15)
In these equations primary exciting current and primary impedance are neglected. The primary impedance can be introduced in the equations, by substituting (rj. + sr ) for ri, and (xi + $o) for Xi, in the expression of mi and m, and in this case only the exciting current is neglected, and the results are sufficiently accurate for most purposes, except for values of speed
163
very close to synchronism, where the motor current by the exciting current. It is, then;
is
appreciably
mi =
(rx
(
m
all
+ rs + s (x + ri + sro + 2 r) + s
2
2
)
(x l
From
and
(16) follows
bi
2 srxi
(TI
sr
+ r)
'
(17)
hence,
96.
is
the synchronizing is, torque is positive in the first or lagging motor, and negative in the second or leading motor; that is, the motor which lags in position behind gives more power and thus accelerates, while the
(616)
motor which
drops back.
into step,
as f or r
if
is ahead in position gives less power and thus Hence, the two motor armatures pull each other thrown together out of phase, just like two alternators.
(14)
is
zero
if
both motors are in step with each other. The synchronizing torque also is zero if r = 90, that is, the two motor armatures are in opposition. The position of opposition is unstable, however, and the motors can not operate in opposition, that is, for r = 90, or with the one motor secondary shortcircuiting the other; in this position, any decrease of r below 90 produces a synchronizing torque which pulls the motors = 0, or in step. Just as with alternators, there together, to r thus exist two positions of zero synchronizing power with the motors in step, that is, their secondaries in parallel and in phase, and with the motors in opposition, that is, their secondaries in opposition and the former position is stable, the latter unstable, and the motors thus drop into and retain the former position, that is, operate in step with each other, within the limits of their
0, it is, by and the synchronizing power vanishes, as is obvious, since in this case the motor secondaries are shortcircuited and thus independent of each other in their frequency and speed. With parallel connection of inductionmotor armatures a synchronizing power thus is exerted between the motors as long as any appreciable resistance exists in the external circuit, and
is
0, as
obvious,
shortcircuited, or r
b,
164
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the motors thus tend to keep in step until the common starting resistance is shortcircuited and the motors thereby become indecan pendent, the synchronizing torque vanishes, and the motors
slip
by
crosscurrents.
6!Zi
contains the
slip, s,
chronous speed.
01
FIG, 59,
0.2
0.3
0,4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
For r
0,
it is,
by
(12), (15),
r>
and
j
^^^
s #o
2
0*i
r)
that
as 2
is,
resistance r
r.)
the same value as found for a single motor. (As the is common to both motors, for each motor it enters
For
of the motors,
it is:
IV =
(ri
(19)
that
is,
165
This is to be expected, as the two motor armatures shortcircuit each other. The synchronizing torque is a maximum for r = 45, and is,
by
(14), (15),
and
(16):
D.
seo
~^/i
(20)
As instances
equation (18), equation (20), load and very high overload capacity (a maximum power nearly two and a half times and a maximum torque somewhat over three times the rated value), that is, of low reactance, as can be
are shown, in Fig. 59, the motor torque, from and the maximum synchronizing torque, from for a motor of 5 per cent, drop of speed at full
is
0; 0.75; 2; 4.5,
W
_
(1
=;
= 2s

mi
mi = As
+ s) +
2
2
,
m=
(1
+ & + 2 r) + 4 s
2
2
.
is
higher
than the motor torque up to half speed, slightly below the motor torque between half speed and threequarters speed, but above threequarters speed rapidly drops, due to the approach to synchronism, and becomes zero when the last starting resistance
is
cut out.
CHAPTER IX
SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR
97.
The
typical induction
circuits acting
of primary which contains a number of closed secondary circuits, displaced from each other in space so as to offer a resultant closed secondary circuit in any direction and at any position of the armature or secondary, with regards to the primary system. In consequence thereof the induction motor can be considered as a transformer, having to each primary circuit a corresponding secondary circuit a secondary coil, moving out of the field of the primary
coil,
coil
moving
into the
field.
In such a motor the torque is zero at synchronism, positive below, and negative above, synchronism. If, however, the movable armature contains one closed circuit only, it offers a closed secondary circuit only in the direction of 'the axis of the armature coil,
but no secondary
circuit at
That is, with the rotation of the armaright angles therewith. ture the secondary circuit, corresponding to a primary circuit,
varies
from
arma
ture coil with the axis of the primary coil, to opencircuit in quadrature therewith, with the periodicity of the armature
That is, the apparent admittance of the primary circuit speed. varies periodically from opencircuit admittance to the shortcircuited transformer admittance.
At synchronism such a motor represents an electric circuit of an admittance varying with twice the periodicity of the primary frequency, since twice per period the axis of the armature coil and that of the primary coil coincide. A varying admittance is obviously dentical in effect with a varying reluctance, which will be discussed in the chapter on reaction machines. That is, the induction motor with one closed armature circuit is, at synchronism, nothing but a reaction machine, and consequently gives zero torque at synchronism if the maxima and minima of
the periodically varying admittance coincide with the
166
maximum
167
of the primary circuit, but gives a definite torque they are displaced therefrom. This torque may be positive or negative according to the phase displacement between admittance and primary circuit; that is, the lag or lead of the maximum admittance with regard to the primary maximum.
Hence an induction motor with singlearmature circuit at synchronism acts either as motor or as alternatingcurrent generator
according to the relative position of the armature circuit with Thus it can be called a synrespect to the primary circuit. chronous induction motor or synchronous induction generator, since it is an induction machine giving torque at synchronism.
Powerfactor and apparent efficiency of the synchronous induction motor as reaction machine are very low. Hence it is of practical application only in cases where a small amount of
not available.
current produced in the armature of the synchronous induction motor is of double the frequency impressed upon the
The
primary.
Below and above synchronism the ordinary induction motor, is superimposed upon the synchronousinduction machine torque. Since with the frequency of slip the relative position of primary and of secondary coil
or induction generator, torque
changes, the synchronousinduction machine torque alternates That is, upon the conperiodically with the frequency of slip.
stant positive or negative torque below or above synchronism an alternating torque of the frequency of slip is superimposed,
mean value above, synchronism. started from rest, a synchronous induction motor will accelerate like an ordinary singlephase induction motor, but
When
When
chronism
disappear
it
makes
approaching synwhich
when synchronism
reached.
CHAPTER X
HYSTERESIS
MOTOR
98, In a revolving magnetic field, a circular iron disk, or iron cylinder of uniform magnetic reluctance in the direction of the revolving field, is set in rotation, even if subdivided so as to This rotation is due preclude the production of eddy currents. to the effect of hysteresis of the revolving disk or cylinder, and
such a motor may thus be called a hysteresis motor. Let I be the iron disk exposed to a rotating magnetic field or resultant m.m.f. The axis of resultant magnetization in the disk, I, does not coincide with the axis of the rotating field, but That is, the lags behind the latter, thus producing a couple. in the of a direction of rotating disk, I, magnetism component ahead of the axis of rotating m.m.f., is rising, thus below, and in a direction behind the axis of rotating m.m.f. decreasing, that is, above proportionality with the m.m.f., in consequence of the lag of magnetism in the hysteresis loop, and thus the axis of resultant magnetism in the iron disk, I, does not coincide with the axis of rotating m.m.f., but is shifted backward by an angle, a, which is the angle of hysteretic lead. The induced magnetism gives with the resultant m.m.f. a mechanical couple:
D =
where
CF
<i>
m$3?
sin a,
m
The apparent
= = = =
a constant.
motor
is:
p =
Thus the apparent torque
efficiency:
=
Q
where
Sin
>
Q =
voltampere input,
168
HYSTERESIS MOTOR
and the power
where
s
169
of the
motor
(1
is:
p =
s)
D =
(1
s)
m$$ sin
<*,
slip as fraction of
is
:
synchronism.
The apparent
efficiency
^r
(1
s) sin a.
Since in a magnetic circuit containing an air gap the angle, it follows that the apparent a, is small, a few degrees only efficiency of the hysteresis motor is low, the motor consequently
;
unsuitable for producing large amounts of mechanical power. From the equation of torque it follows, however, that at constant impressed e.m.f., or current that is, constant $
the torque is constant and independent of the speed; and therefore such a motor arrangement is suitable, and occasionally used as alternatingcurrent meter.
s<0, we have a < 0, and the apparatus is an hysteresis generator. 99. The same result can be reached from a
For
of view.
different point
In such a magnetic system, comprising a movable iron disk, I, of uniform magnetic reluctance in a revolving and thus the distribution of field, the magnetic reluctance of the speed, and conseis independent obviously magnetism
quently the current and energy expenditure of the impressed m.m.f. independent of the speed also. If, now:
V =
(B
volume
of iron of the
movable
part,
magnetic density,
coefficient of hysteresis,
and
?7
by
hysteresis in the
movable
disk, I, is
W
Po
77K&
16
,
frequency, the power supplied by the m.m.f. to hence, iron disk in the hysteretic loop of the m.m.f. is: the rotating
if
/ =
= /TVB
6
.
At the slip, sf, that is, the speed (1 *)/, the power expended by hysteresis in the rotating disk is, however:
170
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
to the revolving Hence, in the transfer from the stationary member the magnetic power:
=P ~P
(1
s)/!^ 16
and has disappeared, and thus reappears as mechanical work, the torque is:
that
is,
of the hysteretic loop to the total apparent energy of the magnetic cycle, it follows that the apparent efficiency of such a motor fraction of the s) sin a } or a can never exceed the value (1
primary hysteretic energy. The primary hysteretic energy of an induction motor, as represented by its conductance, g, being a part of the loss in the
it follows motor, and thus a very small part of its output only, fraction a small is motor only of of a that the output hysteresis with could structure the same give which the output magnetic motor. induction as shortcircuited regular winding, secondary
As secondary effect, however, the rotary effort of the magnetic structure as hysteresis motor appears more or less in all induction motors, although usually it is so small as to be neglected. However, with decreasing size of the motor, the torque of the
hysteresis
motor decreases at a
lesser rate
duction motor, so that for extremely small motors, the torque as hysteresis motor is comparable with that as induction motor. If in the hysteresis motor the rotary iron structure has not uniform reluctance in all directions but is, for instance, bar
shaped or shuttleshaped on the hysteresismotor effect is superimposed the effect of varying magnetic reluctance, which tends to bring the motor to synchronism, and maintain it therein, as shall be more fully investigated under "Reaction
in Chapter XVI. 100. In the hysteresis motor, consisting of an iron disk of uniform magnetic reluctance, which revolves in a uniformly rotating magnetic field, below synchronism, the magnetic flux
Machine"
rotates in the armature with the frequency of slip, and the resultant line of magnetic induction in the disk thus lags, in space, behind the synchronously rotating line of resultant m.rcuf,
HYSTERESIS MOTOR
171
of the exciting coils, by the angle of hysteretic lead, a } which is constant, and so gives, at constant magnetic flux, that is, con
stant impressed e.m.f., a constant torque and a power proportional to the speed.
magnetization in the disk being behind the line of m.m.f. with regard to the direction of rotation of the magnetism in the disk, therefore is ahead of it in
the torque and therefore the power reverses at above synchronism the apparatus is an hysteresis generator, that is, changes at synchronism from motor At synchronism such a disk thus can give meto generator. chanical power as motor, with the line of induction lagging, or
space, that
is,
and the
line of resulting
synchronism,
and
give electric power as generator, with the line of induction leading the line of rotation m.m.f. Electrically, the power transferred between the electric circuit and the rotating disk is represented by the hysteresis loop. Below synchronism the hysteresis loop of the electric circuit has the normal shape, and of its constant power a part, proportional to the slip, is consumed in the iron, the other part, proportional to the speed, appears as mechanical power. At synchronism the hysteresis loop collapses and reverses, and above
synchronism the
electric
electric
power.
consumed
by the
proportional to the speed, and of this power a part, proportional to the slip above synchronism, is consumed in the iron, the other part is constant and appears
as electric
in the inverted
hysteresis loop.
This apparatus
difference
of interest
between hysteresis and molecular magnetic friction: the hysteresis is the power represented by the loop between magnetic induction and m.m.f. or the electric power in the circuit, and so may be positive or negative, or change from the one to the other, as in the above instance, while molecular magnetic friction is the power consumed in the magnetic circuit by the reversals of magnetism. Hysteresis, therefore, is an electrical phenomenon, and is a measure of the molecular magnetic friction only if there is no other source or consumption of power in
the magnetic circuit.
CHAPTER XI
ROTARY TERMINAL SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR
singlephase induction motor, giving full torque at starting and at any intermediate speed, by means of leading the supply current into the primary motor winding through brushes moving on a segmental commutator connected to the primary
101.
B FIG. 60.
Diagram
winding, was devised and built by R. Eickemeyer in 1891, further work thereon done later in Germany, but never
and was
brought into commercial use. Let, in Fig. 60, P denote the primary stator winding of a singlephase induction motor, S the revolving squirrelcage secondary winding. The primary winding is arranged as a ring (or drum) winding and connected to a stationary commutator, C. The singlephase supply current is led into the primary winding, P, through two brushes bearing on the two (electrically) opposite
172
173
These brushes, B, are arranged so points of the commutator, C. that they can be revolved. With the brushes, B, at standstill on the stationary commutator, the current in the stator, P, is C, the rotor, S, has no torque, and
the usual large standstill current of the induction motor. If now the brushes, B, are revolved at synchronous speed, /, in the direction shown by the arrow, the rotor, $, again has no torque, but the stator, P, carries only the small exciting current of the motor,
electrical conditions in the motor are the same, as would be with stationary brushes, B, at synchronous speed of the rotor, If now the brushes, B, are slowed down below synchronism, S. to speed, /i, the rotor, S, begins to turn, in reverse direction, as /, shown by the arrow, at a speed, /2 and a torque corresponding
and the
to the slip, s
=/
(/i
+ /a).
Thus,
speed, /
if
the load on the motor is such as to require the torque started and brought up to full s, this load is
the brashes, JB, up to or near synchronous 5, by speeding them gradually to come to rest: at brush and then allowing speed, the rotor starts, and at decreasing, /i, accelerspeed,
s ates with the speed /2 = / /i, until, when s. come to rest: /i = 0, the rotor speed is/2 = /
/!=/,
the brushes
As seen, the brushes revolve on the commutator only in startat full speed. ing and at intermediate speeds, but are stationary
If the brushes, B, are rotated at oversynchronous speed: /i>f, the motor torque is reversed, and the rotor turns In the same
In general,
it is:
/X+/2
where
fi
2
5/,
application of this type of motor for starting larger motors under power, by means of a small auxiliary motor, is
102.
An
shown diagrammatically, in section, in Fig. 61. Po is the stationary primary or stator, So the revolving squirrelcoils of Po cage secondary of the power motor. The stator
connect to the segments of the stationary commutator, Co, which receives the singlephase power current through the
brushes, Bo.
174
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
B
0)
These brushes,
are carried
by the
rotating squirrelcage
of this, secondary, /Si, of a small auxiliary motor. The primary and main the of motor, the on mounted is power shaft, A, Pi,
carries
brushes, BI.
These brushes are speeded up to or near synchronism by some to slow means, as hand wheel, H, and gears, G, and then allowed down. Assuming the brushes were rotating in counterclockwise direction. Then, while they are slowing down, the (exstarts and rotor, Si, of the auxiliary motor
ternal) squirrelcage
So
%.
FIG. 61.
speeds up, in clockwise direction, and while the brushes, Bi, come to rest, Si comes up to full speed, and thereby brings the brushes, B Q} of the power motor up to speed in clockwise rotation.
torque and its rotor, So, starts, in counterclockwise rotation. As So carries Pi, with increasing speed of SQ and Pi, Si and with it the brushes, J8 slow down, until full speed of the power motor, So, is reached, the brushes, 5o, stand still, and the brushes, Bi by their friction on the commutator, Ci, revolve together with
,
}
Ci,
Pi and S Q
In whichever direction the brushes, JBi, are started, in the same direction starts the main motor ? SQ.
175
by overload the main motor, So, drops out of step and slows down, the slowing down of Pi starts Si, and with it the brushes,
J5o,
down
at the proper differential speed, and so carries full torque to standstill, that is, there is no actual dropping out of
the motor, but merely a slowing down by overload. The disadvantage of this motor type is the sparking at the commutator, by the shortcircuiting of primary coils during the passage of the brush from segment to segment. This would
require the use of methods of controlling the sparking, such as used in the singlephase commutator motors of the series type,
etc.
It was the difficulty of controlling the sparking, which sidetracked this type of motor in the early days, and later, with the extensive introduction of polyphase supply, the singlephase
less
important.
CHAPTER
XII
constantcurrent transformer for regulating the current for constancy independent of the load. In the induction motor, this mechanical force is made use of for doing the work: the induction motor represents an alternatingcurrent transformer, in which the secondary is mounted movably with regards to the primary, in such a manner that, while set in motion, it still remains in the primary field of force. This requires, that the induction motor field is not constant in one direction, but that a magnetic field exists in every direction, in other words that
the magnetic field successively assumes all directions, as a socalled rotating field. The induction motor and the stationary transformer thus are merely two applications of the same structure, the former using
the mechanical thrust, the latter only the electrical power and both thus are special cases of what may be called the "general alternatingcurrent transformer," in which both,
transfer,
utilized.
general alternatingcurrent transformer thus consists of a magnetic circuit interlinked with two sets of electric circuits, the primary and the secondary, which are mounted rotatably with regards to each other. It transforms between primary electrical and secondary electrical power, and also between
176
The
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
177
As the frequency of the reelectrical and mechanical power. volving secondary is the frequency of slip, thus differing from the primary, it follows, that the general alternatingcurrent transformer changes not only voltages and current, but also frequencies, and may therefore be called "frequency converter." Obviously, it may also change the number of phases.
Structurally, frequency converter and induction motor must contain an air gap in the magnetic circuit, to permit movability between primary and secondary, and thus they require a higher
circuit,
by the equation:
E =
where
E =
effective e.m.f.,
<i>
flux.
of
primary and secondary circuit, is determined by shape and magnetic characteristic of the material composing the magnetic At open secondary circuit, and by the magnetic induction. m.m.f. is the m.m.f. this of the circuit, primary current, which in this case is called the exciting current, and consists of a power component, the magnetic power current, and a reactive
component, the magnetizing current. In the general alternatingcurrent transformer, where the secondary is movable with regard to the primary, the rate of cutting of the secondary electric circuit with the mutual magnetic flux is different from that of the primary. Thus, the frequencies of both circuits are different, and the generated e.m.fs.
are not proportional to the number of turns as in the stationary transformer, but to the product of number of turns into frequency.
12
178
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ratio
secondary
primary
thus,
if:
frequency, JJ or H
ee
v
slip
;
= primary
secondary frequency;
and the e.m.f. generated per secondary turn by the mutual flux has to the e.m.f. generated per primary turn the ratio, s,
5
s
<
=
1
1
represents synchronous motion of the secondary; represents motion above synchronism driven by external
mechanical power, as
s
will
be seen;
>
that is, motion against the mechanical force acting between primary and secondary (thus representing driving by external mechanical power).
Let:
U Q = number
ni
of
primary turns in
series
per circuit;
= number
=
Wi
g
ratio of turns:
Y =
where:
g
b
jb
circuit;
effective conductance;
susceptance;
r
ZQ =
where:
+ jx
impedance
per circuit,
= effective resistance of primary circuit; = selfinductive reactance of primary circuit; Z n = n + jxi = internal secondary selfinductive impedance per circuit at standstill, or for s = 1,
TQ
where:
TI
xi
= =
effective resistance of
secondary
coil;
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
Since the reactance
slip, s,
is:
is
179
Zi
rl
+ jsxi.
r,
Let the secondary circuit be closed by an external resistance, and an external reactance, and denote the latter by x at frequency, /, then at frequency, sf, or slip, s, if will be = ax and
9
thus:
Z =
Let:
+ jsx
$0
E'
= = = =
primary impressed
e.m.f.
$1
jE/'i
secondary terminal e.m.f., secondary generated e.m.f., e.m.f. generated per turn by the mutual magnetic
flux, at full
frequency,
/,
Jo
Joo
Ji
It is
= = =
:
then
Secondary generated
e.m.f.
(ri
1 This applies to the case where the secondary contains, inductive reactance only; or, rather, that kind of reactance which is proportional to the frequency. In a condenser the reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency, in a synchronous motor under circumstances independent of the f x" + a'", where x' frequency. Thus, in general, we have to set, x = x
that part of the reactance which is proportional to the frequency, a;" that part of the reactance independent of the frequency, and x'" that part of the
is
reactance which
at slip,
s,
is
or frequency,
+ x" +
180
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ri
jsxi
sn^e (r
+ jsx]
e.m.f.
m.f
hence,
= E'Yo
^e
(g
j6).
Component
current, J\:
of
r,
II
/oo ~h /'o
_!
2
_
(r l
+ r)HjS (^4^)
e.m.f.
:
+g
,
Jb\
s
I
Primary impressed
We
ratio
Equations
General Alternatingcurrent
of turns, a;
and
ratio of Frequencies,
s;
full
frequency,
:
e,
Primary
impressed e.m.f.
Primary current:
Jo
T
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
Secondary current:
181
f TN
r)
+ js (xi + x)
f=
1
1
(gfi)
[(ri
+ r) + js(x
Ratio of e.m.fs.:
""
,
a*
s
A /2
ro
/*.
+ j#Q
_i_ ^'o
//v.
"
j_
V.N
_i_ /vA
'
3 XQ ) \Q
(r 1
+j + r}+js(x + x)
l
,
*
f
!
_&_a*
^ '
_L_
I
"
o
2
o/y
./^O
(a;i
(^i
+ r) + js
s
x)
where;
/y
fwf
&
I
I
I 
in general
s=
1,
gives the General Equations of the Stationary Alternatingcurrent Transformer Substituting in the equations of the general alternatingcurrent
transformer:
gives the
182
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
{r L
y7 ci #&
0"o (ri
r)
SXQ (xi
+ &))
r))
~3
\Jrj
(*ro(a?i
+ x) 
(r l
_j_
r)
JS ( X1
_l_
x)
Neglecting the exciting current, or rather considering it as a separate and independent shunt circuit outside of the transformer, as can approximately bs done, and assuming the primary
circuit
as equal to the
we get
jEo
noe
[TI
(7*1
r)
sxi (XL
x)]
106.
The
true power
is,
in
symbolic representation:
p=
denoting:
gives
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
Internal loss in secondary circuit:
183
Pi
+ PS
(^)
\
2fc
(r
+ n)
= SW
(r
To
i 1
= vro =
o
^o*T ] a
oo =
2
:
/sn\e\
I
\ 2fc
n =
P =P +P +P
1 i
(M
\
Zk
'
(r
+ 2n)
(r
+ 2n);
Po
[^o/o]
(^)
(r
+n+
n)
=w(r + n + firO
p
Ratio
:
=P
pi = ^(i
_
""
s)
(r
+ n);
s
s
mechanical output
total secondary
power
PI
_~ + Pi
P
1
___
~~
speed
slip
a,
and
P =
r)*
+(&!+ a)
2 2 ^i e
'
Mechanical output:
P =
g (1
(ri
r)
g)
2
(r
(*i
+ n) +
a;)
2'
Losses in transformer:
P + Pji =
i
pi
=
(ri
+ r) + s
2
(xi
+ x)
184
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Of these quantities, P 1 and Pi are always positive; Po and P can be positive or negative, according to the value of s. Thus
the apparatus can either produce mechanical power, acting as a motor, or consume mechanical power; and it can either con
sume
electrical
power or produce
synchronism,
electrical
power, as a generator.
107. At:
s
0,
1,
P =
0,
P =
0,
PI
0.
At
Pi,
<
P
<
standstill.
positive; that is, the apparatus consumes in the primary, and produces mechanical power, Po, and electrical Pi 1 in the secondary, which power, Pi power, P, 1 is partly, Pi consumed by the internal secondary resistance,
electrical
and Po are
Pi
that
of the electrical
+ Pi ~
1
S'
Po, a part
power consumed in the primary circuit, consumed by the internal primary resistance, the remainder transmitted to the secondary, and divides between and mechanical power, P, in the electrical power, PI + Pi proportion of the slip, or drop below synchronism, s, to the
is,
Po 1
is
speed: 1
s.
is
a motor.
At
>
1; or
backward
driving,
P <
0,
or negative; that
is,
Then:
PoPo'Pi^Pi;
that
is produced partly by is, the primary electrical power, partly by the mechanical power, and the apparatus acts simultaneously as transformer and as
alternatingcurrent generator, with the secondary as armature. The ratio of mechanical input to electrical input is the ratio
of speed to synchronism. In this case, the secondary frequency
is
primary. At:
s
<
0,
beyond synchronism,
P<
0; that
is,
by mechanical
power.
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
Po
185
electrical
<
At:
0; that
power
TI
sri
0, or, s
r
T\
Tl
;
the electrical power produced in the primary becomes less than required to cover the losses of power, and P becomes positive
again.
We
have thus:
electric
power; produces
electrical
power
in
primary
<
<
consumes primary electric power, and produces mechanical and secondary electrical power
1
<s
consumes mechanical and primary electrical power; produces secondary electrical power. 108. As an example, in Fig. 62 are plotted, with the slip, s, as
abscissae, the values of:
Secondary
electrical
output as Curve
as
I.
Ul e
= n = xi =
100.0;
0.1; 0.2;
= =
0.4;
0.3;
186 hence:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
""
16,000^.
T+5
1
Fo 1
+ Pi
= 8000s 2
2
.
'
4000
s (5
20,0008(1
1
2.22.01,81.61.41.21.0.8
.6
.4
.2
.2
.4
,6
,8
FIG. 62.
109. Since the most common practical application of the general alternatingcurrent transformer is that of frequency converter, that is, to change from one frequency to another, either with or without change of the number of phases, the
regulation curve; that is, the change of secondary terminal voltage as function of the load at constant impressed
The
primary voltage.
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
2.
187
The compounding
voltage
impressed terminal voltage. In this case the impressed frequency and the speed are constant, and consequently the secondary frequency is also constant. Generally the frequency converter is used to change from a low frequency, as 25 cycles, to a higher frequency, as 60 or 62.5 cycles, and is then driven backward, that is, against its torque,
required
by mechanical power.
Mostly a synchronous motor is emto the connected ployed, primary mains, which by overexcitation also for the compensates lagging current of the frequency
converter.
Let:
Y = g jb = primary exciting admittance per circuit of the frequency converter. = internal self inductive impedance per secZi = TI jxi at the secondary frequency. ondary circuit,
ZQ
a
6
TQ
+ jx =
Q
circuit at the
= ratio = ratio
primary frequency. secondary to primary turns per circuit. of number of secondary to number of primary
of
circuits.
c
ratio of secondary to
primary frequencies.
Let:
e
generated
r
e.m.f.
per
secondary
circuit
at
secondary
frequency.
external impedance per secondary circuit at secondary frequency, that is load on secondary system, where
Z =
jx
/1
2^^ = ^ J);
e
2
where:
T
(r
rx)
+ TI j ^ im + (x + xj*
~
(r
n)
+ Xi + (x
188
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Z
rrr
=
where
:
e (r
+ jx)
(ai
ja 2 )
e (61
61
(mi
+ #a
2)
and
&2
0"a 2
circuit:
*'*; ac
primary load current per I
1
circuit:
abfi
abe (ai
:
ja^);
circuit
thus, total
primary current:
Jo
I1
+
~
/oo
e (ci
where
and
c2
= =
1
Jjj
+ /0
j
e (di
where
is
<?o
substituting this value of e in the preceding equations, gives, as function of the primary impressed e.m.f., e Q
:
secondary current:
/
1
r
1
e$
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
primary current:
189
_ ~
primary impressed e.m.f
. :
7o
#0
FIG. 63.
secondary output:
+
primary
electrical input
:
+
primary apparent input, voltamperes:
190
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
impedance,
converter.
Substituting thus different values for the secondary external Z, gives the regulation curve of the frequency
Such a curve, taken from tests of a 200kw. frequency converter changing from 6300 volts, 25 cycles, threephase, to 2500 volts,
62.5 cycles, quarterphase,
is
FIG. 64.
Compounding curve
of frequency converter.
From
it
follows, absolute:
ei
Vbi 2
62
2
,
+ b^
Substituting these values in the above equation gives the quantities as functions of the secondary terminal voltage, that is, at constant, ei, or the compounding curve.
of the
When
<
0,
the general
power and
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
191
produces electric power in both circuits, primary and secondary, thus can not be called a frequency converter, and the distinction between primary and secondary circuits ceases, but both The machine then is a twofrecircuits are generator circuits. As induction the electric power generated generator. quency
at the two frequencies is proportional to the frequencies, this gives a limitation to the usefulness of the machine, and it appears suitable only in two cases
:
(a)
If
1,
and rotor
series,
circuits
both frequencies are the same, and stator can be connected together, in parallel or in
"
giving the
Such machines have been proposed for steamturbine alternators of small and moderate sizes, as they permit, with bipolar construction, to operate at twice the maximum speed available for the synchronous machine, which is 1500 revolutions for 25 cycles, and 3600 revolutions for 60 cycles.
(6) If s is very small, so that the power produced in the lowfrequency circuit is very small and may be absorbed by a small "lowfrequency exciter.' Further discussion of both of these types is given in the " Chapter XIII on the Synchronous Induction Generator/
7
111.
The use
frequency converter is always accompanied by the production of mechanical power when lowering, and by the consumption Thus a second of mechanical power when raising the frequency. machine, either induction or synchronous, would be placed on the frequency converter shaft to supply the mechanical power as motor when raising the frequency, or absorb the power as generator, when lowering the frequency. This machine may be of either of the two frequencies, but would naturally, for economical reasons, be built for the supply frequency, when motor,
and for the generated or secondary frequency, when generator. Such a couple of frequency converter and driving motor and
auxiliary generator has over a motorgenerator set the advantage, that it requires a total machine capacity only equal to the output, while with a motorgenerator set the total machine
advantage not to be as standard as the motor and the generator. If a synchronous machine is used, the frequency is constant; if an induction machine is used, there is a slip, increasing with the load, that is, the ratio of the two frequencies slightly varies
192
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
with the load, so that the latter arrangement is less suitable when of constant frequencies. tying together two systems 112. Frequency converters may be used: amount of power of a higher or (a) For producing a moderate a large alternatingcurrent system. a lower frequency, from two alternatingcurrent systems of (5) For tying together and interchange power between them, so different frequencies, In this case, electrical to the other. reserve that either acts as
power transfer may be either way. reduction (c) For local frequency
for
commutating machines,
lower the
by having the
general alternatingcurrent transformer 30 cycles, and take up the frequency, for instance from 60 to mechanical the as as well power in a commulower frequency,
tating machine on the
frequency converter shaft. Such a a "Motor Converter. called been has combination of a instead 60cycle synchronous converter, such a Thus, would offer the advantage of the converter motor 60/30cycle lower frequency of 30 cycles in the commutating machine. The commutating machine then would receive half its input electric7 '
ally,
as synchronous converter, half mechanically, as directcurrent generator, and thus would be half converter and half on the same shaft would change generator; the induction machine half of its 60cycle power input into mechanical power, half into
Such motor converter is smaller and more efficient than a a synmotorgenerator set, but larger and less efficient than
chronous converter.
Where phase control of the directcurrent voltage is desired, the motor converter as a rule does not require reactors, as the induction machine has sufficient internal reactance.
For supplying low frequency to a second machine on the "concatenated motor couple." on the same shaft, operating is, two induction motors in parallel, give full speed, and half speed is produced,
(d)
same That
at
full
efficiency,
is,
By
29 2 ,
using two machines of different number of poles, pi and on the same shaft, four different speeds can be secured, corre
p 2 p 2 pi, sponding respectively to the number of poles: pi That is, concatenation of both machines, operation PI 2>2,
,
FREQUENCY CONVERTER
of
193
one machine only, either the one or the other, and differential
concatenation.
Further discussion hereof see under " Concatenation." In some forms of secondary excitation of induction machines, as by lowfrequency synchronous or comrnutating machine in the secondary, the induction machine may also be considered " as frequency converter. Induction Regarding hereto see Motors with Secondary Excitation."
CHAPTER
XIII
the induction motor, and so must be connected to some apparatus which gives a lagging, or, what is the same, consumes a leading
current.
of the e.m.f. generated by the induction genlower than the frequency of rotation or speed, / by the frequency, / of the secondary currents. Or, inversely, the frequency, /i, of the secondary circuit is the frequency of that is, the frequency with which the speed of mechanical slip rotation slips behind the speed of the rotating field, in the induction motor, or the speed of the rotating field slips behind the
The frequency
is
erator, /,
3 ,
speed of mechanical rotation, in the induction generator. As in every transformer, so in the induction machine, the secondary current must have the same ampereturns as the primary current less the exciting current, that is, the secondary current is approximately proportional to the primary current, or to the load of the induction generator. In an induction generator with shortcircuited secondary, the secondary currents are proportional, approximately, to the
secondary circuit, and this e.m.f. is prothe frequency of the secondary circuit, that is, the slip of frequency behind speed. It so follows that the slip of frequency in the induction generator with shortcircuited secondary is approximately proportional to the load, that is,
e.m.f. generated in the
portional to'
such an induction generator does not produce constant synchronous frequency, but a frequency which decreases slightly with increasing load, just as the speed of the induction motor decreases slightly with increase of load. Induction generator and induction motor so have also been
194
195
asynchronous generator and asynchronous motor, but since the induction machine is not independent of the frequency, but depends upon it just as much as a synchronous machine the difference being, that the
these
synchronous machine runs exactly in synchronism, while the induction machine approaches synchronism. The real asynchronous machine is the commutating machine.
114. Since the slip of frequency with increasing load on the induction generator with shortcircuited secondary is due to the increase of secondary frequency required to produce the secondary e.m.f. and therewith the secondary currents, it follows:
if
these secondary currents are produced by impressing an e.m.f. upon the secondary circuit, the primary
frequency, /, does not change with the load, but remains constant and equal to / = /o The machine then is a synfi. chronousinduction machine that is, a machine in which the
speed and frequency are rigid with regard to each other, just as in the synchronous machine, except that in the synchronousinduction machine, speed and frequency have a constant difference, while in the synchronous machine this difference is zero, that is, the speed equals the frequency.
By thus connecting the secondary of the induction machine with a source of constant lowfrequency, /i, as a synchronous machine, or a commutating machine with lowfrequency field excitation, the primary of the induction machine at constant
generates electric power at constant frequency, /, speed, / independent of the load. If the secondary /j = 0, that is, a continuous current is supplied to the secondary circuit, the primary frequency is the frequency of rotation and the machine an ordinary synchronous machine. The synchronous machine so appears as a special case of the synchronousinduction machine
,
and corresponds to
/i
0.
In the synchronousinduction generator, or induction machine with an e.m.f. of constant low frequency, /i, impressed upon the secondary circuit, by a synchronous machine, etc., with increasing load, the primary and so the secondary currents change, and the synchronous machine so receives more power as synchronous
motor, if the rotating field produced in the secondary circuit revolves in the same direction as the mechanical rotation that is, if the machine is driven above synchronism of the
e.m.f.
or the synchronous
196
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
machine generates more power as alternator, if the direction of rotation of the secondary revolving field is in opposition to the
speed.
In the former case, the primary frequency equals speed minus secondary impressed frequency: / = /  /i; in the latter case, the primary frequency equals the sum of speed and secondary impressed frequency: / = /o + /i, and the machine is a
frequency converter or general alternatingcurrent transformer, with the frequency, /i, as primary, and the frequency, /,as
secondary, transforming up in frequency to a frequency, /, which is very high compared with the impressed frequency, so that the mechanical power input into the frequency conelectrical power input. generator, that is, induction generator in which the secondary frequency or frequency of slip is fixed by an impressed frequency, so can also be considered as a
verter
is
The synchronousinduction
frequency converter or general alternatingcurrent transformer. 115. To transform from a frequency, /i, to a frequency ;/2 the frequency, /i, is impressed upon the primary of an induction
,
machine, and the secondary driven at such a speed, or frequency of rotation, / that the difference between primary impressed frequency, /i, and frequency of rotation, / that is,
,
the frequency of slip, is the desired secondary frequency, /2 There are two speeds, /o, which fulfill this condition: one
.
below synchronism: / = f\ /2 and one above synchronism: = /i /a. That is, the secondary frequency becomes /2 /o if the secondary runs slower than the primary revolving field of frequency, /i, or if the secondary runs faster than the primary
,
by the slip, /$>. In the former case, the speed is below synchronism, that is, the machine generates electric power at the frequency, /2 in the
field,
,
secondary, and consumes electric power at the frequency, / , in the primary. If /2 < /i, the speed /o /i fz is between standstill and synchronism, and the machine, in addition to
3
in the chapter
it is,
current Transformer/'
mechanical
/2 > /i, that is, the frequency converter increases the frequency, the rotation must be in backward direction, against the rotating field, so as to give a slip, /2 greater than the impressed
If
,
197
= /2 fi. In this case, the /i, and the speed is / machine consumes mechanical power, since it is driven against the torque given by it as induction motor, and we have:
power input f mechanical power input f electric power output = fi * / r /2 That is, the three powers, primary electric, secondary electric, and mechanical, are proportional to their respective frequencies.
Electric
.
As stated, the secondary frequency, /2 is also produced by driving the machine above synchronism, fi, that is, with a In this case, the negative slip, /2 or at a speed, /o = /i /2machine is induction generator, that is, the primary circuit
,
+
,
/i, the secondary circuit generates electric power at frequency /2 and the machine consumes mechanical power, and the three powers again are propor
Primary
electric
output
/i
f
fr
secondary
.
electric
mechanical input
circuits of the
output
f
/2
Since in this case of oversynchronous rotation, both electric machine generate, it can not be called a frequency
is
converter, but
an
electric generator,
converting mechanical
electric
is
power at two
different frequencies, /i
and
sum
a synchronousinduction machine, since of the two frequencies generated by it equals the frecalled
quency of rotation or speed that is, the machine revolves in synchronism with the sum of the two frequencies generated by it.
It is obvious that like all induction machines, this synchronousinduction generator requires a reactive lagging current for excitation, which has to be supplied to it by some outside source,
That is, an induction machine driven at speed, /o, when supplied with reactive exciting current of the proper frequency, generates electric power in the stator as well as in the rotor, at
the two respective frequencies, /i and/2 which are such that their sum is in synchronism with the speed, that is
,
:
/i
+/2 =
/o;
otherwise the frequencies, fi and /2 are entirely independent. That is, connecting the stator to a circuit of frequency, /i, the rotor generates frequency, /2 = /o /i, or connecting the rotor to
,
198
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
,
a circuit of frequency, /2
/i
/o
/
2.
116.
2,
Pi :P 2 :Po =/i
:/a :/o,
is,
where
is
neg
lecting losses).
As seen here the difference between the two circuits, stator and rotor, disappears that is, either can be primary or seccurrent required for excitaondary, that is, the reactive lagging or to tion can be supplied to the stator circuit at frequency, /i, a and part the rotor circuit at frequency, /2 or a part to the stator
,
to the rotor circuit. Since this exciting current is reactive or motor or conwattless, it can be derived from a synchronous as well as from a synchronous generator, or an alterverter,
nating commutating machine. As the voltage required by the exciting current is proportional to the frequency, it also follows that the reactive power input or the voltamperes excitation, is proportional to the frequency
Hence, using the lowfrequency circuit for excitation, the exciting voltamperes are small. Such a synchronousinduction generator therefore is a twoof the exciting circuit.
frequency generator, producing electric power simultaneously at two frequencies, and in amounts proportional to these freFor instance, driven at 85 cycles, it can connect with
quencies.
the stator to a 25cycle system, and with the rotor to a 60cycle of system, and feed into both systems power in the proportion alterthe of the from ris obvious general 25 equations 60, as
natingcurrent transformer in the preceding chapter 117. Since the amounts of electric power at the two freis
machine quencies are always proportional to each other, such a different two into value for of much systems, feeding hardly but of importance are only the cases where the two frequencies
:
If
= /2 =
o~
^n
case, stator and rotor can be connected together, in parallel or in series, and the induction machine then generates electric power at half the frequency of its speed, that is, runs at double
S YNCHRONO US
199
synchronism of its generated frequency. Such a "double syn" so consists of an induction machine, in chronous alternator which the stator and the rotor are connected with each other in parallel or in series, supplied with the reactive exciting current by a synchronous machine for instance, by using synchronous converters with overexcited field as load and driven at a speed equal to twice the frequency required. This type of machine may be useful for prime movers of very high speeds, such as steam turbines, as it permits a speed equal to twice that of the bipolar synchronous machine (3000 revolutions at 25, and 7200 revolutions at 60 cycles). 2. If of the two frequencies, one is chosen so low that the amount of power generated at this frequency is very small, and can be taken up by a synchronous machine or other lowfrequency machine, the latter then may also be called an exciter. For instance, connecting the rotor of an induction machine to a 4 cycles, and driving it at a speed synchronous motor of /a of /o = 64 cycles, generates in the stator an e.m.f. at /i = 60
= power generated at 60 cycles is 6 The machine then 15 times the power generated by 4 cycles. is an induction generator driven at 15 times its synchronous Where the power at frequency, /2 is very small, it would speed. be no serious objection if this power were not generated, but consumed. That is, by impressing /2 = 4 cycles upon the rotor, and driving it at /o = 56 cycles, in opposite direction to the rotating field produced in it by the impressed frequency of 4 cycles, the stator also generates an e.m.f. at /i = 60 cycles. In this case, electric power has to be put into the machine by a generator at /2 = 4 cycles, and mechanical power at a speed of /o = 56 == 60 cycles. cycles, and electric power is produced as output at/i The machine thus operated is an ordinary frequency converter, which transforms from a very low frequency, /2 = 4 cycles, to frequency fi = 60 cycles or 15 times the impressed frequency, and the electric power input so is only onefifteenth of the electric
cycles,
of
'
118. 3. If the rotor of frequency, /2 driven &t speed, /o, is connected to the external circuit through a 'commutator, the effective frequency supplied by the commutator brushes to the
,
200
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
external circuit is/ /a; hence equals /1; or the stator frequency. Stator and rotor so give the same effective frequency, /i, and irrespective of the frequency, /i generated in the rotor, and the
and /2 accordingly become indefinite, that is, be /i, but by the fi may any frequency, /a then becomes /o commutator is transformed to the same frequency, /i. If the
frequencies, fi
,
and rotor were used on entirely independent electric As soon, circuits, the frequency would remain indeterminate. a relation as connected are stator and rotor together, however, the that due to the transformer amperesecondary law, appears turns must equal the primary ampereturns (when neglecting the exciting ampereturns) This makes the frequency dependent the number stator and rotor circuit. of turns of upon is connected in multiple with the the rotor circuit Assuming stator circuit as it always can be, since by the commutator The rotor brushes it has been brought to the same frequency. The e.m.f., howe.m.f. then must be equal to the stator e.m.f.
stator
.
number
of turns,
where:
n\
n%
= number = number
and
/i
/I
r
/2
712 r
Til",
that
is,
number
and
in rotor.
Or, since /o
/i
+ /s
/i
is
f
/o
= n2
*
ni
wa
That is, the frequency, /i, generated by the synchronousinduction machine with commutator, is the frequency of rotation, /o, times the ratio of rotor turns, 712, to total turns, HI n^
can be made anything by properly choosing the number of turns in the rotor and in the stator, or, what amounts to the same, interposing between rotor and stator a transformer Thus,
it
201
and by the
rotor,
ever, are proportional to their respective frequencies, inversely proportional to their respective turns.
howand so are
PI
if
,
T
P = /i
2
,
5
/2
ft 2
*
nit
n 3 and n 2 and therewith the two frequencies, are very different, the two powers, Pj and P 2 are very different, that is, one of the elements generates very much less power than the other, and
since both elements, stator and rotor, have the same active surface, and so can generate approximately the same power, the
machine is less economical. That is, the commutator permits the generation
sired frequency, /i,
of
any de
if /i
= ^,
2i
or
this frequency,
halfsynchronous frequency, and the greater the, deviation from the less is the economy. If one of the freis very small, that is, f\ is either nearly equal to synquencies
chronism,
/o,
very
little
power.
