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Integrated Civil Engineering Design Project (Foundation Structure Design)

CIVL 395

By : Ir. K.S. Kwan Date: 4/07

Foundation Structure Design


Control in Hong Kong Foundation Design Code Ground Investigation Common Pile used in Hong Kong Pile Capacity Piling Layout Pile Cap Design Horizontal Restraints to Piles and Pile Cap Other Consideration

Building Development

Superstructure Ground floor

Pile Cap Loading from superstructure to be shown on plan of foundation and loading schedule



Foundation Control in Hong Kong

Building Ordinance Building Department, PNAP 66 Geotechnical Engineering Office Register Specialist Contractor (Foundation Works)

Recognized types of pile foundation Piling plans submission Design of pile foundations Pre-design ground investigation Pre-drilling Post construction proof drilling Quality supervision for piles foundations Ground-borne vibrations arising from pile driving and similar operations Pile foundations in the scheduled areas Form BA14 Pile record plans and reports Further on site test Amendment to approved plans


Foundation Design in Scheduled Areas

Some special requirements for pile foundations in the Scheduled Area are given in PNAPs 77, 85, 161 and 279 In accordance with the Fifth Schedule of the Building Ordinance, there are five Scheduled Areas specified in Hong Kong at present. These areas are: Mid-levels North-west New Territories Mass Transit Railway Protection Areas & Kowloon Canton Railway Protection Areas Ma On Shan Sewage Tunnel Protection Areas

Foundation Design in Designed Areas

Designated areas, such as Northshore Lantau, refer to those areas with complex geology, which may impose significant constraints on the foundation design and construction. In some cases, the foundations might prove to be so costly that adjustment of the layout of the development or even site abandonment is warranted. A very comprehensive ground investigation is usually inevitable in order to identify all the geological constraints, and it should be carried out before planning the development. Reference should be made to the relevant PNAP issued by the Building Authority for the locations and other information for the designated area

Recognized Types of Pile Foundation

A recognized type of pile foundation is regarded as the piling system recognized by the Building Authority prior to the approval of piling plans through the submission of relevant technical details for assessment, normally by the registered structural engineer in conjunction with the registered specialist contractor experienced in such system.. Common types of piles used in Hong Kong including : Large Diameter Bored Pile Drive Steel H-Pile/ Socket Steel H-Pile Mini Pile Barrette/ Shaft grouted Barrette

Foundation Plan Details

Plan of Foundation To show the setting out/size of all vertical elements which transmit all superstructure loading

Loading Schedule To show the loading of all superstructure including gravity and wind loading

Foundation Design Code

HK Code of Practice for Foundation

Design Construction Testing


to select suitable foundation for construction?

Cost? Time? Risk?

Pile Type Large Diameter Bored Pile Driven Steel H-pile Socket Steel H-pile Mini-pile

Cost (HK$/m run) 10,000 ~ 30,000 1,000 ~ 2,500 3,000 ~ 5,000 2,000 ~ 3,000

Selection of pile type

Common HK used piles:

Steel H-pile, pipe pile Large diameter bored pile (LDBP) Mini-pile, Socket H-pile Friction Barrette

Factors to be considered

Cost ( size, number, length and installation) Construction difficulties (plant available in market,
depth of pile, boulder location, programme)

Ground Investigation

Ground Investigation

Bored hole information to identify:

Pile Type Pile Length Construction Difficulties Soil Properties Water table

To note the allowable bearing pressure which is under working load i.e. without load factor



How to confirm the rock head level?

Rock Head

5m 5m ?

Bored Hole Information

SPT N=150 SPT N=100 SPT N=100 SPT N=100 SPT N=200 SPT N=200 SPT N=200 SPT N=180 SPT N=200 SPT N=200

SPT N=200

SPT N=200

SPT N=100

SPT N=200

SPT N=200

SPT N=200

SPT N=200 SPT N=200 Simple for LDBP bearing on bedrock Pre-boring for corestone layers Pre-boring for corestone layers or rest on corestones

Simple for H-pile rest on stiff soil


Grade II/III Rock

240 nos. shaft grout barrettes, 2.8m x 1.2m & 2.8m x 1.0m, Length

= 88m

Mega Tower @ Kowloon Station

How many bored holes are required?

