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MBA SEMESTER IV QM0016 Managing Quality in the Organization - 4 Credits (Book ID:B1349) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks) Note:

: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions


1. Describe the three leadership styles. Leadership is the skill in which one person supports others in accomplishing a given task. It is the powerful skill that has the ability to make or even break an organisation. Leaders in an organisation guide the people to create innovative ideas as well as help them to achieve goals. Leadership is concerned about satisfying customers' as well as employees' needs. Leadership is more committed to continuous improvement. According to Jacobs & Jaques, "Leadership is a process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose The dominant behaviour pattern of a leader-manager in relation to his subordinates is known as leadership style. There are three basic styles of leadership as follows: - Autocratic or Authoritative Style. - Democratic or Participative Style, and - Laissez-faire or Free-rein Style. Autocratic or Authoritative style - An autocratic leader centralises power and decision making in himself and exercises complete control over the subordinates. In this style subordinates are compelled to follow the orders of the leader under threat or penalties. They have no opportunity to take part in goal setting, or take initiative or make suggestions. They are subject to close supervision and, thus have a tendency to avoid responsibility. The autocratic manager has little concern for the well-being of employees, who suffer from frustration and low morale. They do not have any sense of belonging to the organisation and try to work as little as possible. Limitations: It should be clear from the above that there are several limitations of the autocratic style of leadership. - It results in low morale due to the inner dissatisfaction of employees. - Efficiency of production goes down in the long run. - It does not permit development of future managers from among capable subordinates.

Despite the above limitations, autocratic leadership can be successfully applied in the following situations: - When subordinates are incompetent and inexperienced. - The leader prefers to be active and dominate in decision-making. - The company endorses fear and punishment for disciplinary techniques. - There is a little room for error in final accomplishment. - Under conditions of stress when great speed and efficiency are required. Democratic or Participative style - The democratic style is also known as participative style. In this style, decisions are taken by the leader in consultation with the subordinates and with their participation in the decision-making process. The participative leader encourages subordinates to make suggestions and take initiative in setting goals and implementing decisions. This enables subordinates to satisfy their social and ego needs, which in turn, lead to their commitment to the organisational goals and higher productivity. Frequent interactions between the manager and subordinates help to build up mutual faith and confidence. Several benefits can be derived from the participative style of leadership as listed below: - It helps subordinates to develop their potential abilities and assume greater responsibilities. - It provides job satisfaction and improves the morale of employees. - The group performance can be sustained at a high level due to the satisfied and cohesive nature of the group. However, the democratic style cannot be regarded as the best style under all circumstances. Its limitations are as follows: - Decisions taken through consultation may cause delay and require compromises to meet different view-points. - A few vocal individuals may dominate the decision-making process. - No one individual may take the responsibility for implementing the decision taken by the group as a whole. Laissez-faire or Free-rein style - Laissez faire leadership style is just the opposite of autocratic style. A manager, who adopts this style, completely gives up his leadership role. The subordinate group is allowed to make decisions and it is left to the members of the group to do as they like. The role of any leader is absent. The group members enjoy full freedom as regards goal setting and acting on it. Hence, there is chaos and mismanagement of group goals. However, laissez faire leadership is found to be quite suitable where the subordinates are well-trained, competent and the leader-manager is able to fully delegate the powers of decision-making and action to the subordinates. Laissez faire style is suitable in the following situations: - When leader is interested in delegating decision-making fully.