By
shifting the
current can be
made
commutator brushes, a component of the rotor to magnetize and the machine becomes a
The use of a commutator on alternatingcurrent machines is in general undesirable, as it imposes limitations on the design, for the purpose of eliminating destructive sparking, as discussed in the chapter on "AlternatingCurrent Commutating Machines." The synchronousinduction machines have not yet reached
sufficient
Assume the stator and rotor wound for the same number of
connected in multiple or in
for different
series
an induction machine to be and phases, and with each other, or, if wound
of turns, connected through transformers of such ratios as to give the same effective turns when reduced
number
= g = Z n Zz = TI
YI
l
jb
+ jxi + jx%
= = =
impedance
of the rotor,
202
and:
e
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
magnetic
that
is,
by the magnetic
I
Ji
I2
= = =
With
and
rotor:
=
=
/i
/*,
/2.
Using the equations of the general induction machine, the slip of the secondary circuit or rotor is
:
5=
Y*
1;
is
:
jsb
:
+ jb,
a;
e.m.f.
E'z
tiaat
is,
se
would be connected at
standstill,
or in a stationary transformer. That is, magnetically, the power components of stator rotor current neutralize each other. Not so, however,
reactive components, since the reactive current:
Iz
and
the
component
of the rotor
i'z
+ ji"*
by the reversed direction 1, and the effect of the
in
rotor current, J 2
to:
on the stator
/' 2
i\
 #" 2
is:
203
must be the
/o
exciting current:
i'o
+ j"o,
'"i
it
follows that:
i'i
i'z
fc'o
and
i" 2
i"
Hence, the stator power current and rotor power current, i\ and i'%, are equal to each other (when neglecting the small The synchronous exciter of the hysteresis power current). machine must supply in addition to the magnetizing current,*
the total reactive current of the load.
Or in other words, such a machine requires a synchronous exciter of a voltampere capacity equal to the voltampere excitation plus the reactive
voltamperes of the load, that is, with an inductive load, a large In this respect, the doublesynchronous exciter machine. generator is analogous to the induction generator, and is therefore suited mainly to a load with leading current, as overexcited converters and synchronous motors, in which the reactive component of the load is negative and so compensates for the reactive component of excitation, and thereby reduces the size
of the exciter.
This means that the doublesynchronous alternator has zero armature reaction for noninductive load, but a demagnetizing armature reaction for inductive, a magnetizing armature reaction for antiinductive load, and the excitation, by alternatingreactive current, so has to be varied with the character of the load, in general in a far higher degree than with th synchronous
alternator.
120. 2. Synchronousinduction
Excitation.
Generator
with
Lowfrequency
exist:
the magnetic field of excitation revolves in opposite direction to the mechanical rotation.
If
the same direction. is a lowfrequency generator and the machine a frequency converter, calculated by the same
(&)
If it revolves in
first
In the
equations.
Its voltage regulation is essentially that of a synchronous alternator: with increasing load, at constant voltage impressed upon the rotor or exciter circuit, the voltage drops moderately
and
rises at
204
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
To maintain constant terminal voltage, antiinductive load. the excitation has to be changed with a change of load and character of load. With a lowfrequency synchronous machine as exciter, this is done by varying the field excitation of the
exciter.
field excitation of the synchronous exciter, the that due to the impedance between the nominal regulation the exciter, and the terminal voltage of the of e.m.f. generated stator that is, corresponds to
At constant
is
Z =Z +Z +Z
2
lf
Here ZQ
full
=* selfinductive
impedance of the
rotor,
reduced to
full
Zi
If
=
Q
then
is,
E =
that
Ii
corresponding to the field excitation, and, stator current or output current, jii
is
:
terminal voltage
Ei
#o
+ ZIi, or, E = E +
Q
(r
+ jx)
(i
 jifc
and, choosing Ei
=
ri
e\
as real axis,
and expanding:
n*i),
E =
Q
Oi
+
2
+ xii) + j (xi :
ei
= (ei + = ve
2
ri
+ xii) +
2 2
(xi
(ri
n'i)
(xi
n"i)
121. As an example is shown, in Fig. 65, in dotted lines, with the total current, I = \A" 2 H 2 as abscissse, the voltage regulation of such a machine, or the terminal voltage, ei, with a fourcycle synchronous generator as exciter of the 60cycle
For noninductive
load, or I\
i.
(Curve
I.)
2.
0.6 j).
of
(Curve
II.)
3.
80 per
cent,
powerfactor, or
III.)
(0.8
0.6 j).
(Curve
205
eQ
Zi
hence:
= =
2000
0.1
volts,
0.3
j,
Z2 Z 1.3
j.
0.5
+ 0.5 j, + 0.5 j;
Z
Then:
61
1.6
V4 X
10 6
(1.3 i
li
1.6 iO*
(1.6 i
1.3 ii);
0:
V4 X
10 6
1.69 i 2
1.6 i;
2200
II
2000
1800 1600 1400
III
1200
1000
II
800
400
200
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
900
1000
AMPERES
FIG. 65.
0.6 /, i
0.8 1:
A/4
10 6
0.0064
P
2.06 I;
and
powerfactor
ii
0.6 1, i
0.81:
61
V4 X
10 6
4 12
0.5 I.
As seen, due to the internal impedance, and especially the resistance of this machine, the regulation is very poor, and even at the chosen antiinductive load no rise of voltage occurs.
122. Of
more
where the
206
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
in the stator
generator produces power E In this case, the power is produced by the generated e.m.f., field), of the or magnetic rotating "of mutual induction,
in both of the induction machine, and energy flows outward terminal of 'the circuit, into receiving circuits, in the stator e.m.f. of the voltage, Ei, in the rotor against the impressed one of receiving The Q voltage motor exciter,
(e.m.f.
E synchronous is controlled by a voltage impressed circuit, the stator, therefore, some the rotor, and this results in upon another receiving circuit,
. ^
Assume the
the
voltage,
e.m.f. of the
synchronousmotor
exciter,
that is, corresponding to the exciter field excitation, excitation of the exciter, and therewith field the assume and constant. maintained be to the voltage, EQ, stator circuit by the ratio of the to all the voltages Reducing their respective frequencies, of ratio the and turns effective their in the rotor circuit as in the is the same
e.m.f.,
E,
generated
At noload, neglecting the exciting current of the induction = E = EI. machine, that is, with no current, we have EQ If a load is put on the stator circuit by taking a current, I, from the same, the terminal voltage, EI, drops below the generated e.m.f., E, by the drop of voltage in the impedance, Zi, of the stator circuit. Corresponding to the stator current, Ji, a the same current, I 2 then exists in the rotor circuit, giving
,
e.m.f.,
Q accordingly drops below the generated e.m.f., E of the rotor, or, since EQ is maintained constant, E rises above Eo with increasing load, by the drop of voltage in the rotor impedance, Z^ and the synchronous impedance, ZQ, of the exciter. That is, the stator terminal voltage, EI, drops with increasing
ampereturns as Ji, in opposite direction, and so neutralizing the nxm.f. of the stator (as in any transformer). This current, I 2 , exists in the synchronous motor, and the synchronous motor
load,
load
by the stator impedance drop, and rises with increasing by the rotor and exciter impedance drop, since the latter causes the generated e.m.f., E; to rise.
If then the impedance drop in the rotor circuit is greater than that in the stator, with increasing load the terminal voltage, EI, of the machine rises, that is, the machine automatically
207
overcompounds, at constantexciter field excitation, and if the and the rotor impedance drops are equal, the machine
compounds
In such a machine, by properly choosing the stator and rotor impedances, automatic rise, decrease or constancy of the terminal voltage with the load can be produced.
If the This, however, applies only to noninductive load. from the in differs phase generated e.m.f., E, the current, I, also but a lagging component differs; corresponding current, 1^
of /i corresponds to a leading component in J 2 , since the stator circuit slips behind, the rotor circuit is driven ahead of the
rotating magnetic
/i gives a lagging
field,
and
the lagging current in one circuit is opposite to the reactance voltage of the leading current in the other circuit, therefore
it, but adds, that is, instead of compounding, in the wrong direction. regulates 123. The automatic compounding of the synchronous induc
tion generator with lowfrequency synchronousmotor excitation so fails if the load is not noninductive.
Let:
Zi = Z =
2
TI
7*2
+ jxi = + jx% =
stator circuit
by the
=
^i
and the
ratio of frequencies, a
>~;
ZQ
TQ
+ J%Q =
motor
exciter;
EI EQ
= =
terminal voltage of the stator, chosen as real axis, = e\] nominal generated e.m.f. of the synchronousmotor
exciter,
circuit;
E =
stator circuit, or the rotor circuit reduced to the stator circuit. The actual e.m.f. generated in the rotor circuit then is r
e.m.f. of the
synchronous
E'o
taEo.
Let:
jii
208
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
in the rotor circuit, in which the direction of opposite, or ahead of the revolving field, then is,
:
The current
rotation
is
when
(If
Y =
and the
exciting admittance, the exciting current is Jo total rotor current then Jo /2)
= EY,
Then
E and
in the stator circuit:
#o
(Z
+Z
8)
72
(1)
E ^Ei +
Hence:
ZJt.
(2)
E!
JZ
/ (Z
:
Z,)
JiZi,
(3)
and 1 2
2
E =
l
#o
(Z
+ Z  ZO + ji,
S
(Zo
Z2
Z,).
(4)
Denoting now:
+ Zi + Z* = Z
and
substituting:
73
^
or, since
JS/i
= E, +
iZ,
+ jiiZs,
(6)
ei:
EQ
61
iZ&
ji\Zz
(7)
(e l
r 4i
a? 8 ii)
+
2
(^"
rfi)
2
.
(8)
Hence:
(rc 4 i
+ r ii) + r& 8
x&i.
(9)
That is, the terminal voltage, ej, decreases due to the decrease of the square root, but may increase due to the second term.
At
noload:
i
o, ii
and
ei
eQ.
209
load:
and
61
= Ve Q 2
x^i 2
60,
r*i.
(10)
e\ first increases, from its noload value, and then decreases again.
reaches a
maximum,
Since:
7*4
X* at
:
7*4
= = = = = =
TQ
XQ
+r + X%
2
7*1,
n,
and x*
0,
or,
TI
m
and:
ei
#o
+r +#
2,
2,
tage
is
constant at
all
e Q that is, in this case the terminal volnoninductive loads, at constant exciter
,
excitation.
In general, or for Ii
if
jVi,
ii is
that the terminal voltage, e\, drops with increasing load; while if ii is negative or antiinductive load, the terminal voltage,
ei,
rises
maximum
From equation
amount
,
of
ei,
the overcompounding of the machine can be increased by inserting resistance in the rotor circuit. 124. As an example is shown, in Fig. 65, in full line, with the
That
is,
2 2 total current, I %A* ii , as abscissae, the voltage regulation of such a machine, or the terminal voltage, ei, with a four
cycle synchronous
motor as exciter
of a 60cycle synchronous
Ii
i.
(Curve
cent,
I.)
2.
80
J (0.8
per
powerfactor;
or
(Curve
cent,
II.)
3.
powerfactor; or
(Curve
III.)
210
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
2000
0.1
1
volts.
Z<>
Z1 = 22 =
0.3 j.
a
t
0.5J.
= = =
0.5
0.5 j.
0.067.
1,
that
in
is,
the
of
same number
turns
stator
and rotor
Then:
Z =
3
1.6
+

1.3 j
and
Z4 =
(9)
:
1.4 4 0.7
j.
A/4
10 6
(0.7 i
1.6 fO~2
1.4 i
1.3
^;
FIG. 66.
ii
0:
10 6
0.49
i*
+
+
1.4 i;
= 0.6 1; i
0.8 1:
= A/4 X
10 6
of
2.3 II 2
0.34 I;
ii
V4
10 6
0.16 1 2
1.9 J.
Comparing the curves of this example with those of the same machine driven as frequency converter with exciter
generator,
211
same chart
(Fig.
65), it is
seen that the voltage is maintained at load far better, and especially at inductive load the machine gives almost perfect regulation of voltage, with the constants assumed here.
To show
factor, at the
the variation of voltage with a change of powersame output in current, in Fig. 66, the terminal
voltage, 61, is plotted with the phase angle as abscissae, from wattless antiinductive load, or 90 lead, to wattless inductive As load, or 90 lag, for constant current output of 400 amp.
seen, at wattless load both machines give the same voltage but for energy load the type (6) gives with the same excitation a
higher voltage, or inversely, for the same voltage the type (a) It is, however, seen that with the requires a higher excitation.
same current output, but a change of powerfactor, the voltage of type (a) is far more constant in the range of inductive load, while that of type (6) is more constant on antiinductive load, and on inductive load very greatly varies with a change of
powerfactor.
CHAPTER XIV
PHASE CONVERSION AND SINGLEPHASE GENERATION
125. Any polyphase system can, by means of two stationary transformers, be converted into any other polyphase system, and in such conversion, a balanced polyphase system remains balanced, while an unbalanced system converts into a polyphase
1 system of the same balance factor. between conversion the In singlephase system and polyphase thus of must take place, as the balance a storage energy system, factor of the singlephase system is zero or negative, while that For such energy of the balanced polyphase system is unity. storage may be used capacity, or inductance, or momentum or a combination thereof:
is,
60 cycles about 2000 c.c. of Inductance, that is, energy the storage by magnetic field, requires about 1000 c.c. per kiloat 60 cycles, at a cost of $1, while energy storage by voltampere momentum, as kinetic mechanical energy, assuming iron moving at 30 meterseconds, stores 1 kva. at 60 cycles by about 3 c.c., at a cost of 0.2c., thus is by far the cheapest and least bulky
method of energy storage. Where large amounts of energy have to be stored, for a very short time, mechanical momentum thus
usually the most efficient and cheapest method. size and cost of condensers is practically the same for large as for small capacities, while the size and cost of inductance decreases with increasing, and increases with decreasing
is
However,
Furthermore, the use of mechanical machinery, requiring more or less attention, thus becomes less suitable, for smaller values of power. Hence, for smaller amounts of stored energy, inductance and capacity may become more economical than momentum, and for very small amounts of energy, the condenser may be the cheapest device. The above figures thus give only the approxikilovoltampere capacity.
of
Alternatingcurrent
Phenomena/'
5th
edition,
XXXII.
PHASE CONVERSION
mate magnitude
213
for medium values of energy, and then apply only to the active energystoring structure, under the assumption, that during every energy cycle (or half cycle of alternating current and voltage), the entire energy is returned and stored again.
While
momentum
is accomplished by a periodic speed variation, thus only a part of the energy restored, and furthermore, only a part of the structural material (the flywheel, or the rotor of
the machine) is moving. Thus assuming that only a quarter of the mass of the mechanical structure (motor, etc.) is revolving,
and that the energy storage takes place by a pulsation of speed 1 per cent., then 1 kva. at 60 cycles would require 600 c.c.
of
of
material, at 40c. Obviously, at the limits of dielectric or magnetic field strength, or at the limits of mechanical speeds, very much laiger amounts
Thus for instance, at the of energy per bulk could be stored. limits of steamturbine rotor speeds, about 400 meterseconds, in a very heavy material as tungsten, 1 c.c. of material would
store about 200 kv'a. of 60cycle energy, and the above figures thus represent only average values under average conditions. 126. Phase conversion is of industrial importance in changing
Conversion from singlephase to polyphase has been of considerable importance in former times, when alternatingcurrent
generating systems were singlephase, and alternatingcurrent motors required polyphase for their operation. With the practically universal introduction of threephase electric power generation, polyphase supply is practically always available for stationary electric motors, at least motors of larger size, and conversion from singlephase to polyphase thus is of importance
mainly:
(a) To supply small amounts of polyphase current, for the starting of smaller induction motors operated on singlephase distribution circuits, 2300 volts primary, or 110/220 volts
secondary, that
of
is, in those cases, in which the required amount not sufficient to justify bringing the third phase to the motor: with larger motors, all the three phases are brought to the motor installation, thus polyphase supply used. (6) For inductionmotor railway installations, to avoid the
power
is
214
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the use of two trolley complication and inconvenience incident to of amounts polyphase power are In this case, as large wires.
required,
is
and economy
in weight is important,
is
momentum
is
an induction machine
is
employed
as phase converter,
and then
latter is far
more economical
in apparatus.
Conversion from polyphase to singlephase obviously means the problem of deriving singlephase power from a balanced load can be taken from any polyphase system. A singlephase a load, when considersuch but phase of a polyphase system, the volthe polyphase system, that is, makes able, unbalances the lowers and capacity. generator tages of the phases unequal The problem thus is, to balance the voltages and the reaction of
the load on the generating system. This problem has become of considerable importance in the
last years, for
the purpose of taking large singlephase loads, for electric railway, furnace work, etc., from a threephase supply For this pursystem as a central station or transmission line.
converters with pose, usually synchronous phase used. are balancers phase
synchronous
As
illustration
thus be considered in the following the induction phase converter, and the the device,
may
Monocyclic Devices
127.
is
tem
of voltages (whether symmetrical or unsymmetrical), which the flow of energy is essentially singlephase.
For instance, if, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 67, we connect, between singlephase mains, AB, two pairs of noninductive resistances, r, and inductive reactances, x (or in general, two pairs of impedances of different inductance factors), such that r = x, consuming the voltages EI and B 2 respectively, then the voltage e<> = CD is in quadrature with, and equal to, the voltage e = AB, and the two voltages, e and e Q) constitute a
monocyclic system of quarterphase voltages:
e
PHASE CONVERSION
axis of the monocyclic system,
axis.
215
and
e,
That
is,
from the
axis,
the limits of the powergenerating system back of the supply If, however, an attempt is made to draw power from voltage. the monocyclic quadrature voltage, e Q this voltage collapses.
,
then the two voltages, e and e are impressed upon a quarterphase induction motor, this motor will not take power equally from both phases, e and e but takes power essentially only from phase, e. In starting, and at heavy load, a small amount of power is taken also from the quadrature voltage, 6 but at lightload, power may be returned into this voltage, so that in general
If
,
eQ
approximates
zero, that
is,
the voltage,
is
wattless.
A monocyclic
the auxiliary and therefore
phase system
power
axis of
be defined as a system of polypower axis, the main axis and the other power axis, or quadrature axis, is of dropping characteristic Or it may be defined as a polyof limited power. of voltage, in which the power available in the one the system is practically unlimited compared with
system thus
may
is a system of polyphase voltage, which at balanced polyphase load becomes unbalanced, that is, in which an unbalancing of voltage or phase relation occurs when all phases are loaded with equal loads of equal inductance
factors.
In some respect, all methods of conversion from singlephase to polyphase might be considered as monocyclic, in so far as the quadrature phase produced by the transforming device is limited
of the transforming device, while the main phase is limited only by the available power of the generating system. However, where the power available in the quadrature phase produced by the phase converter is sufficiently large not to constitute a limitation of power in the polyphase device supplied by it, or in other words, where the quadrature phase produced by the phase converter gives essentially a constantpotent al voltage under the condition of the use of the device, then the
by the capacity
system
is
not
considered
as
monocyclic,
but
is
essentially
polyphase. In the days before the general introduction of threephase power generation, about 20 years ago, monocyclic systems were
216
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
These were built. extensively used, and monocyclic generators small having singlephase alternatingcurrent generators, a^ the with combined which of high inductance, quadrature phase The or voltages. main phase gives threephase quarterphase as to limit the quadraauxiliary phase was of such high reactance of flow the make energy essentially singleture power and thus The purpose hereof was to permit phase, that is, monocyclic. on the generator, and thereby coil the use of a small quadrature whole the to preserve generator capacity for the singlephase
the quadrature voltage, without danger of overloading The general on the load motor a of system. in case high phase the monothe superseded of introduction threephase system used only are devices today and monocyclic generator,
main
induction motors, supply, for the starting of small singlephase The advantage of the monocyclic feature then consists in etc.
size of the device, and making the use of the rather expenwith thereby sive energystoring devices of inductance (and capacity) used in
economically feasible
this case.
The simplest and most generally used monocyclic device contwo impedances, Zi and Z 2 of different inductance factors and capacity), con(resistance and inductance, or inductance nected across the singlephase mains, A and B. The common disconnection, C, between the two impedances, Z\ and Z^ then is A and the from B, in voltage, supply singlephase phase placed and gives with the same a system of outofphase voltages, AC, CB and AB, or a more or less unsymmetrical threephase Or, between this common connection, (7, and the triangle.
sists of
,
middle, D, of an autotransformer connected between the singlephase mains, AB, a quadrature voltage, CD, is produced. " This monocyclic triangle" ACB, in its application as singlephase induction motorstarting device, is discussed in Chapter V.
Two
square, Fig. 67. 128. Let then, in the monocyclic square ally in Fig. 67:
shown diagrammatic
= Y =
YI
2
gi
jbi
g2
jb z
= =
admittance admittance
AC and DB;
CB
and
AD;
and
let:
YQ
&o
PHASE CONVERSION
the monocyclic quadrature voltage, EQ Denoting then:
217
current, /o.
= CD, and
E =
Ei,
'
supply voltage, AB, and / = supply current, and = currents in the two sides of the Ii, I 2
It is then, counting voltages and currents in the direction indicated by the arrows in Fig. 67
:
+E =
l
e,
(1)
hence
E+
e
Eo
(2)
2 and:
'
(3)
substituting:
IQ
/i
EoYv,
= E Y
l
l,
(4)
+
(5)
:
(6)
(Fj
Fo)
(7)
218
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and
(5) gives
the currents:
_
7
__.
y (Fi F 2 ) Y + F +
l 2
2
(8)
'
and reactance:
r = X =7.07 OHMS
6 = 100 VOLTS
E,
FIG. 67.
Resistanceinductance
>2
^a;
jq);
and a load
Fo
equations
(6)
= a(p 
and
(8) give:
e(l+j)
1
2 (p
C1
J#)
ea (P
+ J)
ea f(P
1
J +
 J)  2j]. 2 (p  j g)
C1
PHASE CONVERSION
Fig. 67
219
that
is,
shows the voltage diagram, and Fig. 68 the regulation, the values of e Q and i, with i Q as abscissae, for:
e
= =
100 volts,
0.1
A/2 mho.
FIG. 68.
is,
oad, the latter being the maximum or shortcircuit value. For q = p, or a load of 45 load, the voltage diagram
straight line
the
crosses in Fig. 67. That is, in this case, bhe monocyclic voltage, eo, is in quadrature with the supply voltage,
shown by
220
e,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
all loads, while for noninductive load the monocyclic voltage, not only shrinks with increasing load, but also shifts in phase, from quadrature position, and the diagram is in the latter case
at
shown
for 4 amp. load by the dotted lines in Fig, 67. In Fig. 68 the drawn lines correspond to noninductive load. The regulation for 45 lagging load is shown by dotted lines in
Fig. 68.
shows the quadrature component of the monocyclic voltage, That is, the component of e Q) which is in phase with e, and therefore could be neutralized by inserting into e a part of the voltage, e, by transformation. As seen in Fig. 68, the supply current is a maximum of 20 amp. at noload, and decreases with increasing load, to 10 amp. at
e'o
at noninductive load.
shortcircuit load.
is,
Q =
is
ei
given by the curve, 7, in Fig. 68. seen, the apparent efficiency is very low, reaching a maximum of 14 per cent. only.
As
If
is
tance, the extreme case of dropping of voltage, e with increase of current, i , is reached in that the circuit of the voltage, 60, becomes
in
a constantcurrent circuit, and this case is more fully discussed " Chapter XIV of Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits"
deviating from uniform intensity and uniform rotation only by the impedance drop of the primary winding. Thus, in any coil displaced in position from the singlephase primary coil of the
induction machine, a voltage is induced which is displaced in phase from the supply voltage by the same angle as the coil is
displaced in position from the coil energized by the supply volAn induction machine running at or near synchronism tage.
PHASE CONVERSION
ply voltage,
221
Q,
and current, I
in one coil,
of displaced phase, E*, and current of displaced phase, another coil displaced in position.
Thus if a quarterphase motor shown diagrammatically in Fig. 69A is operated by a singlephase voltage, JB supplied to the one
,
I<
E2
Eo ID Z
Z,
FIG. 69.
phase, in the other phase a quadrature voltage, E^ is produced and quadrature current can be derived from this phase. The induction machine, Fig. 69 A, is essentially a transformer,
giving two transformations in series: from the primary supply circuit, EQ! Q to the secondary circuit or rotor, Eili, and from the
,
rotor circuit,
EJi,
as
primary
circuit; to
222
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
It thus can be repreor second phase, EJz, as secondary circuit. sented diagrainmatically by the double transformer Fig. 695. The only difference between Fig. 69A and 695 is, that in Fig.
the synchronous rotation of the circuit, EJi, carries the current, Ii, 90 in space to the second transformer, and thereby pro
69A
duces a 90
time displacement.
That
is,
695
are identical in
intensity with the secondary currents and voltage of the first transformer, but lag behind them by a quarter period in space and thus also in time. The momentum of the rotor takes care
energy storage during this quarter period. Fig. 695, can be represented by the double divided circuit, Fig. 69(7, l Fig. 69C thus represents the induction phase converter, Fig. 69 A, in everything except
of the
it does not show the quarterperiod lag. As the equations derived from Fig. 69(7 are rather complicated, the induction converter can, with sufficient approximation for most purposes, be represented either by the diagram Fig. 69D, or by the diagram Fig. 69$. Fig. 69D gives the exciting current of the first transformer too large, but that of the second transformer too small, so that the two errors largely compensate. The reverse is the case in Fig. 691?, and the correct value, corresponding to Fig. 69C, thus lies between the limits 69D and 69JJ.
that
The
error
made by
either assumption,
69P
Y =
Z$
jb
=
=
TQ
+ JXQ = + j%i
=
impedance,
Zi
all
7*1
Y =
2
#2
~ jb 2 =
:
denoting further
Z =
l
ZQ
+ Zij
5th
"
edition,
Calculation
of
Alternatingcurrent Phenomena/'
PHASE CONVERSION
it is,
223
69D
EY =
Q
Q
(9)
),
(10) (11)
and transposing,
gives:

if
is
used,
it is
which
differs
very
little
And, substituting
Jo
(11)
(9):
= E%
(7o
Yz)
+ ^0^0,
(14)
72
Equations (11), (12) and (13) give for any value of load, 7 2 on the quadrature phase, the values of voltage, 2 and current, / 2 of this phase, and the supply current, /o, at supply voltage, E Q It must be understood, however, that the actual quadrature
,
r
voltage is not E^ but is jE^ carried a quarter phase forward by the rotation, as discussed before.
132. As instance, consider a phase converter operating at constant supply voltage:
E =
Q
eQ
100 volts;
of the constants
7 = ZQ =
thus:
0.01
Zx
Z =
and
let:
0.1
0.3.?;
72 =
=
that
is, a load of 80 per cent, powerfactor, which corresponds about to the average powerfactor of an induction motor.
224
It
is,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
then, substituted into (11) to (13):
2
_
""
_________J^P
(1.062
0.52 a)
""
(80
+ jlftM
60 j) a
_
a
,
0.028)
[OJ6TT~o^
:
for:
0,
= = =
94.1,
0,
19.5;
for:
<2
oo
?
= = =
0,
159, 169.
is
shown
As seen: the voltage, e 2? is already at noload lower than the the exciting cursupply voltage, e due to the drop of voltage of the of inductive phase converter. rent in the self impedance values of voltage, e^ for the circles marked In Fig. 70 are by
,
every 20 per cent, of the shortcircuit current. the voltage, e 2 as Fig. 71 gives the quadrature component of of ratio or output the voltampere 0" 2 and apparent efficiency,
,
,
to voltampere input
: '
and the primary supply current, i It is interesting to compare the voltage diagram and especially the load and regulation curves of the induction phase converter, Figs. 70 and 71, with those of the monocyclic square, Figs. 67 and 68. As seen, in the phase converter, the supply current at noload is small, is a mere inductionmachine exciting current, and increases with the load and approximately proportional thereto. The noload input of both devices is practically the same, but
.
the voltage regulation of the phase converter is very much better the voltage drops to zero at 159 amp. output while th^t of
;
PHASE CONVERSION
225
FIG. 70.
/AMP. VOLTS
isa
FIG. 71.
226
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
This monocyclic square reaches zero already at 10 amp. output. limithe that the of is, character latter, the illustrates monocyclic tation of the output of the quadrature voltage. As the result hereof, the phase converter reaches fairly good these already at apparent efficiencies, 54 per cent., and reaches
moderate
loads.
, ,
is much e" 2 of the voltage, e with the in phase being the and, with smaller phase converter, relation and be can quadrature e rigid eliminated, supply voltage, of 6 2 with e Q maintained, by transformation of a voltage e" 2
Furthermore, as
e' z is
very low loads could be supplied without regulation, by a series transformer, that is, by connecting the primary of a transformer in series with Thereby the supply circuit, i 0j the secondary in series with e 2 e 2 would be maintained in almost perfect quadrature relation
approximately proportional to
^except at
it
to
at
all
important loads.
is an energytransforming device, while the monocyclic square, as the name implies, is a device for producing an essentially wattless quadrature voltage. 133. A very important use of the induction phase converter
is
motor
for
which
it
sup
of the
in series to one phase, eV'o, of the induction motor driving the electric car or polyphase locomotive, into the circuit of the single
= e e' 0) and the second phase of the phase supply voltage, e phase converter, e%, i^ is connected to the second phase of the induction motor.
This arrangement
still
and:
= e duction motor, e' This, however, raises the voltage, e and hereby e'o, on the primary phase of the phase converter, raises the secondary phase voltage, e% = e'% thus maintains the
.
At noload, e 2 is a maximum. With increasing load, e 2 = drops, and hereby also drops the other phase voltage of the
e'%
in
PHASE CONVERSION
two voltages more nearly
e'
227
and
e' 2
much
equal, than would be the case with the use of the phase converter in shunt to the induction motor. Series connection of the induction phase converter, to the in
it,
twophase voltages, e' and e' 2 of the induction motor. Quadrature position of these twophase voltages can be closely maintained by a series transformer between i Q and
as stated above.
It is thereby possible to secure practically full polyphase
12,
motor
output from an induction motor operated from singlephase supply through a seriesphase converter, while with parallel connection of the phase converter, the dropping quadrature voltage more or less decreases the induction motor output. For this reason, for uses where maximum output, and especially maximum torque at low speed and in acceleration is required, as in railroading, the use of the phase converter in series connections to the motor is indicated. Synchronous Phase Converter and Singlephase Generation 134. While a small amount of singlephase power can be taken from a threephase or in general a polyphase system without disturbing the system, a large amount of singlephase power results
in unbalancing of the threephase voltages
and impairment
f
of
the generator output. With balanced load, the impedance voltages, e = &, of a threephase system are balanced threephase voltages, and their effect
system by threephase potential regulator or by increasing the generator field excitation. The impedance voltages of a singlephase load, however, are singlephase voltages, and thus, combined with the threephase system voltage, give an unbalanced threephase system. That is, in general, the loaded phase drops in voltage, and one of the unloaded phases rises, the other also
drops, and this the more, the greater the impedance in the circuit between the generated threephase voltage and the singlephase load. Large singlephase load taken from a threephase trans
mission line
electric
as for instance
railway
thus
may
make
it useless.
system of voltage, e, may be considered as combination of two balanced threephase systems of opposite phase
A singlephase
228
.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
e ee
rotation:
yi
ee and
ee*
^
^
t
ee
^
where
= vT 1 =
+
?>
j "A/3
caused by a singlephase load of iz thus is the same as that caused by impedance voltage, e two threephase impedance voltages, e/2, of which the one has the same, the other the opposite phase rotation as the threephase supply system. The former can be neutralized by raising the
The unbalancing
of voltage
supply voltage by 0/2, by potential regulator or generator excitaThis means, regulating the voltage for the average drop. tion. It leaves, however, the system unbalanced by the impedance The latter thus can be voltage, e/2, of reversephase rotation.
compensated, and the unbalancing eliminated, by inserting into the threephase system a set of threephase voltages, e/2, of reversephase rotation. Such a system can be produced by a threephase potential regulator by interchanging two of the phases. Thus, if A, B, C are the three threephase supply voltages, impressed upon the primary or shunt coils a, b, c of a threephase
potential regulator,
coils of
and
1,
the regulator, then the voltages induced in 1, 3, 2 are threephase of reversephase rotation to A, B, C, and can be inserted into the system for balancing the unbalancing due to 2. 1,5 3, C singlephase load, in the resultant voltage; It is obviously necessary to have the potential regulator turned
A +
1, 3,
2 have the
may proper phase ing than is provided in the potential regulator for controlling
This
balanced voltage drop. It thus is possible to restore the voltage balance of a threephase system, which is unbalanced by a singlephase load of impedance voltage, e', by means of two balanced threephase potential regulators of voltage range, e'/2, connected so that the one gives the same, the other the reverse phase rotation of the main
threephase system.
of
reversed phase rotation, for inserting in series into a polyphase system to restore the balance on singlephase load, is called a
phase balancer, and in the present case, a stationary induction phase balancer. A synchronous machine of opposite phase rotation to the main
series thereto,
would then be
PHASE CONVERSION
229
The purpose of the phase balancer, thus, is the elimination of the voltage unbalancing due to singlephase load, and its capacity mast be that of the singlephase impedance voltamperes. It obviously can not equalize the load on the phases, but the flow
of
power
of the
load.
135. The capacity of large synchronous generators is essentially determined by the heating of the armature coils. Increased load on one phase, therefore, is not neutralized by lesser load on the
by heating
of the
arma
The most serious effect of unbalanced load on the generator is that due to the pulsating armature reaction. With balanced polyphase load, the armature reaction is constant in intensity
and in
direction, with regards to the field.
With singlephase
load, however, the armature reaction is pulsating between zero and twice its average value, thus may cause a doublefrequency pulsation of magnetic flux, which, extending through the field circuit, may give rise to losses and heating by eddy currents in the iron, etc. With the slowspeed multipolar enginedriven alternators of old, due to the large number of poles and low peripheral speed, the ampereturns armature reaction per pole amounted to a few thousand only, thus were not sufficient to
cause serious pulsation in the magneticfield circuit. With the large highspeed turboalternators of today, of very few poles, and to a somewhat lesser extent also with the larger highspeed machines driven by highhead water wheels, the armature reac
amounts to very many thousands of ampereturns. Section and length of the field magnetic circuit are very large. Even a moderate pulsation of armature reaction, due to the untion per pole
balancing of the flow of power by singlephase load, then, may cause very large losses in the field structure, and by the resultant heating seriously reduce the output of the machine. It then becomes necessary either to balance the load between
the phases, and so produce the constant armature reaction of balanced polyphase load, or to eliminate the fluctuation of the
armature reaction.
The
latter is
The doublesquirrelcage shortcircuit winding in the pole faces. frequency pulsation of armature reaction induces doublefreinduction motor
quency currents in the squirrel cage just as in the singlephase and these induced currents demagnetize, when
230
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is above, and magnetize when it is below the average value, and thereby reduce the fluctuation, that is, approximate a constant armature reaction of constant direction
with regards to the field that is, a uniformly rotating magnetic field with regards to the armature. However, for this purpose, the m.m.f. of the currents induced in the squirrelcage winding must equal that of the armature
winding, that is, the total copper crosssection of the squirrel cage must be of the same magnitude as the total copper crosssection
of the
armature winding. A small squirrel cage, such as is sufficient for starting of synchronous motors and for antihunting purposes, thus is not sufficient in high armaturereaction machines
to take care of unbalanced singlephase load.
A
is,
disadvantage of the squirrelcage field winding, however, that it increases the momentary shortcircuit current of
its dying out, therefore increases the of the machine at shortcircuit. In of selfdestruction danger the first moment after shortcircuit, the field poles still carry full
magnetic flux as the field can not die out instantly. No flux passes through the armature except the small flux required to produce the resistance drop, ir. Thus practically the total field flux must be shunted along the air gap, through the narrow secAs the squirrelcage tion between field coils and armature coils.
flux to cross
it,
it
thereby further
reduces the available flux section and so increases the flux density and with it the momentary shortcircuit current, which gives the m.m.f. of this
It
flux.
be considered that the reduction of generator output resulting from unequal heating of the armature coils due to unequal load on the phases is not eliminated by a squirrelcage winding, but rather additional heat produced by the currents
also
must
A an induction be generator, producing electric power, or motor, electric power, or phase converter, receiving electric some phase, the motor phase, and generating electric
may
some other phase, the generator phase.
the total resultant armature reaction
is
machine,
receiving power in
power in
reaction pulsates with double frequency between equal positive and negative values. Such phase converter thus can be used to
The
in
PHASE CONVERSION
duction phase converter has been discussed in the preceding, and the synchronous phase converter has similar characteristics, but as a rule a better regulation, that is, gives a better constancy of
to operate without producing lagging the fields currents, by exciting sufficiently high. However, a phase converter alone can not distribute singlephase load so as to give a balanced polyphase system. When
voltage,
motor phase to the generator phase, the terminal voltage of the motor phase equals the induced voltage plus the impedance drop in the machine, that of the generator phase equals induced voltage minus the impedance drop, and the voltage of the motor phase thus must be higher than that of the generator phase by twice the impedance voltage of the
phase converter (vectorially combined).
Therefore, in converting singlephase to polyphase by phase converter, the polyphase system produced can not be balanced in voltage, but the quadrature phase produced by the converter
than the main phase supplied to it, and drops off the more, the greater the load. In the reverse conversion, however, distributing a singlephase load between phases of a polyphase system, the voltage of the generator phase of the converter must be higher, that of the motor
is less
phase lower than that of the polyphase system, and as the generator phase is lower in voltage than the motor phase, it follows, that the phase converter transfers energy only when the polyphase system has become unbalanced by more than the voltage
drop in the converter. That is, while a phase converter may reduce the unbalancing due to singlephase load, it can never restore complete balance of the polyphase system, in voltage and in the flow of power. Even to materially reduce the unbalancing,
requires large converter capacity and very close voltage regulation of the converter, and thus makes it an uneconomical machine.
fore,
balance a polyphase system under singlephase load, thererequires the addition of a phase balancer to the phase converter. Usually a synchronous phase balancer, would be
this case, that
is,
To
employed in
opposite phase rotation, on the shaft of the phase converter, and connected in series thereto. Usually it is connected into
the neutral of the phase converter. By the phase balancer, the voltage of the motor phase of the phase converter is raised above the generator phase so as to give a power transfer sufficient
232
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is,
period,
Such synchronous phase balancer constructively is a synchronous machine, having two sets of field poles, A and B in quadrature with each other. Then by varying or reversing the excitation of the two sets of field poles, any phase relation of the
}
reversely rotating polyphase system of the balancer to that of the converter can be produced, from zero to 360.
phase railroading, thus can be produced. (a) By using singlephase generators and separate singlephase supply circuits. (6) By using singlephase generators running in multiple with the general threephase system, and controlling voltage and mechanical power supply so as to absorb the singlephase load by the In this case, however, if the singlesinglephase generators.
may be
necessary.
taking the singlephase load from the threephase system. If the load is considerable, this may require special construction of the generators, and phase balancers.
By
(d) By taking the power all as balanced threephase power from the generating system, and converting the required amount This to singlephase, by phase converter and phase balancer. may be done in the generating station, or at the receiving station where the singlephase power is required.
Assuming that in addition to a balanced threephase load of power, Po, a singlephase load of power, P, is required. Estimating roughly, that the singlephase capacity of a machine structure is half the threephase capacity of the structure which probably is not far wrong then the use of singlephase generators gives
us Pokw. threephase, and Pkw. singlephase generators, and as the latter is equal in size to 2 Pkw. threephase capacity, the total machine capacity would be P 2 P.
Threephase generation and phase conversion would require P kw. in threephase generators, and phase converters Po transferring half the singlephase power from the phase which is loaded by singlephase, to the quadrature phase. That is, the phase converter must have a capacity of P/2 kw. in the motor phase, and P/2 kw. capacity in the generator phase, or a total
PHASE CONVERSION
233
capacity of P kw. Thus the total machine capacity required for 2 P kw. threephase both kinds of load would again be P
rating.
Thus, as regards machine capacity, there is no material difference between singlephase generation and threephase generation with phase conversion, and the decision which arrangement is
on questions of construction and discussion on singlephase generacomplete operation. tion and phase conversion is given in A. I, E. E. Transactions, November, 1916.
preferable will largely depend
A more
CHAPTER XV
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
SELFCOMPOUNDING ALTERNATORS SELFSTARTING SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS ARC RECTIFIER BRUSH AND THOMSON HOUSTON ARC MACHINE LEBLANC PANCHAHUTEUR
PERMUTATOR
SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTER
have been designed and built since many years. As mechanical have found a limited use for rectifiers, mainly singlephase, they and during the last years arc small powers since a long time, and moderate powers, for small use extended found have rectifiers for storagebattery charging and for series arc lighting by constant For large powers, however, the rectifier does not direct current. appear applicable, but the synchronous converter takes its place. The two most important types of directcurrent arclight maand chines, however, have in reality been mechanical rectifiers, for compounding alternators, and for starting synchronous motors, rectifying commutators have been used to a considerable
extent.
Let, in Fig. 72, e be the alternating voltage wave of the supply source, and the connections of the receiver circuit with this sup
ply source be periodically and synchronously reversed, at the zero points of the voltage wave, by a reversing commutator driven by a small synchronous motor, shown in Fig. 73. In the receiver circuit the voltage wave then is unidirectional but pulcircuit both are noninductive, the current in the receiver circuit is a pulsating unidirectional in dotted lines in Fig. 74, and derived from current, shown as the alternating current, i, Fig. 72, in the supply circuit. as a machine field, If, however, the receiver circuit is inductive, then the current, i Q} in Fig. 75, pulsates less than the voltage, e 0t which produces it, and the current thus does not go down to zero, but is continuous, and its pulsation the less, the higher the in
in Fig. 74.
and supply
z"
ductance.
The
current,
i,
how
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
235
FIG. 72.
FIG. 73.
Rectifying commutator.
FIG. 74.
Rectified
wave on non
inductive load.
FIG. 75.
Rectified
wave oninductive
load.
X
FIG. 76.
Alternating supply
wave to
rectifier
on inductive load.
236
ever,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
from which the
,
direct current, i is derived by reversal, must zero twice during each period, thus must have the go through If, i in Fig. 76, that is, must abruptly reverse. as shown shape
circuit contains
every the change instantly, but only gradually, the slower, the higher assumes circuit in the current actual the and supply inductance,
contains
FIG. 77.
Differential current
on
rectifier
on inductive load.
a shape like that shown in dotted lines in Fig. 76. Thus the current In the alternating part and that in the rectified part of the circuit can not be the same, but a difference must exist, as shown 1 This current, i', passes between the two parts as i in Fig. 77.
FIG. 78.
of the circuit, as arc at the rectifier brushes, and causes the rectifying commutator to spark, if there is any appreciable inductance In the circuit. The intensity of the sparking current depends on the inductance of the rectified circuit, its duration on that of
circuit.
providing a byepath for this differential current, i', the sparking is mitigated, and thereby the amount of power, which can be rectified, increased. This is done by shunting a noninductive
By
resistance across the rectified circuit, r circuit, r, or both, as shown in Fig. 78.
it
finally increases
sparking
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
by the increase
of rectified current;
if it is
237
has
little effect.
high,
it
vary with the current. Furthermore, The beltdriven alternators of former days frequently had a compounding series field excited by such a rectifying commutator on the machine shaft, and by shunting 40 to 50 per cent, of the
this resistance should
power through the two resistance shunts, with careful setting of brushes as much as 2000 watts have been rectified from singlephase 125cycle supply. such rectiSinglephase synchronous motors were started by field current which the passed, in commutators through fying series with the armature, and the first longdistance power trans
If
pIG<
79.
Opencircuit rectifier.
FIG. 80.
mission in America (Telluride) was originally operated with commutator the singlephase machines started by rectifying commutator, however, requiring frequent renewal.
139.
The
reversal of connection between the rectified circuit circuit may occur either over opencircuit, or
over shortcircuit.
That
is,
disconnected from the supply circuit which opencircuits both and then connected in reverse direction, or the rectified circuit is connected to the supply circuit in reverse direction, before
being disconnected in the previous direction which shortcircuits both circuits. The former, opencircuit rectification, results if the width of the gap between the commutator segments is greater than the width of the brushes, Fig. 79, the latter, shortcircuit results if the width of the gap is less than the width
rectification,
In opencircuit
238
tage, 6
,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
but the alternating current,
i, is
as
shown
in Fig. 81 as
i.
FIG. 81.
rectifier
on noninduc
current.