Large diameter bored piles

At least one for each pile In case of steep rock at base, more bore holes are required

to determine the founding level

Driven H-pile
10~20 for each blocks for normal ground condition Additional bored holes at locations with boulder layers

Socket steel H-pile or Mini-pile

Pile tip of every such pile should be within 5 metres from a

pre-drilled hole

Common Pile Types in Hong Kong

Large Diameter Bored Pile Driven Steel H-Pile Socket Steel H-Pile Mini-Pile

Classification of Foundation

Foundation can be classified into a number of ways, such as:


Pad/Strip Type/Raft Bearing on soil (50~300KPa)/rock (3000KPa) to be used

for highhigh-rise building

Raft foundation is large combined thick plate designed to seat and support the whole or a large part of a structure.

Deep Foundation

Piled Foundation

End Bearing Friction

Shallow raft used for highrise building

It is normally founding on Grade III rock with allowable bearing pressure 3000Kpa. The building average loading is 20KPa per floor and thus, the shallow raft bearing on rock can accommodate a building up to 100 storey

Loading Supporting to Pile

Load from a superstructure is transmitted to the subsoil either by:

End Bearing load is supported by resting onto a firm stratum such as bed-rock or stratum of subsoil with the required bearing capacity. Skin friction load is supported by the frictional resistance so created between the contact surface of the pile and the embracing soil.

Shallow Raft

End Bearing Pile : Large diameter bored pile Socket Steel H Mini pile

Friction Pile: Steel H Friction Barrette

Tower Pile Cap Bed Rock

Bed Rock

Bed Rock

Pile Capacity


Normal size of 1.8, 2.2, 2.5, 2.75 and 3.0m Bell-out with a gradient not exceeding 30 degree from vertical, and the size not exceeding 1.5 times the shaft diameter may be permitted at the pile base to increase the end bearing capacity The concrete strength should be reduced by 20% where groundwater is likely to be encountered during concreting or where concrete is placed underwater For piles subject to axial forces only, where the concrete used is higher than grade 20D


Design capacity of LDBP

Capacity of base = Area of base x allowable bearing capacity of rock (i.e. either 5000Kpa, 7500KPa or 10,000 KPa)

Effective shaft diameter (mm)

Bell-out diameter (mm)

Reinforce ment

Allowable bearing capacity pile (D+L) (KN) 46741 55223

Allowable bearing capacity pile (D+L+W) (KN) 58426 69029

2300 2500

3450 3750

21 T 32 25 T32

Bored Pile Design

(Bearing at different rock level)

Where steep bedrock profile is identified, the founding levels of adjacent piles should not differ by more than the clear distance between the pile bases unless the stability of rock under the piles are checked by recognized engineering principles, taking into account existence of any adverse joints. Check bearing stress due to overlapping - the shaft design and base stress cannot be overstressed due to the additional load

Bored Pile Design- Pile layout

Walls from superstructure

Bored Location

Pile Cap layout


Common H-pile H 305x305x180 Kg/m3 H 305x305x223 Kg/m3 Founding at level with 3 consecutive SPT N value 200 below All steel H-piles to be grade 55C complying with BS4360:1986 (fy=415N/mm2) For driven steel bearing piles with a design safety factor on driving resistance of 2, the stress in the steel at working load should not exceed 30% of the yield stress. The design working stress due to combined axial load and bending may, however be increased to 50% of the yield stress All allowable stresses are to be increased by 25% due to wind effects Group reduction factor of 0.85 for a group of 5 piles or more The centre-to-centre spacings are of more than 3 times the perimeter of the piles or the circumscribed rectangles in the case of H-piles

Some design capacity of steel H-pile

Pile Type : 305 x305 x 223 Kg/m (55C)

Minimum centre to centre spacing of piles in 1408mm Design Steel Stress (fy) = 415 N/mm2 B= 325.4 H= 338 Design pile cross-sectional area (A) = 28500mm2

Capacity for 1 to 4 piles

w/o wind = 0.3 x fy x A = 3548 KN w/wind = 1.25 x 0.3 x fy x A = 4435 KN

Capacity for 5 piles or more

w/o wind = 3548 x 0.85 = 3016 KN w/wind = 4435 x 0.85 = 3770 KN


It is installed by inserting steel H-piles into prebored holes sunk into bedrock, and subsequently grouting the holes with cementitious materials The allowable axial working stress or the combined axial and flexural stresses should not greater than 50% of the yield stress of the steel H-pile No group effect reduction factor