- Subordinates are well trained and highly knowledgeable. - Organisation goals have been communicated well. In spite of these factors, this style should be adopted rarely because it may lead to chaos and mismanagement. 2. What is PDCA cycle? How do you implement PDCA cycle? A Quality Management System (QMS) is based on set of interrelated processes. These processes go through cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act. PDCA (plan-do-check-act) is a four stage problem solving checklist used to improve business processes. The PDCA concept was advanced by Dr. W. Edwards Deming; hence it is also referred as Deming circle or Deming wheel. The PDCA Cycle is four-stage process, which enables you to get from problem-faced to problem solved stage. It was initially developed by Walter Shewhart, a statistician at Bell Laboratories in the US who developed statistical process control. Hence it is also referred as Shewhart Cycle. The PDCA Cycle directs your efforts to bring continuous improvement in the organisation. This cycle enable you to start the improvement process with careful planning and effective action, and then make it an iterative process. Each stage of the PDCA cycle involves: Plan: The first stage Plan identifies the problems and brings suitable ideas to solve these problems. The plan developed to make any changes must bring improvements in the organisation. This stage establishes processes to obtain results consistent with the expected output. With the focus of obtaining the expected output, it plans to make accurate specification of the techniques, as part of its improvement process. Do: The stage Do develops and executes new design or process to solve the identified problems. The testing of new design or process does not interrupt the existing design, which works on a regular basis. The changes are done on small scale for trial basis. Check: The next stage Check helps to verify whether or not the results obtained from the changes done on trial basis meets the expected results. It is necessary to check the quality of the results to avoid any new problems. It compares the outputs of the new processes against the expected outputs to find out the any differences This stage finds out if the changes made to any process are in working condition. Act: Act implements the above evaluated changes on a large scale if it provides the expected results. This involves implementing the changes on the works that are done regularly. This stage makes sure the organisation gets the greatest benefits from the changes. Implementing a PDCA cycle involves following steps: 1. PLAN: It involves the following steps:

Step 1: Identify the problem - Select the problem to be analysed. - Define the problem and set up an accurate problem statement. - Determine a measurable goal towards problem solving effort. - Organise a process and gain approval of leadership. Step 2: Analyse the problem - Identify and select one of the processes that cause the problem - Map the process. - Validate the map of the process. - Find out the possible cause of the problem. - Collect and analyse data related to the problem. - Validate the original problem statement and revise if needed. - Find out the root cause of the problem by collecting additional data. 2. DO: It involves the following steps: Step 3: Develop the solution - Establish measures for selecting a solution. - Create possible solutions to address the root causes of the problem. - Select a solution. - Gain authorisation for the selected solution. - Plan the solution. Step 4: Implement a solution - Execute the selected solution on a trial basis. 3. CHECK: It involves the following steps: Step 5: Evaluate the results - Collect data on the solution. - Examine the data on the solution. - Check whether or not the solution executed on trial basis is achieving the desired result. - Continue to look for incremental improvements. At this level check whether the goals are achieved or not? If the goals are achieved then go to next step else go to step 1.

4. ACT: It involves the following steps: Step 6: Standardise the solution - Identify the changes and appropriate training needed for full implementation. - Implement the solution. - Monitor of the solution. - Refine the solution by incremental improvements 3. Differentiate between mission statement and vision statement. Mission statement - A short, formal statement which defines the organisation in terms of its business, its customers, the intention of the business and the aim of the organisation. It is a formal, short written statement for the purpose of the current functioning of the company or an organisation. The actions of the organisation are guided by the mission statement. Mission statement should spell out the overall goal, provide a sense of direction and guide in decision making. Critical components that clarify each organisations purpose are common in case of all effective mission statements. Mission statements often contain the following: - Purpose and aim of the organisation. - The organisations primary stakeholders: clients, stockholders, congregation etc. - Responsibilities of the organisation towards the stake holders. - Products and services offered. As described by Hill, the mission statement consists of: - A statement that contains the reason for using the product. - A statement of some desired future state (vision). - A statement of the key values the organisation is committed to. - A statement of major goals. To resolve the differences between business stake holders, the mission statement can be used. Stake holders include employees consisting of both managers and executives, stockholders, board of directors, customers, suppliers, distributors, creditors, governments (local, state, federal etc), unions, competitors, NGOs and the general public. The organisations strategies are affected by the stake holders. As per Vern McGinis, a mission statement should satisfy the following points: - Define what the company is. - Define what the company aspires to be (Vision Statement).

