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List of physics terms Kesuma

SMK Bandar Tasik

LIST OF PHYSICS TERMS_GRAB ITAND A IS WAITING 4 U


CHAPTER ONE (INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS ) ITEM Physical quantity Kuantiti fizik Base quantity Kuantiti asas Derived quantity Kuantiti terbitan Precision / Consistency Kepersisan Accuracy Kejituan MEANING / DEFINITION A quantity that can be measured Kuantiti yang boleh diukur A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities Kuantiti fizik yang tidak dapat ditakrifkan dalam sebutan kuantiti fizik yang lain A physical quantity that is derived by combining base quantities. This can be done by multiplication or division or both. Kuantiti fizik yang dihasilkan daripada gabungan kuantiti asas secara pendaraban atau pembahagian atau kedua-duanya A measurement is more consistent when there is a smaller deviation among the readings. Suatu pengukuran adalah lebih konsisten apabila terdapat sisihan yang kecil antara bacaan-bacaan The accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement is to the actual value of the quantity being measured. A measurement is more accurate when the reading is closer to the actual value Suatu pengukuran adalah lebih jitu apabila bacaan itu lebih hampir kepada nilai sebenar The ability of an instrument to detect small changes in the physical quantity that is measured Kebolehan alat mengesan perubahan kecil pada kuantiti yang diukur. The difference between the reading obtained and the actual value Perbezaan antara bacaan yang diperoleh dan nilai sebenar A systematic error is an experimental error that will produce readings which are either always higher or always lower than the actual value that is being measured. Ralat sistematik ialah ralat eksperimen yang akan menghasilkan bacaan-bacaan yang sama ada sentiasa lebih besar atau sentiasa lebih kecil daripada nilai sebenar yang sedang diukur. A random error is caused by uncertainties in a measurement that will produce readings that could be higher or lower than the actual value that is being measured. Ralat rawak adalah disebabkan oleh ketakpastian dalam suatu pengukuran yang akan menghasilkan bacaan-bacaan yang lebih tinggi atau lebih kecil daripada nilai sebenar. Is a random error which occurs when the eye of the observer is not directly above the scale of the instrument, causing the line of sight to be not perpendicular to the scale Ialah ralat rawak yang berlaku apabila mata pemerhati tidak tegak di atas skala alat pengukur, menyebabkan garis penglihatan tidak serenjang dengan skala itu Is a systematic error where the instrument does not show zero reading 1

Sensitivity Kepekaan Error Ralat Systematic error Ralat sistematik

Random error Ralat rawak

Parallax error Ralat paralaks

Zero error

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Ralat sifar Manipulated variable Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan Responding variable Pembolehubah bergerakbalas Fixed variable Pembolehubah dimalarkan

MEANING / DEFINITION when it is not taking a measurement. Ialah ralat sistematik di mana alat itu tidak menunjukkan bacaan sifar semasa tidak membuat pengukuran A physical quantity which you control and change for the purpose of investigation in an experiment Kuantiti fizik yang dikawal atau diubah untuk tujuan menjalankan penyiasatan dalam suatu eksperimen A physical quantity which changes in response to changes to the manipulated variable Kuantiti fizik yang yang berubah disebabkan oleh perubahan kepada pembolehubah dimanipulasikan A physical quantity which is kept constant throughout the experiment Kuantiti fizik yang dikekalkan malar sepanjang eksperimen

CHAPTER TWO (FORCES AND MOTION) ITEM Linear motion Gerakan linear Scalar quantity Kuantiti skalar Vector quantity Kuantiti vektor Velocity Halaju Speed Laju Acceleration Pecutan Distance Jarak Displacement Sesaran Inertia Newtons First law Hukum Pertama Newton Newtons Second law Hukum Kedua Newton MEANING / DEFINITION Motion along a straight line Gerakan sepanjang satu garis lurus A physical quantity which has only magnitude Kuantiti fizik yang mempunyai magnitud sahaja A physical quantity which has both magnitude and direction Kuantiti yang mempunyai magnitud dan arah The rate of change of displacement Kadar perubahan sesaran The rate of change of distance Kadar perubahan jarak The rate of change of velocity Kadar perubahan halaju The total length of the path travelled Jumlah panjang lintasan yang dilalui Displacement is the shortest distance from one point to another point along a specific direction Jarak terpendek dari satu titik ke titik yang lain mengikut satu arah tertentu The tendency of an object to resist change to its state of rest or motion. Sifat semulajadi sesuatu objek yang menentang perubahan kepada keadaan asalnya sama ada pegun atau bergerak An object will remain at rest or motion with uniform velocity along a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external force. Suatu objek akan berada dalam keadaan pegun atau gerakan dengan halaju seragam sepanjang garis lurus kecuali dikenakan satu daya luar The net force on an object is proportional to the rate of change in momentum. Daya bersih pada suatu objek berkadar terus dengan kadar perubahan momentum 2

