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B GIO DC V O TO TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI


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LUN VN THC S KHOA HC

CNG NGH MPLS V NG DNG TRONG MNG IP VPN


NGNH : IN T VIN THNG M S:23.04.3898 NGUYN QUNH TRANG

Ngi hng dn khoa hc : TS. PHM NGC NAM

H NI 2008

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

LI CAM OAN
Knh gi : Trung tm o to v Bi dng sau i hc - Trng i hc Bch khoa H ni Tn ti l : Nguyn Qunh Trang Sinh ngy: 12 - 03 - 1982 Hc vin cao hc kha 2006 - 2008 Ti xin cam oan, ton b kin thc v ni dung trong bi lun vn ca mnh l cc kin thc t nghin cu t cc ti liu tham kho trong v ngoi nc, khng c s sao chp hay vay mn di bt k hnh thc no hon thnh bn lun vn tt nghip cao hc chuyn ngnh in t Vin thng. Ti xin chu hon ton trch nhim v ni dung ca lun vn ny trc Trung tm o to v Bi dng sau i hc - Trng i hc Bch khoa H ni.

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

MC LC
LI CAM OAN..............................................................................................2 MC LC........................................................................................................3 T VIT TT..................................................................................................5 DANH MC CC HNH V...........................................................................7 LI M U...................................................................................................9 CHNG 1....................................................................................................12 TNG QUAN V CNG NGH MPLS........................................................12 1.1 Gii thiu v chuyn mch a giao thc (MPLS)................................12 1.2 Lch s pht trin v cc u im ca MPLS......................................14 1.2.1 Cc li ch ca MPLS..................................................................14 1.2.2 c im vt tri ca MPLS so vi m hnh IP over ATM.......17 1.2.3 BGP - Free Core..........................................................................19 1.2.4 Lung lu lng quang...............................................................21 1.3 ng dng ca mng MPLS................................................................22 1.3.1 Mng ring o VPN....................................................................22 1.3.2 iu khin lu lng trong MPLS..............................................23 1.3.3 Cht lng dch v trong MPLS (QoS)........................................26 CHNG 2....................................................................................................29 CNG NGH CHUYN MCH MPLS.........................................................29 2.1 Cu trc ca nt MPLS......................................................................29 2.1.1 Mt phng chuyn tip (Forwarding plane):.................................30 2.1.2 Mt phng iu khin (Control Plane):........................................38 2.2 Cc phn t chnh ca MPLS.............................................................40 2.2.1 LSR (label switch Router)...........................................................40 2.2.2 LSP (label switch Path)...............................................................42 2.2.3 FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class)..........................................43 2.3 Cc giao thc s dng trong MPLS....................................................45 2.3.1 Phn phi nhn............................................................................45 2.3.2 Giao thc t trc ti nguyn.....................................................53 CHNG 3....................................................................................................61 MNG RING O MPLS VPN.....................................................................61 3.1 Gii thiu v MPLS VPN...................................................................61 3.1.1 nh ngha VPN..........................................................................61 3.1.2 M hnh Overlay VPN v Peer to Peer VPN................................63 3.1.3 M hnh mng MPLS VPN.........................................................71 3.2 Cc thnh phn chnh ca kin trc MPLS VPN.................................76 3.2.1 VRF - Virtual Routing and Forwarding Table..............................76 3.2.2 RD - Route Distinguisher............................................................80 3.2.3 RT - Route targets.......................................................................82
Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

3.2.4 Hot ng ca mt phng iu khin MPLS VPN.......................87 3.2.5 Hot ng ca mt phng d liu MPLS VPN.............................89 3.2.6 nh tuyn VPNv4 trong mng MPLS VPN................................91 3.2.7 Chuyn tip gi trong mng MPLS VPN.....................................93 CHNG 4....................................................................................................99 NG DNG CA MPLS TRONG VIC CUNG CP DCH V IPVPN CA EVNTELECOM.....................................................................................99 4.1 ng dng MPLS trong mng IP core ca EVNTelecom...................100 4.1.1 Dch v knh thu ring leased line...........................................103 4.1.2 Dch v IP VPN........................................................................103 4.2 Cht lng dch v mng EVNTelecom...........................................106 4.3 Gii thiu v vic cp knh ti khch hng.......................................112 4.4 Kh khn trong vic cung cp MPLS VPN.......................................113 KT LUN V KIN NGH.......................................................................115 TI LIU THAM KHO.............................................................................118