- Limit to execute some ventures. - Broad enough to allow for creative growth. - Distinguish the company from all others. - Serve as framework to evaluate current activities. - State clearly so that information is understood by all. The firms core ideology and visionary goals are communicated by the companys mission. This also comprises the companys core values, core purpose and visionary goals. The visionary goals when selected, the core values and purpose of the firms should be discovered. Values and purpose must firmly exist in the organisation. In such case, the stake holders are most likely to believe in the companys mission. Vision statements - To convey clearly and concisely the direction of the organisation, vision statements are coined, to be inspiring words chosen by successful leaders. One can powerfully communicate their intentions and motivate the team or organisation to realise an attractive and inspiring common vision of the future by crafting a clear mission statement and vision statement. Vision statement also defines the organisations purpose, but these statements do so in terms of the organisations values rather than bottom line measures (values are guiding beliefs about how things should be done). This statement defines the goal of the organisation for a specified time, and spell how the mission statements are executed as per plan. The purpose and the value of an organisation are both communicated by the vision statement. In case of employees, this gives a direction about how they are expected to behave and inspires them to give their best. When shared with customers and/or stake holders, it shapes customer/stake holders understanding of why they should be associated with this organisation. A vision statement is sometimes called as a futures picture of the company. The vision statement along with the mission statement helps in strategic planning. The vision statement may apply to an entire organisation or to a single division of the company. A vision statement doesnt tell how to get there; rather it sets the direction for business planning. Hence, it is important while crafting a vision statement to capture ones imagination and passion to predict the future. While writing a vision statement, the mission statement and the core competencies are a valuable starting point for articulating ideas. While creating it one must be sure not to make it fall into the trap of only thinking ahead a year or two. Once a vision statement is done, it will have a huge influence on decision making and the way one allocate resources.

4. What do you mean by Strategic Quality Planning? Explain Strategic quality planning is an integral part of every quality management activity. When quality is

chosen by organisations as the differentiating factor, it becomes the central issue in strategic planning. Strategic quality planning process will shift the organisation and/or a departments quality management team ahead of the notion of quick fixes and into the sphere of solutions. This leads to the development of quality management strategies. This process starts with defining what quality means with respect to an organisations point of view for developing quality standards, creating an idea for quality and translating the idea into a series of quality strategies. 1) Identify the organisational quality initiatives: The analysis in this phase consists of an understanding about the quality initiatives that are being used, why being used, the impact they had on the organisation, and if they are no longer used, why they were eliminated 2) Understanding the voice of the customer: this stage focuses on an organisations delivery of products and services to their customers. This will make sure a clear customer focus is given to the development of the strategic quality plan. 3) Identify employee involvement: Achieving employees understanding of customer relationships is crucial to the success of the strategic quality plan. 4) Conduct benchmark: At times, it happens that opportunities needs to be explored external to an organisation to learn what others are doing and to learn from them is often missed. Such attempt is typically highly beneficial and helps to give ideas as to how to improve the internal quality processes. 5) Develop the vision and strategic direction: The strategic quality vision will be initiated by the quality team. This will envision the structure and approach to quality throughout an organisation. 6) Develop a statement of quality and standards: Before heading towards the development of quality strategies, the team should develop a statement of quality. The appropriate quality standards applicable will be identified in this phase. 7) Identify the quality strategies: the quality strategies are developed in this stage. The quality strategies will translate the quality vision, the quality statements and quality standards into key strategies. 8) Develop operational effectiveness: the operational effectiveness plan will recognise the objectives needed to meet each quality strategy and the detailed action plans required to meet each objective. 9) Develop strategy measurements: The correct measures are critical to the effective management in the delivery of the quality strategies. They must be specific and critical. 5. Write a note on customer satisfaction. What is meant by Customer Relationship Management? Customer satisfaction is a popular term that actually refers to the state perception of the customer. It is used to describe the degree to which the customers requirements have been fulfilled when using the product or service. In the current global market, there is strong competition from foreign players who penetrate with deep

pockets to promote their products in various media. Local companies need to have other means to increase customer base. Studies and surveys have proved that customer satisfaction is a key differentiator and hence has become a key business strategy both for local and global companies. Gaining customer loyalty is a seen as a cost-free, longlasting method to acquire new customer. Customer satisfaction leads to positive word-of-mouth. It is seen as a key performance marker within the business and is considered as a part of the balanced scorecard. It helps to measure organisational performance against strategic goals. There are ways and means to measure customer satisfaction, like online and handwritten reviews, measuring stock-outs, measuring returns and studying the after sale complaints and services records. Customer satisfaction is measured based on the feedback given by the customer. It helps to find out the areas of weaknesses that enables firm to work on methodologies to rectify defective processes and enhance performances. It is necessary for the organisation to make their customers be aware of such processes in order to give them assurance of the quality improvement process of the organisation. Customers should participate in the customer grievance redress system of the organisation. It gives lot of confidence to the customers to rely on the organisations systems as they also become part of the organisation in developing its processes for quality. The process to determine the customer satisfaction consists of various steps that are listed: - Problem identification - Define criteria and standards - Collection of data - Compare performance with criteria and standards - Implementing change Basic principles for customer satisfaction - Some of the basic principles used to satisfy customers are as follows: - Stay in touch with your customers on regular basis. - Create a customer focus group and invite 10-20 loyal customers to meet on regular basis. - Create a website for customers to navigate easily and include, FAQs page that explains users and customers. - It is best to resolve customers complaints quickly and completely. Answering email and phone-calls within a stipulated time shows your care. - Make your contact information easily available. Let them reach you in more than one ways a dedicated mail service, phone service, personal mails or even a toll-free number helps. - Make your employees be familiar about your customer service policy. - Give your customers more than what they expect. Long term customers have to be specially