That
is, the current does not stop suddenly, but continues to flow as an arc at the commutator surface, and also, when making con
FIG. 82.
rectifier
on inductive
showing sparking.
and segment, the current does not instantly but gradually, and the current wave thus is as shown as i and i in Fig. 82, where the shaded area is the arcing current at the commutator. Sparkless rectification may be produced in a circuit of moderate
tact between brush
full value,
reach
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
239
inductance, with opencircuit rectification, by shifting the brushes" so that the brushes open the circuit only at the moment when
the (inductive) current has reached zero value or nearly so, as
FIG. S3.
rectifier
shown
in Figs. 83
and
84.
In
tact until the voltage, e, has not only gone to zero, but reversed sufficiently to stop the current, and the rectified voltage then is shown by e Q in Fig. 83, the current by i and i Q in Fig. 84.
FIG. 84.
rectifier
With shortcircuit commutation the voltage waves are as shown by e and 6 in Fig. 85. With a noninductive supply and noninductive receiving circuit, the currents would be as shown by i and io in Fig. 86. That is, during the period of shortcircuit
140.
?
240
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
FIG. 85.
rectifier.
FIG. 86.
rectifier
on noninductive
load.
FIG.
87,
rectifier
on moderately inductive
showing
flashing.
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
the current in the rectified circuit
circuit current of the
is zero,
241
is
and
is
high,
the short
supply voltage, in the supply circuit. Inductance in the rectified circuit retards the dying out of the current, but also retards its rise, and so changes the rectified current wave to the shapes shown for increasing values of inductance as io in Figs. 87, 88 and 89.
FIG. 88.
rectifier
stability limit.
Inductance in the supply circuit reduces the excess current value during the shortcircuit period, and finally entirely eliminates the current rise, but also retards the decrease and reversal of the supply current, and the latter thus assumes the shapes
shown
as
in
FIG. 89.
Current waves of shortcircuit rectifier on highly inductive load, showing sparking but no flashing.
seen, in Figs. 86 and 87, the alternating supply current has during the shortcircuit reversed and reached a value at the end
As
than the rectified current, and at the the brush leaves the shortcircuit, a considerable current has to be broken, that is, sparking occurs. In Figs. 86 and 87, this differential current which passes as arc at the commutator, is shown by the dotted area. It is increasing with inof the shortcircuit, higher
moment when
16
242
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the commutator creasing spark length, that is, the spark or arc at is very small inductance if the out to has no tendency except go and shortoccurs commutator the around but persists flashing
:
circuits the
supply permanently.
pia
go.
Voltage wave of
shortcircuit
rectifier
with
shifted brushes,
In Fig. 89, the alternating current at the end of the shortcircuit has not yet reversed, and a considerable differential Vicious arc. current, shown by the dotted area, d, passes as
PIG. 91.
Current waves of shortcircuit rectifier with inductive load and the brushes shifted to give good rectification.
sparking thus occurs, but in this case no flashing around the commutator, as with increasing spark length the differential current decreases and finally dies out. In Fig. 88, the alternating current at the end of the shortcircuit has just
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
243
thus no current change and no sparking occurs. However, if the shortcircuit should last a moment longer, a rising differential
current would appear and cause flashing around the commutator. Thus, Fig. 88 just represents the stability limit between the stable (but badly sparking) condition, Fig. 89, and the unstable or flashing conditions, Figs. 87 and 86. By shifting the brushes so as to establish and open the shortcircuit later, as
e.m.f.
rical,
shown in Fig. 90, the shortcircuited alternating shown dotted in Figs. 90 and 85 ceases to be symmetis,
averaging zero as in Fig. 85, and becomes unsyman average of the same sign as the next following It thus becomes a commutating e.m.f., causes a voltage wave. more rapid reversal of the alternating current during the shortthat
metrical, with
circuit period,
and the circuit conditions, Fig. 89, then change to That is, the current produced by the short
circuited alternating voltage has at the end of the shortcircuit period reached nearly, but not quite the same value as the rectified current, and a short faint spark occurs due to the differential
current, d.
of stable,
shift
and practically sparkless commutation: a greater brush would reach the stability limit similar as Fig. 88, a lesser
brush shift leave unnecessarily severe sparking, as Fig. 89. 141. Within a wide range of current and of inductance espepractically sparkless and cially for highly inductive circuits stable rectification can be secured by shortcircuit commutation
of the shortcircuit,
brushes, that is, changing the position of the shortcircuit during the voltage cycle.
Within a wide range of current and of inductance, in lowinductance circuits, practically sparkless and stable rectification can be secured also by opencircuit rectification, by varying the
duration of the opencircuit, and by shifting the brushes. The duration of opencircuit or shortcircuit can be varied by the use of two brushes in parallel, which can be shifted against
each other so as to span a lesser or greater part of the circumference of the commutator, as shown in Fig. 92.
Shortcircuit commutation is more applicable to circuits of high, opencircuit commutation to circuits of low inductance. But, while either method gives good rectification if overlap and
brush
shift are right, they require a shift of the brushes with every change of load or of inductivity of the load, and this limits the
244
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
practical usefulness of rectification, as such readjustment with every change of circuit condition is hardly practicable.
constantcurrent circuits;
it is
FIG. 92.
Doublebrush,
rectifier.
Houston (threephase) and the Brush arc machine (quarter" phase) commutates. For more details on this see Theory and Calculations of Transient Phenomena/' Section II.
FIG. 93.
rectifier
Opencircuit rectification has found a limited use on noninductive circuits containing a counter e.m.f., that is, in charging
storage batteries.
If,
in Fig. 93, e
is
e\
where
ef
and
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
battery,
#1,
,
245
equals the initial and the final value of e as in Fig. i start and end with zero, that is, no abrupt of current occurs, and moderate inductivity thus gives change no trouble. The current waves then are: i and i in Fig. 94.
93, eo
e
and thus
FIG. 94.
rectifier
142, Rectifiers may be divided into reversing rectifiers, like those discussed heretofore, and shown, together with its supply
transformer, in Figs. 95 and 96, and contactmaking rectifiers, shown in Figs. 97 and 98, or in its simplest form, as halfwave
rectifier, in Fig. 99.
FIG.
As
cuit
is
made between
the rectified
cir
and the alternating supply source, T, during onehalf wave only, but the circuit is open during the reverse half wave, and the
rectified circuit,
rent
B, thus carries a series of separate impulses of curas shown in Fig. 100 as ii. However, in this case the current in the alternating supply circuit is unidirectional This current produces in the transalso, is the same current, ii.
and voltage
former,
if
of appreciable
246
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is, larger than the exciting current of the transsaturates the transformer iron. Running at or beyond
magnitude, that
former,
it
magnetic saturation, the primary exciting current of the transformer then becomes excessive, the hysteresis heating due to the
unsymmetrical magnetic cycle is greatly increased, and the transformer endangered or destroyed.
FIG. 97.
FIG.
98.
Contactmaking
rectifier
Halfwave rectifiers thus are impracticable except for extremely small power. The fullwave contactmaking rectifier, Fig. 97 or 98, does not have this objection. In this type of rectifier, the connection be
tween
rectified receiver
circuit
and
not synchronously reversed, as in Fig. 95 or 96, but in Fig, 97 one side of the
alternating supply
circuit
are
rectified
circuit,
is
permanently
connected
to the middle
of
the
alternating supply circuit, T, while the other side of the rectified circuit is
FIG. 99. Half wave rectifier, contact making.
synchronously connected and disconnected with the two sides, a and 6, of the alternating supply circuit.
Or we may say: the rectified circuit takes onehalf wave from the one transformer half coil, ma, the other half wave from
the other transformer half
coil, nib.
transformer half
coils
two half coils flow in opposite directhus give magnetically the same effect as one alternating
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
current in one half
coil,
247
re
In the contactmaking
cessive half
waves
of the transformer, T.
are
FIG. 100.
rectifier
with
ply source, from a to b. GI and 62 then are the voltage waves of the two half coils, am and bm, i and i% the two currents in these
two half coils, and i Q the rectified current, and voltage in the circuit from m to c. The current, ii, in the one, and, i2 in the other half coil, naturally has magnetically the same effect on he pri,
i% = io, in one half coil, or the current, mary, as the current, ii = in the whole coil, afc, would have. Thus it may be said: io/2 i,
248
voltage, e current,
i
,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is
e,
is
twice the alternating current, i. However, the i*r in the secondary coil, a&, is greater, by V2, than it would be with the alternating current, i
io/2.
twice the Fig. 98, the rectified voltage is current the rectified alternating voltage,
half the alternating current.
Contactmaking
rectifiers
of
the type
shown diagrammatically in Fig. may be compared with Fig. That is, the making of contact during 97^ .. making. one half wave, and opening it during tne reverse half wave, is accomplished not by mechanical synchronous rotation, but by the use of the arc as unidirecrectifier
HPHH
as arc rectiFig. 97 are extensively used the more mercuryarc particularly fiers,
101.
This
...
.,
*,
,,
FIG. 102.
Diagram
tional
tion,
1
conductor: 1 with the voltage gradient in one directhe arc conducts; with the reverse voltage gradient
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
the other half
is
249
tance
wave it does not conduct. A large inducused in the rectified circuit, to reduce the pulsation of current, and inductances in the two alternating supply circuits
either separate inductances, or the internal reactance of the transformer to prolong and thereby overlap the two half waves, and maintain the rectifying mercury arc in the vacuum tube. A
diagram of a mercuryarc
rectifier
with
its
FIG. 103.
rectifier.
is
shown in
Fig. 102.
Xi
and
x% often
are a part of the supply transformer; the "D.C. reactance is the one which limits the pulsation of the rectified current.
,
"
XQ
The
waves of currents, i i} i% and i as overlapped by the inductances, and a?o, are shown in Fig. 103. Full description and discussion of the mercuryarc rectifier is contained in "Theory and Calculation of Transient Phenomena/' Section II, and in "Radiation, Light and Illumination."
Xi, #2
250
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
143. To reduce the sparking at the rectifying commutator, the gap between the segments may be divided into a number of gaps, by small auxiliary segments, as shown in Fig. 104, and these then connected to intermediate points of the shunting re
FIG. 104.
Rectifier
sistance,
which takes the differential current, i Q i, or the be to intermediate connected points of auxiliary segments may the winding of the transformer, T, which feeds the rectifier,
r,
rectified. Or both arrangements may be combined, that is, the intermediate segments connected to intermediate points of the resistance, r, and intermediate points of the transformer wind
ing, T.
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
251
FIG. 106.
rectifier, simplified
FIG. 107.
FIG. 108.
FIG. 109.
FIG.
110.
Quarter
FIG.
111.
phase
ringconnected
rectifier.
252
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
may
In polyphase rectification, the segbe in star connection; or in ring connec
singlephase rectification.
ments and
tion, or
circuits
independent. Thus, Fig. 105 shows the arrangement of a starconnected (or Ycoanected) threephase rectifier. The arrangement of Fig. 105
is
shown again in Fig. 106, in simpler representation, by showing the phases of the alternating supply circuit, and their relation to each other and to the rectifier segments, by heavy black lines inside of the commutator.
shows a ring or deltaconnected threephase rectifier. 108 a starconnected quarterphase rectifier and Fig. Fig. 109 a quarterphase rectifier with two independent quadraFig. 107
FIG. 112.
rectifier.
The voltage waves of the two coils in Fig. 109 are shown as and 62 in Fig. 112, in thin lines, and the rectified voltage by the heavy black line, e$, in Fig. 112. As seen, in star connection, the successive phases alternate in feeding the rectified circuit, but
ei
only one phase is in circuit at a time, except during the time of the overlap of the brushes when passing the gap between sucAt that time, two successive phases are in cessive segments. multiple, and the current changes from the phase of decreasing
voltage to that of rising voltage. Only a part of the voltage wave is thus used. The unused part of the wave, i, is shown
shaded in Fig. 112. Kg. 113 shows the voltages of the four phases, e^
ez,
63, e* f
in
the rectified voltage. As ring connection, Fig. 110, and as seen, in this case, all the phases are always in circuit, two phases always in series, except during the overlap of the brushes at the gap between the segments, when a phase is shortcircuited during commutation. The rectified voltage is higher than that of each phase, but twice as many coils are required as sources of supply voltage, each carrying half the rectified current.
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
253
By using two commutators in series, as shown in Fig. Ill, the two phases can be retained continuously in circuit while using
FIG. 113.
rectifier.
only two coils but two commutators are required. waves then are shown in Fig. 114.
The voltage
FIG. 114.
rectifier
A starconnected sixphase rectifier is shown in Fig. 115, with the voltage waves in Fig. 117. The unused part of wave e\ is
FIG. 115.
FIG. 116.
shown shaded.
Fig.
254
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and wave is
of phases, star connection a lesser part of the alternatas economical, used in the rectified voltage: in quarterphase
number
becomes
less
less
ing voltage
FIG, 117.
rectifier.
rectification 90
or
onethird, etc.
all
FIG. 118.
rectifier.
continuously in circuit, and thus no loss of economy occurs the use of the higher number of phases.
by
FIG. 119.
generally used in rectification of a larger number of phases, and star connection is never used beyond quarterphase, that is, four phases, and where a higher
Therefore, ring connection
is
number
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
rectifying Fig. 119.
255
commutators are connected in series, as shown in This represents two quarterphase rectifiers in series each other by 45, that is, an eightphase system. from displaced Threephase starconnected rectification, Fig. 106, has been used in the ThomsonHoustonarc machine, and quarterphase rectification, Fig. 108, in the Brush arc machine, and for larger powers, several such commutators were connected in series, as in Fig. 119. These machines are polyphase (constantcurrent)
FIG. 120.
of sixphase rectifier,
on the armature
For a more complete discussion of the rectification of arc machine see "Theory and Calculation of Transient Electric
Phenomena," Section
145.
II.
rectification, the
be
the difference between the rectified current, i which never reverses, but is practically constant, and the alternating supply current. Resistances shunting the gaps
rent,
between adjoining segments, as byepath for this differential curconsume power and mitigate the sparking to a limited extent
only.
is
A far more effective method of eliminating the sparking by shunting this differential current not through a mere nonshown diagrammatically
ei
inductive resistance, but through a noninductive resistance which contains an alternating counter e.m.f. equal to that of the supply
phase, as
in Fig. 120. to e 6 are the six phases of a ringconnected sixe'i to e\ are e,m,fs, of very low selfinductance
256
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
resistance,
r,
and moderate
rectifier seg
i, ments. Fig. 121 then shows the wave shape of the current, i the that e counter these (assuming e.m.fs., which passes through
circuit of
contains no appreciable self inductance). Such polyphase counter e.m.fs. for shunting the differential current between the segments, can be derived from the syne' } r,
chronous motor which drives the rectifying commutator. By and winding the synchronousmotor armature ring connected
FIG. 121.
Wave shape
of differential current.
commutator, and using a revolvingarmature synchronous motor, the synchronousmotor armature coils can be connected to the rectifier segments, and byepass the differential current. To carry this current, the armature conductor of the synchronous motor has to be increased
of the
same number
in size,
but as the
FIG. 122.
Leblanc's Panchahuteur.
little.
can be very largely increased, the more, the larger the number of phases. This is Leblanc's Panchahuteur, shown diagrammatically in Fig. 122 for six phases. Such polyphase rectifier with noninductive counter e.m.f.
phase
many
currents,
It can rectify large collector rings as rectifier segments. but is limited in the voltage per phase, that is,
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
required rectified voltage, the larger thus must be the
phases. 146. Any
257
number
of
number of phases can be produced in the secondary system from a threephase or quarterphase primary polyphase system by transformation through two or three suitably designed stationary transformers, and a large number of phases thus is
The
not objectionable regarding its production by transformation. serious objection to the use of a large number of phases (24, 81, etc.) is, that each phase requires a collector ring to lead
commutator.
overcome by various means: rectifying commutator is made stationary and the brushes revolving. The synchronous motor then has revolving
This objection
1.
is
The
and stationary armature, and the connection from the stationary polyphase transformer to the commutator segments and the armature coils is by stationary leads. Such a machine is called a permutator. It has been built to a limited extent abroad. It offers no material advantage over the
field
synchronous converter, but has the serious disadvantage of revolving brushes. This means, that the brushes can not be inspected or adjusted during operation, that if one brush sparks by faulty adjustment, etc., it is practically impossible to find out which brush is at fault, and that due to the action of centrifugal
forces
is
greatly increased.
17
258
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
this reason, the
For
this
2.
The transformer
struc
its thereby revolving, permitting case this In commutator the with segments. secondary leads to be lead into the only the three or four primary phases have
ture,
connection of
rotor
of such structure is difficult, the transto to inspection during operation, and exposed former, not open thus and oil exclude limit its which design, centrifugal forces, limit the primary voltage, so that with a highvoltage primary
supply system, double transformation becomes necessary. As this construction offers no material advantage over
(3),
it has never reached beyond experimental design. lesser number of collector rings and supply phases 3.
is
motor armature
to divide each supply phase into two or more phases feeding successive commutator segments. Fig. 123 shows a 12phase rectia 12phase synchronous motor to connected commutator fying with six collector rings for a sixphase supply, so that each sup
and thereby two rectiply phase feeds two motor phases or coils, are used per two than more segments fier segments. Usually, commutator of number the segments The larger supply phase. in the current differential the is the larger per supply phase, motor armature coils, and the larger thus must be
no gain Calculation, however, shows that there is practically little gain and 12 more than of very use the phases, supply by
supply phases, and that usually the most economical that using six supply phases and collector rings, no design matter how large a number of phases is used on the commutator.
beyond
six
is
which hereby Fig. 123 is the wellknown synchronous converter, of the synfor final the as powers, large development, appears
chronous
This
is
rectifier.
the reason why the synchronous rectifier apparently has never been developed for large powers: the development of the polyphase synchronous rectifier for high power, by increasing the number of phases, byepassing the differential current which causes the sparking, by shunting the commutator segments with
the armature coils of the motor, and finally reducing the
number
SYNCHRONOUS RECTIFIER
259
of collector rings and supply phases by phase splitting in the synchronousmotor armature, leads to the synchronous converter as the final development of the highpower polyphase
rectifier.
" synchronous converter see "Theoretical Elements of For some special types of Electrical Engineering/ Part II, C. " see under "Regulating Pole Converter synchronous converter in the following Chapter XXI.
For
"
CHAPTER XVI
REACTION MACHINES
147. In the usual treatment of synchronous machines and induction machines, the assumption is made that the reactance, While this is more or less x, of the machine is a constant. approximately the case in many alternators, in others, especially in machines of large armature reaction, the reactance, x, is variable, and is different in the different positions of the armature This variation of the reactance coils in" the magnetic circuit. causes phenomena which do not find their explanation by the theoretical calculations made under the assumption of constant
reactance.
It is known that synchronous motors or converters of large and variable reactance keep in synchronism, and are able to do a considerable amount of work, and even carry under circumstances full load, if the fieldexciting circuit is broken, and thereby the counter e.m.f., EI, reduced to zero, and sometimes even if the field circuit is reversed and the counter e.m.f.> EI, made
negative.
Inversely, under certain conditions of load, the current and the e.m.f. of a generator do not disappear if the generator field circuit is broken, or even reversed to a small negative value, in which latter case the current is against the e.m.f., Eo, of the
generator.
brought up to synchronism by external means and the remanent magnetism of the field poles destroyed beforehand by
application of an alternating current. These phenomena can not be explained under the assumption of a constant synchronous reactance; because in this case,
at nofield excitation, the e.m.f or counter e.m.f. of the 260
.
machine
REACTION MACHINES
is
261
zero,
of selfinduction; that
current
upon
itself.
If,
constant, the counter e.m.f. of selfinduction is in quadrature with the current and wattless; that is, can neither produce nor
consume energy.
In the synchronous motor running without field excitation, always a large lag of the current behind the impressed e.m.f.
exists;
without
of
and an alternatingcurrent generator will yield an e.m.f. field excitation only when closed by an external circuit large negative reactance; that is, a circuit in which the current
motor, etc.
148.
machine without field excitation is selfexcitation by reactive armature currents. In a synchronous motor a lagging, in a generator a leading armature current magnetizes the field, and in such a case, even without any directcurrent field excitation, there is a field excitation and thus a magnetic field flux, produced by the m.m.f. of the reactive component of the armature currents. In the polyphase machine, this is constant in intensity and direction, in the singlephase machine constant in direction, but pulsating in intensity, and the intensity pulsation can be reduced by a shortcircuit winding around the field structure, as more 77 fully discussed under "Synchronous Machines. Thus a machine as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 124, with a polyphase (threephase) current impressed on the rotating armature, A, and no winding on the field poles, starts, runs up to synchronous and does considerable work as synchronous motor, and under load may even give a fairly good (lagging) powerfactor. With a singlephase current impressed upon the armait does not start, but when brought up to synchronism, ture, A, continues to run as synchronous motor. Driven by mechanical
power, with a leading current load it is a generator. However, the operation of such machines depends on the existence of a polar field structure, that is a structure having a
field poles, P P, and a in reluctance thereto. high quadrature position Or, in other coil the the armature reactance with the field poles words, facing
is
high,
and low in the quadrature position thereto. In a structure with uniform magnetic reluctance, in which
262
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
therefore the armature reactance does not vary with the position of the armature in the field, as shown in Fig. 125, such selfexcitation
by
reactive armature currents does not occur, and always necessary (except in the
Figs. 124
relative
in quadrature to position of the magnetic flux, $, the voltage, E, I. In of the m.m.f. Fig. 125, where I and current, $, and the that in E are I and $ coincide, is, the power zero. quadrature,
Due
$ do
not coincide,
FIG. 124,
FIG. 125.
uniform reluctance.
thus I
not in quadrature to E, but contains a positive or a negative energy component, making the machine motor o"r
is is
.
produced by the current, I, it is an e.m.f synchronous machine by armature reaction can be explained by the fact that the counter e.m.f. of selfinduction is not wattless or in quadrature with the current, but contains an energy component; that is, = h jx, where x is the wattthat the reactance is of the form less component of reactance and h the energy component of reactance, and h is positive if the reactance consumes power in which case the counter e.m.f. of selfinduction lags more than 90 behind the current while h is negative if the reactance produces power in which case the counter e.m.f. of selfinduction lags less than 90 behind the current.
of selfinduction,
and
selfexcitation of the
149.
from a
" ternating Current it was shown, that magnetic hysteresis distorts the current wave in such a way that the equivalent sine wave,
case of this nature occurs in the effect of hysteresis, In "Theory and Calcuation of Al
REACTION MACHINES
that
263
is, the sine wave of equal effective strength and equal power with the distorted wave, is in advance of the wave of magnetism by what is called the angle of hysteretic advance of phase a. Since the e.m.f. generated by the magnetism, or counter e.m.f.
90 behind the magnetism, it lags 90 a beh'nd the current; that is, the selfinduction in a circuit containing iron is not in quadrature with the current and thereby wattless, but lags more than 90 and thereby consumes power, so h that the reactance has to be represented by jx where h is what has been called the "effective hysteretic resistance."
of selfinduction lags
similar
reactance, or,
is
phenomenon takes place in alternators of variable what is the same, variable magnetic reluctance.
Operation of synchronous machines without field excitation most conveniently treated by resolving the synchronous reactance, #o, in its two components, the armature reaction and the
true armature reactance, and once more resolving the armature reaction into a magnetizing and a distorting component, and
considering only the former, in its effect on the field. The true armature selfinductance then is usually assumed as constant. Or, both armature reactance and selfinductance,, are resolved into the two quadrature components, in line and in quadrature with the field poles, as shown in Chapters XXI and XXIV of
"AlternatingCurrent Phenomena," 5th edition. 150. However, while a machine comprising a stationary singlephase "field coil," A, and a shuttleshaped rotor, R, shown diagrammatically as bipolar in Fig. 126, might still be interpreted
in this matter, a machine as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 127, as fourpolar machine, hardly allows this interpretation.
it
In Fig. 127, during each complete revolution of the rotor, JJ, four times closes and opens the magnetic circuit of the singlephase alternating coil, A, and twice during the revolution, the magnetism in the rotor, R reverses. A machine, in which induction takes place by making and
}
breaking (opening and closing) of the magnetic circuit, or in general, by the periodic variation of the reluctance of the magnetic circuit, is called a reaction machine.
Typical forms of such reaction machines are shown diagrammatically in Figs. 126 and 127. Fig. 126 is a bipolar, Fig. 127 The rotor is shown in the position of is a fourpolar machine.
is
closed magnetic circuit, but the position of open magnetic circuit shown dotted.
264
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
same
Instead of cutting out segments of the rotor, in Fig. 126, the effect can be produced, with a cylindrical rotor, by a shortThis gives a periodic circuited turn, S, as shown in Fig. 128,
variation of the effective reluctance, from a minimum, shown in Fig. 128, to a maximum in the position shown in dotted lines in
Fig. 128. This latter structure
synchronousinduction motor/' Chapter VIII, which here appears as a special form of the reaction machine.
If
is
the socalled
'f
a direct current
is
Fie. 128. SynchronousFIG. 127. Fourpolar induction motor as reacreaction machine, tion machine,
^
By
rent in the
the one by a direct current, we get a converter, from direct curfirst, to alternating current in the second winding,
voltage in the second winding can not exceed the
The maximum
voltage, per turn, in the exciting winding, thus is very limited, and so is the current. Higher values are secured by inserting a
In this high inductance in series in the directcurrent winding. case, a single winding may be used and the alternatingcircuit
shunted across the machine terminals, inside of the inductance.
161. Obviously,
will
if
is
variable, it
perform a complete cycle during the time the armature coil moves from one field pole to the next field pole, that is, during
wave of the main current. That is, in other words, the reluctance and reactance vary with twice the frequency of the alternating main current. Such a case is shown in Figs. 129 and 130. The impressed e.mi., and thus at negligible
onehalf
resistance, the counter e.m.f,, is represented
by the
sine
wave,
REACTION MACHINES
ahead of E.
265
E, thus the magnetism produced thereby is a sine wave, <1>, 90 The reactance is represented by the sine wave, x,
A
\
\IL
FIG. 129.
Wave
\
\7
x
\
FIG. 130.
Wave
to reach the
varying with the double frequency of E, and shown in Fig. 129 maximum value during the rise of magnetism, in
266
Fig.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
130 during the decrease of magnetism. The current, /, required to produce the magnetism, <, is found from $ and x in combination with the cycle of molecular magnetic friction of the As seen in Fig. material, and the power, P, is the product, IE.
I?IG.
131.
that
P is larger than the negative part; the machine produces electrical energy as generator. In Fig. 130 the negative part of P is larger than the positive;
129, the positive part of
is,
7
*:
FIG. 132.
that is, the machine consumes electrical energy and produces mechanical energy as synchronous motor. In Figs. 131 and 132 are given the two hysteretic cycles or looped curves, $, I under the two conditions. They show that, due to the variation of
REACTION MACHINES
267
reactance, x, in the first case, the hysteretic cycle has been overturned so as to represent, not consumption, but production of electrical energy, while in the second case the hysteretic cycle has been widened, representing not only the electrical energy consumed by molecular magnetic friction, but also the mechanical output.
evident that the variation of reluctance must be symmetrical with regard to the field poles; that is, that the two extreme values of reluctance, maximum and minimum, will
152. It
is
take place at the moment when the armature of the field pole, and at the moment when between the field poles.
coil
it
stands in front
stands
midway
The
of the
of e.m.f., or of the wave of current, or of both. as before, the distorted wave can be replaced by the equivalent sine wave, or sine wave of equal effective intensity
wave
Here again,
The instantaneous value of magnetism produced by the armature current which magnetism generates in the armature conductor the e.m.f. of selfinduction is proportional to
the instantaneous value of the current divided by the instantaneous value of the reluctance. Since the extreme values of
the reluctance coincide with the symmetrical positions of the armature with regard to the field poles that is, with zero and
maximum
it
follows that,
value of the generated e.m.f., E Q of the r&achine if the current is in phase or in quadrature with
,
the generated e.m.f., E$, the reluctance wave is symmetrical to the current wave, and the wave of magnetism therefore symmetrical to the current
wave
also.
sine
wave
is,
phase with the current wave that the e.m.f. of selfinduction lags 90 behind the current, or is
of
magnetism
is
of equal
wattless.
Thus at nophase displacement, and at 90 phase displacement, a reaction machine can neither produce electrical power nor mechanical power. If, however, the current wave differs in phase from the wave of e.m.f. by less than 90, but more than zero degrees, it is unsymmetrical with regard to the reluctance wave, and the reluctance will be higher for rising current than for decreasing current, or it will be higher for decreasing than for rising current, according to the phase relation of current with regard to generated
e.m.f., EQ.
268
In the
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
first case, if
is higher for rising, lower for the magnetism, which is proportional to decreasing, current, current divided by reluctance, is higher for decreasing than for
the reluctance
sine wave lags behind the rising current; that is, its equivalent or selfinduction will lag e.m.f. the and sine wave of current,
more than 90
behind the current; that is, it will consume electrical power, and thereby deliver mechanical power, and do work as a synchronous motor. In the second case, if the reluctance is lower for rising, and
is higher for rising higher for decreasing, current, the magnetism the or than for decreasing current, equivalent sine wave of the of wave sine the leads current, and the counter magnetism than 90 behind the current; less e.m.f. of selfinduction lags
that
is,
yields electric
mechanical power. = h In the first case the reactance will be represented by the case in the second while of case the in hysteresis; jx, as h be will jx. reactance represented by 153. The influence of the periodical variation of reactance will obviously depend upon the nature of the variation, that is,
no upon the shape of the reactance curve. Since, however, matter what shape the wave has, it can always be resolved in a series of sine waves of double frequency, and its higher har
made monics, in first approximation the assumption can be that the reactance or the reluctance varies with double frequency of the main current; that is, is represented in the form:
x
+
I'
6 cos
ft
L = =
where 7
Let:
I Z
+
(1
cos 2
ft
7 cos 20);
maximum value
it
by
wave
i
V2sin
(8
ff).
REACTION MACHINES
The magnetism produced by
this current Is:
269
=
where n
Q n
6) (1
= number
of turns.
Hence, substituted:
sin
/&
(/5
+7
/
cos 2 0),
or,
expanded:
f
1
ft
cos 6 sin
(1
~
)
sin 9 cos
.
when neglecting the term of triple frequency as Thus the e.m.f. generated by this magnetism
wattless.
is:
hence, expanded:
e
2irfZI
V2
{
(l
I)
cos
cos
(l
+ )
sin 6 sin
and the
. :
E=
+
Q = IE =
cos 2
6.
T cos 20
is:
of
power
0)
cos
cos
270
and, expanded:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
p = 2*flP
sin 2
(l
+ I)
sin 2 6 sin 2
ft
(l
]
i
)
cos 2
(3
+ sin 2(3
2
2 B (cos \
 %}
Zi/
is:
p =
hence, negative, that
is,
7r/ZI
7 sin20;
produces mechanical, power, as synchronous motor, if 6 > 0, that is, with lagging current; positive, that is, the machine produces electrical, and consumes mechanical power, as generator,
if
>
0,
that
is,
The powerfactor
p
_=_
2
is
sin 2 B
a
Jl +
dp
cos 2 B
hence, a
maximum,
if:
or,
expanded:
cos 2 B
=
7
and
= ^ 2
if:
The power, P,
that
is:
is
maximum
sin
at given current, I,
1;
20 =
e
= 45;
sin
is:
2e
+
hence, a
\ 7COS20J
maximum
at:
or,
expanded:
cos 2 e
+ 7 L = ~^~
t
REACTION MACHINES
154.
We
e.m.f.,
resistance,
of reactance:
TT/L
Current:
T
=
x
1
E
\J
7 cos 2
Voltamperes
Q =
X A/1
/
+7
E
12
j
7 COS 2
Power:
_
Powerfactor
7

sin 2
7 cos 2
0)
fw r , cos (E 1)
9
=
2
1
7 sin 2
+
2
7 cos 2
Maximum power
at:
cos 2
=
1
+
7 = ^*
2
Maximum
powerfactor at:
cos
20 =
and
> <
as abscissae, As an example is shown in Fig. 133, with angle the values of current, power, and powerfactor, for the constants,
E =
110,
3,
and 7
0.8.
V 1.45
1.45
cos
cos 2
~ 2017
sin
cos 2
,(JSf,
I)
n =
0.447 sin
20
Vl45 
cos 2
272
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
of such a machine Fig. 133, the powerfactor, p, instance. this in cent, 40 exceed not does per is very low in machine reaction the to principle and character Very similar induction motor, Chapter IX, the are of operation synchronous of which is a geneither and the hysteresis motor, Chapter X, at and synchronism can be motor as erator above synchronism,
As seen from
133.
well as generator, depending on the relative position stator field and rotor.
156*
between
powerfactor and the low weight efficiency bar the reaction machine from extended use for large powers. So
The low
waveshape distortion produced by it, and it thus has found a very limited use only in small sizes. It has, however, the advantage of a high degree of exactness in keeping in step, that is, it does not merely keep in synchronism drifts more or less over a phase angle with respect to the
also does the severe
REACTION MACHINES
273
impressed voltage, but the relative position of the rotor with regards to the phase of the impressed voltage is more accurately maintained. Where this feature is of importance, as in driving a contactmaker, a phase indicator or a rectifying commutator,
of fluctuating frequency,
the reaction machine has an advantage, especially in a system and it is used to some extent for such
purposes. This feature of exact step relation is shared also, though to a lesser extent, by the synchronous motor with selfexcitation
by lagging
but without
currents, and ordinarily small synchronous motors, field excitation (or with great underexcitation or
overexcitation) are often used for the same purpose. Machines having more or less the characteristics of the reaction
in the
very early days, for generating constant alternating current for series arc lighting by Jablochkoff candles, in the 70 s and early
80's.
machine
is
machine, but the essential difference is, that the former operates by making and breaking the magnetic circuit, that is, periodically changing the magnetic flux, while the inductor machine operates
by commutating the magnetic flux, that is, periodically changing the flux path, but without varying the total value of the magnetic
flux.
CHAPTER XVII
INDUCTOR MACHINES
INDUCTOR ALTEKNATORS, ETC.
156. Synchronous
field
machines
may
Fig.
135,
and revolving armature, as shown diagrammatically in 134, or with revolving field and stationary armature, Fig. or with stationary field and stationary armature, but
in the
early days, but has practically gone out of use except for special
FIG, 134.
Revolving armature
alternator
FIG.
135.
Revolving
ternator.
field
al
purposes, and for synchronous commutating machines, as the revolvingarmature type of structure is almost exclusively used The revolvingfield type is now for commutating machines. almost exclusively used, as the standard construction of alterThe inductor type had been nators, synchronous motors, etc. used to a considerable extent, and had a high reputation in the
Stanley alternator. It has practically gone out of use for standard frequencies, due to its lower economy in the use of materials, but has remained a very important type of construction, as it is especially adapted for high frequencies and other special conditions, and in this field, its use is rapidly increasing. A typical inductor alternator is shown in Fig. 136, as eightpolar quarterphase machine.
274
INDUCTOR MACHINES
Its
275
armature coils, A, are stationary. One stationary field coil, F, surrounds the magnetic circuit of the machine, which consists of two sections, the stationary external one, B, which contains the armature, A, and a movable one, C, which contains the inductor, N. The inductor contains as many polar projec
The magnetic flux tions, N, as there are cycles or pairs of poles. in the air gap and inductor does not reverse or alternate, as in
in
the revolvingfield type of alternator, Fig. 135, but is constant direction, that is, all the inductor teeth are of the same
polarity,
mum,
but the flux density varies or pulsates, between a maxiBi, in front of the inductor teeth, and a minimum, J3 2
,
though in the same direction, in front of the inductor slots. The magnetic flux, <, which interlinks with the armature coils, does not alternate between two equal and opposite values, + $0 and
FIG. 136.
Inductor alternator.
$o, as in Fig.
$1,
when an inductor tooth stands in front of the armature coil, and a low value in the same direction, $ 2 when the armature
coil faces
an inductor
slot.
brought about by shifting the magnetic flux produced by a stationary field coil, or by what may be called magneto commuis
tation,
by means
of the inductor.
The
flux variation,
turns of the inductor alternator, thus is $1 $2, while that in the revolvingfield or revolvingarmature type of alternator is
The
is:
(1)
276
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
:
where
= number of $ = maximum
n
e
magnetic
flux,
alternating
$2 taking the place of 2 $ , in the inductor alternator, 3>i the equation of voltage induction thus is
:
As
in
seen, $1
as large as
that
is,
an inductor
interlinked
with the armature coil must be more than twice as large as in the standard type of alternator. In modern machine design, with the efficient methods of cooling
now available, economy of materials and usually also effinear saturaciency make it necessary to run the flux density up to
tion at the narrowest part of the magnetic circuit which usually Tims the flux, $0, is limited merely by is the armature tooth.
would be magnetic saturation, and in the inductor alternator, $i, limited to nearly the same value as, $o, in the standard machine,
l
~^
2
an(j
i
That is, the output permissible value of $ alternator armature is only about onehalf that of the standard This is obvious, as we would double the alternator armature.
of pulsatvoltage of the inductor alternator armature, if instead alternate would we or and between $2 <3?i zero, approximately ing
of the inductor
between $1 and
$1.
the other hand, the single fieldcoil construction gives a material advantage in the material economy of the field, and in machines having very many field poles, that is, highfrequency
On
alternators, the economy in the field construction overbalances the lesser economy in the use of the armature, especially as at high frequencies it is not feasible any more to push the alter
nating
flux, $o,
up
highfrequency the economically superior types, and is preferred, and for extremely high frequencies (20,000 to 100,000 cycles) the inductor alternator becomes the only feasible type, mechanically. 158. In the calculation of the magnetic circuit of the inductor
generators,
the
inductor
INDUCTOR MACHINES
alternator,
if
277
is
armature
equation
coil,
as derived
the amplitude of flux pulsation through the from the required induced voltage by
(1), let:
p = number
number
pi
the eightpolar machine, Fig. 136). magnetic reluctance of air gap in front of the inductor tooth, which should
p2
be as low as possible, magnetic reluctance of leakage path through inductor slot into the armature coil, which should be as high as
possible,
^^
and
it
*,
.*!.,. I;
Pi P2
(3 )
as:
$1
follows:
$2
==
2 $o?
(4)
$ = 2 *
P.
P2
PI
(5)
Pi
P2
Pi
and the
all
total flux through the magnetic circuit, C, and out from the p inductor teeth and slots thus is:
P2
PI
+ P2
:
2 PI
Pi
}
J
fK \ (6)
In the corresponding standard alternator, with 2 p total flux entering the armature is
poles, the
the reluctance of the air gap between field pole and p z the leakage reluctance between the field poles, the ratio of the leakage flux between the field poles, $', to the
and
if pi is
armature
armature
face,
flux,
is:
$0 *
hence:
$ =
.../
xx
:
/T\ \l)
Pi
P2
/0\ (&)
$'
ML/
$0
=L
Pi
f
P2
278
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
flux in the field pole, thus, is:
and the
+ 2 $' =
of the
P2
machine, of 2 p poles:
.
(9)
P2
As
little
in (6), pi
is
2 PI
,
in (6) differs
Pi
P2
from
P2
In (9)
That
is
As regards to the total magnetic flux required for the induction of the same voltage in the same armature, no material difference exists between the inductor machine and the standard machine; but in the armature teeth the inductor machine requires more than twice the maximum magnetic
flux of the
standard
FIG. 137.
alternator,
of
and thereby is at a disadvantage where the limit magnetic density in the armature is set only by magnetic
saturation.
As regards to the hysteresis loss in the armature of the inductor alternator, the magnetic cycle is an unsymmetrical cycle, between two values of the same direction, BI and B%, and the loss therefore is materially greater than it would be with a
symmetrical cycle of the same amplitude.
It is given
by:
w =
where
:
770
n [1
+ P B\.
INDUCTOR MACHINES
279
Eegarding hereto see "Theory and Calculation of Electric Circuits," under "Magnetic Constants."
However, as by the saturation limit, the amplitude of the magnetic pulsation in the inductor machine may have to be kept very much lower than in the standard type, the core loss of the machine may be no larger, or may even be smaller than
that of the standard type, in spite of the higher hysteresis
coefficient,
070.
159.
The inductormachine
type. Fig.
136,
must have an
FIG. 138.
auxiliary air gap in the magnetic circuit, separating the revolving from the stationary part, as shown at S.
It, therefore, is
preferable
1.0
by using two armatures and inductors, with the field coil between them, as shown in Fig. 137. This type of alternator has been
extensively built, as the Stanley alternator, mainly for 60 cycles, and has been a very good and successful machine, but has been superseded by the revolvingfield type, due to the smaller size
and
N and 8 as constructed of a
number of large wroughtiron bolts, while Fig. 136 shows the return as a solid cast shell.
280
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
modification of this type of inductor machine is the Alexanderson inductor alternator, shown in Fig. 138, which is being
built for frequencies up to 200,000 cycles per second for use in wireless telegraphy and telephony.
and over,
The inductor disc, I, contains many hundred inductor teeth, and revolves at many thousands of revolutions between the two armatures, A as shown in the enlarged section, S. It is surrounded by the field coil, F, and outside thereof the magnetic The armature winding is a singleturn wave winding return, B. threaded through the armature faces, as shown in section S and
}
It is obvious that in the armature special iron face view, Q. of extreme thinness of lamination has to be used, and the rotat
ing inductor, I, built to stand the enormous centrifugal stresses must realize that even with of the great peripheral speed.
We
an armature pitch
per pole,
of less
than
we
second peripheral speeds approaching bullet velocities, over 1000 miles per For the lower frequencies of hour.
long distance
radio
communication,
20,000 to 30,000 cycles, such machines have been built for large
powers.
160. Fig.
meyer type
In
this,
the
is
not con
teeth not
Eickemeyer
all
of
seen in Fig. 139, surrounds the inductor, /, longitudinally, and with the magnetic return B thus gives a bipolar magnetic Half the inductor teeth, the one side of the inductor, thus field. are of the one, the other half of the other polarity, and the armature coils, A, are located in the (laminated) pole faces of the
ductor alternator.
field coil, as
the
bipolar magnetic structure. Obviously, in larger machines, a multipolar structure could be used instead of the bipolar of Fig. 139. This type has the advantage of a simpler magnetic structure, and the further advantage, that all the magnetic flux passes at right angles to the shaft, just as in the revolving field
or revolving armature alternator.
137, magnetic flux passes,
and the
INDUCTOR MACHINES
281
longitudinally to the shaft, and thus magnetic stray flux tends to pass along the shaft, closing through bearings and supports, and causing heating of bearings. Therefore, in the types 136
and
that
137, magnetic barrier coils have been used where needed, is, coils concentric to the shaft, that is, parallel to the field
coil, and outside of the inductor, that is, between inductor and These bearings, energized in opposite direction to the field coils. coils then act as countermagnetizing coils in keeping magnetic
machine bearings.
is
The
moderate
fre
A modificaquencies, a few hundreds to thousands of cycles. tion of it, adopted as converter, is used to a considerable extent
:
the inductor,
supplied with a bipolar winding connected to a commutator, and the machine therefore is a bipolar commutating machine in addition to a highfrequency inductor alternator It thus may be operated as converter, (16polar in Fig. 139).
I, is
receiving power
by directcurrent supply, as directcurrent motor, and producing highfrequency alternating power in the inductor
poleface winding. 161. If the inductor alternator, Fig. 139, instead of with direct current, is excited with lowfrequency alternating current, that
FIG. 140.
is, an alternating current passed through the field coil, F of a frequency low compared with that generated by the machine as inductor alternator, then the highfrequency current generated by the machine as inductor alternator is not of constant amplitude, but of a periodically varying amplitude, as shown in Fig. 140. For instance, with 60cycle excitation, a 64polar inductor (that is, inductor with 32 teeth), and a speed of 1800 revolutions, we get & frequency of approximately 1000 cycles, and a voltage and current wave about as shown in Fig. 140.
3
required for excitation obviously is small compared with the power which the machine can generate. Suppose, therefore, that the highfrequency voltage of Fig. 140 were
rectified.
The power
It
would then
give" a voltage
and
current, pulsating
282
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
with the frequency of the exciting current, but of a power, as many times greater, as the machine output is greater than the
exciting power.
shown
and 138.