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

T VIT TT
ASIC ATM AToM BGP CE CEF CoS CQ CR DiffServ DSCP DS-TE E-LSR FEC FTP GRE HDLC IETF IGP I-LSR IntServ Application Specific Intergrated Circuits Asynchnorous Tranfer Mode Any Transport over MPLS Border Gateway Protocol Custome Edge Cisco Express Forwarding Class of Service Custom Queue Constraint-based routing Differentiated Services DiffServ Code Point DiffServ-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering Egress LER Forwarding Equivalency Class File Tranfer Protocol Generic Routing Encapsulation High Data Link Control Internet Engineering Task Force Interior Gateway Protocol Ingress LSR Integrated Services Mch tch hp chuyn dng Truyn dn khng ng b Truyn ti qua MPLS Giao thc cng bin Bin pha khch hng Chuyn tip nhanh ca Cisco Cp dch v Hng i ty nh tuyn rng buc Dch v khc bit M im dch v khc bit Cng ngh iu khin lung MPLS quan tm ti DiffiServ LER bin ra Lp chuyn tip tng ng Giao thc truyn file ng gi nh tuyn chung iu khin kt ni d liu tc cao y ban t vn k thut Internet Giao thc nh tuyn trong phm vi min LSR bin vo Dch v tch hp

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

IP IS-IS LAN LDP LER LFIB LIB LSP LSR MAC MPLS

Internet Protocol Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol Local Area Network Label Distribution Protocol Label Edge Router Label Forwarding Information Base Label Information Base Label Switch Path Label Switch Router Media Access Control Multiprotool Label Switching

Giao thc Internet Giaot thc h thng trung gian ti h thng trung gian Mng a phng Giao thc phn phi nhn B nh tuyn nhn bin ra C s thng tin chuyn tip nhn Bng c s d liu nhn Tuyn chuyn mch nhn B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn iu khin truy nhp mi trng Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc a giao thc cng bin Giao thc OSPF Nhn dng duy nht t chc Bin nh cung cp Giao thc im - im Hng i u tin Mch o c nh Cht lng dch v B phn bit tuyn Cc ti liu chun do IETF a ra Giao thc dnh sn ti nguyn

MP-BGP MPLS - border gateway Protocol OSPF OUI PE PPP PQ PVC QoS RD RFC RSVP Open Shortest Path First Organizationally Unique Identifier Provider Edge Point-to-Point Protocol Priority Queue Permanent Virtual Circuit Quanlity of Service Route Distinguisher Request for comment Resource Reservation Protocol

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

RT SLA SP SVC TCP TDP TE TTL UDP UNI VC VCI

Route Targets Service Level Agreements Service Provider Switch Virtual Connection Tranmission Control Protocol Tag Distribution Protocol Traffic Engineering Time To Live User Datagram Protocol User-to-Network Interface Virtual Channel Virtual Channel Identifier

Tuyn ch Tha thun cp dch v Nh cung cp Chuyn mch kt ni o Giao thc iu khin truyn dn Giao thc phn phi tag K thut iu khin lu lng Thi gian sng Giao thc UDP Giao din ngi dng ti mng Knh o nh danh knh o Thoi qua ATM

VoATM Voice over ATM VoIP VP VPI VPN Voice over IP Virtual Path Virtual Packet Indentifier Virtual Pravite network

Thoi qua IP Tuyn o nh danh gi o Mng ring o

DANH MC CC HNH V
CHNG 1

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

Hnh 1- 1 Mng li MPLS BGP free................................................................20 Hnh 1- 2 Non-Fully Meshed Overlay ATM Network......................................21 Hnh 1- 3 iu khin lu lng trong MPLS (v d 1).....................................24 Hnh 1- 4 iu khin lu lng trong MPLS (v d 2).....................................25 Hnh 1- 5 Cc k thut QoS trong mng IP......................................................28