accorded with a message. - Customers have to be treated with respect. Courtesy principles like smiles, welcoming, using please, and thank you are polite manners which will endear them. - Practise rewarding the customers with points for any referral, purchasing, etc. - Invite your customers to your office during special occasions if your business is in local area Customer Relationship Management - Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a process or methodology used to learn more about customers' needs and behaviors in order to develop stronger relationships with them. There are many technological components to CRM, but thinking about CRM in primarily technological terms is a mistake. The more useful way to think about CRM is as a process that will help bring together lots of pieces of information about customers, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness and market trends. CRM helps businesses use technology and human resources to gain insight into the behavior of customers and the value of those customers. Some of the advantages of CRM are as follows: - Provide better customer service. - Increase customer revenues. - Discover new customers. - Sell products more effectively. - Help sales staff to close deals faster. - Simplify marketing and sales processes. Customer relationship management (CRM) includes: - processes that help form individualized relationships with customers (to improve customer satisfaction) and provide the highest level of customer service to the most profitable customers; - processes that provide employees with the information they need to know their customers' wants and needs, and build relationships between the company and its customers - CRM processes that help identify and target their best customers, generate quality sales leads, and plan and implement marketing campaigns with clear goals and objectives; 6. What are the major responsibilities of Senior Management? A team of individuals at the top most level of an organisational management are often referred as senior management or the management team. They are responsible for the day to day activities of managing an organisation Any quality improvement has to be sustained over a period of time to be part of the organisational culture and senior management executives play a vital role in enforcing the same. These people are often referred to, inside corporations as executive management, top management, upper management, higher management or simply seniors.

The responsibility for establishing the appropriate policies and practices that facilitate a flexible workplace are handled by the senior management. They cover responsibilities like establishing a flexible workplace policy that helps employees to adjust to the differing work environments. Senior management are ultimately responsible for their firms risk management. The Management commitment has been an important element in all quality standards and the management initiatives would be propagated only through the effort of the senior management. The major responsibilities of Senior management are: - Coaching for Team Success. - Create an environment oriented to trust, open communication, creative thinking, and cohesive team effort. - Provide the team with a vision of the project objectives. - Motivate and inspire team members. - Lead by setting a good example (role model) - behaviour consistent with words. - Senior management should direct towards the set goals in proper way. - Informational Leadership. - Familiarize the team with the customer needs, specifications, design targets, the development process, design standards, techniques and tools to support task performance. - Initiate sub-groups or sub-teams as appropriate to resolve issues and perform tasks in parallel. - Help keep the team focused and on track. - Proper Usage of power and authority - Senior management should be like leaders. No leader is effective unless the subordinates obey his orders. Therefore, the Senior management, like a good leader should use appropriate power so that subordinates willingly obey the orders and come forward with commitment. - Strive for Effectiveness - Senior management should provide reward structure to encourage performance of employees. - Senior management should delegate authority where needed and invites participation where possible to achieve the better result. - By communicating to workers what is expected of them, leader brings effectiveness to organization. - Senior management should provide all the necessary resources for reaching the set goals and bringing effectiveness. - Maintain good relationship - Senior management should ensure that there is good relationship maintained with the employees. - Also the senior management should ensure that their employees maintain good and healthy relationship with the customers and suppliers who come in contact. For this the senior management should create awareness among employees about the importance of maintaining good relationship with customers and suppliers for overall effectiveness in the Organization.