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Newtons Third law Hukum Ketiga Newton Momentum Momentum Principle of conservation of momentum Prinsip keabadian momentum Force Daya Impulse Impuls Impulsive force Daya impuls Weight Berat Mass Jisim Free fall Jatuh bebas Work Kerja Energy Tenaga Gravitational field Medan graviti Potential energy Tenaga keupayaan Elastic potential energy Tenaga keupayaan kenyal Kinetic energy Tenaga kinetik The principle of conservation of energy

MEANING / DEFINITION To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Bagi setiap tindakan terdapat satu tindakbalas yang mempunyai magnitud yang sama dan bertindak pada arah yang bertentangan. The product of mass and velocity of an object Hasil darab jisim dengan halaju bagi suatu objek The total momentum of a system is constant if no external forces act on the system. Jumlah momentum suatu system adalah tetap jika tiada daya bertindak pada sistem itu. A push or a pull that can change the size, shape or velocity of an object. Suatu tolakan atau tarikan yang boleh mengubah saiz, bentuk atau halaju suatu objek Change of momentum. Perubahan momentum A large force that acts for a short period of time during a collision or explosion Daya yang besar yang bertindak untuk masa yang pendek semasa suatu perlanggaran atau letupan The force of gravity which is exerted on it by earth. Daya tindakan gravity ke atas suatu jasad. The amount of matter in the object. Jumlah kuantiti jirim di dalam suatu objek. Free fall occurs when an object falling under the force of gravity only without being affected by any other external forces. Jatuh bebas berlaku apabila suatu objek jatuh disebabkan oleh daya gravity sahaja tanpa kesan daripada sebarang daya luar. The product of force and the displacement along the direction of the force Hasil darab daya dengan sesaran dalam arah daya itu. The capacity to do work. Keupayaan melakukan kerja. The region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction. Kawasan di mana suatu objek mengalami daya yang disebabkan oleh tarikan graviti The energy of an object because of its position. Tenaga yang dimiliki oleh suatu objek disebabkan oleh kedudukannya. The energy of an object when it is stretched or compressed Tenaga yang dimiliki oleh objek yang diregang atau dimampat The energy of an object due to its motion Tenaga yang dimiliki oleh suatu jasad disebabkan oleh gerakannya. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be transformed from one form to another, but the total energy in a closed system is constant. Tenaga tidak boleh dicipta atau dimusnahkan tetapi boleh berubah 3

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Prinsip keabadian momentum Power Kuasa Elasticity Kekenyalan