CHNG 2
Hnh 2- 1 Cu trc mt nt MPLS...................................................................29 Hnh 2- 2 Cu trc ca nhn MPLS.................................................................31 Hnh 2- 3 Cc loi nhn c bit......................................................................33 Hnh 2- 4 Ngn xp nhn.................................................................................34 Hnh 2- 5 Cu trc ca LFIB...........................................................................36 Hnh 2- 6 Cc thnh phn mt phng d liu v mt phng..............................40 Hnh 2- 7 V d v mt LSP qua mng MPLS..................................................42 Hnh 2- 8 M hnh LSP Nested........................................................................43 Hnh 2- 9 Mng MPLS chy iBGP..................................................................45 Hnh 2- 10 Quan h gia cc LDP vi cc giao thc khc................................47 Hnh 2- 11 Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn........................................................49 Hnh 2- 12 Th tc bo hiu trong RSVP.........................................................55 Hnh 2- 13 Nhn phn phi trong bn tin RESV..............................................57 Hnh 2- 14 Phng thc phn phi nhn..........................................................60

CHNG 3
Hnh 3- 1 M hnh mng Overlay trn Frame relay..........................................65 Hnh 3- 2 Mng Overlay - Customer Routing Peering......................................65 Hnh 3- 3 ng hm GRE trn mng overlay................................................66 Hnh 3- 4 a ra khi nim ca m hnh VPN ngang hng..............................67 Hnh 3- 5 MPLS VPN vi VRF.......................................................................69 Hnh 3- 6 nh ngha m hnh peer to peer ng dng trong MPLS VPN..........69 Hnh 3- 7 Biu tng quan v MPLS VPN....................................................71 Hnh 3- 8 M hnh MPLS VPN........................................................................73 Hnh 3- 9 Cc thnh phn ca MPLS VPN.......................................................74 Hnh 3- 10 Chc nng ca router PE...............................................................76 Hnh 3- 11 Chc nng ca VRF.......................................................................77 Hnh 3- 12 V d v RD..................................................................................81 Hnh 3- 13 V d v RT...................................................................................84 Hnh 3- 14 S tng tc gia cc giao thc trong mt phng iu khin...........87 Hnh 3- 15 Hot ng ca mt phng iu khin MPLS VPN..........................88
Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

Hnh 3- 16 Cc bc chuyn tip trong mt phng d liu..............................90 Hnh 3- 17 S truyn tuyn trong mng MPLS VPN........................................91 Hnh 3- 18 S truyn tuyn trong mng MPLS VPN step by step.....................92 Hnh 3- 19 S sng ca mt gi IPv4 qua mng ng trc MPLS VPN tuyn v qung b nhn.............................................................................................95 Hnh 3- 20 i sng ca gi IPv4 qua mng ng trc MPLS VPN: chuyn tip gi............................................................................................................96 Hnh 3- 21 Chuyn tip gi trong mng MPLS VPN........................................98

CHNG 4
Hnh 4- 1 M hnh mng IP ca EVNTelecom...............................................102 Hnh 4- 2 S kt ni dch v leased line....................................................103 Hnh 4- 3 S kt ni dch v IPVPN..........................................................106 Hnh 4- 4 Mc u tin gia cc gi dch v ca EVNTelecom.......................107 Hnh 4- 5 Kt ni IP VPN im - a im.....................................................110 Hnh 4- 6 Kt ni gia 4 im khch hng da trn gii php ca IPLC........111 Hnh 4- 7 Kt ni gia 4 im khch hng da trn gii php ca IPVPN..111 Hnh 4- 8 S kt ni ca khch hng kt ni ti mng EVNTelecom.........112