MBA SEMESTER IV QM0016 Managing Quality in the Organization - 4 Credits (Book ID:B1349) Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions
1. Explain the various theories of motivation. Motivation is an influencing force that enables you to act in a desirable manner. Leaders influence people and motivate them to accomplish things which are of best interest to their followers. The factors that motivate one person may not motivate another. So a leader evaluates peoples action and ensures that they perform consistently with the mission, goal or end-result. The following are the different ways one could motivate others: - A person who likes to collaborate and work gets motivated by affiliation. - A person who focuses on to achieve personal goals gets motivated by any accomplishment. - A person who always contributes for the welfare of others gets motivated by selflessness. - A person who wishes to manage their work gets motivated by power. Some of the common ways to influence motivation are: - Fear: Fear of losing the job can be temporary motivation for the employee to perform well. - Incentives: People work to get the incentives or bonus in the form of money. - Opportunities for personal growth: Personal growth maximises the employees' motivation. Basically, there are two kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are forced to do something out of pleasure, importance, or desire. Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors force the person to do something. For example, extrinsically motivated employees who dislike overtime may work hard on weekends to get the employee of the month reward. On the other hand, an intrinsically motivated employee may not be happy with a reward but with the satisfaction gained by doing a task well. The major theories of motivation. Megginson (1977), for the sake of convenience, has classified the leading theories of motivation into three groups that is process theories, content theories and perspective theories: Process theories - Motivation in the more traditional sense refers to the process of stimulating people to act and to achieve the desired goals. In other words, motivation is an approach that a manager performs to get the subordinates achieve job objectives. Process theories of motivation generally are based on the assumption that behaviour which leads to rewards will be repeated, while behaviour which does not lead to rewards will not be repeated. These theories consider salary as the main

motivating factor. Expectancy theory and equity theory are among the significant types of process theories. Expectancy theory - Expectancy theory assumes that people have certain built-in beliefs regarding their expected roles within an organisation and that their behaviour must conform to these roles. The theory also assumes that employees perceive their compensation to be just or unjust based on its relationship to their performance. Vrooms Expectancy Theory states that an employee must know that they will be rewarded for hard work. This theory of motivation consists of three main factors: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Employees should be informed clearly about what they must do and know a companys method of measuring performance. Instrumentality means the degree to which the expected performance will lead to expected rewards. Valence constitutes the value an employee places on rewards provided by an organisation. For example, if an employee values cash compensation he would not be motivated enough by the terms of extra time off from his job. Equity theory - Equity theory assumes that each individual is most concerned with personal contribution and expected results (for example, income) compared to their colleagues. Equity theory states that in a work environment, motivation is influenced by an employees perception of how equitably they are treated compared to others. The theory is also known as social comparison theory or inequity theory. John Stacy Adams, a behavioural psychologist, states that Employees strive for equity between themselves and other employees. If an employee feels that they are not being properly rewarded for the effort, they will become unmotivated. Hence, the measurement tools used to evaluate performances should be standardised. Content theories - Instead of viewing motivation as a management process, it can also be looked at from the standpoint of the employee being motivated. Employees act differently because of different personal experiences. These differences, in turn, make the employees to view the work situation in a manner not quite identical to fellow employees. Content theories of motivation focus on employee motives that relate to job performance. A few of the more popular content theories are discussed below. Achievement need theory - The achievement motivation theory assumes that employees who derive satisfaction from solving difficult problems, influencing others, making decisions, and achieving results acquire achievement motivation. This theory explains the motivation of higher-level executives.

Need hierarchy and self-actualisation theories assume that employees have a hierarchy of needs, and that as more basic needs such as food, shelter, and security and are satisfied, they become more concerned with higher-level needs such as self-actualisation. Herzbergs two-factor theory - An American psychologist, Frederick Herzberg, states that You cannot motivate people; you can just build an environment where people motivate themselves.[5] An organisation must build a good work environment if it expects to motivate employees. Herzberg presents his two-factor theory, known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory, according to which he lists work, responsibility, promotion, development, accomplishment, and acknowledgment as "Motivator Factors" and salary with benefits, relationship with co-workers, supervision, job security, atmosphere, company procedures, and administration and status as "Hygiene Factors." Herzberg feels it is vital to keep in mind the importance of providing employees with the "Hygiene Factors." He states that the providing enough motivation and hygiene factors is sufficient and adding extra motivation may not always provide good results. Although hygiene factors do not increase profits, if these are not taken care of, employee performance drops. Intrinsic motivation theory - Michael M. Harris tells that intrinsic motivators work better than extrinsic motivators. Relationship with co-workers contributes to employee satisfaction and hence, managers should create an environment where relationships between employees grant them satisfaction and relieve them of the burden of work. Perspective theories The following are some of the perspective theories which stress upon the management to motivate employees: Taylors scientific management approach. Human relations theory. McGregors theory Y. Taylors scientific management approach - Frederick Taylor (1911), the father of scientific management, observed that success of management and work force are inter-dependent. Employees are inherently capable of working hard, but they show such qualities irregularly. To harness this feature of employees behaviour, salary and incentives must be linked to achievement of optimum goals. While good performers get rewards and better pay, bad performers lose on this count. Human relation theory - According to this theory attention must be paid to the human aspects of organisation and give importance to the roles, needs and expectations of the human participants.