Design Parameter

H section 305 x305x 180Kg/m UPB Grade 55C, Internal diameter of casing = 550mm

Cross section area As = 0.0229 m2 Perimeter of pile = 1882.6 mm Zx =0.002508 m3, Zy = 0.000847 m3 Yield strength fy = 430 Mpa Design bond strength between the grout and steel H-pile

Grout above water = 0.6 MPa Grout under water = 0.48 MPa Under compression or transient tension = 0.7 MPa Under Permanent tension = 0.35 MPa

Design bond strength between the grout and rock

Design Socket Length = 4000mm

Capacity W/o wind in compression = 3600 KN Capacity W/wind in compression = 4500 KN

Pile capacity

Axial capacity

Due to steel strength = 0.5 fy As = 4923.5 > 3600 Due to bond strength between H-pile & grout = 0.48 x 1882.6 x 4000/1000 = 3615 KN Due to bond between grout & rock = 0.7x550x3.14x4000/1000 = 4838 KN

Mini pile

A mini-pile usually consists of one or more steel bars encased by grout inside a drill hole not exceeding 400mm in diameter. It is mainly used to resist compression or tension loads on sites with difficult access. The structural capacity of a mini-pile should be derived solely from the steel bars. Contributions from the grout and steel casing should be ignored The allowable capacity should be derived from the bond strength between the grout and rock

Mini Pile Design

Number of steel bar in mini pile : 4 no. 50mm dia. Permissible compressive stress = 175 KPa (Permissible tensile stress = 230 KPa) Socket internal diameter = 190mm Design bond strength between rock & grout (Ref. CoP Fdn 2004 Table 2.2)

Under compression or transient tension = 700 KPa (Under permanent tension = 350 KPa) Design capacity (W/o wind) in compression = 1370 KN Design capacity (W/ wind) in compression = 1710 KN

Design Socket Length


Pile Capacity

Due to reinforcement strength

Compressive capacity = 1963 x 175 x 4/1000 = 1374 KN > 1370 Capacity = 700 x 190 x 3.14 x 3300 /10002 = 1378 KN ultimate anchorage bond stresses for concrete grade 30 and deformed bars Type 2 in compression is 3.5 N/mm2 Bond strength in compression = 3.5 x ( 50 x 3.14) x 3300 x 0.4 x 4/1000 = 2901 > 1370

Due to bond strength


Bond between grout & steel bar

Negative Skin Friction


Where pile foundations are installed through strata which are likely to undergo consolidation after foundations are in place, the frictional resistance of the strata and the overlying soils shall not be taken into account in the determination of the load carrying of the foundations. The downward frictional force exerted from the strata and the overlying soils is named as NSF. Possible additional load up to 20% of pile capacity Possible attributed by the clayey soil settlement with time or de-watering from construction activities

Pile Layout

Minimum pile spacing

For driven piles and other piles which derive their capacity mainly from frictional resistance, the minimum pile spacing shall be not less than the length of the perimeter of the pile or 1m, whichever is the greater, and the piles shall be placed at not less than half the length of the perimeter of the pile or 500mm, whichever is the greater, from the site boundary. For mini-piles, which derive their capacities mainly from bond strength between grout and rock, the minimum pile spacing should be 750mm or 2 times the outer diameter, whichever is the greater For bored piles and the like which derive their capacities mainly from end bearing, the minimum clear spacing between the surfaces of adjacent piles should be based on practical considerations of positional and verticality tolerances of piles. It is recommended to provide a nominal minimum clear horizontal spacing of 500mm between shaft surfaces or edge of bell-outs, as appropriate

Pile Layout of Driven H pile

Pile Layout of Bore Pile

Pile Cap Design

Pile layout related to the pile cap assumption

For rigid cap, arrange the pile C.G. to coincide the loading C.G. Arrange the piles to the edge of the cap to obtain larger stiffness. (Less pile but more reinforcement at cap) For flexible cap approach, arrange pile near the column/wall. (More pile but less reinforcement at cap)

Rigid Cap

Flexible Cap

Deformed shape of Rigid Cap

Deformed shape of Flexible Cap

Thickness of a Rigid Cap

(Dr. J.S. Kuang HKUST)