Suppose now the exciting current is a telephone with phone current, the rectified generated current then pulsates is a machine the and the of the frequencies telephone current,
telephonic amplifier.
in Fig. 138, Thus, by exciting the highfrequency alternator of an a we current, highfrequency get by a telephone current, but ofthe many with current, telephone amplitude, pulsating than the original telephone current. This times
micro
greater power
suitable for radio highfrequency current, being of the frequency wireless the antennae, into is sent now sending communication,
As seen, communications' rectified, gives wireless telephonic the power, which hereby is sent out from the wireless antennae,
is
not the insignificant power of the telephone current, but is the with telephonic highfrequency power generated by the alternator thus longbe permitting and kilowatts, many may excitation,
distance radio telephony. It is obvious, that the high inductance of the field coil, F , of to force a telethe Fig. 138, would make it impossible
machine,
phone current through it, but the telephonic exciting current would be sent through the armature winding, which is of very low inductance, and by the use of the capacity the armature
selfexciting by leading current. Instead of sending the highfrequency machine current, which radio pulsates in amplitude with telephonic frequency, through transmission and rectifying the receiving current, we can rectify a current directly the generated machine current and so get pulsating with the telephonic frequency, that is, get a greatly
made
lowfrequency alternatingcurrent excitation, giving a voltage wave shown in Fig. 140, we use several alternators excited by
INDUCTOR MACHINES
is
283
phase field, as in Fig. 139, we use a polyphase exciting field. This shown, with three exciting coils or poles energized by threephase currents, in Fig. 14 L The highfrequency voltages of pulsating amplitude, induced by the three phases, then superpose a highfrequency wave of constant amplitude, and
we
get,
Instead of using definite polar projection for the threephase bipolar exciting winding, as shown in Fig. 141, we could use a distributed winding, like that in an induction motor, placed in
the same slots as the inductoralternator armature winding.
By
FIG. 141.
placing a bipolar shortcircuited winding on the inductor, the threephase exciting winding of the highfrequency (24polar)
becomes a bipolar inductionmotor primary winding, supplying the power driving the machine. That is, the machine is a combination of a bipolar induction motor and a 24polar inductor alternator, or a frequency
converter.
Instead of having a separate highfrequency inductoralternator armature winding, and lowfrequency induction motor winding, we can use the same winding for both purposes, as
shown diagrammatically
winding, Fig.
142,
The stator in Figs. 142 and 143. bipolar, or fourpolar 60cycle, is a low
frequency winding, for instance, has one slot per inductor pole, that is, twice as many slots as the inductor has teeth. Successive turns then differ from each other by 180 in phase, for the highin frequency inductor voltage. Thus grouping the winding
284
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
sections, 1 and 3, and 2 and 4, the highfrequency voltages Conin the two sections are opposite in phase from each other. in and 4 2 and and 1 in shown as series, Fig. 143, necting, then,
two
3 in series into the two phases of the quarterphase supply circuit, no highfrequency induction exists in either phase, but the
highfrequency voltage
is
FIG. 142.
of the two phases, as shown in Fig. 143, and we thus get another form of a frequency converter, changing from lowfrequency
FREQUENCY
(420)
FIG. 143.
Diagram
163*
small machines
shown in Fig.
dynamos for gasoline engines is The field, F, and the shuttleshaped armature,
and
armature, and so alternately sends the magnetic field flux through the armature, first in one, then in the opposite direction. As
seen, in this type, the magnetic flux in the
by what may be
INDUCTOR MACHINES
small machines the
field excitation is
285
by permanent magnets.
This principle of magnetic commutation, that
of reversing
FIG. 144.
by a stationary coil, in another " stationary coil by means of a moving magneto commutator" or inductor, has been extensively used in singlephase feeder
FIG. 145.
regulator.
7
It is illustrated regulators, the socalled "magneto regulators.' in Fig. 145. is the primary coil (shunt coil connected across
S
is
the secondary
coil
(connected
which
shown
mag
286
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
netic flux produced by the primary coil, through the secondary in which it would coil, in the direction opposite to the direction, send the magnetic flux through the secondary coil when in the
position
I',
shown
in dotted lines.
inductor, I,
that is, withcoil, without passing it through the secondary coil, out inducing voltage in the secondary. Thus by moving the shuttle or inductor, I, from position I over the vertical position to the position I', the voltage induced in the secondary coil, S.
is
varied from
maximum
maximum
lowering. 164. Fig. 146 shows a type of machine, which has been and still is used to some extent, for alternators as well as for direct
PIG. 146.
current commutating machines, and which may be called an inductor machine, or at least has considerable similarity with the inductor type. It is shown in Fig. 146 as sixpolar machine, with internal field and external armature, but can easily be built
with internal armature and external field. The field contains one field coil,F, concentric to the shaft. The poles overhang the field coils, and all poles of one polarity, N, come from the one
side, all poles of the other polarity
coil.
The magnetic
interlock axially, as seen in Fig. 146. The disadvantage of this type of field construction is the high flux leakage between the field poles, which tends to impair the
regulation in alternators, and makes commutation more difficult for directcurrent machines. It offers, however, the advantage
INDUCTOR MACHINES
of simplicity
287
in machines of small
and
moderate
size, of
many
very low
speed synchronous motors, etc. 165. In its structural appearance, inductor machines often have a considerable similarity with reaction machines. The
characteristic difference
is,
that in the reaction machine voltage is induced by the pulsation of the magnetic flux by pulsating reluctance of the magnetic
The magnetic pulsation in the reaction circuit of the machine. machine thus extends throughout the entire magnetic circuit of the machine, and if directcurrent excitation were used, the voltage would be induced in the exciting circuit also. In the
inductor machine, however, the total magnetic flux does not pulsate, but is constant, and no voltage is induced in the directcurrent exciting circuit. Induction is produced in the armature by shifting the constant magnetic flux locally from armature
armature coiL The important problem of inductor and in general of the design^ of magneto commutation apparatus is to have the shifting of the magnetic flux from path to path so that the total reluctance and thus the total magnetic flux does not vary, otherwise excessive eddycurrent losses would result in the magnetic structure.
coil
to
alternator design
It is interesting to note, that the number of inductor teeth is An inductor with p projections onehalf the number of poles.
thus gives twice as many cycles per revolution, thus as synchronous motor would run at half the speed of a standard synchronous machine of p poles.
As the result hereof, in starting polyphase synchronous machines by impressing polyphase voltage on the armature and using the hysteresis and the induced currents in the field poles, for producing the torque of starting and acceleration, there
frequently appears at half synchronism a tendency to drop into step with the field structure as inductor. This results in an
increased torque
when approaching, and a reduced torque when passing beyond half synchronism, thus produces a drop in the torque curve and is liable to produce difficulty in passing beyond
In extreme
cases, it
may
result
even in
a negative torque when passing half synchronism, and make the machine nonselfstarting, or at least require a considerable
increase of voltage to get required to start from rest.
beyond
CHAPTER
XVIII
166. In the theory of the synchronous motor the assumption made that the mechanical output of the motor equals the power This is the case only if the motor runs at it.
If,
however, it accelerates, the power input is than the power output, by the power greater Obviously, the stored in and returned by the momentum. nor decelerate, without motor can neither constantly accelerate breaking out of synchronism. at a certain moment the power produced by If, for instance, of the motor exceeds the mechanical load (as in the moment
if it
decelerates, less
is consumed by throwing off a part of the load), the excess power of speed. increase an the momentum as acceleration, causing counter the of e.m.f., e, the that is phase The result thereof earlier to backward moves time, its but is not constant, vector, e, or counterclockwise, at a rate depending upon the momentum. Thereby the current changes and the power developed changes and decreases. As soon as the power produced equals the load, the acceleration ceases, but the vector, e, still being in motion, due to the increased speed, further reduces the power, causing a retardation and thereby a decrease of speed, at a rate dependa ing upon the mechanical momentum. In this manner periodic and e and e between Q correspondvariation of the phase relation and ing variation of speed and current occurs, of an amplitude mechanical the and conditions circuit the period depending upon
,
momentum.
the amplitude of this pulsation has a positive decrement, decreasing, the motor assumes after a while a constant e regarding e Q} that is, its speed becomes uniform. of position
If
that
is, is
If,
is
negative,
an
infinitely small pulsation will continuously increase in amplitude, until the motor is thrown out of step, or the decrement becomes
zero,
as antisurging devices, or
by the power consumed by forces opposing the pulsation, by the periodic pulsation of the synetc.
chronous reactance,
If the
decrement
is
zero, a pulsation
288
289
started once will continue indefinitely at constant amplitude. This phenomenon, a surging by what may be called electro
mechanical resonance, must be taken into consideration in a complete theory of the synchronous motor.
167. Let:
EQ
E =
e (cos
impressed e.m.f. assumed as zero vector. = e.m.f. consumed by counter e.m.f. 13 j sin ft)
:
of motor,
where
ft
and E.
Let:
of circuit
between
EQ and E, and
tan a
=
r
The current
y
in the
eo
system
e cos
ft
is:
_ ~
E ^ ~ ~~z~
=
+ je sin
e
/3
TTT^
z
{[e
cos
cos (a
[0
+
a
ft)]
sin
6 sin
(a
+
is:
ft)]}
(1)
[El]
{[cos
ft
[e
cos
ft
e cos
(a
ft)]
+ sin
[e Q
sin
/?
e sin (a
/?)]
=
If,
{[e s
cos
(a.
j8)
cos a]}.
f2)
now, a pulsation
of the
e.m.f., e Q (the latter being of constant frequency, thus constant phase), by an angle, 5, where 5 is a periodic function of time, of a frequency very low compared with the impressed frequency, then the phase angle of the counter e.m.f.,
e, is ft
5;
e.m.f. is:
E =
19
e {cos GS
 j sin
(ft
S)},
290
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
{[e Q
cos
a a
[e Q
sin
the power
P =
[e
cos (a
5)
cos a}
(4)
Let now:
vQ
= mean = =
slip,
velocity
(linear,
at radius of gyration)
of
syns is
chronous machine;
s
where
a
v
hence
t.
v Q (1
s)
During the time element, cB, the position motor armature regarding the impressed e.m.f.,
the phase angle,
/?
of the
e
,
5,
of
e,
changes by:
(5)
where:
=
and
7T/,
/
Let:
60.
m =
jf
mass
of revolving
2
^
t;
mt;o
= mean
s) is:
joules
momentum
at time,
t,
and
velocity
VQ (1
of
momentum
dt, is:
dM
291
dM __ = _
.ds d6
mz;o2
__
Since:
de_ ~
dt
^
i
and from
(5)
as
dS
d*5
ds
Te
it is:
dip
47r/Mo
(7)
Since, as discussed, the change of momentum equals the difference between produced and consumed power, the excess of power being converted into momentum, it is
:
(8)
\JJU
and rearranging
/72
sin
5 ju
sin
( \
ft
) f.)}
0.
(9)
Assuming
oscillations, it is:
.55
a
:
sin
sin (a
/3)
and, substituting:
ee S^ n (^ ~" 0)
("ilN
it is:
^+
^=
0
12 )
292
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is
integrated by:
= At 06
(13)
168.
1.
(
.
If a
<0,
itis:
5
where:
+w is Since in this case, continually increasing, the synchronous motor is unstable. That is, without oscillation, the
synchronous motor drops out of step, 2. If a > 0, it is, denoting:
if
>
a.
Wo sin (a + Va = + ^26,
+jn9
or,
substituting for
5
and
+jnff
(Ai
+A
2)
cos n^
+ j (Ai
2)
sin
n9
or,
5
= B
cos (n^
+ 7).
(15)
That
initial
is,
oscillating with
the synchronous motor is in stable equilibrium, when a constant amplitude B, depending upon the
conditions of oscillation,
and a
period,
frequency of oscillation:
,
/0
nf
Ifeeo
sin (a
V
4 j ohms,
or, z
As
e
instance, let:
1
4.12;
= 76.
in.,
synchronous motor, have the radius of gyration of 20 a weight of the revolving part of 6000 Ib. The momentum then is M" = 850,000 joules.
field,
/?,
293
P =
e
0:
1600 volts;
ft
=  2;/ *
2180 volts
2800 volts
+3
+
ft
P = e =
= 33;/ =
21
22
does not vary much with seen, the frequency of oscillation It slightly decreases with the load and with the excitation. increase of load, and it increases with increase of excitation. In this instance, only the momentum of the motor has been
As
assuming the armature equal to momentum of the directcurrentgenerator 60 per cent, of the momentum of the synchronous motor, the
In a directconnected motorgenerator
set,
total
momentum
is
P =
e
0,
1.72 cycles, or 103 periods per minute. 1.98 cycles, or 119 periods per minute. 1.23 cycles, or 134 periods per minute.
169. In the preceding discussion of the surging of synchronous mechanical machines, the assumption has been made that the
no damping power consumed by the load is constant, and that used. or antisurging devices were
with the speed, approximately the motor directly drives mechanical apparatus, as directpumps, etc., and at a higher power of the speed if driving current generators, or as synchronous converter, especially
294
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Assumin parallel with other directcurrent generators. the mechanical consumed in case the power general by ing, then, the load to vary, within the narrow range of speed variation con
when
sidered during the oscillation, at the pth power of the speed, in the preceding equation instead of Po is to be substituted,
the conductivity of the eddycurrent circuit and the intensity c 2 is the power which of the magnetic field of the machine, would be required to drive the magnetic field of the motor
through the
if
circuits of the antisurging device at full frequency, the same relative proportions could be retained at full frequency as at the frequency of slip, s. That is, PI is the power
produced by the motor as induction machine at slip s. Instead of P, the power generated by the motor, in the preceding equations the value,
The equation
(8)
toor:
= ~> 
(P
Po)
(4)
:
(Px
+ pPos)
~>
(17)
and
2e 8insm[a/3]+(c
and, for small values of 5:
+ pP )U + 4^Jfo^0;
fl
(18)
>
b represents
by the pulsation
of
295
the
same term
as in
paragraph 167.
is
integrated by:
C
,
= A
(21)
aAe ce
bCAe ce
a
C*Ae ce
2 bC
= 0, + C = 0,
2
= 6 + VP^, C 2 = 6  \A  a.
Ci
2
(22)
is
1.
If
<
0,
or negative, that
is
>
a,
Ci
positive
and C 2
negative, and the term with Ci is continuously increasing, that is, the synchronous motor is unstable, and, without oscillation,
out of step. < a < 6 2 or a positive, and 6 2 larger than a (that is, the energyconsuming term very large), Ci and C 2 are both 2 a = g, it is \/b negative, and, by substituting,
drifts
2.
If
Ci= hence
:
(60),
<**>
^=
z
(&
jf);
= A ieany
+ A e~V + W'
to
its
(23)
That
is,
down
mean
position logarith
mically, or without
oscillation.
62
>a/
6<?o
hence:
_ (^_PP^
sin (a
j8)
167T/M
is
seen, the left side of (24) contains only mechanical, the side right only electrical terms.
3.
As
>
6 2.
In this case,
vV
is
g
it is:
Va  6
2
,
= 6+jflr, = 6  jg, C2
Ci
296
hence:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
= #6~ 6 'cos(0(9
/o
+ 7).
(25)
That
is,
down with an
oscillation of period:
flf
/ /ego sin (a
0)
(c
pPo)
\
and decrement or attenuation constant:
170. It follows, however, that under the conditions considered, a cumulative surging, or an oscillation with continuously increasing amplitude, can not occur, but that a synchronous motor, when displaced in phase from its mean position, returns thereto either aperiodically, if 5 2 > a, or with an oscillation of vanishing 2 amplitude, if 6 < a. At the worst, it may oscillate with constant
amplitude,
if
0.
if
in the differ
the coefficient, 6, is negative. Since c 2 representing the induction motor torque of the
,
damp
ing device, etc., is positive, and pPo is also positive (p being the exponent of power variation with speed), this presupposes A2 the existence of a third and negative term, 5 TJT~, in b: O TTjlVl o
*i&^.
8 TTjM
(29)
P = A s;
2 2
(30)
that is, a retarding torque during slow speed, or increasing ft and accelerating torque during high speed, or decreasing ft. The source of this torque may be found external to the motor,
or internal, in its magnetic circuit.
297
may
generator, driven magnetic of speed, this field decrease With motor. the synchronous by increases decreases, due to the decrease of generated voltage, and with increase of speed. This change of field strength, however, and thus speed, that is, during lags behind the exciting voltage decrease of speed the output is greater than during increase of
speed.
If this
directcurrent generator
is
synchronous motor, the effect may be intensified. The change of power input into the synchronous motor, with change of speed, may cause the governor to act on the prime mover driving the generator, which supplies power to the motor,
of the governor behind the change of output gives a which acts like frequency, of e
,
pulsation of impressed voltage, negative power, caused by the pulsation of jS, may give rise to a negative,
.
P2
The
2,
also.
of the
P 2 is found in the lag synchronous motor field behind the resultant m.m.f. In the preceding discussion, e is the "nominal generated e.m.f." of the synchronous machine, corresponding to the field excitaThe actual magnetic flux of the machine, however, does tion. not correspond to e and thus to the field excitation, but corresponds to the resultant m.m.f. of field excitation and armature
An
internal cause of a negative term,
,
reaction,
which
/3.
Hence, while e is constant, the magnetic flux is not constant, but pulsates with the oscillations of the machine. This pulsation of the magnetic flux lags behind the pulsation of m.m.f., and thereby gives rise to a term in 6 in equation (28). If Po, ft e, e Qj Z are such that a retardation of the motor increases the magnetizing, or decreases the demagnetizing force of the a negative terin, P 2 appears, otherwise a armature
oscillation of
cycle
of the
'
machine at full frequency, assuming the cycle at full frequency as the same as at frequency of slip, s. Or inversely, e may be said to pulsate, due to the pulsation of armature reaction, with the same frequency as 0, but with a of the phase, which may either be lagging or leading. Lagging
*
a positive, Pz. ^ pulsation of e causes a negative, leading 'to the pulsation of e dueP 2 therefore, represents the power
,
298
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
caused by the pulsation of the armature reaction, as discussed in " Theory and Calculation of AlternatingCurrent Phenomena." Any appliance increasing the area of the magnetic cycle of pulsation, as shortcircuits around the field poles, therefore,
increases the steadiness of a steady
In selfexciting synchronous converters, the pulsation of e is intensified by the pulsation of directcurrent voltage caused
thereby, and hence of excitation. Introducing now the term, F 2
h*s,
<
0, or
negative, that
is
/2 _L fnT> c
P^Q
^,4?
Tl/T
/)2
lL
<
o.
(31) ^
'
Hence, denoting:
*
__,
_ W=
<?
pPo_
gives:
4. If:
2
Z>i
> a, = A
l
(b >
+"
+ A26 + ^=
\Ai 2 
a,
e
.
(33)
That
is,
unstable equilibrium.
5.
If:
a
d
>
= 5e + M cos(g0
6i
2
,
\/a*
5).
bf,
(34)
That
is,
the motor oscillates, with constantly increasing amThis is the typical case of
cumulative surging by electromechanical resonance. The problem of surging of synchronous machines, and its elimination, thus resolves into the investigation of the coefficient
:
pP,
2
'
8^/Mo
while the frequency of surging, where such exists,
/0
(35)
is
~ /
sin (a
g)
2
given by:
(c
+ pP 
Case
(4),
observed.
The avoidance
299
An elimination
of the
term
c
ft
2
,
2. 3.
term,
2
,
or
term, pPo.
(1) refers to the design of the synchronous machine and the system on which it operates. (2) leads to the use of electromagnetic antisurging devices, as an induction motor winding in the field poles, shortcircuits between the poles, or around the poles, and (3) leads to flexible connection to a load or a momentum, as flexible connection with a flywheel, or belt drive of
the load.
The
+ 2?P ft )
ft
>
0,
and
if:
2
(c
+
all
pP Q 
;>
ee Q sin (a
0)
3
no oscillation at
ing amplitude.
occurs, otherwise
an
oscillation
with decreas
As seen, cumulative oscillation, that is, hunting or surging, can occur only, if there is a source of power supply converting into lowfrequency pulsating power, and the mechanism of conversion is a lag of some effect in the magnetic field of the machine, or external which causes the forces restoring the machine into step, to be greater than the forces which oppose the deviation from the position in step corresponding to the load. For further discussion of the phenomenon of cumulative surging, and of cumulative oscillations in general, see Chapter XI of
of Electric Circuits."
CHAPTER XIX
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS IN GENERAL
the polyphase and starting point of the theory of the is general alternatingsinglephase induction motor usually current transformer. Coming, however, to the commutator
171.
The
more general method preferable. In its general form the alternatingcurrent motor consists of one or more stationary electric circuits magnetically related to one or more rotating electric circuits. These circuits can be excited by alternating currents, or some by alternating, others by direct current, or closed upon themselves, etc., and connection can be
rings
made
that
is,
is,
to the rotating member either by collector to fixed points of the windings or by commutator
that
into two alternatingcurrent motors can be subdivided those in which the electric and magnetic relations between stationary and moving members do not vary with their relative positions, and those in which they vary with the relative In the latter a cycle of rotation positions of stator and rotor. and therefrom the tendency of the motor results to lock at
The
classes
exists,
a speed giving a definite ratio between the frequency of rotation and the frequency of impressed e.m.f. Such motors, therefore,
are synchronous motors.
with supplied with alternating and the other direct current polyphase or singlephase synchronous motors. 2. One member excited by alternating current, the other coninduction taining a single circuit closed upon itself synchronous motors. 3. One member excited by alternating current, the other of
different
of
(as polar
construction)
4. One member excited by alternating current, the other by alternating current of different frequency or different direction of rotation general alternatingcurrent transformer or frequency converter and synchronousinduction generator. 300
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
(1) is
301
the synchronous motor of the electrical industry. (2) are used occasionally to produce synchronous rotation (3) without directcurrent excitation, and of very great steadiness of the rate of rotation, where weight efficiency and power
and
factor are of secondary importance. (4) is used to some extent as frequency converter or alternatingcurrent generator.
(2) and (3) are occasionally observed in induction machines, and in the starting of synchronous motors, as a tendency to lock at some intermediate, occasionally low, speed. That, is, in starting, the motor does not accelerate up to full speed, but the acceleration stops at some intermediate speed, frequently half speed, and to carry the motor beyond this speed, the impressed voltage may have to be raised or even external power The appearance of such "dead points" in the speed applied. curve is due to a mechanical defect as eccentricity of the rotor or faulty electrical design: an improper distribution of primary and secondary windings causes a periodic variation of the mutual inductive reactance and so of the effective primary inductive reactance, (2) or the use of sharply defined and improperly arranged teeth in both elements causes a periodic magnetic lock (opening and closing of the magnetic circuit, (3) and so a tendency to synchronize at the speed corresponding to
this cycle.
Synchronous machines have been discussed elsewhere. Here be considered only that type of motor in which the electric and magnetic relations between the stator and rotor do not vary with their relative positions, and the torque is, therefore, notThis requires that the limited to a definite synchronous speed. rotor when connected to the outside circuit be connected through a commutator, and when closed upon itself, several closed circuits exist, displaced in position from each other so as to offer a
shall
any
direction.
:
The main types of these motors are 1. One member supplied with polyphase
or singlephase alter
nating voltage, the other containing several circuits closed upon themselves polyphase and singlephase induction machines.
2. One member supplied with polyphase or singlephase alternating voltage, the other connected by a commutator to an compensated induction motors, commutator alternating voltage
directly
302
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
or inductively, in series with each other, to an alternating^ volcharacteristic. tage alternatingcurrent motors with seriesmotor
classes of alternatingcurrent
Synchronous motors.
Induction motors. Commutator motors.
There
are,
however,
Considering
behind I by the angle equivalent sine waves of / and $, $ lags This magnetic flux," $, generates an e.m.f., of hysteretic lag, a. = frequency, n = number of turns of = where
27r/n$,
electric circuit.
This generated e.m.f., E, lags 90 behind the ahead of <, magnetic flux, $, hence consumes an e.m.f. 90 a degrees ahead of I. This may be resolved in a reactive or go E = 2 irfn$> cos a = 2 irfLI = xl, the e.m.f. con
component:
sumed by
sin
selfinduction,
2 irfHI
r"I
is,
currents, etc.),
and
2irfn$ and power component: E" consumed by hysteresis (eddy therefore, in vector representation denoted
e.m.f.
by:
$'
= =
jxl and
2
TT/L
E" =
r"/,
where
reactance,
and
I/
r"
= =
inductance,
effective hysteretic resistance.
resistance of the circuit, /, consumes an e.m.f. the current, and the total or effective resistance with in phase //, r' of the circuit is, therefore, r r", and the total e.m.f.
The ohmic
consumed by the
where:
is:
Z = z =
If
A/r
an
electric circuit
it is
is
circuit^
of the cir?
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
cuit in
303
two parts the selfinductance, 5, which refers to that of the magnetic flux produced by the current in one circuit part which is interlinked only with this circuit but not with the other
circuit,
of the
and the mutual inductance, M, which refers to that part magnetic flux interlinked also with the second circuit.
The desirability of this separation results from the different character of the two components: The selfinductive reactance generates a reactive e.m.f.
and thereby causes a lag of the current, while the mutual inductive reactance transfers power into the
circuit,
Z = r+jx.
hence generally does the useful work of the apThis leads to the distinction between the self inductive impedance, ZQ = TQ jx Q and the mutual inductive impedance,
second
paratus.
The same separation of the total inductive reactance into selfinductive reactance and mutual inductive reactance, represented " respectively by the selfinductive or leakage" impedance, and
in the theory of the transformer
those, the
the mutual inductive or "exciting" impedance has been made and the induction machine. In
mutual inductive reactance has been represented, not by the mutual inductive impedance, Z, but by its reciprocal
value, the exciting admittance:
r is the coefficient of
Y =
~
It is then:
hysteresis
resistance.
power consumption by ohmic resistance, and eddy currents of the selfinductive flux effective
self inductive
XQ
is
or
by
hysteresis
and
eddy currents due to the mutual magnetic flux (hence contains no ohmic resistance component).
x
flux.
is
The
consumed by the
circuit is then:
$=
If
Zof
+ ZJ.
Z
(1)
one of the
then in
and the
This e.m.f. is in phase Zfj an e.m.f. is consumed by rotation. coil that is, the flux which the rotates flux with the through and the to proportional to the speed plane pf the cpil parallel
304
that
is
is,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the frequency of rotation while the e.mi. of alternation that is, the of the flux alternating through the coil ahead 90
fre
and proportional to the the impedance corresponding to If, therefore, quency. former flux, the e.m.f. of rotation is jSZ'I, where S is ratio of frequency of rotation to frequency of alternation, or
flux parallel to the axis of the coil
is
speed expressed in fractions of synchronous speed. e.m.f. consumed in the circuit is thus:
The
total
E ~Zo! + ZI
JSZ'I.
(2)
Applying now these considerations to the alternatingcurrent motor, we assume all circuits reduced to the same number of turns that is, selecting one circuit, of n effective turns, as start
 number of effective turns of any other circuit, ing point, if n< all the e.m.fs. of the latter circuit are divided, the currents multiplied with the ratio,
all
convenient by so permiteliminating constant factors When speaking, therefore, in the folting a direct comparison. lowing of the impedance, etc., of the different circuits, we always refer to their reduced values, as it is cus
same number
tomary in inductionmotor designing practice, and has been done in preceding theoretical investigations. 173, Let, then, in Fig. 147
:
4?o,
/o>
ZQ
impressed voltage,
current
and
selfinductive
impedance
$1,
/i,
Zi
impressed voltage,
current
respectively of a rotating circuit, r = space angle between the axes of the two circuits, Z = mutual inductive, or exciting impedance in the direction of the axis of the stationary coil,
mutual inductive, or exciting of the axis of 'the rotating coil, Z" = mutual inductive or exciting
Z'
impedance
coil,
in the direction
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
S =
quency
speed, as fraction of synchronism, that of rotation to frequency of alternation.
:
305
is,
ratio of fre
It is then E.m.f consumed by selfinductive impedance, Z /o. E.m.f consumed by mutualinductive impedance, Z (/ + Ji cos r) since the m.m.f acting in the direction of the axis of the stationary coil is the resultant of both currents. Hence:
.
.
.
E =
Q
Zo/o
+ Z (/o + 1
cos
r).
(3)
In the rotating
E.m.f.
E.m.f.
circuit, it is:
+/
 jSZ"/o sin r.
. :
cos r).
(4)
(5)
T.
(6)
In a structure with uniformly distributed winding, as used in r induction motors, etc., Z = Z" = Z, that is, the exciting impedance is the same in all directions. Z is the reciprocal of the " exciting admittance/' Y of the inductionmotor theory. In the most general case, of a motor containing n circuits, of
which some are revolving, some stationary, if: = impressed e.m.f., current and selfinductive imfit, Ik, Zk pedance respectively of any circuit, k. u Z\ and Z = exciting impedance parallel and at right angles
respectively to the axis of a circuit, i, rtf = space angle between the axes of coils k and
i,
and
speed, rotation."
S =
as
fraction
of
synchronism, or "frequency of
It is then, in a coil,
ii
$i
where:
f
ZiJi
+Z
)k
* Jk cos T k
r**,
(7)
<ili
e.m.f. of selfinductive
n
impedance;
(8)
"I
)^Ik cos
rjb*
e.m.f. of alternation;
(9)
n
fc
sin
Tfc*
e.m.f. of rotation;
(10)
which latter
20
in a stationary coil, in
which
5 =
0.
306
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
of the
motor
is
the
sum
of the
powers of
all
n
s
s)
i
[jZ
lkI k
i
sin r k \ /t] 1 ,
(11)
in synchronous watts:
j
i
D =^= &
The power
[jZ^fk
i
sin T k \
is
Ii]
(12)
p =
_n
>i
(13)
and therefore:
Po Po
1
'
= =
ss
Q
=:
\p
+ P/ =
apparent,
or
voltampere
P =
^
input;
efficiency;
Po
= =
apparent efficiency;
torque efficiency;
=
^r
~ =
From
the n
circuits, i
1,
n,
t equations, with 2 n complex variables, / and Hence % further conditions must be given to determine the
.
variables.
the
circuits.
Impressed
E may be given.
{
Or Or
circuits closed
circuits
upon themselves E*
= 0. = CkEk
where
d and
C&
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
are the reduction factors of the circuits to equal effective turns, as discussed before.
307
number
of
Or
circuits
connected in series
1
:
^ etc.
Ck
Ci
When a rotating circuit is connected through a commutator, the frequency of the current in this circuit obviously is the same as the impressed frequency. Where, however, a rotating circuit
is
permanently closed upon itself, its frequency may differ from the impressed frequency, as, for instance, in the polyphase induction motor it is the frequency of slip, $ = 1 S, and the
Its
selfinductive reactance of the circuit, therefore, is s#; though in reaction upon the stationary system the rotating system necessarily is always of full frequency. As an illustration of this method, its application to the theory of some motor types shall be considered, especially such motors
as
have
either
polyphase e.m.fs.
angle equal to the position angle of the coils. ondary circuits are closed upon themselves.
ally is the stator, the
secondary the rotor. secondary system always offers a resultant closed circuit in the direction of the axis of each primary coil,
In
Let us^ assume two primary circuits in quadrature as simplest form, and the secondary system reduced to the same number of phases and the same number of turns per phase as the primary system. With three or more primary phases the method of procedure and the resultant equations are essentially the same.
Let, in the
e.m.f., currents $o and and selfinductive impedance respectively of the primary system. = impressed e.m.f., currents and selfin0, /i and j/i, Zi
Fig. 148:
ductive impedance respectively of the secondary system, reduced Z = mutualinductive impedance between to the primary.
all
direction
308
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
S = slip, as fraction of synchronism. S = speed; s = 1 The equation of the primary circuit is then, by (7)
:
+ z doThe equation
of the secondary circuit
:
/i).
(14)
=
from
Zi/i
+ Z (ft 
/o)
+ jSZ (jli  #
),
(15)
(15) follows:
r
Zo(lS) S)
__
r
f
Zs
rj
\
17
(16)
Io
Io
FIG. 148.
substituted in (14)
Primary current:
Zs
+Z
(17)
Secondary current:
+ Z^j +
Exciting current:
(18)
= /r
00
/O
/i=J^O
Tjr
(19)
E.m.f. of rotation:
SZ
(Io
ZZx
(1
(20)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
It
is,
309
at synchronism; s
0:
* z + z*
h
7oo
JTff
=0; = 7o;
# _ Z
At
standstill:
+Z
f
fUU
rrrr
//Z/0
"T"
^^"1
r? r?
, i
#'
0.
e.m.f., or
e.mi
of
mutual
(21)
or:
"Jj
1
JTj
,,....,
77^
JTj
I "4
^7
T
Q*
/OO^
\JH&]
JfJ QJ.
it is,
substituted:
e.m.f.:
Counter
(23)
hence:
Primary impressed
e.m.f.:
^
E.m.f. of rotation:
ZZ$s
ZZ!
(24)
E'
= ^5 = $ (1 
*).
(25)
Secondary current
7i
=~1
(26)
Primary current:
/o
=^
fi
^ = i
+f
310
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
=
Exciting current:
Joo
= $Y.
(28)
These are the equations from which the transformer theory of the polyphase induction motor starts. 175. Since the frequency of the secondary currents is the fre1 s, the secquency of slip, hence varies with the speed, S and with the also varies reactance selfinductive speed, ondary so the impedance;
Z,
 n + jaci.
(29)
P =
IE',
h]
d+
s)
*7
+
]
&&1
r 7 r7
j
^O^lj
1 TO (ri f 12 ^ L \* "7
_J v i8X jbJslJf
,) *"*j)
OU J (30)
\.
where the brackets [ denote the absolute value of the term included by it, and the small letters, BQ, z, etc., the absolute values
of the vectors,
E Z
Ql
etc.
_ p "
[ZZ Q s
This
is
(1
a)
ZZ
ZZ l
ZoZi]
[ZZ Q s
+ ZZt
we have:
ZZ 1
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
The power input
PQ
of the
311
motor per
circuit is
=
~
[J?Q ? /o]
2
=
where
:
P'o
 jPoJ
P'o
P<j
= true power, = reactive or " wattless power/' = A/PV + Po72 = voltampere input.
efficiency, etc.
e,
we have:
Power output:
P =
[$',
h]
[a
(35)
Power input:
Po
= =
[Eo, /o]
e
2
+ ZZi. + ZoZ^
Zs
'
Zs
Zfl
=
= =
And
I"
.
(r fl
i,^^ +
.
e 2s
(ri
^ sa;i) +
.
(r
j
io
 jso) + ii
 j*i +
Joo
(r
 ja).
(36)
since:
312
and:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
it is:
Po
(io
+ iiVi + iooV + P)  j
(io^o
ii
*i
+ ioo*x).
(37)
Where:
ioVo
II^TI
iooV
P
i<fx Q
ii*xi
ioo
2
= = = = =
primary resistance loss, secondary resistance loss, core loss (and eddycurrent
output,
loss),
176. Introducing into the equations, (16), (17), (18), (19), (23)
the terms:

z \ AO,
Where
= Xo Xi Xo and Xi are small quantities, and X "characteristic constant" of the induction motor theory,
is
it
the
is:
Primary current:
/
:~2
Xi
....
AI
/gg\
Secondary current:
2
Exciting current:
/oo
sXo h Xi
f"
XoXi
sXo 4 Xi
~nr
/j
^
5Xo
+
,
AI T AoXi
\ \
~y~ "^ J6
S\o
TTST"
Xl
C^)
E.m.f. of rotation:
Al
#Xo
Al
Xi
XoXi
Counter e.m.f
. :
TV
Al
(43)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
313
177. As an example are shown, in Fig. 149, with the speed as abscissa, the curves of a polyphase induction motor of the
constants:
= Z = ZQ =
6
hence:
X
Xi
0.0307
0.0069 y.
[tis:
1.63
*)
(8
j (0.11
5.99
amp
s)
'
D=
(L03
n 5.99*)*
P = (la)D 0.11  5.99s
tan
ft"
1.03
1.63
tan
cos
v
0'
=
10.3s/
0")
powerfactor*
D; the
powerfactor, p; the
314
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
characteristics of the polymotor: induction approximate constancy of speed at all phase and good efficiency and powerfactor within this narrowloads,
all
other speeds.
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION
MOTOR
acts
178. In the singlephase induction motor one primary circuit upon a system of closed secondary circuits which are dis
placed from each other in position on the secondary member. Let the secondary be assumed as twophase, that is, containing or reduced to two circuits closed upon themselves at right angles
FIG. 150.
While it then offers a resultant closed secondary primary circuit in any position, the electrical disposition of the secondary is not symmetrical, but the directions parallel with the primary circuit and at right angles thereto are The former may be called the secondary to be distinguished.
to each other.
circuit to the
energy
circuit,
the latter the secondary magnetizing circuit, since power is transferred from the primary to
the secondary circuit, while in the latter direction the secondary circuit can act magnetizing only.
Let, in the
j^o, /o,
impressed e.m.f., current and selfinductive impedance, respectively, of the primary circuit,
ZQ
current and selfinductive impedance, respectively, secondary energy circuit, current and selfinductive impedance, respectively, /s? Zi of the secondary magnetizing circuit, Z mutualinductive impedance,
fiy
Zi
of the
S
and
It
is
speed,
let SQ
S2
(where
s
:
is
not the
slip).
then,
by equation
(7)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
Primary
circuit:
315
Eo
Secondary energy
Zo/o
+ Z (/o /o)
/i).
(44)
circuit:
= ZJi
Secondary magnetizing
+ Z(h~
2
JSZI*.
(45)
circuit:
= Z^h
hence, from
(45)
+ ZI  JSZ
:
(/o
/O
(46)
and
41
r
(46)
Z
1717
(48)
= F
Z*s Q
jc/o
 ^
Z(Zs Q
(49)
h= h
fro
 +Z
1 )
g
(50)
+jSEt^= S*E 77

(51)
(53)
KIt
is,
(Z
so
+ 2ZZi +
S =
1, s
Zx^)
2Zx (Z
+ Zi).
(54)
at synchronism,
0:
316
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Hence, at synchronism, the secondary current of the singlephase induction motor does not become zero, as in the polyphase motor, but both components of secondary current become equal.
At
standstill,
S =
0, So
~
r
zz,
41
_ w ~
"
__
+ zz
l
1, it is:
ZZo
+ ZZi + ZtZi'
Z_
o.
That is, primary and secondary current corresponding thereto have the same values as in the polyphase induction motor, as was to be expected.
179. Introducing as parameter the counter e.m.f., or e.m.L of mutual induction;
E=
/0
T
J^o
ZQ!Q,
(49), it is:
+ ZZ + ZZitf Zj
!
ZS)
(Z
+ Z^
C55J
Primary current:
p Z*s ^
Zso
+ 2ZZ +Z \ zzM + zd
l l
(56}
Secondary energy
li
T
circuit :
= v
+ Zi
^z^z+^)
circuit:
:=
^ + ^+Y
,
SoE
S*E
'
Secondary magnetizing
Ft =
And:
7o
W
/i
(60)
=
\
(61)
These equations differ from the equations of the polyphase induction motor by containing the term So = (1 S 2), instead
of s
=
"
(1
S),
S*
......
+
.
and
l
,
>
2?
of frequency (1
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
The power output
of the
[
317
motor
is
P= =
[Ei, /i]
2>
h\
Z,}
^rWi, Zso +
_^)
n =P D
(
(Z,
(Z
ZO, ZJ}
(62)
From
negative.
these equations
follows that at synchronism "torof the singlephase induction motor are already
it
for:
2
Zi
0,
hence:
(64)
is, very slightly below synchronism. = 0.9995. Let z = 10, zi = 0.316, it is, In the singlephase induction motor, the torque contains the speed S as factor, and thus becomes zero at standstill. Neglecting quantities of secondary order, it is, approximately:
that
/0
r
=^
77T
Jl
w =^
_ _
ZSQ
Z(Z Qs Q
+ 2 Zl + Zi)+ 2 Z Zi ffSp + Zi
Q
(65)
.
'
(66)
+ JSE
+ z l}+2 ZZ
77 77
'
(67)
(68)
(69)
This theory of the singlephase induction motor differs from that based on the transformer feature of the motor, in that it
represents
inter
318
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
mediate speeds, which are only approximated by the transformer theory of the singlephase induction motor. For studying the action of the motor at intermediate and at low speed, as for instance, when investigating the performance
of a starting device, in bringing the motor up to speed, that is, during acceleration, this method so is more suited. An applica
a singlephase induction motor using a condenser in a stationary tertiary circuit (under an angle, usually 60, with the primary circuit) is given in the " paper on AlternatingCurrent Motors," A. I. E. E. Transacis,
tions,
1904.
FIG. 151.
in Fig. 151, with the speed as a of curves the singlephase induction motor, having abscissae, the constants:
180.
= Z =
eG
400
1
volts,
10 j ohms,
0.1
and:
+ 0.3 j ohms;
hence:
N K
^ D
= = =
400
(so
N
+ 0.2) + j(10s + 0.6 (1
...
^ amp.;
0.
+ 10;?)(0.1
T
(0.30.35);
synchronous kw,
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
the power output,
efficiency,
??.
319
Fig. 151 gives, with the speed, S, as abscissae: the current, /o,
JP,
3.
181. Since the characteristics of the polyphase motor do not depend upon the number of phases, here, as in the preceding, a
twophase system may be assumed: a twophase stator winding acting upon a twophase rotor winding, that is, a closedcoil rotor winding connected to the commutator in the same manner as in directcurrent machines, but with two sets of brushes in quadrature position excited by a twophase system of the same
frequency.
Mechanically the threephase system here has the advantage of requiring only three sets of brushes instead of four
FIG. 152.
as with the
of the equations
twophase system, but otherwise the general form and conclusions are not different.
J$Q = e.m.fs. impressed upon the stator, EI and = phase angle bee.m.fs. impressed upon the rotor, jEi = tween e.m.f., E Q and $1, and 0i position angle between the Let EQ and
stator and rotor circuits. The e.m.fs., EQ and j$ produce the same rotating e.m.f. as two e.m.fs. of equal intensity, but disfrom $o and jE Q} placed in phase and in position by angle and instead of considering a displacement of phase, 0o, and a displacement of position, 61, between stator and rotor circuits, we can, therefore, assume zerophase displacement and displacement
,
0i
is,
0.
brushes, hence gives no additional feature duced by a shift of the commutator brushes,
320
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Without losing in generality of the problem, we can, therefore, assume the stator e.m.fs. in phase with the rotor e.rn.fs., and the polyphase shunt motor can thus be represented diagrammatically
by
Fig. 152. 182. Let, in the polyphase shunt motor, diagram, Fig. 152:
shown twophase
in
$o and j$o, /o and j/o, Z = impressed e.m.fs., currents and selfinductive impedance respectively of the stator circuits, c# and JC$Q, /i and j/i, Zi = impressed e.m.fs., currents and selfinductive impedance respectively of the rotor circuits,
reduced to the stator circuits by the ratio of effective turns, c, Z = mutualinductive impedance, S ~ slip, 8 = speed; hence s = 1 6 = position angle between stator and rotor circuits, or
"
Stator:
#>
Rotor:
0/0
+ z (/o /
cos
(
/i cos
 jh sin
sin 0)
0).
(72)
c#
1/1
+ Z (fi cr
jSZ
Substituting:
 jli +
+ jh
/o sin B
+ ;/
cos
0).
(73)
= =
cos
cos
j sin
0,
(74) ; v
it is:
<rd
1,
(75)
and:
+ 2 (/i + 5Z (/i 
<r/ )
(76)
tr/o).
(77)
Herefrom
follows:
.
ZZ l
(78)
for c
o, this
gives:
tZZ,
+ ZZ
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
that
j sin
is,
321
<r
cos
I*
stator
/o sin 6
+ jh cos 0)
'
cZ Q)
of the
motor
is:
P =
(E lt 7J
 cZo) z
'
(ffs
+
crp)
}
p
for
Qi
o,
sin
r cos 0))
+c (r t cos 0+Xi$m 6
[sZZ<>
+ ZZi + ZoZtf
(82)
Sc
this gives:
the same value as for the polyphase induction motor. In general, the power output, as given by equation (82), be
comes zero:
P=
for the slip
~~
o,
_
TI
cos 6
c (x
+ Xi sin
sin 6
r
cfp
,,
cos
0)
183. It follows herefrom, that the speed of the polyphase shunt motor is limited to a definite value, just as that of a directcurrent shunt motor, or alternatingcurrent induction motor. In other words, the polyphase shunt motor is a constantspeed motor, approaching with decreasing load, and reaching at noload a definite speed:
So
(84)
is,
The noload
21
how
322
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
motor, but depends upon the brush angle, 0, and the ratio, c, of rotor T stator impressed voltage. At this noload speed, So, the armature current, /i, of the polyphase shunt motor is in general not equal to zero, as it is
in the
Two
1.