MEANING / DEFINITION bentuk ke bentuk yang lain. Jumlah tenaga di dalam suatu system tertutup adalah tetap. The rate at which work is done or energy is transferred. Kadar melakukan kerja atau pemindahan tenaga. The property of an object that enables it to return to its original shape and dimensions (size) after an applied external force is removed. Keupayaan bahan untuk kembali ke bentuk dan saiz asalnya apabila tindakan daya yang dikenakan dialihkan. Hookes law The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the stretching force Hukum Hooke provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. Pemanjangan spring adalah berkadar terus dengan daya regangan dengan syarat had kenyal tidak dilampaui. Elastic limit The elastic limit of a spring is the maximum stretching force which can Had kenyal be applied to the spring before it ceases to be elastic. Had kenyal suatu spring adalah daya maksimum yang boleh dikenakan pada spring itu sebelum ia hilang kekenyalannya. Force constant (spring The force constant of a spring is the force per unit extension. constant) Pemalar daya spring ialah daya per unit pemanjangan Pemalar daya (pemalar spring) CHAPTER THREE (FORCES AND PRESSURE) ITEM Pressure Tekanan Atmospheric Pressure Tekanan Atmosfera MEANING / DEFINITION The force acting perpendicularly on unit area of a surface. Daya yang bertindak secara normal pada seunit luas permukaan The pressure which is caused by the weight of the thick layer of air (atmosphere) above the earths surface. Tekanan yang disebabkan oleh lapisan tebal udara di atas permukaan bumi. Archimedes principle An object that is completely or partially immersed in a fluid is acted on Prinsip Archimedes by a buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. Objek yang direndam atau separa rendam dalam suatu bendalir akan dikenakan oleh satu daya julangan yang sama dengan berat bendalir yang tersesar oleh jasad itu. Bernoullis principle In a steady flow of a fluid, the pressure of the fluid decreases when the Prinsip Bernoulli velocity of the fluid increases. Dalam suatu pengaliran bendalir yang mantap, tekanan bendalir itu berkurang apabila laju pengaliran bertambah. Pascal's principle The pressure applied on the surface of an enclosed liquid is transmitted Prinsip Pascal uniformly throughout the liquid Tekanan yang dikenakan pada permukaan suatu cecair akan dipindahkan dengan seragam ke seluruh cecair. Law of flotation The weight of an object floating on the surface of a liquid is equal to Hukum apungan the weight of the liquid displaced by the object. Berat objek yang terapung adalah sama dengan berat cecair yang disesarkan Hydrometer An instrument that measures the relative density of liquids. 4

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Hidrometer

MEANING / DEFINITION Alat untuk mengukur ketumpatan relatif cecair.

CHAPTER FOUR (HEAT) ITEM Temperature Suhu Heat Haba Thermal equilibrium Keseimbangan terma Heat capacity Muatan haba Specific heat capacity Muatan haba tentu Latent heat Haba pendam Specific latent heat Haba pendam tentu Specific latent heat of fusion Haba pendam tentu pelakuran Specific latent heat of vaporisation Haba pendam tentu pengewapan Boiling Pendidihan Boyles law Hukum Boyle MEANING / DEFINITION The degree of hotness of an object Darjah kepanasan suatu objek. Energy transferred from hot object to a colder object. Tenaga yang dipindahkan dari objek yang panas ke objek yang lebih sejuk. Two objects are in thermal equilibrium when the net rate of heat transfer between them is zero. Dua objek berada dalam keseimbangan terma apabila tiada pemindahan bersih haba antaranya The heat capacity of an object is the quantity of heat energy required to increase its temperature by 1oC. Muatan haba adalah kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu objek itu sebanyak 1oC. The quantity of heat energy required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 oC or 1 K. Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan suhu 1 kg bahan sebanyak 1 C atau 1 K. The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of phase. Haba yang diserap atau dikeluarkan pada suhu yang malar semasa perubahan fasa. The amount of heat energy required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance at a constant temperature. Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk mengubah 1 kg bahan dari satu keadaan fizikal ke keadaan yang lain. The quantity of heat energy required to change 1 kg of the substance from solid to liquid without a change in temperature. Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk mengubah 1 kg bahan dari pepejal ke cecair tanpa perubahan suhu. The quantity of heat energy required to change 1 kg of the substance from liqiud to gas without a change in temperature. Kuantiti haba yang diperlukan untuk menggubah 1 kg bahan dari cecair ke gas tanpa perubahan suhu. A process where a liquid changes to vapour at a constant temperature known as the boiling point. Proses di mana cecair berubah menjadi wap pada suhu tetap yang dikenali sebagai takat didih. The pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume provided the temperature of the gas is kept constant. Tekanan bagi suatu jisim tetap gas berkadar songsang dengan isipadu 5

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Charles Law Hukum Charles Pressure law Hukum Tekanan

MEANING / DEFINITION apabila suhu adalah tetap. The volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature provided the pressure of the gas is kept constant. Isipadu suatu jisim tetap gas berkadar terus dengan suhu mutlaknya apabila tekanan gas itu dikekalkan tetap The pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature provided the volume of the gas is kept constant. Tekanan suatu jisim tetap gas berkadar terus dengan suhu mutlaknya apabila isipadu gas itu dikekalkan tetap