A proposed design formula for estimating the thickness of a rigid cap:

t = 40 (N + 20) (mm)
(For 40 stories, t=2.4m)

where t Cap thickness

N Number of storey

As the Rigid Cap Analysis Method is based on the assumption that the Pile Cap is infinitely rigid. The usual practice by designers in the Rigid Cap Analysis is to treat the cap as a beam with the applied load and solved pile reactions, calculate the shear and moments in the beam. The Cap is thus having a uniform bending moment or shear along the entire section of the simulated beam

For Flexible Cap Analysis , the bending moment along the midstrip T and side-strip are of f different signs as shown. So the Flexible Cap analysis is more realistic design for pile cap in catering for local effects

Pilecap can be sized as one single cap or isolated caps to suit the sign

Computer Software for Foundation Design

The software used for foundation design mainly to find out the piling load and pilecap design CAPBS LIFORM SAFE VDISP CAPBS (or LIFORM)-Rigid Cap Approach Consider X and Y directions separately as a rigid beam Local stress cannot be found Torsional effect consideration is calculated by equilibrium (LIFORM) Simple data input SAFE (Rigid or flexible approach) Consider X and Y directions simultaneously Local stress can be found (e.g. torsional effect)

Horizontal Restraints to Piles and Pile Cap

Horizontal Restraints to Piles and Pile Cap

Wind shear force from super-structure

Piles and pile caps shall have adequate lateral stability and be able to cope with any allowed construction tolerance. For driven piles and small diameter piles, adequate horizontal restraints in at least 2 directions shall be provided to individual piles or pile caps The allowable horizontal movement is about 25mm

Soil passive load

Drag Wall/ Wing Wall to resist lateral load

Pile Cap on Plan

Drag Wall Wing Wall

Pile foundation near slope

Where the foundation has imposed additional loads on slopes or retaining walls, or the groundwater regime has been affected, the stability of the affected slopes or retaining walls should be checked as part of the foundation design
Flexible material to avoid any lateral pressure on slope Slope

Other Consideration

Piles Providing Resistance Against Uplift, Overturning and Buoyancy

Where piles are required to provide anchorage resistance against uplift, overturning and/or buoyancy, it should be demonstrated that the piles and the supporting ground have adequate anchorage capacities to satisfy the requirements The above requirements may be deemed to be satisfied by demonstrating that each pile in a pile foundation satisfies the following condition individually

Pile in tension

Dmin + 0.9 Ru 2.0 Ia -1.5U 1.5W 0


Dmin = Minimum dead load Ru = Ultimate anchoring resistance of the pile Ia = Adverse imposed load including live and soil loads U= Uplift due to highest anticipated groundwater table W= Wind load

Anchor come from the friction between rock and grout of pile

Settlement of Foundation

The average settlement is limited at 20mm and differential is controlled by 1/1000 Pile bearing on rock

Differential settlement come from elastic shortening of pile

Pile by friction on soil

The average settlement can be estimated by Tomlinsons Equivalent Raft approach or computer modeling (e.g PIGLET, VDISP)

Foundation near MTRs Structure PNAP 77

The protection boundary is about 30m outside the outer surface of the MTR structure but it encompasses the whole of any lot where any part lies within the 30m distance. No pile, foundation, borehole, well, soil nail, horizontal drain or other geotechnical installation should be driven or constructed within a distance of 3m from any point of the underground railway structures The vertical or horizontal pressure change on any underground structure due to the above works, including filling. Dewatering etc. and due to additional loads transmitted from foundations shall not exceed 20 KPa


Foundation on ground with abandoned pile

Re-access the capacity of existing pile for re-use Select space for new pile location in particular the Hpile

Raking Pile

Where raking mini piles are used to resist lateral forces, care should be taken to ensure equilibrium of forces and moments are maintained, taking into consideration the lack of bending stiffness of the piles and the effectively hinged conditions at the pile heads and bases

Foundation with basement

Besides providing additional space below ground level for a building, loads from the superstructure are also transferred through the structure of a basement to the foundation Such arrangement provides considerable rigidity to tall buildings base on the principle of buoyancy, that is, the basement box will displace the soil embedding it and balance the combined weight of the entire structure

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