Armature
o,
at noload, that
is,
at
slip, S Q .
2.
=
:
 w
'
**Z
sZZ Q
+ c(Z + ZJ + ZZ + ZoZi
l
becomes
zero,
if:
_ _
Z
ffS
*
or, since
Z\
is
crs
s (cos 8
j sin 0);
hence, resolved:
c
<?
= =
s cos
s sin 0;
0,
hence:
0=o,
c..;
That
is,
(85)
if
the brushes
are set in line with the stator circuit or without shift, and in this case the rotor current, and therewith the output of the motor,
c. becomes zero at the slip, s = Hence such a motor gives a characteristic curve very similar to that of the polyphase induction motor, except that the stator tends not toward synchronism but toward a definite speed equal
times synchronism. of such a polyphase motor with commutator can, therefore, be varied from synchronism by the insertion of an e.m.f. in the rotor circuit, and the percentage of variation is the
to (1
c)
The speed
same
stator e.m.f.
as the ratio of the impressed rotor e.m.f. to the impressed rotor e.m.f., in opposition to the stator e.m.f.
reduces, in phase with the stator e.m.f., increases the freerunning speed of the motor. In the former case the rotor impressed
e.m.f. is in opposition to the rotor current, that is, the rotor returns power to the system in the proportion in which the speed
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
is
323
loss of efficiency,
trol of
reduced, and the speed variation, therefore, occurs without and is similar in its character to the speed con
a directcurrent shunt motor by varying the ratio between upon the armature and that impressed upon
:
s
it is
:
+ c^
SlZ
_
sZZ Q P These equations
[sZZ Q
of I
+ Zl
l
ZZ
ZZ, ,
(ri
l
(88)
cr
)
2 22 2 &?o 3 si
+ ZZ +
Z.
and Ii are the same as the polyphase inductionmotor equations, except that the slip from synchronism, s, of the induction motor, is, in the numerator, replaced by the slip from the noload speed, Si. Insertion of voltages into the armature of an induction motor
in phase with the primary impressed voltages, and by a commutator, so gives a speed control of the induction motor without
factor, as
with a sacrifice, however, of the powercan be shown from equation (87) 184. 2. The noload speed of the polyphase shunt motor is in synchronism, that is, the noload slip, SQ = o, or the motor output becomes zero at synchronism, just as the ordinary induction
sacrifice of efficiency,
.
motor,
if,
in equation (83)
7*1
cos
+ xi sin 6
ri cos 6
cr
a;
hence
c
or,
__
+  xi sin 0.
ai,
(90)
substituting:
=
where ai
is
tan
(91)
it is:
cos (ai
ff),
324
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
cos (ai
or:
e
cos
0)
=  c,
*
(92)
=*
*.
zi, if
(93)
c is
Since r
large, it is
:
is
usually very
much
smaller than
not very
cos (ai
0)
o;
nence:
That
is, if
90
i.
(94)
0, is
angle of the selfinductive rotor impedance, ai, the motor tends toward approximate synchronism at noload.
Hence:
At given brush
c^o, exists,
angle, 6, a value of secondary impressed e.m.f., which makes the motor tend to synchronize at no
At given rotorimpressed
e.m.f., cJ?
a brush angle,
(92).
0,
exists,
185. 3. In the general equations of the polyphase shunt motor, the stator current, equation (78)
/0
_ ~
sZ
'
sZZ*
+ Z + dcZ + ZZ + ZvZi
l
l
sZZ
which does not contain
c,
+ Zl + + ZoZS
SZ
ZZ 1
(95)
and
is
Resolving I" Q ,
it
{Ai cos
+ ^.2 sin
0)
+ j (Ai sin
cos
0) }.
(97)
This second component of primary current, J"o, which is produced by the insertion of the voltage, c$, into the secondary circuit, so contains a power component:
i'o
c (Ai cos
+A
sin 0),
(98)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
and a wattless or reactive component:
i"o
325
= +jc
7"o
(A i
sin 6
 A2
cos 0);
(99)
where:
*'o
 #"o.
=
2
*
(100)
The
is zero, if:
Ai
hence:
sin
A
0i
cos
o;
(101)
tan
+ 4~ AI
(102)
is,
0i,
pressed voltage, cE, does not change the reactive current, but adds or subtracts, depending on the sign of c, energy, and so raises or lowers the speed of the motor: case (1).
i'o, is
zero,
if:
cos 6
+ As sin =
2
0,
(103)
tan
= 
1 4 A2
104)
with brush angle, 02, the secondary imdoes not change power or speed, but propressed voltage, cE, duces wattless lagging or leading current. That is, with the
In this case, that
is,
brush position, 02, the polyphase shunt motor can be made to produce lagging or leading currents, by varying the voltage impressed upon the secondary, c$, just as a synchronous motor can be made to produce lagging or leading currents by varying its field excitation, and plotting the stator current, 7"o> of such a polyphase shunt motor, gives the same Vshaped phase characteristics as known for the synchronous motor. These two phase angles or brush positions, 0i and 2 are in quadrature with each other. There result then two distinct phenomena from the insertion of a voltage by commutator, into an inductionmotor armature: a change of speed, in the brush position, 0i, and a change of phase
,
2,
at right angles to
0,
0i.
a change of speed so
c$cos
(0i
0);
326
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
of phase angle corresponding to a voltage:
and a change
cE
cos (0 2
sin (0i
= cE
0), 6),
and by choosing then such a position, 0, that the wattless current produced by the component in phase with 6%, is equal and opposite to the wattless lagging current of the motor proper, I' the polyphase shunt motor can be made to operate at unity powerfactor at all speeds (except very low speeds) and loads.
,
This, however, requires shifting the brushes with every change of load or speed.
When
using the polyphase shunt motor as generator of watt2 it is: is, at noload and with brush position,
,
0;
hence, from
(78)
(105)
ft
^
~nr
j
Jl
(10ft}
~ryT
\.\J\JJ
or,
approximately:
that
is,
=E 7
Q
ti/JL.
7V
(107)
or,
approximately, neglecting
against Z:
To
/j\
W.^r* (r*f\<z
(cos
Yjl
A JL
(108)
j (xi cos ^
0)
r 1 sin 0)
} ,
+ Xi sin
tan
fc
0,
or:
'
(109)
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
Substituting
(.109)
327
in (108) gives:
 n sn
(110)
*1
and:
/0==
_ _,
o
(111)
186. In the exact predetermination of the characteristics of such a motor, the effect of the shortcircuit current under the brushes has to be taken into consideration, however. When a commutator is used, by the passage of the brushes from segment
to segment coils are shortcircuited. Therefore, in addition to the circuits considered above, a closed circuit on the rotor has to be introduced in the equations for every set of brushes. Re
circuit
by the ratio
impedance
under the brushes is very high, the current, therefore, small, but still sufficient to noticeably affect the motor characteristics, at least at certain speeds. Since, however, this phenomenon will be considered in the chapters on the singlephase motors, it may be omitted here.
of the shortcircuit
4.
187. If in a polyphase
FIG. 153.
characteristics result, and the motor no more tends to synchronize nor approaches a definite speed at noload, as a shunt motor, but with decreasing load the speed increases indefinitely. In short,
328
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
may assume
by
Let then, in the motor shown diagrammatically in Fig. 153: $ and j$o, /o and j/o, ZQ = impressed e.m.fs., currents and selfinductive impedance of stator circuits, assumed as twophase,
turns,
and reduced
c,
by the
ratio of effective
= impressed $1 and j$i, I i f and jli, Z\ and selfinductive impedance of rotor circuits,
e.m.fs. currents
Z = 5 = 6 = c =
If,
mutualinductance impedance,
speed; and, $
S =
slip,
brush angle,
ratio of effective stator turns to rotor turns.
then:
j]
it is
:
and
impressed
/i /o
e.m.fs.,
/ and
jl
currents
of
motor,
= :
/,
(112)
(113)
cj,
cE Q
and, stator,
+ fr
#;
(114)
by equation
(7)
Eo
rotor:
= 2
/o
+ Z(h /o cos 6
/i cos $
 jli sin
6)
tf);
(115)
$i
= ZJi + Z
(Ji
+ j/o sin
jSZ
j/i
;
+/
(116)
sin
+ jh cos 0)
E\   jSZ (jh
in (114) gives:
(117)
"
2
(c
+ ZJ+Z(1 +
cr
2c
cos
19)
+ SZ(ca 
1]
where:
cos
(9
 j sin 0,
2c
cos flJTSZCftr
(119)
and:
^ "
X
(c^o
+ ZO
 Z
(1
+c 2
1)]
(120)
P = _ ~
The
of the
IFi, /d'
2
_
[(c
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
:
5)
_
(co
329
'
I)]
'
(121)
characteristics of this
motor
for
brush angle,
6.
It
is,
P=
(x
1)
hence
.2
.4
.6
.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
FIG. 154.
= 90: P =
r)
>
hence consider
P, generator. In such a motor, by choosing and c appropriately, unity powerfactor or leading current as well as lagging current can be
produced.
That is, by varying c and 0, the power output and therefore the speed, as well as the phase angle of the supply current or the powerfactor can be varied, and the machine used to produce
lagging as well as leading current, similarly as the polyphase shunt motor or the synchronous motor. Or, the motor can be
operated at constant unity powerfactor at all loads and speeds (except, very low speeds), but in this case requires changing the
330
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
brush angle, 0, and the ratio, c, with the change of load and speed. Such a change of the ratio, c, of rotor T stator turns can be produced by feeding the rotor (or stator) through a transformer of variable ratio of transformation, connected with its primary cirwith the speed as double synchronous abscissae, speed, the characteristic curves of a polyphase series motor of the constants
cuit in series to the stator (or rotor). 188. As example is shown in Fig.
e = Z = Z =
640
1
volts,
c~
B
hence
As seen, the motor characteristics are similar to those of the directcurrent series motor: very high torque in starting and at low speed, and a speed which increases indefinitely with the decrease of load. That is, the curves are entirely different from those of the induction motors shown in the preceding. The in is much than induction powerfactor very high, higher motors, and becomes unity at the speed S = 1.77, or about one and three
_ __ __
10 j ohms,
0.1
Zi
1,
0.3 j
ohms,
= 37;
(sin e
0.6; cos 6
0.8);
640
(0.6
2.6 S)
(0.6
+ 5.8 S) +
(4.6
_
2
2.6
CHAPTER XX
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS
I.
General
become
189. Alternatingcurrent commutating machines have so far of industrial importance mainly as motors of the series
or varyingspeed type, for singlephase railroading, and as constantspeed motors or adjustablespeed motors, where efficient acceleration under heavy torque is necessary. As generators, they would be of advantage for the generation of very low fre
quency, since in this case synchronous machines are uneconomical, due to their very low speed, resultant from the low frequency. The direction of rotation of a directcurrent motor, whether shunt or series motor, remains the same at a reversal of the impressed e.m.f., as in this case the current in the armature circuit and the current in the field circuit and so the field magnetism both reverse. Theoretically, a directcurrent motor therefore could be operated on an alternating impressed e.m.f. provided that the magnetic circuit of the motor is laminated, so as to follow the alternations of magnetism without serious loss of power, and that precautions are taken to have the field reverse simultaneously with the armature. If the reversal of field magnetism should occur later than the reversal of armature current, during the time after the armature current has reversed, but before the field has reversed, the motor torque would be in opposite direction and thus subtract; that is, the field magnetism of the alternatingcurrent motor must be in phase with the armature curThis is inherently the case with the series rent, or nearly so. type of motor, in which the same current traverses field coils
the alternatingcurrent commutator motor may be connected with each other directly (in shunt or in series, according to the type of the motor) or inductively, with the interposition of a
331
332
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
transformer transformer, and for this purpose either a separate in the motor, embodied feature may be used or the transformer the This motors. of gives as in the socalled repulsion type
^to
far greater variety of alternatingcurrent commutator motor a motor. directcurrent the connections than possessed by the of alternatingoperation While in its general principle directcurrent the with is identical motor current commutator
a great differmotor, in the relative proportioning of the parts is consumed directcurrent the voltage In motor, ence exists. the power which of e.m.f. represents rotation, by the counter which the and represents the resistance, of by motor, output in the addition alternatingcurrent In loss. the power thereto,
motor voltage is consumed by the inductance, which is wattless or reactive and therefore causes a lag of current behind the volWhile in the directtage, that is, a lowering of the powerfactor.
current motor good design requires the combination of a strong and a relatively weak armature, so as to reduce the armature reaction on the field to a minimum, in the design of the alterfield
natingcurrent motor considerations of powerfactor predominate; that is, to secure low selfinductance and therewith a high powerand a weak field is factor, the combination of a strong armature of methods to eliminate the required, and necessitates the use
harmful
effects of
As the varyingspeed singlephase commutator motor has found an extensive use as railway motor, this type of motor will as an instance be treated in the following, and the other
types discussed in the concluding paragraphs.
II.
Powerfactor
field flux
190. In the
gen
erates the e.m.f. in the revolving armature conductors, which that is, the maggives the motor output; the armature reaction,
produced by the armature current, distorts and weakens and requires a shifting of the brushes to avoid sparking due to the shortcircuit current under the commutator brushes, and where the brushes can not be shifted, as in a reversible motor, this necessitates the use of a strong field and weak armature to
netic flux
field,
the
keep down the magnetic flux at the brushes. In the alternatingcurrent motor the magnetic field flux generates in the armature conductors by their rotation the e.m.f. which does the work of
the motor, but, as the
field flux is
alternating,
it
also generates
333
is
an
e.m.f, of selfinductance,
which
not
useful but wattless, and therefore harmful in lowering the poweras low as possible. factor, hence must be kept
This e.m.f. of selfinductance of the field, e is proportional to the field strength, $, to the number of field turns, no, and to the frequency, /, of the impressed e.m.f
,
. :
>
10~ 8 ,
(1)
while the useful e.m.f. generated by the field in the armature " conductors, or e.m.f. of rotation," e, is proportional to the field n to the fre$, to the number of armature turns, i} and
strength, quency of rotation of the armature,
e
1
/o*.
8
.
= 2x/ n *10
(2)
This later
e.m.f.,
e, is
f,
and
a power e.m.f., is wattless, or in quadrature while the e.m.f. of selfinductance, with the current, and the angle of lag of the motor current thus is given by:
in the series motor, that
,
tan e
= r^> e + IT
(3)
where
Or apvoltage consumed by the motor resistance. at e with ir small is very (except compared proximately, since
ir
:
low speed)
tan
and, substituting herein
(1)
>
:
(4)
and
*
(2)
tan
2?
(5)
/o ni
Small angle of lag and therewith good powerfactor therefore values of / and n require high values of /o and ni and low of High / requires high motor speeds and as large number thereLow / means low impressed frequency; poles as possible. fore 25 cycles is generally the highest frequency considered for
.
large
commutating motors. and low High HI and low n means high armature reaction that from conditions that is, just the opposite field
excitation,
required for good commutatormotor design. = /, as average motor speed Assuming synchronism, /o
revolutions with a fourpole 25cycle motor
750
an armature reac
334
tion,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
m, equal to the field = 45, or 70.7 per 1
?
excitation,
cent, powerfactor; that is, with an the limits of good motor design, the
is still
powerfactor
selfinductance; that is, the magnetic flux produced by the armature current as shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 155 generates a reactive e.m.f. in
the armature conductors, which again lowers the powerfactor. While this armature selfinductance is low with
small
number
of
armature turns,
it
becomes considerable
Distribution, of main field and field of armature reaction.
FIG. 155.
ber of armature turns, wi, is large compared with the field turns, no.
Let
IS,
(Ro
field
reluctance, that
reluctance
of
the
magnetic
is,
field
circuit,
/n
and
2
field
mag
(Hi
is:
(Ri
(Ho
nQ
(6)
<
and the
2<r/Vh<i> 1
is:
(7)
by
(1)
and
(7) is:
(8)
335
given by:
a
+ tan
=i *
/o
or,
W
+e
*
v ' (9)
field
turns
by
=
=
is,
ni
)
UQ
tan
Jo M?
(i
+ 63)
/
>
(10)
and
this is
a minimum; that
the powerfactor a
maximum, for:
or:
and the
maximum
is
tan
= 7 ~4Jo
Therefore the greater 6 is the higher the powerfactor that can be reached by proportioning field and armature so that
Since b
is
field
reluctance,
good powerfactor thus requires as high an armature reluctance and as low a field reluctance as possible; that is, as good a magnetic field circuit and poor magnetic armature circuit as feasible. This leads to the use of the smallest air gaps between field and armature which are mechanically permissible. With an air gap of 0.10 to 0.15 in. as the smallest safe value in railway work, 6 can not well be made larger than about 4.
Assuming, then, 6 = 4, gives q = 2, that armature turns as field turns; HI = 2 n
.
is,
twice as
many
The
is,
by
(12), at
1,
synchronism :/
/,
tan
Bo
giving a powerfactor of 70.7 per cent. It follows herefrom that it is not possible, with a mechanically
336
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
good powerfactor at series a motor, even if such a moderate speed, from straight not were inoperative, due to excessive as discussed above
design
and therefore destructive sparking. Thus it becomes necessary in the singlephase commutator motor to reduce the magnetic flux of armature reaction, that is, increase the effective magnetic reluctance of the armature far
distortion
This is acbeyond the value of the true magnetic reluctance. devised Eickemeyer, by complished by the compensating winding by surrounding the armature with a stationary winding closely and energized by adjacent and parallel to the armature winding, armature the to current, and of direction a current in opposite as of number same the that ampereturns, the same m.m.f., is,
the armature winding.
FIG. 156.
Circuits of single
Every singlephase commutator motor thus comprises a field winding, F an armature winding, A, and a compensating shown winding, C, usually located in the pole faces of the field, as
y
ture winding as primary, or the compensating winding is energized by the supply current; and the armature shortcircuited as
337
The first case gives the conductively compensated motor, the second case the inductively compensated series motor, the third case the repulsion motor. In the first case, by giving the compensating winding more turns than the armature, overcompensation, by giving it less In the second case turns, undercompensation, is produced.
always complete (or practically complete) compensation results, number of turns of the winding, as primary and secondary currents of a transformer always are opposite in direction, and of the same m.m.f. (approximately), and in the third case a somewhat less complete compensation. With a compensating winding, C, of equal and opposite m.m.f. to the armature winding, A the resultant armature reaction is zero, and the field distortion, therefore, disappears; that is, the ratio of the armature turns to field turns has no direct effect on the commutation, but high armature turns and low field turns can be used. The armature selfinductance is reduced from that corresponding to the armature magnetic flux, $1, in Fig. 155 to
irrespective of the
}
that corresponding to the magnetic leakage flux, that is, the magnetic flux passing between armature turns and compensating turns, or the "slot inductance," which is small, especially if relatively shallow
armature slots and compensating slots are used. The compensating winding, or the "cross field," thus fulfils
the twofold purpose of reducing the armature selfinductance to that of the leakage flux, and of neutralizing the armature reaction and thereby permitting the use of very high armature
ampereturns.
of the
is
to de
crease the armature selfinductance; that is, increase the effective armature reluctance and thereby its ratio to the field reluctance,
lj
ratio,
= ~, no
before
maximum
powerfactor.
a point
pensating winding, to reach, with a mechanically good design, values of b as high as 16 to 20.
Assuming
22
and
(12):
4;
338
that
is,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
four times as
many armature
tan
4 no and:
~TT;
tan
0.5, or
= 2/
tan
0.25, or
very good powerfactors can be reached in the singleof a compensating winding, with the same air gap in polyphase are far higher than possible
that
is,
induction motors.
III.
Field Winding
192.
The purpose
of the field
mum
magnetic flux, <3?, This requires as large a magnetic section, especially at the air Hence, a massed field winding with definite gap, as possible.
.
with the
minimum number
polar projections of as great pole arc as feasible, as shown in Fig. 157, gives a better powerfactor than a distributed field winding.
The compensating winding must be as closely adjacent to the armature winding as possible, so as to give minimum leakage flux between armature conductors and compensating conductors, and therefore is a distributed winding, located in the field pole
faces, as
shown
in Fig. 157.
is
ference of the armature, but the compensating winding only in the field pole faces. With the same ampereturns in armature
and compensating winding, their resultant ampereturns are equal and opposite, and therefore neutralize, but locally the two windings do not neutralize, due to the difference in the distribu
The m.m.f. of the field winding is constant over the pole faces, and from one pole corner to the next pole corner reverses in direction, as shown diagrammatically by F in Fig. 158, which is the development of Fig. 157. The m.m.f. of the armature is a maximum at the brushes, midway
tion curves of their m.m.fs.
between the
field poles, as
shown by A
in Fig. 158,
339
the compensating winding, however, is constant in the space from pole corner to pole corner, as shown by C in Fig. 158, and
since the total m.m.f. of the compensating winding equals that of the armature, the armature m.m.f. is higher at the brushes,
the compensating m.m.f. higher in front of the field poles, as shown by curve R in Fig. 158, which is the difference between
and C; that is, with complete compensation of the resultant armature and compensating winding, locally undercompensation exists at the brushes, overcompensation in front of the field
FIG. 158.
The local undercompensated armature reaction at the poles. brushes generates an e.m.f in the coil shortcircuited under the brush, and therewith a shortcircuit current of commutation and sparking. In the conductively compensated motor, this can
.
be avoided by overcompensation, that is, raising the flat top of the compensating m.m.f. to the maximum armature m.m.f., but this results in a lowering of the powerfactor, due to the selfinductive flux of overcompensation, and therefore is undesirable. 193. To get complete compensation even locally requires the
compensating winding to give the same distribution curve as the armature winding, or inversely. The former is accomplished by
distributing the compensating winding around the entire circumference of the armature, as shown in Fig. 159. *This, however, results in bringing the field coils further away from the armature surface, and so increases the magnetic stray flux of the
field
winding, that
field (foils,
is,
the
340
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ductance, but does not pass through the armature conductors, and so does no work; that is, it lowers the power factor, just as overcompensation would do. The distribution curve of the
/
"\
armature winding can, however, be to that of the compensating winding, and therewith local
made equal
using
arc.
complete compensation secured, by a fractional pitch armature winding of a pitch equal to the pole
In this case, in the space bein
opposite
direction
in
the
shown in
FIG. 159. Completely distributed compensating
Fig. 160,
winding.
magnetically; that is, the armature reaction extends only over the space of the armature circumference covered
by the pole arc, where it is neutralized by the compensating winding in the pole face. To produce complete compensation even locally, without impairing the powerfactor, therefore, requires a fractionalpitch
FIG, 160.
FIG.
161.
with,
pole arc, or
some
equivalent arrangement. Historically, the first compensated singlephase commutator motors, built about 20 years ago, were Prof. Elihu Thomson's
repulsioi* motors.
In these the
field
winding
$,nd
compensating
341
winding were massed together in a single coil, as shown diagraml&L Kepulsion motors are still occasionally built in which field and compensating coils are combined in a Soon after the single distributed winding, as shown in Fig. 162. first repulsion motor, conductively and inductively compensated series motors were built by Eickemeyer, with a massed field
coil,
either as single coil or turn or distributed in a number of coils or turns, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 163, and by W. Stanley.
FIG. 163.
coils
For reversible motors, separate field coils and compensating are always used, the former as massed, the latter as dis
tributed winding, since in reversing the direction of rotation either the field winding alone must be reversed or armature and
field
winding
re
Types
of
194.
series characteristic, armature and compensating windings therefore can be connected in series with each other 3 or the supply voltage impressed upon the one, the other closed upon itself as secondary circuit, or a part of the supply voltage impressed upon the one, and another part upon the other circuit, and in either of these cases the field winding may be connected in series either to the compensating winding or to the armature
motor with
winding.
342
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
(5)
(3)
(7)
FIG. 164.
343
winding by F,
shown
in Fig. 164.
Primary
Secondary
A +F A 4. c
A +F
...
__
Series motor.
C
C
+F
C C
+F
A
A +F
...
.
.
.
ary excitation, or inverted (3) repulsion motor. Repulsion motor. (4) Repulsion motor with sec
ondary
excitation.
(5)
A + F, C
A,C+F
Since in
all
directly or inductively in series with each other, they all have the same general characteristics as the directcurrent series
motor; that is, a speed which increases with a decrease of load, and a torque per ampere input which increases with increase of current, and therefore with decrease of speed, and the different motor types differ from each other only by their commutation
by the presence or absence of a magnetic flux at the and indirectly thereby in their efficiency as affected by commutation losses. In the conductively compensated series motor, by the choice of the ratio of armature and compensating turns, overcompensaas affected
brushes,
tion,
complete compensation, or undercompensation can be proIn all the other types, armature and compensating windings are in inductive relation, and the compensation thereduced.
replacing the stationary field coils by armature excitation, that is, introducing the current, either directly or by transformer, into the armature by means of a second set
teristics results
by
main brushes.
Such motors
of
are used to
344
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
but the advantage that their requiring two sets of brushes, and above synchronism even controlled powerfactor can be
such leading current produced. Fig. 165 shows diagrammatically socalled the a motor, as designed by WinterEichbergLatour, means compensated repulsion motor. In this case compensated
compensated
for powerfactor.
The voltage which can be used in the "motor armature is limited is by the commutator: the voltage per commutator segment number the of commutation, the limited by sparkless problem
of
brush to brush
limited
by
of
mechanical
consideration
values
the directcurrent motor, while in the repulsion motor (4 aad is the 5), in which the armature of the secondary circuit, the armature voltage is independent of supply voltage, so can be chosen to suit the requirements for any supplycommutation, while the motor can be built
be insulated. voltage for which the stator can economically series directcurrent as Alternatingcurrent motors as well
motors can be controlled by series parallel connection of two or more motors. Further control, as in starting, with directcurrent motors is carried out by rheostat, while with alternatingcurrent
a change of supply voltage by more efficient method motor one from of control. type to another motor By changing in used be can control alternatingcurrent motors type, potential
motors potential control, that
is,
without any change of supply voltage, by appropriately choosing the ratio of turns of primary and secondary circuit. For instance, with an armature wound for half the voltage and thus
twice the current as the compensating winding (ratio of turns
=
%i
2) /
2,
or
from
type 5 to type
doubling the
field
current
and there
SINGLEPHASE
COMMUTATOR MOTORS
345
with the field strength. A change of distribution of voltage between the two circuits^ in types 6 and 7, with A and C wound
for different voltages, gives the same effect as a change of supply voltage, and therefore is used for motor control.
195. In those
motor types
in
which
a transformation of
power
occurs between compensating winding, C, and armature winding, A, a transformer flux exists in the direction of the brushes, that
is,
singlephase commutator motor contains two magnetic fluxes in quadrature position with each other, the main flux or field flux,
in the direction of the axis of the field coils, or at right angles <3>, to the armature brushes, and the quadrature flux, or transformer flux, or commutating flux, $1, in line with the armature brushes, or in the direction of the axis of the compensating winding, that
is,
The
at right angles (electrical) with the field flux. field flux, $, depends upon and is in phase with the field
current, except as far as it is modified by the magnetic action of the shortcircuit current in the armature coil under the commutator brushes.
In the conductively compensated series motor, 1, the quadrature flux is zero at complete compensation, and in the direction of the armature reaction with undercompensation, in opposition to the armature reaction at overcompensation, but in
either case in phase with the current
the
field.
In the other motor types, whatever quadrature flux exists is not in phase with the main flux, but as transformer flux is due to the resultant m.m.f. of primary and secondary circuit. In a transformer with noninductive or nearly noninductive secondary circuit, the magnetic flux is nearly 90 in time phase
behind the primary current, a little over 90 ahead of the secondary current, as shown in transformer diagram, Fig. 166. In a transformer with inductive secondary, the magnetic flux is less than 90 behind the primary current, more than 90 ahead of the secondary current, the more so the higher is the inductivity of the secondary circuit, as shown by the transformer diagram,
Fig. 166.
Herefrom
'
it
follows that:
In the inductively compensated series motor, 2, the quadrature flux is very small and practically negligible, as very little vpltage is consumed in the low impedance of the secondary circuit, C; whatever flux there is, lags behind the main flux.
346
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
In the inductively compensated series motor with secondary the quadrature flux, excitation, or inverted repulsion motor, 3,
is required for the *i, is quite large, as a considerable voltage
moderate speeds and therefore high the field flux, $, but this currents, and this flux, $1, lags behind the secondary circuit is since than 90, lag is very much less
FIG. 166.
As result hereof, ditions of the transformer diagram, Kg. 166the commutation of this type of motor is very good, flux, $1,
having the proper phase and intensity required for a commutating flux, as will be seen later, but the powerfactor is poor. In the repulsion motor, 4, the quadrature flux is very consid
armature
erable, since all the voltage consumed by the rotation of the is Induced in it by transformation from the compen
347
sating winding, and this quadrature flux, <l>i, lags nearly 90 behind the main flux, $, since the secondary circuit is nearly noninductive, especially at speed.
In the repulsion motor with secondary excitation, 5, the quadrature flux, $1, is also very large, and practically constant, corresponding to the impressed e.m.f., but lags considerably less than
flux, $, the secondary circuit being inductthe field coil, F. The lag of the flux, $1, contains since it ive, increases with increasing speed, since with increasing speed the e.m.f. of rotation of the armature increases, the e.m.f. of self
90
inductance of the field decreases, due to the decrease of current, and the circuit thus becomes less inductive. The series repulsion motors 6 and 7, give the same phase relation of the quadrature flux, $1, as the repulsion motors, 5 and 6, but the intensity of the quadrature flux, $1, is the less the smaller the part of the supply voltage which is impressed upon the compensating winding.
V.
196. In the
coil
Commutation
in each
armature
In the or turn reverses during its passage under the brush. armature coil, while shortcircuited by the commutator brush, the current must die out to zero and then increase again to its
The resistance of the armaoriginal value in opposite direction. ture coil and brush contact accelerates, the self inductance retards the dying out of the current,
assists,
If an e.m.f. is generated in the latter impairs commutation. the armature coil by its rotation while shortcircuited by the
commutator brush, this e.m.f. opposes commutation, that is, retards the dying out of the current, if due to the magnetic flux
armature reaction, and assists commutation by reversing the armature current, if due to the magnetic flux of overcompensation, that is, a magnetic flux in opposition to the armature
of
reaction.
of negligible
magnetic flux of armature reaction, fair commutation is produced with the brushes set midway between the field poles that is, in the position where the armature coil which is being commutated encloses the full field flux and therefore cuts no flux and has no generated e.m.f. by using highresistance carbon brushes,
348
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
as the resistance of the brush contact, increasing when the armature coil begins to leave the brush, tends to reverse the current.
Such "resistance commutation" obviously can not be perfect; perfect commutation, however, is produced by impressing upon the motor armature at right angles to the main field, that is, in the position of the commutator brushes, a magnetic field opposite to that of the armature reaction and proportional to the armature current. Such a field is produced by overcompensation or
by the use of a commutating pole or interpole. As seen in the foregoing, in the directcurrent motor the counter e.m.f. of self inductance of commutation opposes the reversal of current in the armature coil under the commutator brush, and
this can
be mitigated in
its effect
by
overcompen
In addition hereto, however, in the alternatingcurrent commutator motor an e.m.f. is generated in the coil shortcircuited under the brush, by the alternation of the magnetic flux,
and this e.rouf., which does not exist in the directcurrent motor, makes the problem of commutation of the alternatingcurrent motor far more difficult. In the position of commutation no e.m.f. is generated in the armature coil by its rotation through the magnetic field, as in this position the coil encloses the maxi
mum
field flux; but as this magnetic flux is alternating, in this position the e.m.f. generated by the alternation of the flux enThis "e.m.f. of alternation" closed by the coil is a maximum.
behind the magnetic flux which generates it, is proportional to the magnetic flux and to the frequency, but is independent of the speed, hence exists also at standstill, while
lags in time 90
the
"
e.m.f of rotation"
.
which
is
maximum
of the
armature
coil
is
and proportional
thereto and to the speed, but independent of the frequency. In the alternatingcurrent commutator motor, no position therefore
exists in
which the armature coil is free from a generated e.m.f., but in the position parallel to the field, or midway between the
brushes, the e.m.f. of rotation, in phase with the field flux, is a while the e.m.f. of alternation is zero, and in the position under the commutator brush, or enclosing the total field
maximum,
flux,
the
in
field flux, is
the e.m.f. of alternation, in electrical space quadrature with a maximum, the e.m.f. of rotation absent, while
position of the armature coil its generated e.rn.f . has
any other
349
a component due to the rotation a power e.m.f. and a component due to the alternation a reactive e.m.f. The armature
coils of an alternatingcurrent commutator motor, therefore, are the seat of a system of polyphase e,m.fs., and at synchronism
the polyphase e.m.fs. generated in all armature coils are equal, above synchronism the e.m.f. of rotation is greater, while below synchronism the e.m.f. of alternation is greater, and in the latter case the brushes thus stand at that point of the commutator where the voltage between commutator segments is a
maximum.
armature
coil in
This e.m.f. of alternation, shortcircuited by the the position of commutation, if not controlled,
causes a shortcircuit current of excessive value, and therewith destructive sparking; hence, in the alternatingcurrent commutator motor it is necessary to provide means to control the shortcircuit current
the alternating character of the magnetic not exist in the directcurrent motor; that
under the commutator brushes, which results from flux, and which does
is,
tion of a shortcircuited secondary, with the field coil as primary of a transformer; and as in a transformer primary and secondary
number of field ampereturns are approximately equal, if no turns per pole and i = field current, the current in a single armature turn,
to
when
io
shortcircuited
become
= W,
is
that
is,
many
as this current
rent, it
would demagnetize the field; that is, the motor field vanishes, or drops far down, and the motor thus loses its torque.
Especially is this the case at the moment of starting; at speed, the shortcircuit current is somewhat reduced by the selfinduc
That is, during the short time during which the armature turn or coil is shortcircuited by the brush the shortcircuit current can not rise to its full value, if
is considerable, but it is still sufficient to cause destructive sparking. 197. The character of the commutation of the motor, and
the speed
therefore its operativeness, thus essentially depends upon the value and the phase of the shortcircuit currents under the com
mutator brushes.
An
structive sparking by highcurrent density under the brushes and arcing at the edge of the brushes due to the great and sud
n change pf current
i;n
the armature
coil "yvhen
leaving the
350
brush.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
shortcircuit current, the
destructive
therefore inoperative, if the phase of the shortcircuit current greatly differs from that of the current in the armature coil after
it
FIG. 167.
moment when
if the is, perfect commutation occurs, current in the armature coil under the commutator
That
brush at the moment when the coil leaves the brush has the same value and the same phase as the mainarmature current in
FIG. 168.
the coil after leaving the brush. The commutation of such a motor therefore is essentially characterized by the difference between the mainarmature current after, and the shortcircait
circuit current
current before leaving the brush. The investigation of the shortunder the commutator brushes therefore is of
351
fundamental importance in the study of the alternatingcurrent commutator motor, and the control of this shortcircuit current the main problem of alternatingcurrent commutator motor
design.
Various means have been proposed and tried to mitigate or eliminate the harmful effect of this shortcircuit current, as high resistance or high reactance introduced into the armature coil during commutation, or an opposing e.m.f either from the out.
side, or
by
a commutating
field.
the use of very Highresistance brush contact, produced by narrow carbon brushes of high resistivity, while greatly improvshortcircuit current so ing the commutation and limiting the that it does not seriously demagnetize the field and thus cause
the motor to lose its torque, is not sufficient, for the reason that the resistance of the brush contact is not high enough and also is not constant. The brush contact resistance is not of the nature of an ohmic resistance, but more of the nature of a counter
e.m.f.
;
that
becomes
for large currents the potential drop at the brushes approximately constant, as seen from the voltampere
is,
and
168.
gives It is as abscissae. brush, with the current density in the brush decreases approximately inseen that such a resistance, which of current, fails in limiting versely proportional to the increase is most required, that it where the current just at the moment is, at high currents.
the brush contact of a Fig. 167 gives the voltage consumed by while Fig. copper brush, with the current density as abscissae, a the voltage consumed by highresistance carbon 168
Commutator Leads
198.
have been reached by the use of metallic between the armature and the commutaAs shown diagrammatically in Fig. 169, each commutator
Good
results
by a high noninductive
are always in the resistance, CB, and thus two such resistances circuit of the armature coil shortcircuited under the brush, but
also one or
two in
series
circuit,
from
brush to brush.
may
therefore be
consumed in these highresistance leads, nevertheless the effithat is, the ciency of the motor is greatly increased by their use; reduction the reduction in the loss of power at the commutator by
352
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
than the waste
effect,
of
power
commutator lead must be far higher than Of the e.m.L coil to which it connects. armature the that of armature rethe useful the that e.m.f., of rotation, generated is,
the resistance of the
sistance consumes only a very small part, a few per cent. only. The e.m.f. of alternation is of the same magnitude as the e.m.f.
of rotation higher below, lower above synchronism. With a shortcircuit current equal to fullload current, the resistance of
FIG. 169.
Commutation with
resistance leads,
would consume only a small part of the and to consume the total e.m.f. the shortcircuit current therefore would have to be about as many times larger than the normal armature current as the useful generated e.m.f. of the motor is larger than the resistance drop in the armathe shortcircuit
coil
e.m.f. of alternation,
ture.
Long
is
reached
the magnetic field would have disappeared by the demagnetizing force of the shortcircuit current, that is, the motor would have
lost its torque.
To
not very greatly exceeding fullload current, thus requires a resistance of the lead, many times greater than that of the armature
is
i*r in the lead, and thus the heat produced in it, then, The space times many greater than that in the armature coil. available for the resistance lead is, however, less than that availcoil.
The
coil.
herefrom that it is not feasible to build these resistance leads so that each lead can dissipate continuously, or even for any appreciable time, without rapid selfdestruction, the heat produced in it while in circuit. When the motor is revolving, even very slowly, this is not nec;
ijj
353
during the
moment when
the armature
if
coils
connecting
2
to
it
are shortcircuited
nx
= number of
of the
9Xl
only
circuit,
densities in
mate
high resistivity are used, the heating is moderate. In starting the motor, however, if it does not start instantly, the current continues to flow through the same resistance leads, and
thus they are overheated and destroyed if the motor does not Hence care has to be taken not to have such start promptly. motors stalled for any appreciable time with voltage on. The most serious objection to the use of highresistance leads,
therefore, is their liability to selfdestruction by heating if the motor fails to start immediately, as for instance in a railway motor when putting the voltage on the motor before the brakes are released, as is done when starting on a steep upgrade to keep the train from starting to run back. Thus the advantages of resistance commutator leads are the improvement in commutation resulting from the reduced shortcircuit current, and the absence of a serious demagnetizing effect on the field at the moment of starting, which would result from an excessive shortcircuit current under the brush, and such
is
leads are therefore extensively used their disadvantage, however, that when they are used the motor must be sure to start im;
mediately by the application of voltage, otherwise they are liable to be destroyed. It is obvious that even with, highresistance commutator leads
the commutation of the motor can not be as good as that of the motor on directcurrent supply; that is, such an alternatingcurrent motor inherently is more or less inferior in commutation
far
and to compensate for this effect must be chosen in the motor design
than permissible with a directcurrent motor, that is, a lower voltage per commutator segment and lower magnetic flux per pole, hence a lower supply voltage on the armature, and thus a larger armature current and therewith a larger commutator, etc.
The
connecting the commutator segments with the armature coils of the singlephase motor also has been proposed and used for
limiting the shortcircuit current under the
23
commutator brush.
354
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
consumed by it is wattless and therefore produces no serious heating and reactive leads of low resistance thus are not liable to selfdestruction by heating if the motor fails to start immediately.
On account of the limited space available in the railway motor considerable difficulty, however, is found in designing sufficiently high reactances which do not saturate and thus decrease at
larger currents.
At speed, reactance
is
very objectionable
fore,
Theregive the armature coils the lowest possible reactance. the insertion of reactance in the motor leads interferes
seriously with the commutation of the motor at speed, and thus requires the use of a suitable commutating or reversing flux, that commutator brushes of sufficient is, a magnetic field at the
strength to reverse the current, against the selfinductance of the armature coil, by means of an e.m.f. generated in the armature
This commutating flux thus must be in coil by its rotation. phase with the main current, that is, a flux of overcompensation. Reactive leads require the use of a commutating flux of over
compensation to give
fair
commutation at speed.
Counter
E.rtufs. in
Commutated
Coil
199. Theoretically, the correct way of eliminating the destructive effect of the shortcircuit current under the commu
tator brush resulting from the e.m.f. of alternation of the main flux would be to neutralize the e.m.f. of alternation by an equal but opposite e.m.f. inserted into the armature coil or generated
therein. Practically, however, at least with most motor types, 'considerable difficulty is met in producing such a neutralizing
e.m.f. of the proper intensity as well as phase.
nating current has not only an intensity but also a phase displacement, with an alternatingcurrent motor the production of com
mutating flux or commutating voltage is more difficult than with directcurrent motors in which the intensity is the only variable. By introducing an external e.m.f. into the shortcircuited coil under the brush it is not possible entirely to neutralize its e.nr.f of alternation, but simply to reduce it to onehalf. Several such arrangements were developed in the early days by Eickemeyer,
.
355
arrangement shown in Fig. 170, which represents the development of a commutator. The commutator consists of alternate live segments, /S, and dead segments, S', that is, seg
ments not connected to armature coils, and shown shaded in Two sets of brushes on the commutator, the one, BI, Fig. 170.
FIG. 170.
Commutation with
,
external e.m.f.
ahead in position from the other, jB 2 by one commutator segment, and connected to the first by a coil, N, containing an e.m.f. equal in phase, but half in intensity, and opposite, to the e.m.f. of alternation of the armature coil; that is, if the armature coil contains a single turn, coil is a half turn located in the main
w 12
FIG. 171.
field
if
lakJ
3
m
4
Commutation by
coil,
external e.m.f.
space;
the armature
A, contains
turns,
turns in
S',
the main
field
coil,
N.
J? 2 ,
and
so as not to shortcircuit
In this manner, during the motion of the brush over the comr
356
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
its
2.
There is current through brush, Bi] There is current through both brushes, BI and B 2 and the armature coil, A, is closed by the counter e.m.f of coil,
,
,
3.
N,
is
shortcircuited;
4.
J3 2 ,
and the
N,
shortcircuited;
5.
The
by brush B\]
thus alternately the coil, N, of half the voltage of the armature is shortcircuited, coil, A, or the difference between A and that is, the shortcircuit current reduced to onehalf.
Complete elimination of the shortcircuit current can be produced by generating in the armature coil an opposing e.m.f. This e.m.f. of neutralization, however, can not be generated by the alternation of the magnetic flux through the coil, as this would require a flux equal but opposite to the full field flux traversing the coil, and thus destroy the main field of the motor. The neutralizing e.m.f., therefore, must be generated by the rotation of the armature through the commutating field, and thus can
occur only at speed; that is, neutralization of the shortcircuit current is possible only when the motor is revolving, but not while
at rest.
200.
The
armature coil shortcircommutator brush is proportional to the main to the frequency, /, and is in quadrature with the main
e.m.f. of alternation in the
its
being generated by
resented
by
eQ
= 2T/$10 8 j.
(17)
The
e.m.f., e\, generated by the rotation of the armature coil through a commutating field, $', is, however, in phase with the
field
which produces
eQ
it;
and
since e\
with
to neutralize
eo,
it,
the commutating
hence in quadrature with $; that is, the cornof the motor must be in quadrature with the field, mutating $', main field, $, to generate a neutralizing voltage, e^ of the proper
phase to oppose the e.m.f. of alternation in the shortcircuited coil. This e.m.f .,^1, is proportional to its generating field, $',
be in phase with
of rotation,
/Q
h.ence
,
is:
....
(18)
357
eo it
= j$
Jo
(19)
that
is,
the commutating
field of
be in quadrature behind and proportional to the main field, proportional to the frequency and inversely proportional to the = /, the commutation field speed; hence, at synchronism, /
field in intensity, and, being displaced therefrom both in time and in space, the motor thus must have a uniform rotating field, just as the induction motor.
equals the
main
in quadrature
Above synchronism, /o > /, the commutating field, <', is less than the main field; below synchronism, however, / < /, the commutating field must be greater than the main field to give
complete compensation. It obviously is not feasible to increase the commutating field much beyond the main field, as this would require an increase of the iron section of the motor beyond that
required to do the work, that is, to carry the main field flux. At standstill $' should be infinitely large, that is, compensation is
not possible.