McGregors theory Y - According to this theory employees do not get motivated as much by any reward, but they seek freedom to do difficult and challenging jobs, all by themselves. If the manager can guide the employees in identifying challenging jobs, the potentials of the employees will be realised. 2. Discuss the qualities of an effective leader. Explain any three leadership theories. A leader cannot be effective unless he possesses certain qualities of head and heart. Irrespective of the nature of the manager-leaders own responsibilities of the job and the style adopted by him, a number of qualities are generally found to be possessed by the effective leader. The more important of these qualities are listed below: - Empathy: A leader must have the capacity to appreciate others and look at things from his subordinates angle. This attitude of the leader motivates his subordinates. - Self-confidence: Confidence about ones leadership ability makes it possible for a leader to analyse and face different situations and adopt a suitable style. Lack of self-confidence often prevents managers to adopt participative style and repose trust in his subordinates. - Awareness of others opinion about himself: A leader having self-confidence should not ignore how others perceive him as a leader. He must be aware of his strength and weakness in relation to his subordinates. - Objectivity: A leader who is effective does not get carried away by emotions. He is fair and objective in his dealings with subordinates. - Knowledge and intelligence: A leader to be effective must have knowledge of group behaviour, human nature, and activities involving technical and professional competence. He must have intelligent perception of human psychology and ability to think clearly and argue cogently on points of dispute. - Decisiveness: Decision making is a necessary but difficult task for every leader. A leader often has to take initiative, exercise mature judgement while taking decisions. Besides, he has to have foresight imagination and creative ideas for effective decision making. Open mindedness is yet another essential quality for that purpose. - Ability to communicate: The skill of effective communication of goals and procedure of work is extremely important in leadership. To achieve desired results and coordination of efforts in a group, oral communication is of great significant. - Sense of purpose and responsibility: A leader must have clarity of purpose and responsibility to be able to inspire his subordinates to achieve specific goals. - Mental and physical health: To be able to bear the pulls and pressures of leadership, it is essential for the leader to have sound health both mental and physical. Along with a balanced temperament and

optimistic outlook, he must possess stamina and sound health. - Other qualities: Enthusiasm, courage, sense of direction, judgement, tact, courtesy and integrity are also regarded as necessary qualities for a leader to be effective. Great Man theories - The "Great Man" theories assume that leaders are born and not made. It states that great leaders are destined. The term "Great Man" was used because; it was thought that the leadership is only male quality. Trait theories - Trait Theories is similar to "Great Man", where it assumes that leaders are born and not made. Trait theories identify the behavioural characteristics, which include charisma, courage and intelligence, as traits that are best suited to leadership. However, Trait Theories are overlooked by the researcher as there is no solid basis for leadership development. Contingency theories - Contingency Theories focus on variable that are related to particular situation that helps to determine specific leadership style, which is most suitable for that situation. This theory states that a specific leadership style cannot be same for all the situations. A number of variables along with leadership style and qualities bring success to organisation. 3. Write a note on the following: (a) DMAIC methodology - A metric used for measurement of defects is defined as DMAIC. This can also be defined as a methodology and also a management strategy. It is one of the two key methods used to implement six sigma; a quality improvement process .This was originally introduced by Motorola in 1986 by Bill Smith to measure the progress of business processes and increase profitability. DMAIC methodology: The improvement tools use the DMAIC methodology to root out and eliminate the causes of defects. Let us now learn the expansion of this process strategy. D Define a problem or improvement opportunity. M Measure process performance A Analyse the process to determine the root cause of poor performance, determine if the process can be improved or should be re designed. I Improve the process by attacking root causes. C Control the improved process to hold the gains. (b) Measurement system Analysis - MSA stands for measurement system analysis. This is the statistical analysis of variation that is induced into the process of measurement. It is to be understood that the process of obtaining measurements and data has variation and produces defects. A measuring system analysis is an important element of the Six sigma methodology that helps to ensure

