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T E A C H I N G - LEARNING METHODS 125

Emotional climate : Neutral or warm classroom environment is essential for effective teaching. Try to avoid negative climate. A teacher need not be worried too much or about being liked or being popular with students. 8. Teacher observational skill : Observation is an excellent method of assessing students. Efficient teachers possess both the general and specific observational skills. Being able to observe correctly is an important skill, especially in the case of nursing teachers. 9. Handling assignments : Assignments play a major role in todays teaching-learning process. While dealing with assignments, teacher has to state clear expectations of what is expected, how to get help and what to do when finished. 10. Management skills : Efficient teachers are first of all effective managers. They know how to manage the classroom for achieving desirable ends. 11. Ability to develop appropriate progressions : Efficient teachers not only help students to attain progress but also consider this progress while teaching them. In order to ensure appropriate progression, teacher has to teach the content in relation to the learners background knowledge rather than blindly following the content. For instance, while teaching the impact of consumer protection act on nursing, teacher need not explain full details because students might have gained knowledge regarding the impact of consumer protection act on health care professions though different medias like newspaper, television, etc. So considering the progress achieved by the students in the matter of consumer protection act, teacher has to teach the topic in a discussion form by eliciting students opinion instead of simply reading out the content from a prepared, note. 12. Context specific : This is the essence of teaching.* An intelligent teacher always take into account the situations and teach only the relevant subject matter. Revising and highlighting the importance of universal precautions just before posting the students in the operation theatre exemplifies context specific nature of teaching. TEACHING SKILLS

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Teaching is 'a complex process. For conducting teaching in a successful manner, teacher has to possess a variety of teaching skills. A teaching skill can be defined as a set of teacher behaviours which are specially effective in bringing about desired changes in students. The Australian advisory committee on research and development in education has analysed teaching into 140 skills. Allen and Ryan of the Stanford university have suggested fourteen skills. It is better to relate teaching skills with different stages of a lesson as shown below. Component of Teaching skills Associated with Different Stages of a lesson I. Planning Stage Component 1. 2. 3. Stages of a Lesson

Teaching

Skills objectives

Writing instructional

Selecting the content Organising the content

18. B. 9. 10. 31. Selection of the audio-visual aids material Crt-ating set for introducing the Introducing the lesson lesson 11. Reinforcement C. Quesdoning Skills :Structuring classroom questions Fluency in questioning Probing questions Questions . 25. (d) Skill of promoting student participation. 24. 12. As we have already discussed reinforcement and . (e) Skill of using examples. They are (a) Skill of stimulus variation. 11. 17. A. 15. Even though all the above discussed skills are important. 23. 20.delivery and distribudon The use of higher order questions Divergent questions Response management. 14.U(. 26. (b) Skill of explanation. Presentation Stage 7. 8. 16. 6. 22. Closing Stage 27. 30. Presentation Skills Pacing of the lesson Lecturing Explaining Discussing Demonstrating Illustration with examples Using teaching aids Stimulus variation Silence and non-verbal cues. Managerial skills Promodng pupil participadon Recognising attending behaviour Management of the class Achieving closure Planned repetition Giving assignments Evaluating pupils progress Diagnosing pupil learning difficulties and taking remedial measures. (c) Skill of reinforcement. (f) Questioning skills. 21. 111. LbARNING & TEACHING N U R S I N G 4. 28. 19. 29. IV. some of them deserve more attention as they are used more frequently in teaching. 13. Introductory Stage 5.

Focusing behaviour: Communication can be aided by the use of verbal focusing (giving emphasis to particular words. Planned silences and pauses can also be effective. Thus. Shifting sensory channels : Information is processed by means of the five senses and research suggests that pupils ability to take information can be increased by appealing to sight and sound alternatively. which is a combination of the two. the teacher has to judiciously use audio-visual aids while teaching. This should be perfectly clear and diversions from it should be kept to a minimum. 3. and body). Simplicity : Try to use simple. Keep sentences short and if relationships are complex. Changes in speech patterns : This involves changing the quality. 3. teacher and student and student and student . fussy and irritating movements like obsessively pacing up and down the same part of the room 2. intelligible and grammatical sentences. expressiveness. avoid nervous. facial expressions and movement of head. Where explanations are concerned one must be as explicit as possible. let us discuss the remaining ones. subject . 'Continuity : Maintaining a strong connecting thread through a lesson is a matter of" greater importance. The following factors contribute to the effectiveness in explanation. If specialist.instead of teacher monologue.T E A C H I N G . it is based on research the behaviours associated with this skill as follows: /. arms. A common cause of failure is the inclusion of too much information in one sentence. 4. Again. Stimulus variation The need for this skill-varying the stimulus-arises because sustained uniformity of presentation can lead to boredom and mental inactivity. However. Verbal-gestural focusing. Explanation Research findings indicate that clarity of presentation is something that can exert considerable influence on effective teaching.L E A R N I N G METHODS 127 promoting pupil participation elsewhere. use simple words well within the class's own vocabulary. evidence. Explicitness. Perrot describes . which indicates that changes in perceived environment attract attention and stimulate thought. can also be useful. As regards vocabulary. consider communicating them by visual means.specific language is used. /. Changing interaction : Teacher and class. One reason for ineffectiveness in presenting new material to a class is the assumption that the students understand more than is in fact the case. 5. make sure the terms employed are carefully defined and understood. tone and rate of speech. statements or directions) and gestural focusing (using eye movements. Teacher movements : Deliberate and timed shifts about the room can help to revive and/or sustL-in interest. all of which can increase attention.