Hence, by the use of a commutating field in time and space quadrature, in the singlephase motor the shortcircuit current under the commutator brushes resulting from the e.m.f of alter.
nation can be entirely eliminated at and above synchronism, and more or less reduced below synchronism, the more the nearer
to synchronism, but no effect can be produced at In such a motor either some further method, as resistance leads, must be used to take care of the shortcircuit cur
the speed
is
standstill.
rent at standstill, or the motor designed so that its commutator can carry the shortcircuit current for the small fraction of time
when the motor is at standstill or running at very low speed. The main field, $, of the series motor is approximately inversely proportional to the speed, /o, since the product of speed and field
strength,
e.m.f. of the
constant.
Substituting
$ =
77o
$ where
,
$o
= main
field
at synchronism, into
equation (19):
2
(20)
358
that
is,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the commutating
field is
square of the speed; for instance, at double synchronism it should be onequarter as high as at synchronism, etc.
201. Of the quadrature field, $', only that part is needed for commutation which enters and leaves the armature at the position of the brushes; that is, instead of producing a quadrature field, <>', in accordance with equation (20), and distributed around
the armature periphery in the same manner as the main field, <, but in quadrature position thereto, a local commutating field
may
pole or
be used at the brushes, and produced by a commutating commutating coil, as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 172
FIG. 172.
poles.
The excitation of this commutating coil, K, then i and K. would have to be such as to give a magnetic airgap density (B' relative to that of the main field, (B, by the same equations (19) and (20):
as
Jo (21)
As the alternating flux of a magnetic circuit is proportional to the voltage which it consumes, that is, to the voltage impressed upon the magnetizing coil, and lags nearly 90 behind it, the magnetic flux of the commutating poles, can be produced by ener
e,
which
is
JV
where
e
is its
(22)
359
supply voltage, e, and also lags 90* so behind the supply current behind (B, by equation (2), of the motor, the voltage, e.m.f. the supply and, approximately,
lags 90
behind
its
and
is approxirequired for the excitation of the commutating poles that is, the of the motor; with in supply voltage phase mately the of "the with varied is and be speed can thereof a part used, motor. Perfect commutation, however, requires not merely the elimie,
nation of the shortcircuit current under the brush, but requires a reversal of the load current in the armature coil during its passage under the commutator brush. To reverse the current, an e.m.f. is required proportional but opposite to the current and therefore with the main field; hence, to produce a reversing e.m.f. in the armature coil under the commutator brush a second com
mutating
field is required, in
field
and
ap.
The commutating field required by a singlephase commutator motor to give perfect commutation thus consists of a component in quadrature with the main field, or the neutralizing component, which eliminates the shortcircuit current under the brush, and a component in phase with the main field, or the reversing comin the armature coil ponent, which reverses the main current under the brush; and the resultant commutating field thus must
lag behind the
ply voltage,
main field, and so approximately behind the supby somewhat less than 90, and have an intensity
of varying approximately inversely proportional to the square the speed of the motor. Of the different motor types discussed under IV, the series
and therefore can be made to commutate satisfactorily only by the use of commutator The leads, or by the addition of separate commutating poles. dewhich inverted repulsion motor, 3, has a quadrature field, combetter a creases with increase of speed, .and therefore gives
motors, 1 and
2,
have no quadrature
field,
motors, though not perfect, as the quadrature field does not have quite the right intensity. The repulsion motors, 4 and 5, have a quadrature field, lag
series
comging nearly 90 behind the main field, and thus give good the has field mutation at those speeds at which the quadrature the in repulsion However, right intensity for commutation. is conmotor with excitation, 5, the quadrature field
secondary
stant and independent of the speed, as constant supply voltage,
360
is
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the quadrature
impressed upon the commutating winding, (7, which produces field, and in the direct repulsion motor, 4, the with the speed, as the voltage consumed increases field quadrature F field main the decreases, and that left for the compensating by
winding, C, thus increases with the speed, while to give proper commutating flux it should decrease with the square of the speed. It thus follows that the commutation of the repulsion motors improves with increase of speed, up to that speed where the
quadrature field is just right for commutating field which is about at synchronism but above this speed the commutation rapily becomes poorer, due to the quadrature field being far in
excess of that required for commutating. In the series repulsion motors, 6 and 7, a quadrature field also exists, just as in the repulsion motors, but this quadrature field
of the total voltage which is impressed the commutating winding, (7, and thus can be varied by upon the distribution of supply voltage between the two cirvarying cuits; hence, in this type of motor, the commutating flux can be maintained through all (higher) speeds by impressing the total
armature
voltage upon the compensating circuit and shortcircuiting the circuit for all speeds up to that at which the required
commutating flux has decreased to the quadrature flux given by the motor, and from this speed upward only a part of the supply voltage, inversely proportional (approximately) to the square of
the speed, is impressed upon the compensating circuit, the rest The difference between shifted over to the armature circuit.
6 and 7 is that in 6 the armature circuit is more inductive, and the quadrature flux therefore lags less behind the main flux than in 7, and by thus using more or less of the field coil in the armature circuit its inductivity can
be varied, and
therewith the
phase displacement of the quadrature flux against the main flux adjusted from nearly 90 lag to considerably less lag, hence not only the proper intensity but also the exact phase of the required
different
motor
IV is
essentially
commutation. It follows herefrom that by the selection of the motortype quadrature fluxes, $1, can be impressed upon the motor, as commutating flux, of intensities and phase displacements against
the main
flux,
?
The main
361
is the possibility advantage of the seriesrepulsion motor type the of commutating proper securing which this type affords, is too low to the where to that down speed field at all speeds
commutating
flux.
VI.
202.
Motor
Characteristics
singlephase commutator motor of varying speed or series characteristic comprises three circuits, the armature, the winding, and the field winding, which are connected
The
compensating
in series with each other, directly or indirectly. The impressed e.m.f. or supply voltage of the
sists of
1.
the components
The
e.m.f. of rotation,
ei,
ture conductors
by
This voltage is in phase is the mately with the current, i, that is, is power e.m.f., and is It motor. the of work useful proporvoltage which does the tional to the speed or frequency of rotation,/ ,to the field strength,
$,
their rotation through the magnetic field, $. with the field, $, and therefore approxi
of effective
armature turns,
.
HI.
ei
27r/
n I $10 8
(23)
The number
is
of effective
the projection of all the turns on their resultant direcwinding, With a fullpitch winding of n series turns from brush to tion. brush, the effective number of turns thus is:
+
n\
= m [avg
cos]
r
2 m.
(24)
L
2
ni
= m7T
[avg cos]
 r
2 7T
m sin
,
r ~
<
(25)
that is, the voltage of the magnetic alternation generated in the field turns by the This volthem. them and thus enclosed by
2.
The
flux, $,
tage
is
field flux,
$,
362
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
field strength, $,
and
to the
number
of
>
10~ 8
(26)
3.
The impedance
= JZ
r
(27)
and:
Z =
+ jx,
armature with
where r
total
is, reactance of the leakage flux of armature and compensating winding or the stray flux passing locally between the armature and the compensating conductors
plus the selfinductive reactance of the field, that is, the reacfield or flux passing between field coils
In addition hereto, x comprises the reactance due to the quadrature magnetic flux of incomplete compensation or overcompensation, that is, the voltage generated by the quadrature flux,
<', in
ductors, HI
n 2 or
%
eQ
ni.
is:
$= =
Let,
ei
+e
7r/otti$
10~ 8
8 2jirfni$ 10~
(r
+ jx)
/.
(28)
then,
R =
magnetic reluctance of
field flux,
I,
field
circuit,
thus
$ =
~~H~
the magnetic
when assuming
this flux as in
and denoting:
==
y
*
=
==
~
n
ratio of effective
field turnsj
armature turns to
363
and
(31) in (28)
[(r
cSx Q )
+ j(x + xo)] I;
E
(32)
(33)
...............
................
V(r
The powerfactor
is
+ cSxo)* +
=
X
r
(x
+ x )*

given by:
tanfl
+X + cSx
(35) }
The
useful
work
of the
motor
is
done by the
e.m.f. of rotation:
and, since this e.m.f., $1, is in phase with the current, useful work, or the motor output (inclusive friction, etc.),
JT,
the
is:
p =
Eil
(r
=
2
(a;
+ cSxo) +
:
of the
motor is
(r
cSx,y
+
c
(x
(37)
xo)*
For instance,
let
200 volts,
=
flo
=
j,
4,
Z =
then:
.
ja;
0.02
0.06
XQ
0.08;
10,000
* fl COt ^
+ y
1
16/S
>
r
(1
r* D
32,0005
+ +
16 S) 2
+ 49
+ 49
'
32 >
(i
16 5)*
364
203.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
different speeds
is
best
shown
in Fig. 173.
In railway practice, by a survival of the practice of former with the current, /, as times, usually the constants are plotted this arrangein shown obviously as Fig. 174, though abscissa^ the of behavior the illustrate well as not does ment motor^
Graphically,
by
is
motor diagram
the starting with the current, I, as zero axis, 01, plotted in Fig. 175.
resistance,
r, is
OE =
r
ir,
in
phase
with 01} the voltage consumed by the reactance, #, is OS^ == ix, and 90 ahead of 01. OE r and OjBa; combine to the voltage con
sumed by the motor impedance, OE' = Combining OE' = iz> OEi = ei> and
terminal voltage,
iz.
OE Q =
OE
e,
of the motor,
EOI =
e.
In this diagram, and in the preceding approximate calculation, the magnetic flux, <i>, has been assumed in phase with the current; /.
flux, $, lags
however, the equivalent sine wave of magnetic behind the equivalent sine wave of exciting current, I, by the angle of hysteresis lag, and still further by the power
In
reality,
365
consumed by eddy currents, and, especially in the commutator motor, by the power consumed in the shortcircuit current under
the brushes, and the vector, 0$, therefore
is
vector, 01, by an angle a, which is small in a motor in which the shortcircuit current under the brushes is eliminated and the
in the
eddy currents are negligible, but may reach considerable values motor of poor commutation.
FIG. 174.
Assuming then,
a,
in Fig. 176,
0$
lagging behind
01 by angle
is,
OEi
is
in phase with
is
but contains
a wattless lagging component. The e.m.f. of alternation, OE$, is 90 ahead of 0*, hence less than 90 ahead of 01, and therefore contains a power component representing the power consumed
by
hysteresis,
eddy
currents,
and the
it is
shortcircuit current
under
the brushes.
0,
reduced, that
is,
366
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the increased loss of power, but is far greater than corresponding It is the result of the lag of the e.m.f. of rotation^ which thereto.
for produces a lagging e.m.f. component partially compensating e.m.f. the of a lag selfinductance, consumed e.m.f. the by
Er
FIG. 175.
As the
magnetic
flux, $,
by producing a lagging e.m.f. of rotation and thus compensating for the lag of current by selfinductance, singlephase motors and poor commutation usually have better powerfactors,
having
FIG. 176.
Singlephase commutatormotor diagram with phase displacement between flux and current.
improvement
shortcircuit current
by eliminating or reducing the under the brush, usually causes a slight decrease in the powerfactor, by bringing the magnetic flux, $, more nearly in phase with the current, I.
in commutation,
204. Inversely,
by
the phase angle can be decreased and the powerfactor improved. Such a shift of the magnetic flux, $, behind the supply current, i,
i?
into components,
367
and using the lagging component for field excitation. done most conveniently by shunting the field by a noninductive resistance. Let ro be the noninductive resistance in shunt with the field winding, of reactance, X Q + Xi where Xi is
This
9
FIG. 177.
The
current,
i',
in the field
is
reactance, x due to the field coils. lagging 90 behind the current, i",
}
in a noninductive resistance,
ratio
TT>
r
;
XL
FIG. 178.
e.m.f. of
OEi, the
OE
Qf
QW
368
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
OE, nearer
in phase to
01 than with
In this manner,
large,
if
in Fig. 178. unity powerfactor can be_produced, as shown = impedance voltage of the Let 01 = total current, OE'
motor, OE?
in phase
Offi,
OEi and
OE
Q}
in quadra
FIG
179.
ture with each other, and proportional respectively to the e.m.f. of rotation and the e.m.f. of alternation^j^ives the magnetic flux, with the e.mJ. of rotation, OEi, and the component G in
?
phase
with 0$, which 01", in phase and in quadrature respectively combined make up the total current. The projection of the e.m.f. of rotation OEi on 01 then is the power component of the e.m.f., which does the work of the motor, and the quadrature projection of, OEi, is the compensating component of the e.m.f. of rotation, which neutralizes the wattless component of
Obviously such a compensation involves some loss of power shunting the field coils, and as the powerfactor of the motor usually is sufficiently high, such
,
compensation is rarely needed. In motors in which some of the circuits are connected inductively in series with the others the diagram is essentially the same, except
369
that a phase displacement exists between the secondary and the primary current. The secondary current, Ii, of the transformer
lags
behind the primary current, Jo, slightly less than 180; that is, considered in opposite direction, the secondary current leads the primary by a small angle, 0o, and in the motors with secondary
<i>,
lagging
,
by angle a behind
(or angle
being in phase with the field current, it), thus leads the primary
As a lag of the maga). thus decreases the powerfactor, lead and a excitation motors with secondary field usually have a slightly
li'E
FIG. 180.
Singlephase
commutator motor
field
powerfactor
circuit.
improved by shunting
lower powerfactor than motors with primary field excitation, and therefore, where desired, the powerfactor may be improved by shunting the field with a noninductive resistance,^. Thus
for instance,
if,
in Fig. 179,
and OE$,
in quadra
Of i,
is
OE
is
the
impedance voltage, and OEi, OE Q and OE' combined give the supply voltage, OE, and EOI = 6 the angle of lag. Shunting the field by a noninductive resistance, r and thus
,
Of i
into the
components Of 'i
in
the
and Of"i in the noninductive resistance, gives the diagram Fig. 180, where a = I'iO$ = angle of lag of magnetic
field
field.
24
370
205.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
The
action of the
commutator
in
an alternatingcurrent
compensation for phase displacement and of the powerfactor, is very interesting control a thus allowing be used in other types of machines, also and can and
motor, in permitting
important,
as induction motors
and
alternators,
with a commutator
current is the same as a lead of the e.m.f ., and inhas the same efa leading current inserted into a circuit versely The however, inserted. e.m.f. commutator, a as fect lagging the field current. the Exciting with in e.m.f. an phase produces is rotation of e.m.f. a in the current lagging field, by a lagging
A lag of the
easy produced which is equivalent to a leading current. commutator the current selfinductance, a to produce by lagging thus affords an easy means of producing the equivalent of a
it is
As
Therefore, the alternatingcurrent commutator leading current. is one of the important methods of compensating for lagging Other methods are the use of electrostatic or electrocurrents.
lytic
condensers and of overexcited synchronous machines. Based on this principle, a number of designs of induction motors and other apparatus have been developed, using the commutator for neutralizing the lagging magnetizing current and the lag caused by selfinductance, and thereby producing So far, however, unity powerfactor or even leading currents. none of them has come into extended use.
feasible in singlephase able air gaps, far larger
This feature, however, explains the very high powerfactors commutator motors even with consider
VII. Efficiency
and Losses
motors are essen
206.
tially
(a)
Friction losses
air friction or
friction, losses.
Core losses, as hysteresis and eddy currents. These are the alternating core loss, due to the alternation of two classes of the magnetic flux in the main field, quadrature field, and armature and the rotating core loss, due to the rotation of the armature;
field.
frequency, the latter upon the speed. (c) Commutation losses, as the power consumed
371
such
(d)
exists.
i r losses
2
motor
circuits
the field
coils,
Load
losses,
is, an increase of the total effective resistance of the motor beyond the ohmic resistance. Driving the motor by mechanical power and with no voltage on the motor gives the friction and the windage losses, exclusive of commutator friction, if the brushes are lifted off the commuEnertator, inclusive, if the brushes are on the commutator. gizing now the field by an alternating current of the rated frequency, with the commutator brushes off, adds the core losses
that
to the friction losses; the increase of the driving power then measures the rotating core loss, while a wattmeter in the field exciting circuit measures the alternating core loss. Thus the alternating core loss is supplied by the impressed electric power, the rotating core loss by the mechanical driving
power.
Putting
now
the brushes
down on
commutation losses. The ohmic resistance gives the tfr losses, and the difference between the ohmic resistance and the effective resistance, calculated from wattmeter readings with alternating current in the motor circuits at rest and with the field unexcited, represents
the load losses.
for their
However, the different losses so derived have to be corrected mutual effect. For instance, the commutation losses
in the armature; the load losses are than without, etc. so that this method of separately determining the losses can give only an estimate of their general magnitude, but the exact determination of the efficiency is best carried out by measuring electric input and me
are increased
by the current
less
with the
field excited
chanical output.
VIII. Discussion of
Motor Types
207. Varyingspeed singlephase commutator motors can be divided into two classes, namely, compensated series motors and In the former, the main supply current is repulsion motors.
through the armature, while in the latter the armature is closed upon itself as secondary circuit, with the compensating winding
372
as
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
hereof the repulsion primary or supply circuit. As the result in transformer quadrature position to the flux, motors contain a in the series motors no while behind main flux, and lagging it, in quadrature position but flux exists, such lagging quadrature
to the
main
flux,
is
zero
complete compensation
over or undercompensation.
A.
Series
motors give the best powerfactors, with the exception of those motors in which by increasing the lag of the field flux a compensation for powerfactor is produced, as discussed in V. The commutation of the series motor, however, is equally poor at all speeds, due to the absence of any commutating flux, and with the exception of very small sizes such motors therefore are
leads or cominoperative without the use of either resistance fair operaWith however, leads, highresistance mutating poles. class with same the not of tion is obviously
secured, though
that of the directcurrent motor; with commutating poles or coils results producing a local quadrature flux at the brushes good
have been produced abroad. Of the two types of compensation, conductive compensation,
with the compensating winding connected in series with the armature, and inductive compensation, 2, with the compensated necwinding shortcircuited upon itself, inductive compensation or compensacomplete is practically complete always essarily while with conductive compensation a reversing flux can
1,
tion,
be produced at the brushes by overcompensation, and the commutation thus somewhat improved, especially at speed, at the is lowered by the sacrifice, however, of the powerfactor, which On the increased selfinductance of the compensating winding.
under the brushes, due to the e.m.f. of alterno helpful effect. nation, such overcompensation obviously has the compenthat Inductive compensation has the advantage can be sating winding is not connected with the supply circuit, shortcircuited made of very low voltage, or even of individually turns, and therefore larger conductors and less insulation used, which results in an economy of space, and therewith an increased
shortcircuit current
size of
motor.
it
preferable where
however, in motors which are required to operate also on direct current, since with directcurrent supply no induction takes place
373
and therefore the compensation fails, and with the high ratio of armature turns to field turns, without compensation, the field
distortion
is
circuit,
but magnetically
that
is,
must be generated in this winding, thus giving a corresponding transformer flux. With increasing speed and therewith decreasing current, the voltage consumed by the field coils decreases,
flux which generates this voltage. Therefore, the inverted repulsion motor contains a transformer flux which has approximately the intensity and the phase re
quired for commutation; it lags behind the main flux, but less .than 90, thus contains a component in phase with the main
as reversing flux, and decreases with increase of speed. Therefore, the commutation of the inverted repulsion motor is very good, far superior to the ordinary series motor, and it can
flux,
be operated without resistance leads it has, however, the serious objection of a poor powerfactor, resulting from the lead of the field flux against the armature current, due to the secondary exTo make such a motor satisfactory citation, as discussed in V. in powerfactor requires a noninductive shunt across the field,
;
of power.
For
come
B, Repulsion Motors
208. Repulsion motors are characterized by a lagging quadrature flux, which transfers the power from the compensating winding to the armature. At standstill, and at very low speeds, re
and series motors are equally unsatisfactory in commutation; while, however, in the series motors the commutation remains bad (except when using commutating devices), in the repulsion motors with increasing speed the commutation rapidly improves, and becomes perfect near synchronism. As the result hereof, under average conditions a much inferior compulsion motors
374
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
mutation can be allowed in repulsion motors at very low speeds than in series motors, since in the former the period of poor commutation lasts only a very short time. While, therefore,, series motors can not be satisfactorily operated without resistance leads (or comxnutating poles), in repulsion motors resistance leads are not necessary and not used, and the excessive current density under the brushes in the moment of starting permitted, as it lasts too short a time to cause damage to the commutator. As the transformer field of the repulsion motor is approximately
constant, while the proper commutating field should decrease with the square of the speed, above synchronism the transformer
field is
too large for commutation, and at speeds considerably above synchronism 50 per cent, and more the repulsion motor becomes inoperative because of excessive sparking. At synchronism, the magnetic field of the repulsion motor is a rotating
field, like
Where, therefore, speeds far above synchronism are required, the repulsion motor can not be used; but where synchronous speed is not much exceeded the repulsion motor is preferred because of
tator as
its
Thus when using a commusuperior commutation. device for auxiliary starting singlephase induction
motors the repulsionmotor type is used. For high frequencies, as 60 cycles, where peripheral speed forbids synchronism being greatly exceeded, the repulsion motor is the type to be considered. Repulsion motors also may be built with primary and secexcitation. The latter usually gives a better commutabecause of the lesser lag of the transformer flux, and therewith a greater inphase component, that is, greater reversing flux,
ondary
tion,
especially at high speeds. Secondary excitation, however, gives a slightly lower powerfactor. A combination of the repulsionmotor and seriesmotor types is the series repulsion motor, 6 and 7. In this only a part of
the supply voltage is impressed upon the compensating winding and thus transformed to the armature, while the rest of the supply voltage is impressed directly upon the armature, just as in
As motor
in the
same proportion
in
compensating winding is Such a motor, therefore, reaches equality of the transformer flux with the commutating flux, and gives perfect commutation at a
the than that of the repulsion motor, which the voltage impressed upon the less than the total supply voltage.
375
higher speed than the repulsion motor, that is, above synchronWith the total supply voltage impressed upon the compenism. sating winding, the transformer flux equals the commutating At n times synchronous speed the comflux at synchronism.
of
what
it is at
synchronism, and by
impressing 5 of the supply voltage upon the compensating winding, the rest
flux
is
reduced
made
n times synchronism. In the series repulsion motor, by thus gradually shifting the supply voltage from the compensating winding to the armature and thereby reducing the transformer flux, it can be maintained
ting flux at
equal to the required commutating flux at all speeds from synchronism upward; that is, the series repulsion motor arrangement permits maintaining the perfect commutation, which the
repulsion motor has near synchronism, for all higher speeds. With regard to construction, no essential difference exists between the different motor types, and any of the types can be all three operated equally well on direct current by connecting
circuits in series.
and secondary
circuits, as
In general, the motor types having primary the repulsion and the series repulsion
flexibility,
as they permit winding the of transthat circuits for different voltages, is, introducing a ratio circuit. and Shifting one formation between primary secondary or to inversely, then motor element from primary secondary, of turns, or of a of change the voltage change equivalent gives Thus a repulsion motor in which the stator is wound for a higher or armature, voltage, that is, with more turns, than the rotor
when connecting
all
field excitation, gives a directcurrent motor having a greater tion compared with the armature reaction, that is, the stronger field which is desirable for directcurrent operating but not permissible with alternating current. 209. In general, tthe constructve differences between motor
circuits.
supply transformer, circuit, T used in starting and at very low speeds. Connecting, in Fig. 181, the armature, A, between field F and compensating winding, C.
resistance
let
F =
field circuit,
A =
armature
circuit,
C =
R =
376
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
open the starting resistance
is
With switch
in circuit; closing
shortcircuits the starting resistance and gives the runswitch ning conditions of the motor.
With
all
is
a conductively
FIG. 181.
operate
Closing 1 gives the inductively compensated series motor. Closing 2 gives the repulsion motor with primary excitation. Closing 3 gives the repulsion motor with secondary excitation. of the Closing 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 gives the successive speed steps excitation. armature with motor series repulsion
FIG. 182.
Alternatingcurrent
Connecting, in Fig. 182, the field, F, between armature, A and compensating winding, C, the resistance, R, is again controlled by
}
switch
series
0.
compensated
motor.
377
closed
gives
Switch 2 closed gives the inductively compensated series excitation, or inverted repulsion motor. Switch 3 closed gives the repulsion motor with primary
Switches 4 to 7 give the different speed steps of the series repulsion motor with primary excitation. Opening the connection at x and closing at y (as shown in dotted line), the steps 3 to 7 give respectively the repulsion motor
with secondary excitation and the successive steps of the series repulsion motor with armature excitation.
Still
further combinations can be produced in this manner, as by closing 2 and 4, but leaving open,
F, is connected across a constantpotential supply, in with resistance, E, while the armature also receives constant voltage, and the motor then approaches a finite speed, that
the
field,
series
is,
field,
has shunt motor characteristic, and in starting, the main F, and the quadrature field, AC, are displaced in phase, so
give a rotating or polyphase field (unsymmetrical). To discuss all these motor types with their in some instances
very interesting characteristics obviously is not feasible. In general, they can all be classified under series motor, repulsion
motor, shunt motor, and polyphase induction motor, and combinations thereof.
IX. Other
Commutator Motor
210. Singlephase commutator motors have been developed as varyingspeed motors for railway service. In other directions
commutators have been applied to alternatingcurrent motors and such motors developed (a) For limited speed, or of the shuntmotor type, that is,
:
motors of similar characteristic as the singlephase railway motor, except that the speed does not indefinitely increase with decreasing load but approaches a finite noload value. Several types of such motors have been developed, as stationary motors
for elevators,
variablespeed machinery,
etc.,
usually of the
singlephase type.
By
impressing constant voltage upon the field the magnetic and the speed thus reaches a finite limiting
378
the constant
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
field flux consumes the impressed voltage of the armature. By changing the voltage supply to the field different speeds can be produced, that is, an adjustablespeed motor. The main problem in the design of such motors is to get the field excitation in phase with the armature current and thus pro
duce a good powerfactor. In the (6) Adjustablespeed polyphase induction motors. an e.m.f. is motor induction the of generpolyphase secondary ated which, at constant impressed e.m.f. and therefore approximately constant flux, is proportional to the slip from synchronWith shortcircuited secondary the motor closely apism. proaches synchronism. Inserting resistance into the secondary reduces the speed by the voltage consumed in the secondary. As this is proportional to the current and thus to the load, the
speed control of the polyphase induction motor by resistance in the secondary gives a speed which varies with the load, just as the speed control of a directcurrent motor by resistance in the armature circuit hence, the speed is not constant, and the operation at lower speeds inefficient. Inserting, however, a constant induction motor the speed is of the the into secondary voltage
;
decreased
voltage
is
if
in the
and in
this
and is increased if this same direction as the secondary generated e.m.f,, manner a speed control can be produced. If c =
this voltage is in opposition,
voltage inserted into the secondary, as fraction of the voltage which would be induced in it at full frequency by the rotating
then the polyphase induction motor approaches at noload to the speed (1 c) times sync) or (1 chronism, depending upon the direction of the inserted voltage. Such a voltage inserted into the inductionmotor secondary must, however, have the frequency of the motor secondary currents, that is, of slip, and therefore can be derived from the fullfrequency supply circuit only by a commutator revolving with the secondary. If cf is the frequency of slip, then (1 c)/ is the frequency of rotation, and thus the frequency of commutafield,
tion,
and at frequency,
/,
effective frequency of the commutated current c/, or the frequency of slip, as required.
(1
c)
affords a
379
give the effect of the frequency of slip, they actually consist of sections of waves of full frequency, that is, meet the full station
ary impedance in the rotor secondary, and not the very much lower impedance of the lowfrequency currents in the ordinary induction motor. If, therefore, the brushes on the commutator are set so that the inserted voltage is in phase with the voltage generated in the
secondary, the powerfactor of the motor is very poor. Shifting the brushes, by a phase displacement between the generated and the inserted voltage, the secondary currents can be made to lead,
unity powerfactor produced. This, however, is the case only at one definite load, and at all other loads either overcompensation or undercompensation takes place, resulting in poor powerSuch a polyphase adjustablefactor, either lagging or leading.
speed motor thus requires shifting of the brushes with the load or other adjustment, to maintain reasonable powerfactor, and for this reason has not been used. The production of an alter(c) Powerfactor compensation.
nating magnetic flux requires wattless or reactive voltamperes, which are proportional to the frequency. Exciting an induction motor not by the stationary primary but by the revolving sec
much lower frequency of slip, reduces the voltamperes excitation in the proportion of full frequency to frequency of slip, that is, to practically nothing. This can be done by feeding the exciting current into the secondary by commutaIf the secondary contains no other winding but that contor.
ondary, which has the
nected to the commutator, the motor gives a poor powerfactor. If, however, in addition to the exciting winding, fed by the commutator, a permanently shortcircuited winding is used, as a squirrelcage winding, the exciting impedance of the former is
reduced to practically nothing by the shortcircuit winding coincident with it, and so by overexcitation unity powerfactor or even leading current can be produced. The presence of the short
however, excludes this method from speed and such a motor (Heyland motor) runs near synchronism just as the ordinary induction motor, differing merely by the " powerfactor. Regarding hereto see Chapter on Induction Motors with Secondary Excitation." This method of excitation by feeding the alternating current through a commutator into the rotor has been used very successcircuited' winding,
control,
380
fully
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
abroad in the socalled "compensated repulsion motor" of This motor differs from the ordinary repulWinterEichberg.
sion
motor merely by the field coil, F, in Fig. 183 being replaced a by set of exciting brushes, G, in Fig. 184, at right angles to the main brushes of the armature, that is, located so that the m.m.f of the current between the brushes, G, magnetizes in the same
.
FIG. 183.
direction as the field coils, JF, in Fig. 183. Usually the exciting brushes are supplied by a transformer or autotransformer, so as to vary the excitation and thereby the speed. This arrangement then lowers the e.m.f. of self inductance of
field excitation of
FIG. 184.
WinterEichberg motor.
quency in the ordinary repulsion motor to that of the frequency of slip, hence to a negative value above synchronism; so that
hereby a compensation for lagging current can be produced above synchronism, and unity powerfactor or even leading
currents produced.
381
In its most general form, the as represented by Fig. 185, commutator motor, singlephase or rotor circuits in quadrature with armature two comprises: each other, the main, or energy, and the exciting circuit of the armature where such exists, which by a multisegmental commutator are connected to two sets of brushes in quadrature position with each other. These give rise to two shortcircuits, also in quadrature position with each other and caused respectively by the main and by the exciting brushes. Two stator circuits, the
Ii
FIG. 185.
or exciting, and the cross, or compensating circuit, also in quadrature with each other, and in line respectively with the exciting and the main armature circuit. These circuits may be separate, or may be parts or components of the same circuit. They may be massed together in a single slot of the magnetic structure, or may be distributed over the whole periphery, as frequently done with the armature windings, and then as their effective number of turns must be considered
field,
n = n
7T
f ;
where
n'
actual
number of turns in series between the armaand distributed over the whole periphery, that is, Or the windings of the circuit may be electrical.
distributed only over an arc of the periphery of angle, co, as frequently the case with the compensating winding distributed in the pole face of pole arc, co; or with fractionalpitch armature windings of pitch, co. In this case, the effective number of turns
is:
2
co
n, sm
a
2
382
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
number
n' with a fractionalpitch armature winding is the of series turns in the pitch angle, a>, that is:
where
of turns in series
in the space (TT ) outside of the pitch angle the armature conductors neutralize each other, that is, conductors carrying current in opposite direction are superposed upon each other.
" See fractionalpitch windings, chapter Commutating Machine," "Theoretical Elements of Electrical Engineering/'
212. Let:
EQ,
Io,
ZQ
impedance
coils),
magnetizing or exciter circuit of stator (field reduced to the rotor energy circuit by the ratio of effective
Co,
of the
turns,
impressed voltage, current and selfinductive imEi, Iij Zi of the rotor energy circuit (or circuit at right angles pedance
to Jo),
impressed voltage, current and selfinductive imcompensating circuit (or circuit parallel to pedance rotor reduced the circuit by the ratio of effective turns, c 2 to Ji) E s> Is, Zi = impressed voltage, current and selfinductive imZj
la,
Z =
2
of the stator
circuit of
current and selfinductive impedance of the shortunder the brushes, Ii, reduced to the rotor circuit, I 5 ZB = current and selfinductive impedance of the shortcircuit under the brushes, I 3 reduced to the rotor circuit, Z = mutual impedance of field excitation, that is, in the direc
14
Z4 =
circuit
,
Z = mutual impedance
f
Using then the general equations 7 Chapter XIX, which apply any alternatingcurrent circuit revolving with speed, $, through a magnetic field energized by alternatingcurrent circuits, gives for the six circuits of the general singlephase commutator motor
to
383
(1)
/3
/B
7l
7o 7o
7i
~ 
70,
70
75),
 jZ
(7o
+

7s
7<)*
(2) (3)
70
7s) 72)
(72
/i
6
J 5 ),
(4)
(5) (6)
(7i (/o
+7 + Is
7),
70
These
variables, that
four conditions,
Properly choosing these four conditions, and substituting them into the six equations (1) to (6), so determines all ten variables. That is, the equations of practically all singlephase commutator motors are contained as special cases in above equations, and
derived therefrom, by substituting the four conditions, which
characterize the motor.
Let then, in the following, the reduction factors to the armature circuit, or the ratio of effective turns of a circuit, i, to the effective turns of the armature circuit, be represented by c<.
That
is,
'
and if E^ f Zi are voltage, current and impedance of circuit, i, reduced to the armature circuit, then the actual voltage, current
and impedance
of circuit,
i,
are:
213.
The
186:
1.
Series motor:
<?
#o
$i; 7o
Co7i5 1*
0; 7s
0.
2. Conductively motor)
:
compensated
#1
series
motor
(Eickemeyer
e
3.
=
=
#o
+c$
2
7o
=
=
Co7i; /2
c 2 /i; 7a
0.
:
# +
#1; $2
0; /
cojij 7s
0,
384
4.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Inverted repulsion motor, or series motor with secondary
:
excitation
e
5.
$1; c Q E Q
+ CzEz =
2
;
0; c 2 /
=
:
/2
h=
=
0.
?o
+ C2#
;
#i
0; c 2 /o
/ 2 /s
;
0.
6.
c2
co#o
Ei
0;
c /ij
I3
0.
p T
vjooc/
fnmn
V^
y
AO
FIG. 186.
7.
Series repulsion
ei
co.g'o
+ jfr; e
= ^2
/o
co/.i;
/3
== 0.
8.
Series repulsion
:
sen motor)
ei 9.
$i] 02
CQ^O
c 2 ^2; c 2 /o
/2
h~
0.
Compensated
:
repulsion
motor
(Winter
and
Eichberg
motor)
0; 
0;
385
= E
+c
Ez
+c# h
3 3
;
c 2 /i; / 3
c 8 /i; /o
0.
jfc
+c#
3
#2
0; I
0; J3
c 8 /i
__
FlG
Ig7
0.
a speed
that
Motors with shunt characteristic, is, a speed which does not vary greatly with the load, and reaches such
a definite limiting
value at noload that tb.6 motor can be considered a constantspeed motor, can For instance: also be derived from the above equations.
(Fig. 187)
c3
E =
x
0; c 2
# =
2
# =
3
<?;
Jo
In general, a series characteristic results, if the fieldexciting and the armature energy circuit are connected in series with each other directly or inductively, or related to each other so that the currents in the two circuits are more or less proporShunt characteristic results, if the voltage tional to each other.
circuit
impressed upon the armature energy circuit, and the field excitation, or rather the magnetic field flux, whether produced or induced by the internal reactions of the rnotor, are constant, or, more generally, proportional to each other.
Repulsion Motor
As
illustration of the application of these general equations, 212, may be considered the theory of the repulsion
Assuming
armature
of the repulsion
(1) to (6),
386
1.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Armature
shortcircuited
upon
itself.
Hence:
#!
2.
0.
nected to a source of impressed voltage, e. Hence, assuming the compensating circuit or crosscircuit of the same number of effective turns as the rotor circuit, or, c 2 = 1
:
+
Herefrom follows
3.
:
Ez
e.
Jo
Co/2.
4.
No
of
commu
= =
0,
and therefore:
/5
0.
(6),
Substituting these four conditions in the six equations (1) to gives the three repulsion motor equations:
Primary
circuit:
Z 2 72
Ii)
Zo/2
(co/2
/4 )
e]
(7)
Secondary
Zi/i
+Z
(A
/,)
 JSZ
(co/ s
/4 )
0;
(8)
Brush
shortcircuit:
/4
+Z
now
(/ 4
Co/0
 JSZ'(h 
/2 )
0;
(9)
Substituting
the abbreviations:
Z,
+ Co
(Z
Z)
= Z3
(10)
(11)
f = A,
f=
7
where
X/
Xi,
(12)
and X4
M)
F?on>
then follows
/4
X 4 {h
(c
 J8A) + jShA
} ;
(14)
387
by
_* r _ XW2
(co
 j&t) (1 + Xi  \jS*)+jSA 1 + Xi  X S 2
4
or,
A
Equation
(7) gives,
co (1
X4/ 2
S + ^ _ Xi(S2
2 )
'
(16)
e.
(17)
Substituting (15) and (16) herein, and rearranging, gives: Primary Current:
(18)
JJL\.
where:
and:
A3 =
or, since
f
co
2
(20)
approximately:
A =
3
(21)
it is:
K=
(A 3
jSco)
+ Xi
(c
+ A)
X 4c
(co
JS).
(22)
Substituting (18), (19), (20) in (15) and (16), gives: Secondary Current:
All
(23)
X46Co (1
/S )
^K
388
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
for
As seen,
$ =
1,
shortcircuit current
or at synchronism, /4 = 0, that is, the under the commutator brushes of the re
pulsion motor disappears at synchronism, as was to be expected, since the armature coils revolve synchronously in a rotating field. 215. The e.m.f. of rotation, that is, the e.m.f generated in the
.
rotation through the magnetic field, which e.m.f., by with the current in the respective circuit, produces the torque
rotor
its
is:
Main
circuit:
//4).
Brush
shortcircuit:
(25)
^JSZ'tfx/,).
ing, gives:
(26)
Substituting (18), (23), (24) into (25) and (26), and rearrang
Main
+XiMBrush
Shortcircuit E.m.f. of Rotation:
(27)
or,
$" 4
!?.
(29)
circuit is
__
fjit
and
e
(27)
JL
i
p _
L?Scoe
~fiT~
n
*
^. ~~ T~
A. A
x 40 s(s
I
>,
i
* J
+ ^} "T Ml A. A/
i \ / \
"
'
ZK
Let:
m=
[ZK]
(31)
Xi
= Vi 
jX"i
(32)
389
Pi
Uv
{[*(! Scoa")
 r (X"! + X" )]  Sco*' (X'x  X' + x (\'\ +  x (X' S  \\Sc a" + X" Sc a') + r (X' Sc a' ~X" S + X%Sc a")},
4
[r
4)
X" 4 )]
(33)
after canceling
As
first
_.
Sc Q e z x(
Q Coa
r Qc ^
A
/
/O
.K
(34)
hence a
maximum
^=
dS
or:
'
So
^1 + Co
(a"
Co
a')
(a"
+^
(35)
')
and equal
to:
"
'
a"
+
main
'
(36)
The complete
from
(33)
:
circuit
is,
(a"
+ ~a ) ] &  &i^  6
f
^2
},
(37)
where
&i,
Brare functions of
X'i,
X;/ i,
X' 4 ,
7/
4,
as derived
by
rearranging (33).
is:
390
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
:
X 4 ec
4
(l
)i J
Ylfl
hence positive, or assisting, below synchronism, retarding above synchronism. The total Power, or Output of the motor then is:
P =P
or:
Power Output:
(X"
4
+ '*<) 4
;
or,
S
(x"
+  X' ) }
(39)
approximately;
hence:
Torque:
given in synchronous watts. The power input into the motor, and the voltampere input,
are, if:
and:
t* 2
(42)
ss
\A*V
t'
V>
given by:
Power Input;
Po
ei't,
(43)
391
Pa
Powerfactor:
=
=
Wl,
(44)
P
E^a'enct/:
u
(45)
=
jr o
(46)
Apparent
Efficiency:
pn
etc.
= P
pr>
(47)
the commutator brushes, /4, give bad commutation, due to excessive current densities under the brushes, the best commutation corresponds not to the minimum value of / 4 as the zero value at synchronism in the repulsion motor but to that value of J 4 for which the sudden change of current in the armature
coil is a minimum, at the moment where the coil leaves the commutator brush. J 4 is the shortcurrent in the armature coil during commutation, reduced to the armature circuit, /i, by the ratio of effective
turns:
4
~"
shortcircuited turns
total effective
,
'
The
commuta
tion then,
//
or, if
7, 64
(49)
we denote
^
where
 A4
(50)
is:
A 4 is a fairly large
it carries
coil passes under the commutator brushes, the current, ~/i; while under the brushes, it carries the current, f\j and after leaving the brushes, it carries the cur
Before an armature
rent, +/i.
392
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
While passing under the commutator brushes, the current in the armature coils must change from, /i, to A, or by:
n=A+
/.
f
,
/i.
(52)
In the moment of leaving the commutator brushes, the current in the armature coils must change from, /' 4 to /i, or by:
/i
 /V
(53)
The value, J g or the current change in the armature coils while entering commutation, is of less importance, since during this change the armature coils are shortcircuited by the brushes.
Of fundamental importance for the commutation is the value, Tg of the current change in the armature coils while leaving the commutator brushes, since this change has to be brought about
,
by the
the edge of the brush, and if considerable, can not be completed thereby, but the current, I g passes as arc beyond the edge of the
,
brushes.
Essential for good commutation, therefore, is that the current, should be zero or a minimum, and the study of the commuff)
into
tation of the singlephase commutator thus resolves itself largely an investigation of the commutation current, Ig or its abso,
lute value,
ig.
The ratio
current,
i\,
of the
commutation current,
igt
to the
main armature
$*!
(54)
For good commutation, this ratio should be small or zero. The product of the commutation current, ig and the speed, S, is proportional to the voltage induced by the break of this current, or the voltage which maintains the arc at the edge of the commutator brushes, if sufficiently high, and may be called the commutation voltage:
,
ec
Sty.
(55)
it is,
(56)
ZJK
393
!._
1
^
(57)
ffl)
=
Or, denoting:
icp (1
jSc&
A4 =
substituting (32)
a'*
+ ja"i]
2 )
(58)
and expanding:
_
g
~~
e {1
co [Sa"
+ (1 + (1 (1
M jco [(1~
ZD
JCo
[(1
<A  Sa']}
OL'\
Ig == e li
Co [Sa"
) <*'*]
>S )
(59)
$Coc
and, absolute:
*
Co
2
}
(1
S

"*
So.'
2
}
(60)
k
/{"i
colgq^
(1
>S )
a%]}
+ Co
{(1
>S )
a!\
 Sa'}*
(61)
Perfect commutation, or J g
(58):
1
0,
[Sa"
(1S
a'J
=0,
(62)
or:
(63)
1
commu
This condition can usually not be fulfilled. The commutation is best for that speed, S, when the tation current, ig is a minimum, that is:
,
dS
hence:
(64)
2 2
dS {(lCo[Sa"+(l<S
.
)a'4])
394
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
<
Si
<
1,
The relative commutation, that is, relative to the current consumed by the motor, is best for the value of speed, $2, where the commutation factor, fc, is a minimum, that is:
=
~
217.
0.
(65)
of the repulsion
by
1
substituting
P=
in the
approximate equation
(40), as:
and above this speed, the power, P, is negative, that repulsion motor consumes power, acting as brake.
This value,
is,
the
complete equations
however, is considerably reduced by using the (39), that is, considering the effect of the
under the brushes, etc. For S < 0, P < 0; that is, the power is negative, and the machine a generator, when driven backward, or, what amounts
shortcircuit current
to the
Jo,
same
electrically,
when
In this
case,
the machine
a repulsion generator. The equations of the repulsion generator are derived from those of the repulsion motor, given heretofore, by reversing the sign
of S.
then
The power,
P4
reverses at synchronism, and becomes negative above synchronism. The explanation is: This shortcircuit current, /4, and a
corresponding component of the main current, /i, are two currents produced in quadrature in an armature or secondary, shortcircuited in two directions at right angles with each other, and so offering a shortcircuited secondary to the singlephase pri
mary, in any
direction, that
is,
duction motor.