CHAPTER FIVE (LIGHT) ITEM Reflection of light Pantulan cahaya Laws of reflection Hukum pantulan cahaya MEANING / DEFINITION Reflection of light occurs when a light ray is incident on a mirror and changes its direction of propagation Pantulan cahaya berlaku apabila suatu sinar cahaya ditujukan pada suatu cermin dan arah perambatannya berubah 1 The incident ray, reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane. 2 The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. 1 Sinar tuju, sinar pantulan dan garis normal di titik tuju berada pada satah yang sama. 2 Sudut tuju sama dengan sudut pantulan The change of direction of propagation light when it crosses the boundary between two materials of different optical densities. Perubahan arah perambatan sinar cahaya apabila sinar itu melintasi sempadan antara dua medium dengan ketumpatan optik yang berlainan. 1 The incident ray, refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane. 2 Snell's law : The ratio (sin i) / (sin r) is a constant. 1 Sinar tuju, sinar biasan dan garis normal di titik tuju berada pada satah yang sama. 2 Nisbah (sin i) / (sin r) adalah suatu pemalar The distance of the image formed by refraction from the surface of the water. Jarak dari permukaan air ke imej yang dibentuk oleh pembiasan The distance of the object from the surface of the water. Jarak dari permukaan air ke objek

Refraction of light Pembiasan cahaya

Laws of refraction Hukum pembiasan

Apparent depth Dalam ketara Real depth Dalam nyata

Total internal reflection Pantulan dalam penuh

Total internal reflection occurs when light travelling in a denser medium towards a less dense medium is totally reflected when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle Pantulan dalam penuh berlaku apabila cahaya yang merambat dalam medium yang lebih tumpat kea rah medium yang kurang tumpat 6

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Critical angle Sudut genting

MEANING / DEFINITION dipantul sepenuhnya apabila sudut tuju melebihi sudut genting The angle of incidence in the optically denser medium for which the angle of refraction in the less dense medium is 90o Sudut tuju dalam medium lebih tumpat yang menyebabkan sudut biasan dalam medium yang kurang tumpat menjadi 90o Converges parallel light rays to a point Menumpukan sinar-sinar selari pada satu titik Diverges parallel light rays from a point. Mencapahkan sinar-sianr selari dari satu titik The distance between the principal focus, F and the optical centre, O of a lens. Jarak antara fokus utama, F, dan pusat optik suatu kanta

Convex lens Kanta cembung Concave lens Kanta cekung Focal length Panjang fokus

CHAPTER SIX (WAVES) ITEM Wave motion Perambatan gelombang Wavefront Muka Gelombang Transverse wave Gelombang Melintang Longitudinal wave Gelombang Membujur Amplitude Amplitud Period Tempoh Frequency, f Frekuensi One complete oscillation Satu ayunan lengkap Wavelength, Panjang gelombang Damping Pelembapan Forced oscillation Ayunan paksa Natural frequency Frekuensi asli Resonance Resonans MEANING / DEFINITION Wave motion carries energy from one place to another place in a medium without the transfer of the particles along the medium. A wavefront is a line or plane where the vibrations of every point on it are in phase A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is at perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. The maximum displacement from its equilibrium position. The time taken to make one complete oscillation The number of complete oscillations made by a vibrating system in one second A complete oscillation may be referred as the movement of a vibrating system from one extreme position to the other and back to the same position. The wavelength is the distance between successive points of the same phase in a wave. Damping occurs when an oscillating system loses energy due to frictional forces. Forced oscillation occurs when a system oscillates under the influence of an external driving force. The frequency of a system when it oscillates freely. Resonance occurs when a system oscillates at the maximum amplitude when the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system. 7