(c) To develop an active approach to learning. (k) To provide an opportunity for pupils to learn vicariously through discussion. More than this. or consolidate recent teaching and learning. it may probe the extent of student's prior learning before a new subject or area of learning is introduced. in asking the question a teacher helping the pupil 'to focus and clarify and thus have thoughts and perceptions that would not have had otherwise'. (e) To structure a task in such a way that learning will be maximised. or it may help to revise earlier learning. . Purposes in Asking Questions Purposes in asking questions are (a) To arouse interest and curiosity concerning a topic. Teachers use questions not only for cognitive / intellectual reasons (concerning the subject matter of the lesson) but for emotional/ social reasons (to cater for different personalities) and for managerial reasons (to minimise bad beha"iours and to keep students on task). however. (i) To involve pupils in using an inferred cognitive operation on the assumption that this will assist in developing thinking skills. 0 To develop reflection and comment by pupils on the responses of other members of the group. it helps to establish relationships and integrate groups through face to face interaction. (g) To communicate to the group that involvement in the lesson is expected and that overt participation by all members of the group is valued. it assists in increasing. (h) To provide an opportunity for pupils to assimilate and reflect upon information.128 LEARNING & TEACHING N U R S I N G USE OF EXAMPLES The use of examples is a fundamental aspect of teaching and there is no need to stress its importance. idea or generalisation being taught. (b) Start with examples relevant to pupils' experience and level of knowledge. (c) Relate examples to the principles. particularly in the presentation of new material. both pupils and teachers. developing and maintaining a healthy emotional and intellectual climate as well as establishing appropriate levels of motivation. that is. (b) To focus attention on a particular issue or concept. Educationally. Functions of Questioning The skillful questioning of a class performs a number of important functions. one function of questioning is to elicit information. (1) To express a genuine interest in the ideas and feelings of the pupil. (d) Check to see whether you have accomplished your objectives by asking the pupils to give you examples which illustrate the point you were trying to make. Teaching with the help of examples is known as inductive teaching. (a) Start with simple examples and work towards more complex ones. Perrott offers the following guidelines for the effective use of examples. (f) To diagnose specific difficulties inhibiting pupil learning. Thus. Psychologically. questions should have teaching value. (d) To stimulate pupils to ask questions to themselves and others. QUESTIONS AND QUESTIONING Asking questions constitutes a major part of teacher's activities. Socially.

If used too often. questions should be precisely and unambiguously worded so that they elicit the answer the teacher intends. a yes or no answer can be of disciplinary assistance when attentions are wandering : For example. Questions having several equally good answers are permissible. involve analysis. (c) Do not use questions beginning 'who can tell me ? or 'does anyone know ? as these may lead to various members of the class shouting out answers. what do you know about typhoid fever?) Precision and clarity should be sought from the outset. they encourage thoughtless responses. Allen ? (b) Questions having several equally good answers should be avoided if the teacher has only one answer in mind. (g) Leading questions (those framed in such a way as to suggest or implv the desired answer .those involving a number of interrogatives . especially abstract ones. The former are referred to as lower-order cognitive questions and the latter as high-order cognitive questions. First. wasn't he?) and rhetorical questions (those to which student is not expected to reply . comprehension and application. higher-order questions by contrast. those seeking definitions of words or concents. Some questions need to be handled carefully or in certain circumstances. higher-order questions tend to be open questions (when the type of response is known but the actual response is not. impromptu questions. whereas the latter may provoke unwanted . for a student has as much chance of being right as of being wrong if he guesses. (r) General questions that are vague and aimless should not be used (For example. avoid altogether. it is difficult to organise them sequentially and logically on the spur of the movement. synthesis and evaluation.present dificultics even with brighter students and should be avoided. should I K handled carefully. a teacher is better prepared to deal with the unexpected if he or she possesses a body of well-thought-out questions. These include (a) Questions inviting a yes or no answer not to be used excessively. Similarly.do you want me to send you outside?) should be avoided because the former tend to reinforce a student's dependence on the teacher and undermine independent thought. however. It is particularly useful when framing questions to distinguish two broad kinds-questions which test knowledge and questions which create knowledge. Where such answers are unavoidable. The livelihood of misunderstandings and wrong answers is greater with unprepared. Occasionally. (d) Questions testing powers of expression should be treated with care. when a teacher is building up a composite answer. another question. for example. where a connected series of questions is required. There are at least three reasons for this need. such as how or why should follow in order to provide explanatory or supportive evidence for the yes or no. 'do you understand. however. Second. Lower-order cognitive questions embrace chiefly recall. And third. when introducing a topic or project (c) Composite questions .LEARNING METHODS 129 Framing the Question Teacher has to prepare questions beforehand as part of or to accompany a lesson plan. Low-order questions tend to be closed questions (when a known response is sought). (f) Guessing questions are sometimes useful for stimulating a student's imagination and actively involving him in discussion.T E A C H I N G . students being free to respond in their own way).Alexander Fleming discovered pcncillin.