the integrity of data that is being used for analysis and helps to understand the implication of the measurement of error of decisions made. The objective of MSA is to analyse the collection of equipment, operations, procedures, software that has a profound impact on the measurement characteristic. To be confident about a process delivery, it is important to analyse and include the measurement system variation using the scientific technique of measurement systems analysis. MSA classifies system variation into the following: Bias This is referred to as a statistically significant and systematic shift of the reading from its original master value. This can be due to a worn out instrument. Repeatability and reproducibility: The inherent variation in the instrument is termed as the repeatability error. The error induced by the influence of the appraiser is termed as the reproducibility. Linearity: Linearity evaluates if the bias is uniform across the operating range of the measurement system. Stability: Stability study statistically observes the state of measurement system over a period of time. More variations are induced in the readings by the measurement system due to wear and tear as it gets into use. After different intervals based in their usage, each measurement system will go out of stability. Stability test scientifically ensures you of the predictability of the measurement system behavior over an extended period of time. 4. Explain the steps in decision making. Making decisions is a part of everyones life. Some decisions are relatively straightforward and simple or it may be complex. Complex decisions typically involve issues like uncertainty, complexity, high risk consequences, alternatives and interpersonal issues. There are six steps to make an effective decision. They are as follows: 1. Create a constructive environment - Successful decisions need a constructive environment for it to evolve and a constructive environment can be created by using the following points: - Establishing the objectives. - Having the same opinion throughout the process. - Involving the right people. - Sharing opinions with other employees. - Using creativity tools right from the beginning. 2. Generate good alternatives - If you want your final decision to be complete then you must consider better options. There are some key tools and techniques which assist you and your team in developing good alternatives and they are: - Brainstorming. - The charette procedure. - Crawford slip writing technique.

3. Exploring the alternatives - If you have a good selection of alternatives, then you need to evaluate the feasibility, risks, and implications of those alternatives. 4. Choose the best alternative - Once you evaluate the alternatives, you need to select a best alternative among them. The choice may be apparent, if not use the following tools: - Grid analysis: It is also called as a decision matrix. This tool is invaluable because it causes you to introduce different factors into your decisionmaking process in a reliable and rigorous way. - Paired comparison analysis: This tool can be used to examine the relative importance of various factors. This tool compares dissimilar factors, and decides which one will hold the most weight in your decision. - Decision trees: This tool can be used to choose a relevant option among the available options. This helps you to lay out the different options open to you, and bring the likelihood of success or failure into the decision making process. 5. Check the decision - This is the step in which you come across the decision you are about to make analytically, to ensure that your decision making process has been thoroughly checked against errors. You can divide this step into three parts, the first part of this is an instinctive step, which involves gentle and methodical testing of the assumptions and the decisions you have made against your own experience, and carefully reviewing and exploring any doubts you might have. In the second part of this step, you review whether general decision-making problems such as overconfidence, increasing commitment, or groupthink may have damaged the decision-making process. In the third part of this step, you need to check the logical structure of the decision to ensure that a justifiable and reliable decision appears at the end of the decision making process. 6. Communicate the decision and take action - After making your decision, it is essential for you to elucidate it to those who will be affected by it, and to those who are involved in implementing it. If you share information about risks and future benefits with your employees, most likely employees would support the decision. 5. Explain the stages of team development. What are the various types of teams? According to Bruce Tuckman, there are five stages of team development. He also recommended that these phases are all essential and inevitable in a team to grow, to come across challenges, to deal with the problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results. The five stages of team development are as shown