The
shortcircuit current
superimposes in the repulsion motor, upon the repulsionmotor torque, a singlephase inductionmotor torque, which is positive below synchronism, zero at synchronism, and negative above
synchronism, as inductiongenerator torque.
It
thereby lowers
395
the speed, $ at which the total torque vanishes, and reduces the powerfactor and efficiency. 218. As an example are shown in Fig. 188 the characteristic
curves of a repulsion motor, with the speed, S, as abscissae, for the constants:
= Z = Z =
e
r
500 volts.
0.25
0.25
+ +
3j ohms,
2.5 j
ohms.
0.2
0.4
0,0
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2,0
2.2
2.4
SPEED
FlG. 188.
Self inductive
impedance, main
field:
cross field:
ZQ = Zz =
0.1
0.025
0.025
7.5
0.4.
armature: Zi
brush shortcircuit:
= Z = = CQ c4 =
0.04.
0.08
JL
A = = 4\i
0.835
o/
0.60 j ohms.
0.014
j.
+ jV' =
1.20
+ 0.02 j.
0.007 j.
0.087 j.
2.175 0.010
j.
j.
396
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
:
K
_
(0.204
ZK =
(0.144
+

0.035 S) 0.975 S)
j
(0.031
+

0.328 S),
0.187 S).
+j
)
(0.604
"
_ ~
500 {(1.031
0.179
j (0.007 +
0.087
)}.
ZK
{
500
+ 0.048 S ,
0.179
S2)
+ j 0.4 8 0.035 j)
0.087
ffl)
ZK
500
(1
S )
(0.072
and absolute:
14
40
(1
S
2
)
m
2
Commutation Factor:
Jb
/CUS08
S 2
0.673)
(0.697
0.704
2 )
Main
E.m.f. of Rotation:
_,, _ ~ Ll
500
of
(4.052
+ 0.792 j)
ZK
Rotation
:
Commutation E.m.f.
_, ^ 4=
500
(0.4
__4.8 f)
S
Power
of
Main Armature
(4.052
lib
Circuit:
p =
l
0.122
0.657
S 2 ),
in
kw.
Power
of
Brush
Shortcircuit:
49.2
52
(1
/S )
Torque
=/it
(4.052
+ 0.075
0.657
S2 
0.197
etc.
397
S =
As seen from
ing fairly
high values at comparatively low speeds, and remains near its maximum of 90 per cent, over a wide range of speed. The efficiency, 17, follows a similar curve, with 90 per cent, maxi
near synchronism. The power, P, reaches a maximum of 192 kw. at 60 per cent, of synchronism 450 revolutions with a fourpole 25cycle motor is 143 kw. at synchronism, and vanThe ishes, together with the torque, D, at double synchronism.
mum
torque at synchronism corresponds to 143 kw., the starting torque to 657 synchronous kw. The commutation factor, fc, starts with 1.18 at standstill, the
same value which the same motor would have as series motor, but rapidly decreases, and reaches a minimum of 0.23 at 70 per cent, of synchronism, and then rises again to 1.00 at synchronism, and very high values above synchronism. That is, the commutation of the repulsion is fair already at very low speeds, becomes very good somewhat below synchronism, but poor at
speeds considerably above synchronism: this agrees with the experience on such motors.
In the study of the commutation, the shortcircuit current under the commutator brushes has been assumed as secondary This is completely the case only at standalternating current. still, but at speed, due to the limited duration of the shortcircuit current in each armature coil the time of passage of the coil under the brush an exponential term superimposes upon the
and so modifies the shortcircuit current and thereby the commutation factor, the more, the higher the speed, and The determination of greater thereby the exponential term is.
alternating,
this exponential
term is beyond the scope of the prese'nt work, but requires the methods of evaluation of transient or momentary
Transient Electric
electric
of
Motor
219. As further illustration of the application of these fundamental equations of the singlephase commutator motor, (1) to (6), a motor may be investigated, in which the four independent
398
1.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Armature and
is:
field
connected in
series
That
where:
CQ ==
,.
is,
ratio of effective
'
armature turns
It follows herefrom:
/o
2.
co/i.
(68)
The
and
e.m.f.
is
given,
field
plus armature:
#2
62
(69)
3.
No
rotorexciting circuit
is
used:
0,
hand
4.
(70)
therefore:
No rotorexciting brushes, or brushes in quadrature position with the mainarmature brushes, are used, and so:
/5
0,
(71)
that is, the armature carries only one set of brushes, which give the shortcircuit current, /4Since the compensating circuit, e 2 is an independent circuit, it can be assumed as of the same number of effective turns as
,
the comis, e 2 is the e.m.f. impressed upon actual armature circuit. the reduced to (The pensating circuit, e.m.f. impressed upon the compensating circuit thus would be:
the armature, that
c2,2,
where
c2
ratio effective
l^j
and
(1)
(2)
220. Substituting (68) into (1), (2), (3), and (5), into (67), gives the three motor equations:
61
and
= ZJl
Z,h
+Z
(/i
J%)
JSZ
(Co/1
/4)
(73) (74)
399
now
__
_ =
>
A2
_ v A 2
JA.
2;
A_
pr
x4
x' 4
+ jx"4,
(75)
= A =
2
l
a'
ratio
of
the
Z + Co (Z + Zs = A = a Z
,
=
.
Z,,
a//
and:
e
= =
ei
.
+6
2,
(76)
Adding
(72)
e
and
(73),
and rearranging,
8
gives:
(c
= Z
=
/2
+ h (Z
+h
=
 jS)
 jS).
or:
X2A/ 2
(A,
/4 (co
(77)
From
or:
(73) follows:
e^Y'
I2
(]
X 2)
/ 1;
and:
J2
(78)
/!(!
X 2)
From
(74) follows:
=
Since 7 4
is
7 4 (Z
+Z 4)
11
(c Q
+ jSZ')
,
(79)
in its evaluation.
That
is,
when
can be dropped:
=/,or:
etY',
approximately.
(80)
/!
etY',
400
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
:
=
or:
h
A
(Z
+Z 4)
coZ/i
+ jSet,
1*
T cdi
+ Set j. 3
(81)
Hence:
of shortcircuit current:
(82)
where:
I
c4
=
=
J*
?
The commutation
current then
is
(84)
_
1
~~~
jStx*
(c
jS)
(CQ
jS)
fi
7 jHLZ A Ll Z Az
jSco
X 4c
or,
denoting:
K
it is:
(c
(85)
/!
It
is,
= 
approximately:
A "
3
* y
=
0, (co
*
,
C/0
(8(5)
X2
hence:
Co (1
c\4)
c
Z (1 
X 4)
(87)
(88)
401
now
and into
#'4
gives the
(89)
Equations of
the Series
K
approximately
:
= As =
c
(l
jSc Q
 jS) +
X 2 A,
(90)
coX 4) (Co
j/S).
approximately:
CoZ (1
,
(91)
CoX 4 ) (CQ
jS)
CoZ
(1
CoX 4 )
ZK
r"
approximately:

(92)
Z(l
X 4)
c<>
JS
Brush
T
Shortcircuit Current:
6X 4
X 4 ) Ico
j
(93)
approximately
4
eX 4
Z(l
00X4)
Co
,
jSt
Commutation Current:
CoX 4 )
Co
(94)
approximately:
6
f
1
Co
X 4&
Jo
(1
26
CoX 4 )
a + 3 St\J>\'
.
,
._
402
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
E.m.f. of Rotation:
f
Main
X4
JS
approximately:
(95)
jSe
(1
(1
(c
XO
X 4)
 jS)
E 4 = + jSte.
f
(96)
Power Output:
P =
=
m
P!
+P
1
Power Input:
Po
Voltampere Input:
"D
*
i
[ei,
/i]
h,
(98)
J'
letters,
.
i\
and
^'2,
the currents, Ii and J 2 When ii and i 2 are derived from the same compensator or transformer (or are in shunt with each other, as branches of the
same
circuit, if e\
e%),
primary
f)
cir}
cuit the current corresponds not to the sum, {(1 the secondary currents, but to their resultant, [(1
ii
t)
+ Ii +
ti 2
of
1
tj^
and
as
is
if
the currents, /i and J 2 are out of phase with each other, more or less the case, the absolute value of their resultant
,
is less
The voltampere
then and:
is:
than the sum of the absolute values of the components. input, reduced to the primary source of power,
P ao =
6[(1
0/i +
^
* a*
tfd
l
,
(99)
L
CLQ
From
P D=
jQ
,
the
powerfactor,
p = r 5,
*Q
etc.
These equations
one without
=
e
and
so, for
403
ei
and
For:
62,
K +
0,
the voltage impressed upon the armature circuit, and the compensating circuit shortcircuited, these equations are
that
is, all
For:
t=
is, all
1,
the voltage impressed upon the compensating or inthat ducing circuit, and the armature circuit closed in shortcircuit, that is, the armature energizing the field, the equations are those of the repulsion motor with secondary excitation.
For:
circuit.
Study
221.
of
of the alternatingcurrent
commutator
shortcircuit current
/' 4
~r
4
High
shortcircuit current
The commutation
f6
,
current, that
is,
moment
/i
I'**
SI
is
commutator brushes,
and
considerable.
shortcircuit current
Using the approximate equation (,93), the actual value of the under the brushes is:
where:
= Q
4
or i
o
404
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is:
+S
hence a
(1
t,
(c
+~S*))*
value of
t ( Co
where
2
+
0,
2))
= minimum,
Or
(c
S 2) =
hence,
2'
.Co
2
and:
s =
That
rent
at
is,
t
w~
gi yes
2

= ~ =
6
o~~r
02 ~T
^o
minimum
speed
shortcircuit
cur
S = Jr
t.
2
,
gives
minimum shortcircuit current at voltage ratio, For = 1, or the repulsion motor with secondary excitation, 2 or the shortcircuit current is minimum at speed, S = %/! Co
t
,
is i'
=
,
pulsion motor with primary excitation, the shortcircuit current a minimum, and equals zero, at synchronism
5=1.
is
ratio,
the speed, S,
minimum.
far less
The shortcircuit
importance
(b)
Commutation Current
222. While the value, I' g I'* /i, or the current change in the armature coils while entering commutation, is of minor im
portance, of foremost importance for good commutation is that the current change in the armature coils, when leaving the shortcircuit
/,~/iis
(103)
zero or a
minimum.
405
19
~~
Z(l
00X4)
jS
jS)
CQ
(i
X 4)
jS
(c
(CQ
>
(104)
and, denoting:
X4
it is,
X' 4
+jX" 4
X' 4
expanded
I,
7r
{[1
hence, absolute:
j [V' 4 &
Sfb
(C X' 4
(105)
(106)
X 4 denotes the absolute value of (1 c X 4 ). The commutation current is zero, if either S = that is, infinite speed, which is obvious but of no practical interest, or
where
[1
it
vanishes
when both
of
terms vanish.
1
+

X" 4 6
X" 4)
0,1
+
as:
S\") =
(107)
O.J
From
these
values, the
>S
 X'
4)
^0
(108)
hence
For instance,
if
=0.25
2.5 j:
406
hence:
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
X4
=
4 2~"2"
=
Co
'
307
248
?
X/4
7
X" 4
>
c4
= =
=
0.4,
0.04;
hence
10;
and herefrom:
So
2.02,
U =
that
is,
0.197
e,
at about double synchronism, for e% = te = 0.197 about 20 per cent, of e, the commutation current vanishes.
or
In general, there is thus in the series repulsion motor only one speed, So, at which, if the voltage ratio has the proper value, Uj
the commutation current, i g vanishes, and the commutation is At any other speed some commutation current is left, perfect.
,
regardless of the value of the voltage ratio, t. With the two voltages, &i and 2 in phase with each other, the commutation current can not be made to vanish at any desired
,
speed, S. 223. It remains to be seen, therefore, whether by a phase displacement between e\ and e 2 , that is, if e 2 is chosen out of phase
e, the commutation current can be made any speed, S, by properly choosing the value of the voltage ratio, and the phase difference.
to vanish at
Assuming, then,
denoting
it
e2
e,
hence
by:
E =
2
 j sin
2 ),
(109)
t,
now also is
t
by:
T =
^=
f
(cos e^
j sin
2)
t'
 jt".
(110)
r\
and
1
Co& (I
r\ CoA4)
(Co
JO)
St'b (c X' 4
+ SX"
4)
(111)
X" 46
St'b (c X' 4
SX" 4)
4)
407
+ c x" + Co
2
1
co
2
S\' t
CoA
x" 4
(112)
4]
+ S*
1
J
CQ\
/oX
CQ
4 (
oX
or approximately:
*'
**
^24~c +
2
A<
W
(113)
,//
t"
_ =
cp__
i" = substituted in equation (112) gives S = So, the value recorded in equation (108). It follows herefrom, that with increasing speed, S, t' and still
more That
t",
is,
decrease rapidly.
For S
0,
and
this
by
The phase
by:
angle,
02,
T =
t'
jt", is
given
tan
62 ==
HT
ow
T"
T77
+
S
cos 62
sin 6%
"~
bX4
2
;
X' 4
CQ sin B^
X'
(115)
4
and, denoting:
~=
where
(115):
a
tan<r,
it is,
(116)
may
be called the
"
speed angle,"
substituted in
tan
(6,
+ a) =
=
^7^
A
4
4
,
(117)
constant;
T,
hence:
52
+ =
cr
(118)
and:
2
P.
(119)
~A
77
<r is also near 90 for all speeds, S, except very slow speeds, since in (116) Co is a small quantity.
408
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
2
except very low speeds. small, and 2 thus large and positive. That is, the voltage, E z impressed upon the compensating circuit to get negligible commutation current, must be approxi
Hence
is
all
is
At low speeds, e for all except low speeds. value absolute Its the lower the the must lag, speed. more, with decreases low but at increasing rapidly speeds, very large
:
X4
c
6
it is:
= = = =
0.304
0.4,
0.248
j,
10;
tan
hence:
(0 2
n
2
+
i
or)
<r
5.05,
TfiO
f
/y
=
by
2
790
(r
for
<r
= 79;
hence,
(116), So
is
chronism.
the
Above
maximum leading value, for infinite speed, S = by = 90, as, 2 = 11. Below the speed, So, 2
<r
this speed,
is
given
is
positive,
or lagging; for S = 1,
it is
<r
68,
= +11,
2
hence
still
approximately
nearer in
34; hence E%
is still
e.
The corresponding
values of
T =
t'
t" are,
from (112)
t
S = 5 = S =
224.
2.02,
1,
2 2
0.4,
= 0, = +11*, = 34,
T = T = T =
of
0.197,
0.197,
0.747 +0.140 j,
3.00
t
t
2.00
j,
= =
0.760, 3.61.
a phase displacement between the and the total voltage, e, in general is more complicated, and since for all but the lowest speeds the
The introduction
compensating voltage,
2,
employ a compensating
In this case, no value of
t
exists,
to determine for
any speed,
S, that value
409
ig>
of the voltage ratio, t, which makes the commutation current, a minimum. This value is given by:
f=
where
0,
(120)
i g is given by equation (106). Since equation (106) contains t only under the square root, the minimum value of i Q is given also by:
where
[1
 6X + Sib
;
(S\
 c X"4)] + [6X
2
;/
Sib (c X' 4
+ S\" )p.
4
:
S\\
2
(c
+c +
X" 4
co
2
/S )
{,
/S
2 i
__
fl
the same value as the real component, t of the complex voltage ratio, Ti, which caused the commutation current to vanish entirely, and was given by equation (112).
This
is
It
is,
approximately:
minimum
commutation current,
Since the expression
igo
is
somewhat complicated,
is,
it is preferable substitute:
tan
=
,
^> A
4
(123)
where
8 is
r/
= =
X 4 sin 5, X 4 cosM
:
< 124)
and
tan<r=
q
l'
(125)
= Vco 2
S ~
CQ
+S
z
,
hence:
q sin g COS
<r, }
0".
(126)
410
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
minimum commutation
sin (a
current,
_1
5).
Substituting (117) into (106) and expanding gives a relatively simple value, since most terms eliminate
:
+3
[cos
(cr
8)
d)
+ b\ (sin
(a
<r
sin
(<r
5)
cr
sin
(<r
cos
cQ
3)
bX 4 (sin
sin 3)]
(1
X4
(co
+ jS)
(128)
feX 4
cos
(0*
6)
cos
<r)
X 4]
vV
X/)}
(129)
and
"^TT^ Xj^"+^"'
follows, that
(130)
From
(129)
and (130)
if:
^ =
o
0,
or the
commutation
current vanishes,
or:
cos
(<r
5)
6X 4 cos
0,
(131)
X" 4
2 Co (X 4 6
2 4
X' 4)
0.
=
5
VX
~ TlTw Co T" O
cos
&X4C
V^
Co 2
2
(6
X 4 2 ^l)},
(132)
(o
8)
6X 4c
7>S
From
(131) follows:
cos
(cr
8)
=
cr
6X 4 cos
<7.
Since cos
(<r
5)
must be
less
&X 4 COS
or:
<
1,
X4
or:
<
6 cos
:;
Cob
dr, inversely:
(133)
S> Co
1.
411
made
to vanish at
any
speed, S, at given impedance factor, X 4 , by choosing the phase angle of the impedance of the shortcircuited coil, 5, or the resist
ance component,
X',
provided that X 4
is sufficiently
small, or the
(133).
(132) follows as the minimum value of speed, S, at which the commutation current can be made to vanish, at given X 4
From
Si
=
=
V6
X 42
1,
and:
x' 4
i;
hence:
52
it is,
approximately:
5)
tan
hence:
0
= 0, = 90, =
;
Co
<?
90
S~=rr~'
X' 4
X4
That
is,
At low and medium speeds, some inductive reactance in the shortcircuited coils is advantageous, but for high speeds it is objectionable for good commutation.
225. As an example are shown, in Figs. 189 and 192, the characteristic curves of seriesrepulsion motors, for the constants:
Impressed voltage: Exciting impedance, main field Exciting impedance, cross field: Selfinductive impedance, main
:
= = Z
e
500
0.25
volts,
3j
ohms,
Z*'= 0.26
+2.5 j ohms,
0.3 j
field
Z =
cross
0.1
ohms,
Selfinductive impedance,
field:
Z2 =
0.025
0.075 j ohms,
412
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
SPEED
FIG. 189.
0.2
04
06
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
SPEED
FIG. 190.
Series repulsion, motor.
413
impedance arma
i= 0.025
:
0.075 j ohms,
24 =
Co
7.5
0.4,
10 j ohms,
Reduction
factor,
main
field
=
=
brush shortcircuit
that
is,
c4
0.04;
Fig. 188.
t t
= = =
motor, highspeed, Fig. 190. motor, mediumspeed, Fig. 191. repulsion motor with secondary excitation, lowspeed,
Fig. 192.
300
800
700
600
500
400
100
V
0.2 0.4
0.6
0,8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
SPEED
FIG. 192.
It is,
Z8 =
Zi
+ co
(Z Q
+ Z) =
=
0.08
+

0.60
j.
A^^ Z
A ~ AZZ
X2
0.202
0.835
0.031
0.010 j.
0.014 j.
0.007 j.
=^
=
=
0.179
0.087 j.
=
19
414
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
ZK = Z  jScoZ 3
=
(92)
(0.160
+
0.187 S),
11
fjv
rjv
ZK
(91)
[0.031
+ 0,035 S +
0.072
0.179;
; (
0,007
+ 0.087 S
0.096 j)
2
)
} ,
/2
7i (0.969
0.007 j)
e*
(0.010
(93)
/4
'
etc.
226.
and
seen, these four curves are very similar to each other to those of the repulsion motor, with the exception of the
As
commutation current,
i gj
and commutation
factor, k
?
The commutation
that
is,
factor of the
compensated
series
motor,
the ratio of current change in the armature coil while leaving the brushes, to total armature current, is constant in the In the series repulsion motors, the series motor, at all speeds.
commutation
factor, k, starts
as the series motor, but decreases with increasing speed, thus giving a superior commutation to that of the series motor, reaches
a minimum, and then increases again. Beyond the minimum commutation factor, the efficiency, powerfactor, torque and output of the motor first slowly, then rapidly decrease, due to the rapid increase of the commutation losses. These higher values, however, are of little practical value, since the commutation is
bad.
The higher the voltage ratio, t, that is, the more voltage is impressed upon the compensating circuit, and the less upon the armature circuit, the lower is the speed at which the commutation factor is a
That
is,
with
minimum, and the commutation so good or perfect. = 1, or the repulsion motor with secondary ex
citation, the commutation is best at 70 per cent, of synchronism, and gets poor above synchronism. With t ~ 0.5, or a series repulsion motor with half the voltage on the compensating, half on the armature circuit, the commutation is best just above synchronism, with the motor constants chosen in this instance, and
415
With gets poor at speeds above 150 per cent, of synchronism. = 0.2, or only 20 per cent, of the voltage on the compensating circuit, the commutation gets perfect at double synchronism.
Best commutation thus is secured by shifting the supply voltage with increasing speed from the compensating to the armature circuit.
t
>
1,
circuit, so
or a reverse voltage, e\, impressed upon the armature still further improves the commutation at very low
of
speeds.
falls off
The impedance
in the preceding
of the shortcircuited
:
armature
coils,
chosen
example
Z*
7.5
10 j,
corresponds to fairly high resistance and inductive reactance in the commutator leads, as frequently used in such motors. 227. As a further example are shown in Fig. 193 and Fig. 194
curves of a motor with lowresistance and lowreactance com
mutator
leads,
reduction factor of
and high number of armature turns, that is, low field to armature circuit, of the constants:
Z,
=
=
2j;
hence:
X4
0.373
0.267
j,
and:
Co
c4
= =
0.3,
0.03,
the other constants being the same as before. Fig. 193 shows, with the speed as abscissae, the current, torque,
power output, powerfactor, efficiency and commutation current, under such a condition of operation, that at low speeds t = 1.0, that is, the motor is a repulsion motor with secondary excita= 1.0 gives best commutation, and above the speed at which t
ig }
tion (90 per cent, of synchronism in this example), t is gradually decreased, so as to maintain ia a minimum, that is, to maintain
best commutation.
that
above synchronism, ig drops below i, the commutation of the motor becomes superior to that of a good directcurrent motor.
As
is,
'
factors,
fc
7*
4>
of the
416
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
6=500 VOLTS Z=0.25+3j OHMS Zi= 0.025 + 0.075 j OHMS Z'= 0.25 +2.5 j OHMS Z2=0,025 + 0.075 j OHMS
Zo=0.1 4 0.3JOHM3 Z4 04 Co =0.3
700 650
= 0.03
0.4
0.2j OHMS
800
700
400<
350
3005
500
250
200 150
200
100
100
50
"0
0,2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.8
1.8
2JO
2.2
2.4
SPEED
FIG. 193.
Z'=025 +
Z 0.1
*
2. 5 j OHMS
.25
0.20
0.40
0.60
0,80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
2.20
2.40
SPEED
OF SYNCHRONISM
PIG. 194,
417
= = = = 2 Zi = Z4 = Co = c4 =
Z Z Z Z
0.25
0.1
+ +
3j,
2.5^
4~0.3j,
0.025
0.025
4
0.3,
0.03.
Curve
I gives the
ively compensated that is, the current change at leaving the brushes is 3.82 times the main current. Such condition, under continued operation, would give destructive sparking.
series
Curve II shows the series repulsion motor, with 20 per cent, of the voltage on the compensating winding, t = 0.2; and Curve III with half the voltage on the compensating winding,
t
0.5.
Curve IV corresponds to t = 1, or all the voltage on the compensating winding, and the armature circuit closed upon itself; repulsion motor with secondary excitation. Curve V corresponds to t = 2, or full voltage in reverse direction
impressed upon the armature, double voltage on the compensating winding. Curve VI gives the minimum commutation factor, as derived by varying t with the speed, in the manner discussed before.
For further
constants
:
comparison
are
given,
for
the
same motor
Curve VII, the plain repulsion motor, showing its good commutation below synchronism, and poor commutation above synchronism; and Curve VIII, an overcompensated series motor, that is, conductively compensated series motor, in which the compensating winding contains 20 per cent, more ampereturns than the armature, so giving 20 per cent, overcompensation. As seen, overcompensation does not appreciably improve commutation at low speeds, and spoils it at higher speeds. Fig. 194 also gives the two components of the compensating e.m.f., J5/2, which are required to give perfect commutation, or zero commutation current:
418
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
=
&
B
ff
t'
= component
?
in phase with
e,
giving quadrature
flux:
t
_.
Q
&
= component
6.
in quadrature with
e,
giving flux in
phase with
228. In
motors, overcompensation greatly improves commutation, and so is used in the form of a compensating winding, commutating pole or interpole. In such directcurrent motors, the reverse field of the interpole produces a current in the shortcircuited armature coil, by its rotation, in the same direction as the armature current in the coil after
leaving the brushes, and by proper proportioning of the commutating field, the commutation current, ig , thus can be made
directcurrent
to vanish, that is, perfect commutation produced. In alternatingcurrent motors, to make the commutation current vanish and so produce perfect commutation, the current
in the shortcircuited coil
tating field
but also in phase, that is, the commumust not only have the proper intensity, but also
has the
we have seen that the commutating field proper phase to make ig vanish, if produced by a voltage
$2
Te,
except very low speeds is very nearly in phase with e. The magnetic flux produced by this voltage, or the commutating flux, so is nearly in quadrature with e and therefore approximately in quadrature with the current in the motor, at such speeds where the current, i is nearly in phase with e. The commutating flux produced by conductive overcompensation, however, is in phase with the current, i, hence is of a wrong phase properly to commutate. That is, in the alternatingcurrent commutator motor, the commutating flux should be approximately in quadrature with
which for
all
>
the main flux or main current, and so can not be produced by the main current by overcompensation, but is produced by the combined magnetizing action of the main current and a sec
ondary current produced thereby, since in a transformer the resultant flux lags approximately 90 behind the primary current.
419
The same results we can get directly by investigating the commutation current of the overcompensated series motor. This motor is characterized by:
.
e c2
where
= =
=
2.
/O
Co^ / 2
C2/",
/I
/.
Substituting into the fundamental equations of the singlephase commutator motor gives the results:
4
7
(CQ
jSqA)
where
ZK To make J g
(Z 3
+ Z,+ jSc Z) + jX
Q
(c G
:
Z 
vanish,
it
must therefore be
f
X ;/ 4
or approximately:
or,
0.046
0.295 j
S^
#,
That
is,
must be approxi
mately in quadrature with the current, /, hence can not be produced by this current under the conditions considered here; and
overcompensation, while it may under certain conditions improve the commutation, can as a rule not give perfect commutation in a series alternatingcurrent motor. 229. The preceding study of commutation is based on the assumption of the shortcircuit current under the brush as
This, however, is strictly the case only at alternating current. standstill, as already discussed in the paragraphs on the repul
sion motor.
420
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
when passing under the change of current in the armature coil e.m.f. the generated in the shortbrush, superimposes upon current under the shortcircuit on the so and circuited coil,
the speed, that is, brush, and modifies it the more, the higher This current exponential term of e.m.f. the quicker the change. coil shortcircuited by the commutator armature in the generated " of commutation/' brush, is the socalled e.m.f. of selfinduction in as well as motors alternatingcurrent in directcurrent It exists that is, by a motors, and is controlled by overcompensation, and approximain the with in field, field phase commutating
mately proportional to the armature current. The investigation of the exponential term of generated e.m.f. and of shortcircuit current, the change of the commutation current and commutation factor brought about thereby and the study of the commutating field required to control this transient phenomena, exponential term leads into the theory of during and immedithat occurring temporarily
is,
phenomena
The control of the e.m.f. of selfinduction of commutation of the singlephase commutator motor requires a commutating in space to the main field, that is, a field in quadrature position current and armature to the field, approximately proportional
in phase with the armature current, hence approximately in phase with the main field.
Since the commutating field required to control, in the armature coil under the commutator brush, the e.m.f. of alternation
approximately in quadrature behind the main field and usually larger than the field controlling the it follows that the e.m.f. of selfinduction of commutation
of the
main
field,
is
total
commutating field, or the quadrature flux required to give best commutation, must be ahead of the values derived in
As the
field
required by the e.m.f. of alternation in the shortwas found to lag for speeds below the speed of best
this speed,
field,
must lead
it follows:
and
1
Oscillations/' Sections I
and
II,
421
Choosing the e.m.f., E%, impressed upon the compensating winding in phase with, and its magnetic flux, therefore in quadrature (approximately), behind the main field, gives a comis
mutation in the repulsion and the series repulsion motor which better than that calculated from paragraphs 221 to 224, for all speeds up to the speed of best commutation, but becomes inHence the commutation of the ferior for speeds above this. repulsion motor and of the series repulsion motor, when considering the selfinduction of commutation, is superior to the calculated values below, inferior above the critical speed, that
the speed of minimum commutation current. The commutation of the overcompensated series motor is superior to the values calculated in the preceding, though not of the same magnitude as in the motors with quadrature commutating flux. It also follows that an increase of the inductive reactance of the armature coil increases the exponential and decreases the alteris,
nating term of e.m.f. and therewith the current in the shortcircuited coil, and therefore requires a commutating flux earlier in phase than that required by an armature coil of lower reactance, hence improves the commutation of the series repulsion and the repulsion motor at low speeds, and spoils it at high
speeds, as seen from the phase angles of the calculated in paragraphs 221 to 224.
commutating
flux
Causing the armature current to lag, by inserting external inductive reactance into the armature circuit, has the same
it improves commutation at In consequence hereof the commutation of the repulsion motor with secondary excitation in which the inductive reactance of the main field circuit is in the armature circuit is usually superior, at moderate speeds, to that of the repulsion motor with primary excitation, except at very low speeds, where the angle of lag of the armature cur
effect as leading
it
commutating
flux
low, impairs
at high speeds.
rent
is
very large.
CHAPTER XXI
REGULATING POLE CONVERTERS
sine wave of alternating voltage, and the comset at the magnetic neutral, that is, at right brushes mutator resultant the to magnetic flux, the direct voltage of a synangles chronous converter is constant at constant impressed alternating It equals the maximum value of the alternating voltage voltage. between two diametrically opposite points of the commutator, or "diametrical voltage/' and the diametrical voltage is twice
230.
With a
the voltage between alternating lead and neutral, or star or Y voltage of the polyphase system. A change of the direct voltage, at constant impressed alternating voltage (or inversely), can be produced: Either by changing the position angle between the commutator brushes and the resultant magnetic flux, so that the direct
diametrical voltage between the brushes is not the maximum alternating voltage but only a part thereof. Or by changing the maximum diametrical alternating voltage,
at constant effective impressed voltage, by waveshape distortion by the superposition of higher harmonics. In the former case, only a reduction of the direct voltage below the normal value can be produced, while in the latter case
if
an increase as well as a reduction can be produced, an increase the higher harmonics are in phase, and a reduction if the higher harmonics are in opposition to the fundamental wave of the diametrical or
Y voltage.
A. Variable Ratio
by a Change of the Position Angle between Commutator Brushes and Resultant Magnetic Flux
commutating machine shown diagrammatic
ally in Fig. 195, the potential difference, or alternating voltage between one point, a, of the armature winding and the neutral,
(that
is,
the
Y voltage,
by the sine wave, Fig. 197. This potential difference is a maximum, e, when a stands at the magnetic neutral, at A or B.
sented
422
423
and B, the voltage between the brushes is the potential difference between A and B or twice the maximum F voltage, 2 e
y
to position
the brushes are shifted by an and D, Fig. 196, the direct voltage between
If
now
FIG. 195.
Diagram
of
FIG. 196.
E.m.f. variation
commutating
netic neutral.
machine
by
the brushes
is the potential difference between C and D, or 2 e cos r with a sine wave. Thus, by shifting the brushes from the at right angles with the magnetic flux, to the posiposition A, 5,
any
FIG. 197.
Sine
wave
of e.m.f.
tween 2
and
a.
alter
nating volage,
As seen, this variation of direct voltage between its maximum value and zero, at constant impressed alternating voltage, is in
424
dependent
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
of the
wave shape, and thus can be produced whether the alternating voltage is a sine wave or any other wave. It is obvious that, instead of shifting the brushes on the commutator, the magnetic field poles may be shifted, in the opposite C. direction, by the same angle, as shown in Fig. 198, A, 5, can be field the of Instead poles, they mechanically shifting number a of consist field each shifted electrically, by having pole of sections, and successively reversing the polarity of these sections, as
shown
in Fig. 199, A, #, C,
D.
FIG. 198.
E.m.f. variation
by mechanically
number
and the same gradual change can be brought about by not merely reversing the sections but reducing the excitation down to zero and bringing it up again in opposite direction, as shown in Fig. 200, A, B, C, D E.
sections are sufficient,
}
A
FIG. 199.
B
E.m.f. variation,
by
section
In this case, when reducing one section in polarity, the other must be increased by approximately the same amount,
to maintain the
same alternating
voltage.
changing the direct voltage by mechanically shifting the brushes, as soon as the brushes come under the field pole faces, selfinductive sparking on the commutator would result if the iron of the field poles were not kept away from the brush
When
425
by having a slot in the field poles, as indicated in dotted 196 and Fig. 198, B. With the arrangement in Figs. 196 and 198, this is not feasible mechanically, and these arrange
FIG. 200.
E.m.f. variation
by
shiftingflux distribution.
ments shown
It is feasible, however, as are, therefore, unsuitable. in Figs. 199 and 200, that is, when shifting the resultant magnetic flux electrically, to leave a commutating space between
FIG. 201.
the polar projections of the field at the brushes, as shown in Fig. 200, and thus secure as good commutation as in any other com
mutating machine.
426
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Such a variableratio converter, then, comprises an armature in fixed position and field A, Fig. 201, with the brushes, J5, B', C C", of such width as poles, P, P', separated by interpolar spaces, field Each pole consists of two parts, required for commutation. relative different of size, separated by a narrow P and usually
3
Pi,
provided with independent windings. By varyof the two polar sections, P and ing, then, the relative excitation field flux and a corresponding resultant the of shift Pi, an effective
space,
DD' and
y
is
produced.
not depend upon the and the pitch wave can be the voltage alternating armature of the winding much attennot desired. as wave sine a Usually near as made tion is paid hereto, as experience shows that the usual distributed close winding of the commutating machine gives a sufficiently
method
converter equals the syngenerator armature reaction of the the power component of of reaction chronousmotor armature at and the alternating current, unity powerfactor the converter
thus has no resultant armature reaction, while with a lagging or leading current it has the magnetizing or demagnetizing reaction of the wattless component of the current.
If by a shift of the resultant flux from quadrature position with the .brushes, by angle, r, the direct voltage is reduced by factor cos r, the direct current and therewith the directcurrent
of conservation of energy the directcurrent output must equal the alternatingcurrent input (neglecting losses). The directcurrent armature reaction, #, therefore ceases to be equal to the
$o,
but
is
by factor,
COS T
COST
alternatingcurrent armature reaction, ^o, at no phase displacement, is in quadrature position with the magnetic flux,
The
427
directcurrent armature reaction, 3F, however, appears in the position of the brushes, or shifted against quadrature position
by angle
r]
that
is,
is
not in
opposition to the alternatingcurrent armature reaction, but differs therefrom by angle r, and so can be resolved into two
rent armature reaction, $o, that the resultant magnetic flux:
$"
that
is,
= $
cos r
$Q,
reaction,
equal and opposite to the alternatingcurrent armature and thus neutralizing the same; and a component in quadrature position with the alternatingcurrent armature reac
tion,
3%
is,
& =
that
is,
sin r
#o tan r\
armature reaction at unity power^factor is neutralized by a component of the directcurrent armature reaction, but a resultant armature reaction, $', remains, in the direction of the resultant r) against the magnetic field, that is, shifted by angle (90 This armature reaction is magnetizing or position of brushes. demagnetizing, depending on the direction of the shift of the
field, r.
It can
$' cos r
$Fo
sin r,
and one,
& sin r =
CF
sin 2 r
#o sin r tan
r,
and 203. armature reaction in the direction of the brushes, and thus harmful for commutation, just as in the directcurrent generator, except that this armature reacas
shown diagrammatically
in Figs. 202
There
is
only
$\ = $ sin 2 r,
that
is,
The value of &'* can also be derived directly, as the difference between the directcurrent armature reaction, JF, and the com
428
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
FIG. 202.
Diagram of m.m.fs.
in splitpole converter.
FIG. 203.
Diagram
429
= $
f]F
cos r
tf
(1
cos 2 r)
= # sin 2 r = ^
sin r
tan
r.
233. The shift of the resultant magnetic flux, by angle r, gives a component of the m.m.f. of field excitation, 2F"/ = 3F/ sin r, (where $/ = m.m.f. of field excitation), in the direction of the commutator brushes, and either in the direction of armature reaction, thus interfering with commutation, or in opposition to the armature reaction, thus improving commutation.
If
rotation, that
the magnetic flux is shifted in the direction of armature is, that section of the field pole weakened toward
Fig. 202, the component $"/ of field excitation at the brushes is in the same direction as the
armature reaction, 2F' 2 thus adds itself thereto and impairs the commutation, and such a converter is hardly operative. In this case the component of armature reaction, $', in the direction of
is magnetizing. the magnetic flux is shifted in opposite direction to the armature reaction, that is, that section of the field pole weakened
the brushes
is
tion to the armature reaction, &%, therefore reverses it, ciently large, and gives a commutating or reversing flux,
is,
suffi,
$r
that
improves commutation so that this arrangement is used in such converters. In this case, however, the component of armature reaction, 3r', in the direction of the field flux is demagnetizing,
and with increasing load the field excitation has to be. inby 3 to maintain constant flux. Such a converter thus requires compounding, as by a series field, to take care of the demagnetizing armature reaction.
creased
:/
If the alternating current is not in phase with the field, but lags or leads, the armature reaction of the lagging or leading component of current superimposes upon the resultant armature
with lagging current in Fig. 202, reaction, SF', and increases it leading current in Fig. 203 or decreases it with lagging current in Fig. 203, leading current in Fig. 202 and with lag of the
alternating current, by phase angle, 6 = r, under the conditions of Fig. 203, the total resultant armature reaction vanishes, that is,
the lagging component of synchronousmotor armature reaction compensates for the component of the directcurrent reaction,
430
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is
not compensated by the armature reaction of the power It is interesting to note of the alternating current. that in this case, in regard to heating, output based thereon, etc., the converter equals that of one of normal voltage ratio,
which
component
Wave Shape
of the
Voltage
234. If in the converter shown diagrammatically in Fig. 204 the magnetic flux disposition and the pitch of the armature
winding are such that the potential difference between the point, a, of the armature and the neutral 0, or the Y voltage, is a sine wave, Fig. 205 A, then the voltage ratio is normal. Assume, however, that
the voltage curve, a, differs from sine shape by the superposition of
harmonic in
If,
Figs.
205
and E.
then,
these
higher
harmonics are in phase with the fundamental, that is, their maxima coincide, as in Figs. 205 B and D, they increase the maximum of the
Variable ratio conFIG. 204. verter by changing wave shape of the Y. e.m.f.
are in opposition to
funda
C and
maximum
alternating and thereby the direct voltage, without appreciably For inaffecting the effective value of the alternating voltage.
stance, a higher harmonic of 30 per cent, of the fundamental increases or decreases the direct voltage by 30 per cent., but
varies the effective alternating voltage only 1.044, or 4.4 per cent.
by \/l
03 2 =
superposition of higher harmonics thus offers a means of increasing as well as decreasing the direct voltage, at constant
alternating voltage, and without shifting the angle between the brush position and resultant magnetic flux. Since, however, the terminal voltage of the converter does not only depend on the generated e.m.f. of the converter, but also on that of the generator, and is a resultant of the two e.m.fs. in approximately inverse proportion to the impedances from the
The
431
varying the converter ratio only such higher harmonics can be used which may exist in the F voltage without appearing in the converter terminal voltage or supply voltage. In general, in an nphase system an nth harmonic existing in
the star or
Y voltage
FIG. 205.
is the combination of two star voltages dis180 placed in phase by degrees for the fundamental, and thus by
'To
for the nth harmonic. Thus, in a threephase system, the third harmonic can be introduced into the Y voltage of the converter, as in Figs. 205 B and C, without affecting or appearing in the delta voltage, so can be used for varying the directcurrent voltage, while the fifth
180, or in opposition,
this
432
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
be
cause a shortcircuit current in the supply voltage, hence should made sufficiently small to be harmless. 235. The third harmonic thus can be used for varying the
direct voltage in the threephase converter diagrammatically in Fig, 206 A, and also in the sixphase converter with
shown
FIG. 206.
Transformer connections for varying the e.m.f. ratio by superposition of the third harmonic.
sixphase converter with double Y connection, Fig. 206 C, the two neutrals, however,
doubledelta connection, as shown in Fig. connection, as shown in Fig. 206 C, since this rate threephase triangles of voltage supply, contains the third harmonic. In such a
206 B, or double Y
consists of
and neither
433
diametrical connections, the third harmonic of the Y voltage appears in the terminal voltage, as the diametrical voltage is twice the Y voltage. In such a converter, if the primaries of the sup
FIG. 207.
Shelltype transformers.
third harmonic
ply transformers are connected in delta, as in Fig. 206 D, the is shortcircuited in the primary voltage triangle, and thus produces excessive currents, which cause heating and
arrangement
FIG. 208.
is
Coretype transformer.
not permissible. If, however, the primaries are connected in r, as in Fig. 206 E, and either three separate singlephase transformers, or a threephase transformer with three independent
magnetic circuits, is used, as in Pig. 207, the triplefrequency voltages in the primary are in phase with each other between
28
434
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
the line and the neutral, and thus, with isolated neutral, can not produce any current. With a threephase transformer as shown in Fig. 208, that is, in which the magnetic circuit of the third
harmonic
is
ondary and this arrangement therefore is not satisfactory. In twophase converters, higher harmonics can be used for regulation only if the transformers are connected in such a manner that the regulating harmonic, which appears in the converter
terminal voltage, does not appear in the transformer terminals, that is, by the connection analogous to Figs. 206 E and 207.
Since the directvoltage regulation of a threephase or sixphase converter of this type is produced by the third harmonic,
FIG. 209.
e.m.f.
wave.
the problem is to design the magnetic circuit of the converter so as to produce the maximum third harmonic, the minimum
fifth
= pole arc, as fraction interpolar space, thus (1 #) the wave shape of the voltage generated between the as generally used point, a, of a fullpitch distributed winding for commutating machines and the neutral, or the induced F voltage of the system is a triangle with the top cut off for distance g, as shown in Fig. 209, when neglecting magnetic spread at the pole corners. If then eo = voltage generated per armature turn while in
If q
of pitch,
front of the field pole (which is proportional to the magnetic den= series turns from brush to sity in the air gap), the
brush,
maximum
voltage of the
wave shown
Q
in Fig. 209
a);
is
E = me
(l
developed into a Fourier series, this gives, as the equation of the voltage wave a, Fig. 188:

COB^Dy
435
and denoting
A
2n cos
e 1
qir
^^T'
1)
=A
=A
2j
I
[
TO
n~T\2
cos B
cos (2 w
cos
^^ j
JJo
cos 5 q
^ 2
cos 5 ^
+ 49
Thus the
third harmonic
is
eos7g~cos70
+
J
a positive
or
or
33.3 per cent, pole arc. For maximum direct voltage, q should therefore be made as small, that is, the pole arc as large, as commutation permits. In general, the minimum permissible value of q is about 0.15 to
0.20.
harmonic vanishes for q = 0.20 and q = 0.60, and the seventh harmonic for q = 0.143, 0.429, and 0.714. For small values of g, the sum of the fifth and seventh harmonics is a minimum for about q = 0.18, or 82 per cent, pole arc.
The
fifth
Then
for q
ei
0.18, or
= A {0.960 =
0.960
cos 6
A (cos
+ 0.0736 cos 3 6 + 0.0062 cos 5  0.0081 cos 7 B + .} + 0.0766 cos 3 + 0.0065 cos 5 B  0.0084 cos 7 +
.
.
the third harmonic is less than 8 per cent., so that not voltage rise can be produced in this manner, while the fifth and seventh harmonics together are only 1.3 per cent., thus
that
is,
much
negligible.
236* Better results are given by reversing or at least lowering the flux in the center of the field pole. Thus, dividing the pole face into three equal sections, the middle section, of 27 per cent.
