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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and TechnologyRESEARCH (IJARET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED IN 6480(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)

ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 2 March April 2013, pp. 206-209 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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THE GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL OF A DIATOMIC SYSTEM


M. M. Izam*, E. K. Makama* and M. S. Ojo** *Department of Physics, University of Jos, P. M. B. 2084, Jos **Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa

ABSTRACT In this paper we have derived, not only the gravitational potential of a diatomic molecule in spherical coordinates but also, the Schrodingers law of quantum mechanics for the system. These were found to depend on the temperature of the system. Key Words: Vibrational mass, Translational mass, Diatomic molecule, Gravitational Potential 1 INTRODUCTION

(1) E n hf Where n 1,2,3, is the allowable energy level, f is frequency of vibration and is the planks constant. Also for such a system, from Newtonian classical mechanics, it can be shown that for a mono-atomic gas at a given temperatureT, the average speed of the molecule could be given with sufficient accuracy as (MeClelland, 1973)

vt

It is known that for a quantized simple harmonic oscillator, the particles have vibrational energies given by (Pathria, 1972)

(2)

Where K is Boltzmann constant and m0 the rest mass of the gas A diatomic molecule may be regarded as consisting of two point masses m and m joint together by an elastic string. For simplicity we will assume that m m m . It therefore follows that the total mass of the molecule is 2m . If we treat translational behaviour of the molecule as a whole, then the mean speed v of the molecule can be considered as

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

It is also known from the theory of relativity that the motional mass, M of a body increases with the velocity v according to the relations (Roser, 1976). Where c is the speed of light in vacuum and m the rest mass of the system. From (3) Substituting (5) in (4) yields v t

vt

(3)

Mv 1

(4)

(5)

This will henceforth be regarded as the relative mass of the molecule. 2 THEORY

MT m 1

(6)

From equation (1) we obtain the total vibrational energy of the system by multiplying the occupation number with the vibrational energy in each level, and sum them up. This is not a simple mathematical task. However for the gases whose molecules are diatonic, and have a simple vibrational mode, the vibrational energy could be approximated (Knox, 1978) as Where is the vibrational characteristic temperature of the gas and N, Avogadros number. The characteristic temperature is not constant, but varies for different molecule. For example the value for H is 5987K, for N is 3352K and for Cl the value is 789K (Knox, 1978). We know in all force fields in nature, the mass-energy equivalence relation is given by E Mc (8) Hence from equation (7) we obtain the total vibrational mass M. as

E. NKT

(7)

From equations (6) and (9) we obtain the total vibrational and Translational mass of the system. If M is the total mass of the system as a result of the two contributions then, we have (Howusu, 1991) NKT 1 M c T 2

M. T

(9)

This is the total general mass of the system. Then the general gravitational potential due to the relative rest mass of the diatonic system in spherical coordinates is given as

1e

3KT m 1 2m c

(10)

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

r, t r, t 3

And

,r R

(11)

,r R

(12)

THE SCHRODINGER WAVE EQUATION

Since we have now derived the total mass, vibrational and translational, of the diatomic molecule and the total gravitational potential, the Schrodingers law of quantum mechanics for the system can now be written as ih r, t

r, t

(13)

And ih r, t

r, t

(14)

CONCLUSION

We have shown that for a diatonic molecule the total vibrational and Translational energies depend on the temperature of the system. The total energy has been used to obtain an expression for the general gravitational potential that would be produced by such a system, which may be written as ,

3 1 , 1 2 3 2

And

We have also been able to establish the Schrodingers law of quantum mechanics for a diatomic molecule which is given as ih r, t

3 1 , 2

And

r, t

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

ih r, t

In addition to vibrational and translation motions, the diatomic molecule has been shown to exhibit rotational motion along its axis. However the contribution of the mass as a result of its rotational motion has not been included in this paper. This is therefore open for further investigation. 5. REFERENCES

r, t

1. Howusu, S.X.K (1991): On the Gravitation of Moving Bodies; Physics Essays Vol. 1, No 1 Pg 81-92. 2. Knox, B.J (1978): Molecular thermodynamics; John Wiley and Sons, London Pg163. 3. Me Clelland, B. J. (1973): Statistical Thermodynamics; Chapman and Hall Science Paper Backs, London. Pg13. 4. Mizoshima, M. (1972): Theoretical Physics from Classical Mechanics to Group Theory of Micro- particles; John Wiley and Sons Pg 257 5. Pathria, R.K. (1972): Statistical Mechanics; Pergamon Press Pg 144 6. Roser, W.G.V. (1976) : An introduction to Theory of Relativity; John Wiley and Sons. Pg 439 7. Anesh K Sharma, Ashu K Gautam , CG Balaji, Asudeb Dutta, SG Singh, Shunt Rf Mems Switch With Low Potential And Low Losson Quartz For Reconfigurable Circuit Applications International Journal Of Electronics And Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET) Volume 3 Issue 2 (July September 2012) pp. 497 - 510, Issn Print : 0976- 6464, Issn Online : 0976 6472. Published By IAEME 8. Mosleh Maiet Al-Harthi, Sherif Salama Mohamed Ghoneim, Measurements the Earth Surface Potential for Different Grounding System Configurations Using Scale Model International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET) Volume 3 Issue 2 (July September 2012) pp. 405 - 416, Issn Print: 0976-6545, Issn Online: 0976-6553. Published By IAEME

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