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ITEM Reflection of waves Pantulan gelombang Incident waves Gelombang Tuju Reflected wave Gelombang Pantulan Angle of incidence Sudut Tuju Angle of reflection Sudut pantulan Law of Reflection Hukum Pantulan Refraction of waves Pembiasan Gelombang Diffraction of wave Pembelauan Gelombang Principle of superposition Prinsip superposisi Coherent waves Gelombang Koheren Interference Interferens Constructive interference Interferens membina Destructive interference Interferens memusnah Antinode Antinod Node Nod Sound wave Gelombang bunyi Loudness Kenyaringan Pitch Kelangsingan SONAR Electromagnetic waves

MEANING / DEFINITION Reflection of waves is the change in direction of propagation when a wave strikes an obstacle. The waves moving towards an obstacle. The wave which has undergone a change in direction of propagation after reflection. The angle between the direction of propagation of the incident wave and the normal The angle between the direction of propagation of reflected wave and the normal. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection Refraction is the change of direction of propagation when the speed of a wave changes as it moves from one medium to another Diffraction of waves is the spreading of waves as they pass through an aperture or around the edge of an obstacle The sum of the displacements of all the component waves at the point. Waves of the same frequency and are in phase. Superposition of two coherent waves constructively or destructively Occurs when two waves that are in phase superimpose to produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum amplitude. Occurs when two waves that are out of phase superimpose to produce zero resultant amplitude A point where constructive interference occurs. A point where destructive interference occurs. Sounds are longitudinal waves produced by vibrations such as the vibrations of the diaphragm of a loudspeaker, guitar string and tuning fork. The intensity of a sound as heard by an observer (depends on the amplitude of the sound) The pitch of the sound is an indication of the sharpness of a sound (depends on the frequency of the sound) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) is a system used to detect underwater objects or to determine the depth of the water by means of an echo. Electromagnetic waves are propagating waves in space with electric and magnetic components. 8

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Gelombang elektromagnet

MEANING / DEFINITION

CHAPTER SEVEN (ELECTRICITY) ITEM Current Arus Ampere, A Coulomb, C Electric field Medan elektrik Potential Difference Beza keupayaan Ohms Law Hukum Ohm Ohmic Conductor Konduktor Ohm Non Ohmic Conductor Konduktor bukan Ohm Resistance Rintangan Effective Resistance Rintangan berkesan Electromotive Force (e.m.f) Daya gerak elektrik (d.g.e.) Internal Resistance Rintangan dalam Electrical Energy Tenaga elektrik Power Kuasa Power Rating Kadar kuasa MEANING / DEFINITION Current is the rate of flow of electric charge SI unit of current A unit of charge An electric field is a region where an electric force acts on a particle with an electric charge. Potential difference is defined as the work done to move a unit of charge from one point to another in an electric field. The electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor, if the temperature and other physical dimensions remain constant. Material which obey Ohms Law Material which do not obey Ohms Law

Resistance is defined as (potential difference)/(current) The effective resistance is the combined resistance in the circuit. The total energy supplied by a cell when one unit of charge flows through the cell. The resistance within a cell due to its electrolyte or electrodes Energy supplied by a source of electricity (cell / battery) when current flows in a closed circuit. Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy The power rating of an appliance denotes the rate at which it consumes electrical energy at a certain voltage

CHAPTER EIGHT (ELECTROMAGNETISM) ITEM Electromagnet MEANING / DEFINITION An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an

List of physics terms Kesuma

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ITEM Elektromagnet

Magnetic field Medan magnet Catapult field Medan lastik Direct current motor Motor arus terus Electromagnetic induction Aruhan elektromagnet Induced e.m.f. An emf produced in a conductor when there is a changing magnetic D.g.e. teraruh flux or cutting of magnetic flux by the conductor Induced current Induced current is produced in a circuit when there is a changing Arus teraruh magnetic flux or cutting of magnetic flux by a conductor Faraday's law The magnitude of the induced e.m.f is directly proportional to the rate Hukum Faraday at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux. Lenz's law Lenz's Law state that an induced electric current always flows in such a Hukum Lenz direction as to oppose the change in magnetic flux. Direct current Current which flows in one direction. Arus terus Alternating current Current which flows back and forth in two opposite directions Arus ulang alik Transformer A device which steps up or steps down the voltage of an alternating Transformer current. Step-up transformer A transformer that steps up voltage Transformer injak naik Step-down A transformer that steps down voltage transformer Transformer injak turun Ideal transformer A transformer where the output power is equal to the input power and Transformer unggul the efficiency is 100% Transmission of The transmission of electricity from the power station to consumers electricity (industries and residential areas) by electric cables Penghantaran elektrik National Grid The national grid is a network of electrical cables connecting electrical Network power stations to consumers of electricity. Rangkaian Grid Nasional CHAPTER NINE (ELECTRONICS) ITEM Thermionic emission MEANING / DEFINITION A process of emitting electrons from a hot metal surface. 10