0.73, thus:
= A {0.411
cos
0.1062 cos 3
+ 0.0342 cos 5 d
. .
0.0035 cos 70
.}
0.411
A {cos B 
0.258
cos 3
cos
+ 0.083 cos 5 9
.
.
0.0085
76
.}
436
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
half intensity, to zero, reversing it to half intensity, to full intensity, and to such intensity that the fundamental disappears,
(1)
full,
ei
=0.960
62
A {cos
(9+0.077 cos 3
.
(2)
0.5,
= 6!0.5
(3)
0,
e^eiez
e
+0.0065 cos 5 00.0084 cos 76. =0.755 A {cos (9+0.168 cos 3 0.0144 cos 5 6 0.0085 cos 76. =0.549 A {cos (9+0.328 cos 3 6 0.053 cos 5 00.084 cos 7 6.
.}
.}
.}
(4)
0.5
= ei 1.5 = ei 2
62
e2
= 0.344 A
(5)
full, e
+0.680 cos 3 9 0.131 cos 5 00.0084 cos 7 0. =0.138 A {cos 0+2.07 cos 3 6
cos 6 {
 0.45
cos 5
 0.008 cos 7
(6)
1.17,
= ei 2.34
62
= 0.322 A {cos
00.227 cos
5 0.
fundamental is a and the machine generator of triple frequency disappears a or consumes that equal to frequency is, produces frequency,
It is interesting to note that in the last case the
In this case the seventh three times synchronous frequency. harmonic also disappears, and only the fifth is appreciable, but
could be greatly reduced by a different kind of pole arc.
From
normal
0.960
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Maximum
mental
fundaalter. . .
0.960
0.755
0.549
0.743
0.344
0.578
0.138
0.423
nating volts
Direct volts
1.033
0.883
0.322
0.960
237. It is seen that a considerable increase of direct voltage ratio involves a sacrifice of output, due to
the decrease or reversal of a part of the magnetic flux, whereby the airgap section is not fully utilized. Thus it is not advisable to go too far in this direction.
By the superposition of the third harmonic upon the fundamental wave of the Y voltage, in a converter with three sections per pole, thus an increase of direct voltage over its normal voltage can be produced by lowering the excitation of the middle section and raising that of the outside sections of the field pole, and also inversely a decrease of the direct voltage below its normal value by raising the excitation of the middle section
437
of the outside sections of the field poles; making the magnetic flux distribution
at the armature periphery peaked, in the former case by the flux distribution flattopped or even doublepeaked.
making
an overnormal, p < 1 a subnormal direct and thereby the directcurrent armature reaction, then is changed from the value which it
p
I
>
represents
voltage.
The
direct current,
ratio,
by the
factor
as the
product of direct volts and amperes must be the same as at normal voltage ratio, being equal to the alternating power input minus losses. With unity powerfactor, the directcurrent armature reaca converter of normal voltage ratio is equal and opposite, and thus neutralized by the alternatingcurrent armature reaction, #o, and at a change of voltage ratio from normal, by factor
tion,"^, in
p,
of direct current
is:
by
factor
The
direct
P
hence, leaves an
factor
is
at unity powerin quadrature with the magnetic flux, and the directcurrent armature reaction in line with the brushes, and with
resultant.
this
that
type of converter the brushes stand at the magnetic neutral, the two armature is, at right angles to the magnetic flux, reactions are in the same direction in opposition with each other, and thus leave the resultant, in the direction of the commutator
brushes:
converter thus has an armature reaction proportional to the deviation of the voltage ratio from normal. 239. If p > 1, or overnormal direct voltage, the armature
The
438
reaction
is
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
negative, or motor reaction, and the magnetic flux produced by it at the commutator brushes thus a commutating direct voltage, the armature If p flux. 1, or subnormal
<
reaction
is
positive, that
is,
erator, but
less in intensity,
In a directcurrent ture reaction tends to impair commutation. the to brushes the edge of the field poles, generator, by shifting
the
field flux is
In
this converter, however, decrease of direct voltage is produced by lowering the outside sections of the field poles, and the edge of
the
field
may
FIG. 210.
tion, with a considerable decrease of voltage below normal, and thus a separate commutating pole is required. Preferably this type of converter should be used only for raising the voltage, for lowering the voltage the other type, which operates by a shift of the resultant flux, and so gives a component of the main
field flux as
commutating
flux,
of both types.
With a polar construction consisting of three sections, this can be done by having the middle section* at low, the outside sections at high excitation for maximum voltage, and, to decrease the voltage, raise the excitation of the center section, but instead of lowering both outside sections, leave the section in the direction of the armature rotation unchanged, while lowering
the other outside section twice as much, and thus produce, in addition to the change of wave shape, a shift of the flux, as
represented by the scheme Fig. 210.
Magnetic Density
Pole section ...
1
1'
CB
2'
3'
CB
Max. voltage
.+(B
+(B
+<B
Min. voltage
. ,
.
+05
CB
439
Where the required voltage range above normal is not greater than can be produced by the third harmonic of a large pole arc with uniform density, this combination of voltage regulation by both methods can be carried out with two sections of the field poles, of which the one (toward which the armature moves) is greater than the other, as shown in Fig. 211, and the variation then is as follows
:
Magnetic Density
Pole section
1
2
(B
Jij
1'
<B
2'
(B
(B
Max. voltage
+ +
+ + 1M
M
1M<B 1&CB
1H<&
Min. voltage
FIG. 211.
The
the conductors, and the effect of the wattless current thereon, are determined in the same manner as in the standard converter, and from them are calculated the local
or differential current in
mean armature
ratio, let
EQ
Jo
direct current;
E =
alternating voltage
between adjacent collector rings (ring voltage), and 1 = alternating current between adjacent collector rings (ring current);
then, as seen in the preceding:
EQ
3?0
sin
^
'
\/2
and as by the law
equal the input,
of conservation of energy, the
output must
when
neglecting losses:
7o
V2
n
(2)
n sm
440
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is
where 1
By
the
superposition
of
third
star voltage, or diametrical voltage, which does not appear in the ring voltage, or voltage between the collector rings of the
converter.
shifting the direction of the magnetic flux. be used for raising the direct voltage as well as for can (a) lowering it, but is used almost always for the former purpose, since when using this method for lowering the direct voltage
(Z>)
By
commutation
(6)
is
impaired.
the
by proportioning the relative amounts by which two methods contribute to the regulation of the voltage, to maintain a proper commutating field at the brushes for all loads and voltages. Where, however, this is not done, the brushes are shifted to the edge of the next field pole, and into
It is possible,
the fringe of its field, thus deriving the commutating field. 241. In such a variableratio converter let, then, t = intensity
of the third
is
it
which
in line with the directcurrent brushes, and thus does the t is voltage regulation, as fraction of the fundamental wave,
of
chosen as positive if the third harmonic increases the maximum the fundamental wave (wide pole arc) and thus raises the
direct voltage,
maximum
of the
fundamental and therewith the direct voltage (narrow pole arc). = loss of power in the converter, which is supplied by the pi current (friction and core loss) as fraction of the alternating
input (assumed as 4 per cent, in the numerical example). n = angle of brush shift on the commutator, counted positive
in the direction of rotation.
0i
= =
for lead).
angle of shift of the resultant field from the position at right angles to the mechanical neutral (or middle between the pole corners of main poles and auxiliary poles), counted positive
ra in the direction opposite to the direction of armature rotation, that is, positive in that direction in which the field flux has been
shifted to get
article.
441
and the angle of shift of the field from the normal by the factor
:
(1
cos
TO,
E =
hence,
E (1+0
cos r
(3)
fl
by
(1):
Eo sin
E = = V2(l +
and the power component
(2):
COSTa
when
t)
P =P
(1
COS T a
sin 
7T
Due
(1
(1
pi)
to the loss, pi, in the converter, this current is increased by in a direct converter, or decreased by the factor in an inverted converter.
of the alternating current thus is:
pi)
= r
CO
(i
+  (1
.
+ PI)
pi)
cos TO """"">
n
where
is:
7T

W
/
x
fi
sin
pi
may be
considered as negative in an inverted converter. of lag 0i, the reactive component of the current
/2
/i tan
0i,
and the
COS
sin  cos
442
or,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
introducing for simplicity the abbreviation:
_
it is:
(1
(1
+ pi) COS_r
'
COS 0i
(8)
IofcA/2
(9)
n
242. Let, in Fig. 212,
sin
A'OA
magnetic
field structure.
The
OA by
angle
Ii
FIG. 212.
Diagram
at right angles to Oi>, and the resultant m.m.f. of the alternating reactive current, 1%, is 0/2, in opposition to 0$, while the total
alternating current, I, is 01 lagging by angle Bi behind 01 1 The m.m.f. of directcurrent armature reaction is in the direc,
by angle n behind the position 90, and given by OIo. The angle by which the directcurrent m.m.f., OIo, lags in space behind the total alternating m.m.fv 07, thus is, by Fig. 212:
05, where
BOA =
TO
$1
ra
r6 .
(10)
If the alternating m.m.f. in a converter coincides with the directcurrent m.m.f., the alternating current and the direct current are in phase with each other in the armature coil midway
443
lag in space, by angle TO, of the directcurrent m.m.f. behind the alternating current m.m.f., the reversal of the direct current is reached in time before the reversal of the alter
this coil.
nating current in the armature coil; that is, the alternating = TO, in the current lags behind the direct current by angle,
FIG. 213.
midway between
armature
collector
leads,
as
shown by Fig. 213, and in an armature coil displaced by angle, r, from the middle position between adjacent collector leads the
alternating current thus lags behind the direct current by angle (r ), where r is counted positive in the direction of armature
FIG. 214.
middle position.
The
coil, r,
pressed by:
= JV2
2
Jofc
"
sin (6
);
(11)
^ n sinn
71
/a sm (0
. N
)
?
and as the
armature
coil is ~>
and opposite
444
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
i,
to
Jo
Jo
.
sin (0
7T
~
(13)
sin
n
,
and the
compared
with the current, ~, of the same machine as directcurrent gen2 erator of the same output, thus is:
to*
sin(0
sin .
7T
(14)
Averaging (14) over one half wave gives ^the relative heating of the armature coil, r, as:
T
r*
i<?
,.
r
4
.
Jc
J
TO^iJo \2
8)
sin
T 
r0o)l
d8. (15)
IGfccos
(r
.
+
7T
)_
(16)
sn
243.
coil, T,
Tn
local
sin 
heating in any
armature
r
by substituting
7T
and
by averaging
7T fromr =
tor =
"
n
of the nphase converter there
2n
or, integrated:
r =
sin
+

16 k cos
7T"
(17)
445
heating of a converter of normal voltage ratio, with an angle of lag, 0o, of the alternating current,
when operating
where k denotes
the ratio of the total alternating current to the alternating power current corresponding to the directcurrent output.
__l*L.+ i_18i5i*.
n2
n
(lg)
n sin 2 
7T
IT
n
(1
where
K
0o
7
=
=
(1
+

f)
+ pi) COS r
0i
a
,
cos
0i
/ON (o) v
ra
n;
(10)
and
ratio
of
third
voltage wave; pi
ratio of loss to output; 0i angle of lag of = angle of shift of the resultant magalternating current; r a netic field in opposition to the armature rotation, and angle
n =
armature rotation.
=
,
3):
= ^^ + 4i = 1.185
/b
1.621 k cos
<9o
+

iy;
1Q v
1.621 k cos
(18) gives (n
=
j
6)
=
=
+
fc
1
2
1.621 k cos 0o
(2Q)
0.889
+1
1.621 k cos
ratio:
For a converter
of
t
normal voltage
0,
ra
0,
n =
when
neglecting the losses
:
0;
Pi
it is:
0,
*V
COS 0i
446
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
(19)
and equations
and
(20)
Threephase:
r
Sixphase:
cos 2 61
i.  0.621.
_
0.621.
r .
COS 2 0i
The equation (18) is the most general equation of the relative heating of the synchronous converter, including phase displacement, 0i, losses, pi, shift of brushes, n, shift of the resultant magnetic flux, r aj and the third harmonic, t.
While in a converter of standard or normal ratio the armature heating is a minimum for unity powerfactor, this is not in general the case, but the heating may be considerably less at same
lagging current, more at leading current, than at unity powerfactor,
and
inversely.
interesting therefore to determine under which conditions of phase displacement the armature heating is a minimum so as to use these conditions as far as possible and avoid con
245. It
is
ditions differing very greatly therefrom, as in the latter case the armature heating may become excessive. Substituting for k and 0o from equations (8) and (10) into
8(1
+0
n2
(1
+ 2>0
n
COS 2 r a
0j
sin 2
 cos 2
16 (1
M)
(1
pi) _ cos r a
cos (0i
ra
r&)
.
^xyy
im
Substituting
<V)
.
m,
(20)
which
0.955;
is
phase converter, ms
a constant of the converter type, and is for a three= 0.744; for a sixphase converter, w e
gives:
2
and rearranging,
1
(1
(1
+ p0 m
2
cos 2 r
(1
t)
(1
+ Pi)
COS T
COS
(r a
+ T&)
447
(l
+ +
O'tt
Pil'coB'
1
(1
t)
(1
pi)
cos r a sin
of the
(r
+r
&)
tan
0i.
(21)
is
a
:
minimum
1;
phase displacement
given by
d tan
=Q
0i
'
and
sin
T a)
the phase angle, 2 for which, at given the armature heating becomes a minimum. pi if the brushes are not shifted, n = 0, the losses, pi, Neglecting
(22) gives
}
exists,
tan
0' 2
= m
tan
r a?
where
m =
2
0.544 for
a threephase,
0.912 for
a sixphase
converter.
that
For a sixphase converter it thus is approximately 0' 2 = r aj is, the heating of the armature is a minimum if the alternating current lags by the same angle (or nearly the same angle)
is
From
equation
(22) it
shifted for voltage regulation. follows that energy losses in the con,
verter reduce the lag, 2 required for minimum heating; brush shift increases the required lag; a third harmonic, t, decreases
additional, and increases it if subtractive. Substituting (22) into (21) gives the minimum armature heating of the converter, which can be produced by choosing the
if
2,
It is then,
some transpositions
COS r a COS (r
+r
&)
sin 2 (r a
+r
b)
0+ P&COgr. _
} t
The term To contains the constants t pi r aj n only in the square under the bracket and thus becomes a minimum if this
448
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
is, if
ty
pi,
r a,
n such
(24)
+ Qd+pQcoBT. _
//z
t,
cos (TO
n)
n] pi and n are determined however, are equivalent to each other, that is, the voltage regulation can be accomplished either by the flux shift, r or by the third harmonic, t, or by both, and in the latter case can be divided between r a and t so as to give any desired relations between them.
246. Of the quantities
design,
pi y r a
,
by the machine
and
ra
Equation
(24) gives:
t
MeoBa
(1
+ pi COS T O
n,
)
5)
by minimum, and is
,
third harmonic,
iv =
hence
:
~;
2
(26)
7T"
To
= =
(27)
(28)
tan
hence:
9%
tan
ra
(r a
+ n)
02
+ n]
,
(29)
if or, in other words, the converter gives minimum heating r the angle of lag, 2 equals the sum of the angle of flux shift, r a and of brush shift, n. It follows herefrom that, regardless of the losses, p/, of the
,
brush
that
shift,
n, and of the
amount
any other ratio, the same minimum converter heating To can be secured by dividing the voltage regulation between the angle of flux shift, r a and the third harmonic, t, in the manner as given by equation (25), and operating at a phase angle between alternating current and voltage equal to the sum of the angles of flux shift, r a and of brush shift n] that is, the heating of the splitpole converter can be made the same as that of the standard converter of normal
is,
, ,
voltage ratio,
449
0.04, or
4 per cent, loss of current, equation and for the sixphase converter:
:
o
j5
*6
= =
0.467,
(30)
0.123;
that
is,
harmonic
in the threephase converter this would require a third of 46.7 per .cent., which is hardly feasible; in the sixcent.,
phase converter it requires a third harmonic of 12.3 per which is quite feasible. = 20): (b) 20 brush shift (rb
cos (Ta
+r
&)
>
COS T a
~~
0.877
COS T a
for r a
0,
or
no
W
<e 00
= =
0.500, 0.176.
Since
^^COSr a
<
for
armature rotation, it follows that shifting the brushes increases the third harmonic required to carry out the voltage regulation without increase of converter heating, and thus is undesirable. It is seen that the third harmonic, t, does not change much
with the flux
shift,
regarding converter heating is to use in the sixphase converter a third harmonic of about 17 to 18 per cent, for raising the voltage (that is, a very large pole arc), and then do the regulation by shifting the flux, by the angle, r a without greatly reducing the
,
third harmonic, that is, keep a wide pole arc excited. As in a threephase converter the required third harmonic
is
it
armature heating
propor
minimum by
29
CHAPTER XXII
UNIPOLAR MACHINES
Homopolar or Acyclic Machines
247. If a conductor, C, revolves around one pole of a stationary in Fig. 215, a continuous voltage is induced magnet shown as in the conductor by its cutting of the lines of magnetic force of the N, and this voltage can be supplied to an external cir
NS
pole,
cuit,
The
/<
10 8
where /
is
the
number
<
the magnetic
by
the conductor, C.
FIG. 215.
Diagrammatic
Such a machine
during
its
is
conductor
same
polarity, in distinction of
bipolar or multipolar machines, in which the conductor during more correct name each revolution passes two or many poles.
is
homopolar machine, signifying uniformity of polarity, or acyclic machine, signifying absence of any cyclic change: in all other electromagnetic machines, the voltage induced in a conductor changes cyclically, and the voltage in each turn is alternating, thus having a frequency, even if the terminal voltage
at the
and current
UNIPOLAR MACHINES
By
to the shaft, as
of brush, J3 2
,
451
bringing the conductor, C, over the end of the magnet close shown in Fig. 216, the peripheral speed of motion
on its collector ring can be reduced. However, at one brush, B\, in Fig. 216, must bear on a collector ring (not shown in Figs. 215 and 216) at full conductor speed, because the total magnetic flux cut by the conductor, C, must pass through this collector ring on which Bi bears. Thus an essential charleast
acteristic of the unipolar machine is collection of the current from the periphery of the revolving conductor, at its maximum speed. It is the unsolved problem of satisfactory current collection from
FIG. 216.
minute, which has stood in the way of the commercial introduction of unipolar machines. Electromagnetic induction is due to the relative motion of conductor and magnetic field, and every electromagnetic device is
thus reversible with regards to stationary and rotary elements. However, the hope of eliminating highspeed collector rings in the unipolar machine, by having the conductor standstill and
the magnet revolve,
is a fallacy: in Figs. 215 and 216, the conand the external circuit, ductor, C, revolves, and the magnet, The mechanical reversal thus would be, to have I), stands still.
NS
still,
and
this
and the magnet, NS, and the external would leave highspeed current collection.
in
Whether the magnet, NS, stands still or revolves, is immaterial any case, and the question, whether the lines of force of the
axis, is meaningless.
If,
if the magnet revolves around with revolving conductor, C, and stationary external circuit, D, the lines of force of the magnet are assumed as stationary, the induction is in C, and the return circuit in D; if the lines of force are assumed as revolving, the
its
452
induction
cuit,
is
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
in D, and the same.
is
cir
there
still, If, then, in either, or, assuming the lines of magnetic force to revolve, equal and opposite voltages are induced in C and D, and the voltage in circuit, CD, is zero just the same.
CD, is no induction
is
C and
both stand
either
However, the question whether the lines of force of a revolving magnet rotate or not, is meaningless for this reason: the lines of
force are a pictorial representation of the magnetic field in space. The magnetic field at any point is characterized by an intensity and a direction, and as long as intensity and direction at any point
are constant or stationary, the magnetic field is constant or staThis is the case in Figs. 215 and 216, regardless whether tionary. the magnet revolves around its axis or not, and the rotation of
nomena.
The magnetic field is stationary at any point of space outside of the magnet, and it is also stationary at any point of space inside of the magnet, even if the magnet revolves, and at
it is
any element
of the revolving magnet. Using then the pictorial representation of the lines of magnetic force, we can assume these lines of force
as stationary in space, or as revolving with the rotating magnet, whatever best suits the convenience of the problem at hand but
:
whichever assumption we make, makes no difference on the solution of the problem, if we reason correctly from the assumption. 248. As in the unipolar machine each conductor (corresponding to a half turn of the bipolar or multipolar machine) requires a separate highspeed collector ring, many attempts have been made (and are still being made) to design a coil wound
unipolar machine, that is, a machine connecting a number of peripheral conductors in series, without going through collector
rings.
This is an impossibility, and unipolar induction, that is, continues induction of a unidirectional voltage, is possible only
in
electromagnetically induced in a
alternating voltage.
or turn
must always be an
The fundamental law of electromagnetic induction is, that the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of cutting of the conductor through the lines of force of the magnetic field. Applying this to a closed circuit or turn every line of magnetic force cut by a turn must either go from the outside to the inside, or from
:
UNIPOLAR MACHINES
Induced in a turn
453
is proportional (or equal, in absolute units) to the rate of change of the number of lines of magnetic force enclosed by the turn, and a decrease of the lines of force enclosed
by the turn, induces a voltage opposite to that induced by an increase. As the number of lines of force enclosed by a turn can
not perpetually increase (or decrease), it follows, that a voltage can not be induced perpetually in the same direction in a turn. Every increase of lines of force enclosed by the turn, inducing
FIG. 218.
Mechanical analogy of
unipolar induction.
a voltage in
it,
must sometime
later be followed
by an equal
by the
direction.
the voltage,
if
electromagnetic induction takes place, whether the turn is stationary or moving, as a part of a machine, transformer, reactor or any other electromagnetic induction
nating, regardless
device.
is
how the
impossible,
Thus continuous voltage induction in a closed turn and the coilwound unipolar machine thus a
Continuous induction in the unipolar machine is posbecause the circuit is not a closed one, but consists of a conductor or half turn, sliding over the other half turn. MechanIf ically the relation can be illustrated by Figs. 217 and 218. in Fig. 217 the carriage, C, moves along the straight track of finite length a closed turn of finite area the area, A, in front of C decreases, that B behind the carriage, C, increases, but this decrease and increase can not go on indefinitely, but at some time C reaches the end of the track, A has decreased to zero, B is a
fallacy.
sible only
454
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
maximum, and any further change can only be an increase of A and decrease of B by a motion of C in opposite direction, reprey
On
track, Fig. 218, however, the carriage, C, can continuously move in the same
direction,
continuously
reduce
the
area, A, in front
machine.
Drum type of FIG. 219. unipolar machine with, stationary magnet core, section.
magnetic circuit would be used, and the form, Fig. 216, would be executed as shown in length section in Fig. 219. is the same in but return circuit is shown the as magnetic pole Fig. 216,
by
S, concentrically surrounding
N.
is
the cylindrical
con
cylindrical gap between and S. Bi and B% are the two sets of brushes bearing on the collector rings at
(7,
and
is
the
winding.
The construction, Fig. 219, has the mechanical disadvantage of a relatively light
structure,
(7,
two stationary
and S.
As
it is
immaterial whether the magnet is stationary or revolving, usually the inner core, N, is revolved with the conductor, as shown in
Figs. 221
between
and 222. This shortens the gap and S, but introduces an auxFig. 221 has the disadvantage
iliary gap, G.
of a magnetic
struction, Fig. 222, is generally used, or its duplication, shown in Fig. 223.
Disc
of unipolar matypeo
The
times,
221,
shown
has been frequently proposed in former economically inferior to the construction of Figs.
of the unipolar machine is the In Fig. 220, the average conductor speed than the collector speed, and the latter thus relatively
The limitation
UNIPOLAR MACHINES
higher than in Figs. 221 to 223, where
speed.
it
455
PIG. 221.
FIG. 222.
Drum
type of unipolar
machine with revolving magnet core and auxiliary end gap, section.
machine with revolving magnet core and auxiliary cylinder gap, section.
derived in the unipolar machine by connecting a number of conductors in series. In this case, every series conductor obviously
FIG. 223.
Double
drum type
This
is
shown in
Figs.
224 and 225, the crosssection and length section of the rotor of
1234
4,3,2,1,
ZD
FIG. 224.
Multi
FIG 225
.
a fourcircuit unipolar. As seen in Kg. 224, the cylindrical conductor is slotted into eight sections, and diametrically opposite
456
sections, 1
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and
1',
2 and
2',
3 and
3',
4 and
4',
are connected in
between four pairs of multiple (to equalize the flux distribution) and 3i, and 1 as li, 2 and 2i, 3 collector rings, shown in Fig, 225 This in series. machine, 4 and 4i. The latter are connected 224 and 225, thus could also be used as a threewire or
Figs. fivewire machine, or as a directcurrent converter, by bringing out intermediary connections, from the collector rings 2, 3, 4.
250.
As each conductor
of the unipolar
machine requires a
with a reasonably moderate separate pair of collector rings, number of collector rings, unipolar machines of medium capacity are suited for low voltages only, such as for electrolytic machines, and have been built for this purpose to a limited extent, but in
general
has been found more economical by series connection of the electrolytic cells to permit the use of higher voltages, and then employ standard machines. For commercial voltages, 250 or 600, to keep the number ^of collector reasonably moderate, unipolar machines require
it
rings
units of capacity very large magnetic fluxes that is, large made this latter The requirement very high peripheral speeds. directthe of the slowspeed unsuitable days machine type during turbine steam the when but steam highspeed connected engine, steamturbinearrived, the study of the design of highpowered driven unipolars was undertaken, and a number of such machines
built
and
and
installed.
In the huge turboalternators of today, the largest loss is the core loss: hysteresis and eddies in the iron, which often is more than all the other losses together. Theoretically, the unipolar
machine has no core loss, as the magnetic flux does not change anywhere, and solid steel thus is used throughout and has to be used, due to the shape of the magnetic circuit. However, with the enormous magnetic fluxes of these machines, in solid such as caused iron, the least variation of the magnetic circuit, by small unequalities of the air gap, by the reaction of the armature currents, etc., causes enormous core losses, mostly eddies, and while theoretically the unipolar has no core loss, designing
to keep experience has shown, that it is a very difficult problem the core loss in such machines down to reasonable values. Furthermore, in and at the collector rings, the magnetic reaction of
is
alternating or pulsating.
of the current
ture conductors into the collector rings revolves with the rotation
UNIPOLAR MACHINES
of the machine,
ring,
457
and from this point flows through the collector While this circular distributing between the next brashes.
flow of current in the collector ring represents effectively a fraction of a turn only, with thousands of amperes of current it represents thousands of ampereturns m.m.f., causing high losses, of careful distribution of the brushes to equalize which in
spite
251. The unipolar machine is not free of armature reaction, as The current in all the armature conductors often believed.
and thereby produces a (Fig. 224) flows in the same direction, circular magnetization in the magnetic return circuit, S, shown
While the armature conductor magturn one only, in the large machines it reprenetically represents As an instance, assume a sents many thousand ampereturns. of steamturbinedriven a unipolar machine, of peripheral speed revolutions 1800 at ft. per minute. This minute, 12,000 per
by the arrow
in Fig. 224.
in. gives an armature circumference of 80 of the conductor, and 2500 amp. per
At Yi
in.
thickness
which probably is
sufficient to
magnetic
in ally waturate the iron in the pole faces, the direction of the arrow in Fig. 224.
At the greatly lowered permeability at saturation, with constant field excitation the voltage of the machine greatly
Multicon^IG 2 2 6 drops, or, to maintain constant voltage, excita duotor unipolar machine a considerable increase of field with compensating pole T Juarge face winding, crosssection. tion under load is required. unipolar machines thus are liable to to require high compounding. give poor voltage regulation and To overcome the circular armature reaction, a counter m.m.f. may be arranged in the pole faces, by returning the current of each collector ring li, 2 l3 3i, 4j, of Kg. 225, to the collector rings on the other end of the machine, 2, 3, 4 in Fig. 225, not through
,
but through conductors imbedded in the pole 4'. face, as shown in Fig. 226 as 1', 2', 3', The most serious problem of the unipolar machine, however, collector rings, and this has not yet been is that of the
an external
circuit,
solved,
by numerous
collector
458
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
leads to high rings at speeds of 10,000 to 15,000 ft. per minute, losses and correspondingly low machine efficiency, high temperature rise, and rapid wear of the brushes and collector rings, and
this has
ment
probably been the main cause of abandoning the developmachine for steamturbine drive. contributing cause was that, when the unipolar steamturof the unipolar
bine generator was being developed, the days of the huge directcurrent generator were over, and its place had been taken by turboalternator and converter, and the unipolar machine offered
FIG. 227.
no advantage in
reliability, or efficiency, but the disadvantage of lesser flexibility, as it requires a greater concentration of direct
current generation in one place, than usually needed. 252. The unipolar machine may be used as motor as well as generator, and has found some application as motor meter.
The general
Fig, 227.
may
be illustrated by
The meter shaft, A, with counter, F, is pivoted at P, and carries the brake disk and conductor, a copper or aluminum disk, D, beand S, of a circular magnet. The shaft, A, tween the two poles, dips into a mercury cup, C which is insulated and contains the
one terminal, while the other terminal goes to a circular mercury An iron pin, 5, projects from the disk, D, into this trough, G. mercury trough and completes the circuit.
CHAPTER
XXIII
REVIEW
263. In reviewing the
of construction
numerous types
and
list
of operation,
is given in the following, comprising characteristics, definition, principal advantages and disadvantages, and the paragraph in which they are discussed.
an alphabetical
of
them
name,
Alexanderson Highfrequency Inductor Alternator. 159. Comprises an inductor disk of very many teeth, revolving at very high speed between two radial armatures. Used for producing very high frequencies, from 20,000 to 200,000 cycles per second.
Squirrelcage winding in the pole faces of the synchronous machine, proposed by Leblanc to oppose the hunting tendency, and extensively used.
Amortisseur.
161 / An apparatus to intensify telephone and Amplifier. radio telephone currents. Highfrequency inductor alternator excited by the telephone current, usually by armature reaction
through capacity.
is
then
rectified, be
Arc Machines.
138.
The
last
and most
Brmh Arc Machine. 141144. quarterphase constantcurrent alternator with rectifying commutators. ThomsonHouston Arc Machine. 141144. threephase Fconnected constantcurrent alternator with rectifying commu
tator.
The development of alternatingcurrent series arc lighting by constantcurrent transformers greatly reduced the importance of the arc machine, and when in the magnetite lamp arc lighting returned to direct current, the development of the
mercuryarc
superseded the arc machine. Name used for all those types of alternatingcurrent (singlephase or polyphase) motors or motor couples, which approach a definite synchronous speed at noload, and slip below this speed with increasing load.
rectifier
Asynchronous Motor.
459
460
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
(See
"Arc Machines.")
to
Compound
mutator,
Alternator,
in
138.
series
connected
a ductively, or inductively through transformer, and exciting of limitation The current. rectified the series field winding by
the power, which can be rectified, and the need of readjusting the brushes with a change of the inductivity of the load, has made such compounding unsuitable for the modern highpower alternators.
Condenser Motor.
77.
on stator, for producing starting and high powerfactor. The space angle between pritorque and tertiary stator circuit usually is 45 to 60, and often a mary threephase motor is used, with singlephase supply on one phase, and condenser on a second phase. With the small amount of
condenser in tertiary circuit
capacity, sufficient for powerfactor compensation, usually the starting torque is small, unless a starting resistance is used, but
the torque efficiency is high. Concatenation. III, 28. Chain connection, tandem connecIs the connection of the secondary of tion, cascade connection.
The second
asynchronous.
1.
An
Induction Machine.
is
Hereto belong:
The
It transforms between alternatingcurtransformer, XII, 103. rent systems of different frequency, and has over the inductionmotor generator set the advantage of higher efficiency and lesser
capacity, but the disadvantage of not being standard. The concatenated couple of induction motors, 9, 28,
11L
It
permits multispeed operation, It has the disadvantage against the multispeed motor, that two motors are required; but where two or more motors are used, as in inductionmotor railroading;
it
The internally concatenated motor (Hunt more efficient than the concatenated couple
motor, but limited in design to certain speeds and speed ratios. 2. A Synchronous Machine.* The couple then is synchronous. Hereto belong:
The synchronous
It has a defi
REVIEW
verter slightly changes with the load,
461
by the
slip of
the induction
machine.
The synchronous
Induction Motor with Lowfrequency Synchronous Exciter. 47. exciter in this case is of small capacity, and
and powerfactor compensation. IndudionGeneratorwithLowfrequency Exciter. 110, 121. Synchronous induction generator. Stanley induction generator. In this case, the lowfrequency exciter may be a synchronous or a
gives speed control
of low frequency. be in the reverse direction of the main machine, or in the same direction. In the first case, the couple may be considered as a frequency converter driven backward at many times synchronous speed, the exciter is motor, and the generated frequency less than the speed. In the case of the same phase rotation of exciter and main machine, the generated frequency is higher than .the speed, and the exciter also is generator. This synchronous induction generator has peculiar regulation characteristics, as the armature reaction
The phase
may
of noninductive load
3.
is
absent.
Synchronous Commutating Machine. 112. The couple is synchronous, and called motor converter. It has the advantage of lower frequency commutation, and permits phase control by the internal reactance of the induction machine. It has higher efficiency and smaller size than a motorgenerator set, but is larger and less efficient than the synchronous converter, and therefore has not been able to compete with the latter. This 4. A directcurrent commutating machine, as exciter, 41.
converts the induction machine into a synchronous machine (Danielson motor). A good induction motor gives a poor synfactor, gives a
etc.
5.
chronous motor, but a bad induction motor, of very low powergood synchronous motor, of good powerfactor,
An
quency
exciter,
permits a wide range of powerfactor and speed control as motor. As generator it is one form, of the Stanley induction generator discussed under (2),
6.
Condenser.
and speed control, 11. The powerfactor compensation gives good values with very bad induction motors, of low powerSpeed control factor, but is uueconomical with good motors.
55,
462
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
usually requires excessive amounts of capacity, and gives rather poor constants. The machine is asynchronous. Danielson Motor. 41. An induction motor converted to a " synchronous motor by directcurrent excitation. (See Con
catenation (4).") Deepbar Induction Motor. 7. Induction motor with deep and narrow rotor bars. At the low frequency near synchronism, the secondary current traverses the entire rotor conductor, and
is
low.
At high
slips,
as in start
ing, unequal current distribution in the rotor bars concentrates the current in the top of the bars, thus gives a greatly increased
effective resistance,
and thereby higher torque. However, the the of reactance deep bar somewhat impairs the powerhigh factor. The effect is very closely the same as in the double (See "Double Squirrelcage Induction Motor.' ) squirrel cage.
7
Double Squirrelcage Induction Motor. II, 18. Induction motor having a highresistance low reactance squirrel cage, close to the rotor surface, and a lowresistance highreactance squirrel The latter gives torque at good cage, embedded in the core.
speed regulation near synchronism, but carries little current at lower speeds, due to its high reactance. The surface squirrel cage gives high torque and good torque efficiency at low speeds and standstill, due to its high resistance, but little torque near
synchronism. The combination thus gives a uniformly high torque over a wide speed range, but at some sacrifice of powerTo factor, due to the high reactance of the lower squirrel cage. get close speed regulation near synchronism, together with high
torque over a very wide speed range, for instance, down to full speed in reverse direction (motor brake), a triple squirrel cage
may be used, one high resistance low reactance, one medium resistance and reactance, and one very low resistance and high
reactance (24).
Double Synchronous Machine. 110, 119. An induction mawhich the rotor, running at double synchronism, is connected with the stator, either in series or in parallel, but with reverse phase rotation of the rotor, so that the two rotating fields coincide and drop into step at double synchronism. The machine
chine, in
requires a supply of lagging current for excitation, just like any induction machine. It may be used as synchronous induction
As generator, the armature generator, or as synchronous motor. reaction neutralizes at noninductive, but not at inductive load,
REVIEW
and thus gives peculiar regulation
463
characteristics, similar as the Stanley induction generator. It has been proposed for steamturbine alternators, as it would permit higher turbine speed (3000 revolutions at 25 cycles) but has not yet been used. As
motor
it
it is
not selfstarting.
Bickemeyer Inductively Compensated Singlephase Series Motor. 193. Singlephase commutating machine with series field and inductive compensating winding.
160.
Inductor alternator
that the magnetic flux disposition is that of a bipolar or multipolar machine, in which the rnultitooth inductor takes the place of the armature of the stand
ard machine.
coils in
Voltage induction then takes place in armature the pole faces, and the magnetic flux in the inductor reverses, with a frequency much lower than that of the induced This type of inductor machine is specially adopted for voltage.
moderately high frequencies, 300 to 2000 cycles, and used in inductor alternators and inductor converters. In the latter, the inductor carries a lowfrequency closed circuit armature winding connected to a commutator to receive direct current as motor. Eickemeyer Rotary Terminal Induction Motor. XI, 101. Singlephase induction motor with closed circuit primary winding connected to commutator. The brushes leading the supply current into the commutator stand still at full speed, but revolve at lower speeds and in starting. This machine can give full maximum torque at any speed down to standstill, depending on the speed of the brushes, but its disadvantage is sparking at the commutator, which requires special consideration. Frequency Converter or General Alternatingcurrent Transformer. XII, 103. Transforms a polyphase system into another polyphase system of different frequency and where desired of differ ent voltage and different number of phases. Consists of an induction machine concatenated to a second machine, which may be
an induction machine or a synchronous machine, thus giving the induction frequency converter and the synchronous frequency con77 In the synchronous frequency verter. (See "Concatenation. )
converter the frequency ratio is rigidly constant, in the induction frequency converter it varies slightly with the load, by the slip When increasing the frequency, the of the induction machine. second machine is motor, when decreasing the frequency, it is
generator.
are generators
464
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
and the machine thus a synchronous induction generator. In concatenation, the first machine always acts as frequency con
The frequency converter has the advantage of lesser verter. machine capacity than the motor generator, but the disadvantage
of not being standard yet. Heyland Motor. 59, 210.
Squirrelcage induction motor with commutator for powerfactor compensation. Hunt Motor. 36. Internally concatenated induction motor.
Hysteresis Motor. X, 98. Motor with polyphase stator and laminated rotor of uniform reluctance in all directions, without Gives constant torque at all speeds, by the hysteresis winding. of the rotor, as motor below and as generator above synchronism, while at synchronism it may be either. Poor powerfactor and small output make it feasible only in very small sizes, such as
motor meters. Inductor Machines. XVII, 156. Synchronous machine, generator or motor, in which field and armature coils stand still and the magnetic field flux is constant, and the voltage is induced by changing the flux path, that is, admitting and withdrawing the flux from the armature coils by means of a revolving inductor.
The inducing flux in the armature coils thus does not alternate, but pulsates without reversal. For standard frequencies the inductor machine is less economical and little used, but it offers great constructive advantages at high frequencies and is the only Excited by alterfeasible type at extremely high frequencies. nating currents, the inductor machine may be used as amplifier
Amplifier' ); excited by polyphase currents, it is an induction inductor frequency converter, 162; with a directcurrent wind(see
"
ing on the inductor, it is a directcurrent highfrequency converter. (See "Eickemeyer Inductor Alternator.")
Overexcited synchronous motor or synchronous converter. Induction machine concatenated to condenser, to synchronous
field
Leblanc's Panohahutetp:,
145.
REVIEW
phases, fed
465
by polyphase transformer increasing the number of phases, and driven by a synchronous motor having as many circuits as the rectifier has phases, each synchronous motor circuit being connected in shunt to the corresponding rectifier phase to
byepass the differential current and thereby reduce inductive Can rectify materially more power than the standard rectifier, but is inferior to the converter. Magneto Commutation. 163. Apparatus in which the induction is varied, with stationary inducing (exciting) and induced
sparking.
by shifting or reversing the magnetic flux path by means movable part of the magnetic circuit, the inductor. Applied to stationary induction apparatus, as voltage regulators, and to
coils,
of a
synchronous machines, as inductor alternator. Monocyclic. 127. A system of polyphase voltages with essenA system of polyphase voltially singlephase flow of power. tages, in which one phase regulates for constant voltage, that is, a voltage which does not materially drop within the range of power considered, while the voltage in quadrature phase thereto is of limited power, that is, rapidly drops with increase of load.
Monocyclic systems, as the square or the triangle, are derived from singlephase supply by limited energy storage in inductance or capacity, and used in those cases, as singlephase induction motor starting, where the use of a phase converter would be
An induction machine concatenated 112. " with a synchronous commutating machine. (See Concatenation The latter thus receives part of the power mechanically, (3).") part electrically, at lower frequency, and thereby offers the advantages incident to a lower frequency in a commutating machine. It permits phase control by the internal reactance of the inducSmaller than a motorgenerator set, but larger tion machine. than a synchronous converter, and the latter therefore preferable where it can be used. " Double Multiple Squirrelcage Induction Motor. (See
Bquirrelcage Induction Motor.
77
Multispeed Induction Motor. 14. Polyphase Induction Motor with the primary windings arranged so that by the operation of a switch, the number of poles of the motor, and thereby It is the most convenient method of its speed can be changed. producing several economical speeds in an induction motor, and At the lower speed, the powertherefore is extensively used.
466
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Permutator. 146. Machine to convert polyphase alternating to direct current, consisting of a stationary polyphase transformer with many secondary phases connected to a stationary
commutator, with a set of revolving brushes driven by a synchronous motor. Thus essentially a synchronous converter with stationary armature and revolving field, but with two armature windings, primary and secondary. The foremost objection is the use of revolving brushes, which do not permit
individual observation and adjustment during operation, and thus are liable to sparking.
Phase Balancer.
134.
An
system of opposite phase rotation for insertion in series to a polyphase system, to restore the voltage balance disturbed by a
singlephase load.
It
may
be
stationary inductionphase balancer, consisting of an induction regulator with reversed phase rotation of the series winding. synchronousphase balancer, consisting of a synchronous
machine
of reversed phase rotation, having two sets of field windin By varying, or reversing the excitation of the ings quadrature. of the balancer voltage with those of relation latter, any phase
The synchronous the main polyphase system can be produced. connected into the neutral of a is balancer mainly used, phase control the latter to so as to make converter, synchronous phase
the latter balance the load and voltage of a polyphase system with considerable singlephase load, such as that of a singlephase railway system. Polyphase Commutator Motor. Such motors may be shunt,
181, or series type, 187, for multispeed, adjustablespeed and varyingspeed service. In commutation, they tend to be inferior to singlephase commutator motors, as their rotating field does not leave any neutral direction, in which a commutating field
is used in singlephase commutator Therefore, polyphase commutator motors have been built with separate phases and neutral spaces between the phases, for commutating fields: Scherbius motor.
motors.
Synchronous machine, motor induced by pulsation of the magnetic reluctance, that is, by make and break of the magnetic circuit. It thus differs from the inductor machine, in that in the latter the total field flux is constant, but is shifted with regards to the armature coils, while in the reaction machine the
Reaction Machines.
XVI,
147.
is
REVIEW
total field flux pulsates.
467
The reaction machine has low output and low powerfactor, but the type is useful in small synchronous motors, due to the simplicity resulting from the absence of directcurrent field excitation.
Rectifiers.
direct current
tification
XV, 138. Apparatus to convert alternating into by synchronously changing connections. Recmay occur either by synchronously reversing conneccircuit
:
tions
reversing rectifier, or by alternately making contact between the directcurrent circuit and the alternatingcurrent circuit, when
is of the right direction, and opening contact, when the reverse direction: contactmaking rectifier. Mechanical rectifiers may be of either type. Arc rectifiers, such as the mercuryarc rectifier, which use the unidirectional conduction of the
the latter
of
contactmaking
rectifiers.
Fullwave
rectifiers
rectifiers
both half waves of alternating current; halfwave those in which only alternate half waves are rectified, the intermediate or reverse half waves suppressed. The latter type is permissible only in small sizes, as the interrupted pulcuit receives
sating current traverses both circuits, and produces in the alternatingcurrent circuit a unidirectional magnetization, which
may
The foremost
give excessive losses and heating in induction apparatus. objection to the mechanical rectifier is, that the
rectified
and constantcurrent However, even there the arc rectiThe brush arc machine and the fier is usually preferable. Thomson Houston arc machine were polyphase alternators with rectifying commutators.
amounts
Variableratio converter.
Split
pole converter, XXI, 230. A synchronous converter, in which the ratio between directcurrent voltage and alternatingcurrent
voltage