Forming This is the first stage of team development. In this stage team members pay their attention towards defining or understanding objectives and developing procedures for completing their tasks. Team development in this stage involves getting up to date information of team and understanding leadership and other member roles. When it comes to aspects of social behaviours, it should also deal with members feelings and interdependence of each member. Otherwise, individual members might: - Keep opinions to themselves until they know the circumstances. - Act more protected than the actual feel. - Experience confusion and uncertainty about what is expected of them. - Be nice and polite or at least certainly not aggressive. Storming - This stage focuses on the variances over work behaviours, relative priorities of goals, the identification of who is responsible for what, and the task-related guidance and direction of the team leader. In this stage there may be competition over the leadership role and conflict over goals. As a result of this there may be withdrawal of some members or isolation of members due to the emotional tension generated. The objective of this stage is to manage conflict, not to suppress it or withdraw from it. Suppressing conflict will likely create bitterness and disliking, which will last long after team members attempt to express their differences and emotions. Withdrawal may cause the team to fail. Norming - This stage is characterised by the sharing of information, acceptance of different options, and positive attempts to make decisions that may require compromise. During this stage, team members set rules through which team will operate. Some team members may have to give up their own opinions and have to agree with others to facilitate the proper functioning of team. In this stage, all the team members become responsible and have the aspiration to work for the success of the goals of the team. Performing - In this stage team members show how effectively and efficiently they can achieve the team goals together. The roles and responsibilities of each team members are established and understood. The members should have a sense of when they should work independently and when they should help each other.

The teams may vary after the performing stage. Some teams may perform well by learning and developing from their experiences, becoming more efficient and effective. Other teams-especially those with standards not fully supportive of efficiency and effectiveness-may perform only at the level needed for their survival. Adjourning stage - In this stage there may exist the termination of work behaviours and disengagement from social behaviours. A problem-solving team or a cross-functional team formed to examine and report on a specific problem within certain period has well-defined points of adjournment. 6. Describe the principles of business ethics. Explain the importance of Corporate social responsibility When businesses think of only making money, it becomes pure capitalism. Although making money is not wrong, the way in which money is made matters a lot. There are certain etiquettes to be followed to do business and these are called the business ethics. When the ethics of business are in place, good business practices are seen and there by organisations benefit on the long run. The ethics of business are a set of moral standards and principles to be followed by an organisation when dealing with business matters to maintain a balance in the society. "If you have integrity, nothing else matters. If you don't have integrity, nothing else matters." is a famous quote of Alan K. Simpson which exemplifies the need for ethics in business. It is found that companies that practice good business ethics outperform those companies that do not practice good business ethics. It is therefore very necessary for companies to have good business ethics as they would lead to long term growth and success. The 7 most admirable principles of Business ethics are as below Be truthful: An individual needs to trust the organisation with whom business is done. Trust is built on the basis of truth, strength and ability of the organisation. Keep an open mind: For an organisation to grow the employees must have an open mind set to accept new ideas and accept the feedback provided by their customers. Meet obligations: In spite of all the odd situations, you must go out of the way to gain trust from the old customers or clients of the organisation. Consider some of their obligations to reclaim the old business. Have clear documents: Ensure that the print materials of business advertising are very clear, accurate and of business standards. The brochures must never misinterpret or miss sell. Become community involved: Corporations must make themselves responsible by involving in activities related to community issues. Maintain accounting control: Organisation accounts must always be maintained up to date and should never involve in forgery and dubious activities which may retard the progress

Be respectful: Carry a professional attitude and respect all equally. Do not have biased feelings towards a particular caste, colour, language or region. By implementing the above mentioned 7 principles of business ethics it is possible for an organisation to gain its due benefits. The business along with the stakeholders must share the same set of responsibilities and obligations as the employees and the management team. Otherwise it becomes a two way road and it becomes difficult to achieve social responsibility. To support for the cause, government must provide incentives. Social responsibility is not just about companies involving themselves in social activity; rather it is how deeply they have imbibed the concern for the society in a responsible way. The organisation has to determine how far it can reach out for a social cause depending on its economical structure. Man is a social being, and has socially evolved and rapidly adapted to the social changes, sometimes they are influenced by the past in several ways like - The present generation has started to reflect on their good and bad behaviours through the education they have acquired. - The traditional values of the past might not be good enough for the present dynamic society. - The conflict between the business and its stakeholders. - The liberty and options to make their choice. So social responsibility is one such practice carried on to this day. It therefore becomes very necessary for us to understand the present practices and learn from the past to be able to follow the right path of social responsibility. The six most important key areas in which both the internal and the external CSR practices could contribute to a companys economic success are - Opting for context-focus philanthropy, which refers to selection of programmes that match organisations objectives. - Protecting the Business reputation and customer trust. - Attracting, motivating and retaining talent. - Exploiting existing market opportunities and creating new markets. - Improving the competitiveness of a country. - Responding to environmental challenges.