hack of preparation on the part of the teacher or may lead him or her to follow one question immediately with others. they can give variety to questioning session. replies. Such activities merely confuse students. Excessive criticism directed at weaker students can do nothing but harm. Wrong answers can be of value in clearing up misunderstandings. (h) Elliptical questions . obscurides and difficulties. A sequence of this kind encourages everyone to listen and prepare an answer in anticipation of being asked. In addidon to eliciting appropriate answers. As suggested earlier. A useful procedure is as follows : put the question to the class. Feedback from the teacher is the easiest way to maintain interest and is most effective when given after an individual response. provided they are treated tactfully and without disrupting the lesson to any great extent. The techniques ol prompting and probing arc often useful in class questioning sessions. or to original. On receiving an answer. conversational language and in a friendly and * challenging manner. It is especially important in this respect to try to draw out the more shy members of the class. it should be left with him or her long an answer to emerge. pause briefly. and undue censure can be discouraging. it is to the teachers advantage at this point to have prepared questions with particular students in mind. correctness or otherwise of their answers. directing the student to think more deeply about his or her answer. Once a enough lor impatience. Proviil d they are not used t o o often. ensuring that the student knows what kind of answer is expected. Praise is quickly devalued if used too readily. This is especially the case for low achievers. inviting a cridcal interpretation. modify the question has been put to a student. focusing the response on a related issue or encouraging the student to express himself or herself more clearly. re-word it or explain it. Respondents should be name at random rather than in predetermined and systematic way. Prompting involves giving hints to help a student. it is somedmes necessary to prob a student for additional information and this may be especially the case after a factual question.1 30 LEARNING & T E A C H I N G N U R S I N G or facetious . praise and censure should be used with discriminadon. It is very important for students to receive information on the. Questions should be asked only if the teacher wants a real answer. thus avoiding selective listening. then name the student you wish to answer. . Sometimes a correct answer needs to be repeated to make sure all have heard it. Probing in this context may take the form of further informadon. Asking Questions and Receiving the Answer Questions should be asked in simple.those worded so that a student supplies a missing word or missing words are of value when used to encourage students with learning or behavioural difficulties. prompts backed up with teacher encouragement help hesitant children answer more confidently. The more difficult questions for brighter students and easier ones to students experiencing learning difficulties will help to sustain different motivational levels and maintain the How of the lesson. The teacher should also check the tendency to neglect students sitting at the back or sides of the classroom when distributing questions.

enthusiastic. converging. (k) Not correcting wrong answers. QUALITIES OF A GOOD T E A C H E R Developments in technologies for communicating and disseminating information have a large potential impact "on the practice of teaching because teaching is an activity HI which communicating and disseminating information are significant aspects. 3. opening out. Sequencing : Introducing. particularly for more complex questions. Desirable personal traits : Teacher should be a person who is just. (n) Failing to build on answers. This high touch-high tech vision clearly states that nothing can substitute or replace the human component or human interaction in teaching and to become a good teacher demands constant and conscious effort from the side of teacher. the vocabulary to be used. dress modestly and simply. the adoption of new technology on a widespread basis is rejected. rephrasing. 6. (e) Asking irrelevent questions. 4. . active. Pitching and putting clearly : considering how broad/narrow to make the question. approachable. Nothing shows more clearly that a teacher and class are on friendly terms than evidence of students sensibly questioning the teacher about difficult points. (h) Not indicating a change in the type of question. 5. (j) Not giving students time to think. /. have a sense of humour and always be a helping hand to the students. (f) Always asking the same type of questions. have neat appearance. User of effective teaching-learning methods : A good teacher always follow the guidelines 2. indicating the types of answers expected. Ht also pointed out that without the appropriate human touch. (c) Asking questions only to the brightest or most likeable students. But Niasbitt suggested that increase in technology create a compensating need for more human touch. (b) Asking a question and answering yourself. 7. the degree of openness or closure of the question. Common Errors in Questioning Common error in questioning are : (a) Asking too many questions at once. Prompting and probing : Considering what to say in a prompt or a probe. (m) Failing to see the implications of answers. (d) Asking a difficult question too early. (i) Not using probing questions. Listening and responding : Deciding the most appropriate form of response. the order of the question. likeable. (1) Ignoring answers. reviewing. Structuring : Providing sign posts for the sequence of questions and the topic. Directing and distributing : Going around the whole class. Pausing and pacing : Allowing thinking time. The traditional or recent concepts of teaching never disagree with the below mentioned desirable qualities of a teacher. low to high. caring. Key Factors for Effective Questioning Some key factors for effective questioning are : 1.LEARNING METHODS 131 Teacher should also consider the students' questions to her. 2. (g) Asking questions in a threatening way. extending and lifting.TEACHING .