MEANING / DEFINITION electric current. It is a temperory magnet. It acts as a magnet when the current is flow and ceases to be a magnet when the current is switched off. A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic materials experiences a force. The resultant field produced when a straight wire carries a current in a uniform magnetic field. A direct current motor is used to convert electrical energy into rotational kinetic energy. The production of an electromotive force in a conductor due to a changing magnetic flux.

List of physics terms Kesuma

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Pemancaran termionik Cathode ray Sinar katod Semiconductor Semikonduktor Doping Pendopan n-type semiconductor Semikonduktor jenisn p-type semiconductor Semikonduktor jenisp Semiconductor diode Diod semikonduktor Forward-biased Pincang ke hadapan Reverse-biased Pincang songsang Rectification Rektifikasi Half-wave rectification Rektifikasi separuh gelombang Full-wave rectification Rektifikasi penuh gelombang Smoothing Capacitor Kapasitor perata n-p-n transistor Transistor n-p-n p-n-p transistor Transistor p-n-p Logic gate Get logik Truth table Jadual kebenaran AND gate Get DAN NOT gate Get TAK Or gate Get ATAU

A beam of fast moving, high energy electrons Materials whose resistance is between those of good conductors and good insulators. The process of adding a small amount of impurities into the semiconductors. Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are free electrons Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are holes A p-n junction device which conducts current in one direction only A diode is forward biased when the p-end is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and the n-end is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. A diode is reverse biased when the p-end is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and the n-end is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. To convert alternating current into direct current using diodes The process of rectification using a diode which allows current flow in half of a cycle. The process of rectification using four diodes to allow current to flow in a complete cycle and in the same direction. A capacitor that is used to smoothen the output voltage of a rectification process A transistor which consists of a layer of p-type semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of n-type semiconductors. A transistor which consists of a layer of n-type semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of p-type semiconductors. A logic gate is an electronic switch with one or more inputs and only one output. A truth table shows the results of every possible output given every possible input. A logic gate where the output is 1 only when both inputs are 1 A logic gate that inverts the input A logic gate where the Output is 1 except when both inputs are 0

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CHAPTER TEN (RADIOACTIVITY) ITEM Nucleus Nukleus Nucleon Nukleon Proton number, Z Nombor proton Nucleon number, A Nombor nucleon Nuclide Nuklid Isotope Isotop Radioisotope Radioisotop Radioactivity Radioaktiviti Radioactive decay Reputan radioaktif Alpha decay Reputan alfa Beta decay Reputan beta Gamma decay Reputan gama Half life Setengah hayat Atomic mass unit (a.m.u) Unit jisim atom Nuclear fission Pembelahan nuklear Chain reaction Tindak balas berantai Nuclear fusion Pelakuran nuklear Nuclear reactor Reaktor nuklear MEANING / DEFINITION The small core of the atoms which contains the protons and neutrons Protons and neutrons The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom. A nuclide is one type of nucleus with a particular proton number and a particular nucleon number. Atoms of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleon numbers Isotopes with unstable nuclei Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of unstable nucleus into a more stable nucleus with the random emission of radiation. Radioactive decay is a process where an unstable nucleus becomes a more stable nucleus by emitting radiation A radioactive decay where an alpha particle is emitted A radioactive decay where a beta particle is emitted A radioactive decay where gamma rays are emitted The time taken for mass or activity of a radioactive substance to become half its original value The atomic mass unit (a.m.u) is used to measure the masses of atomic particles. A process involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei and several neutrons at the same time A chain reaction is a self-sustaining reaction in which the neutrons produced in a reaction can initiate another similar reaction. Nuclear fusion is the combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus A nuclear reactor produces tremendous amount of energy through nuclear fission.

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