LI M U

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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Cng ngh MPLS ( Multi Protocol Label Switching) c t chc quc t IETF chnh thc a ra vo cui nm 1997, pht trin nhanh chng trn ton cu. Cng ngh mng ring o MPLS VPN a ra mt tng khc bit hon ton so vi cng ngh truyn thng, n gin ha qu trnh to ng hm trong mng ring o bng c ch gn nhn gi tin (Label) trn thit b mng ca nh cung cp. Thay v phi t thit lp, qun tr, v u t nhng thit b t tin, MPLS VPN s gip doanh nghip giao trch nhim ny cho nh cung cp - n v c y nng lc, thit b v cng ngh bo mt tt hn nhiu cho mng ca doanh nghip. Theo nh gi ca Din n cng ngh Ovum nm 2005, MPLS VPN l cng ngh nhiu tim nng, ang bc vo giai on pht trin mnh m nh nhng tnh nng u vit hn hn nhng cng ngh truyn thng. D kin cui nm 2010, MPLS VPN s dn thay th hon ton cc cng ngh mng truyn thng lc hu v l tin tin ti mt h thng mng bng rng - Mng th h mi NGN ( Next Generation Network). Mng truyn s liu ca EVNTelecom hin ny ang c trin khai da trn cng ngh chuyn mch nhn MPLS, vi tnh nng ni tri MPLS/VPN m bo an ton thng tin, phc v ngy mt tt hn cho ni b ngnh in, tip theo l nhm cung cp mt cch a dng cc loi dch v cho ngi s dng. Lun vn Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong mng IPVPN nghin cu nhng kin thc v cng ngh mng ring o MPLS/VPN v ng dng MPLS/VPN trong mng EVNTelecom cung cp dch v mi IPVPN cho khch hng. Lun vn gm 04 chng:

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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Chng 1: Tng quan v cng ngh MPLS - Trnh by tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS gm khi nim, u im v nhng ng dng ca MPLS. Chng 2: Cng ngh chuyn mch MPLS - Trnh by nhng khi nim c bn, cc thnh phn chnh, cu trc v hot ng ca MPLS. Chng 3: Mng ring o MPLS/VPN - bao gm cc khi nim, cc thnh phn v hot ng ca MPLS/VPN. Chng 4: ng dng MPLS/VPN trong vic cung cp dch v IPVPN ca EVNTelecom - trnh by tng quan v mng li v dch v cho khch hng IPVPN ca mng EVNTelecom. Cui cng, c c bn lun vn ny, ti xin by t lng bit n su sc ti gia nh, bn b, ti cc thy c gio ca Trung tm o to v bi dng sau i Hc, Khoa in t - Vin thng, Ban Gim hiu Trng i hc Bch Khoa H ni ht sc to iu kin, ng vin v truyn th cc kin thc b ch. c bit ti xin gi li cm n chn thnh n thy gio T.S Phm Ngc Nam cng cc ng nghip ti Cng ty Thng tin Vin thng in lc tn tnh gip ti c th hon thnh tt bi lun vn ny.

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V CNG NGH MPLS


Trong nhng nm gn y MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) pht trin rt nhanh. N tr thnh cng ngh ph bin s dng vic gn nhn vo cc gi d liu chuyn tip chng qua mng. Chng ny s gip chng ta hiu ti sao MPLS li tr ln ph bin trong thi gian ngn nh th.

1.1 Gii thiu v chuyn mch a giao thc (MPLS)


MPLS l mt cng ngh kt hp c im tt nht gia nh tuyn lp ba v chuyn mch lp hai cho php chuyn ti cc gi rt nhanh trong mng li (core) v nh tuyn tt mng bin (edge) bng cch da vo nhn (label). MPLS l mt phng php ci tin vic chuyn tip gi trn mng bng cch gn nhn vo mi gi IP, t bo ATM, hoc frame lp hai. Phng php chuyn mch nhn gip cc Router v cc b chuyn mch MPLS-enable ATM quyt nh theo ni dung nhn tt hn vic nh tuyn phc tp theo a ch IP ch. MPLS cho php cc ISP cung cp nhiu dch v khc nhau m khng cn phi b i c s h tng sn c. Cu trc MPLS c tnh mm do trong bt k s phi hp vi cng ngh lp hai no. MPLS h tr mi giao thc lp hai, trin khai hiu qu cc dch v IP trn mt mng chuyn mch IP. MPLS h tr vic to ra cc tuyn khc nhau gia ngun v ch trn mt ng trc Internet. Bng vic tch hp MPLS vo kin trc mng, cc ISP c th gim chi ph, tng li nhun, cung cp nhiu hiu qu khc nhau v t c hiu qu cnh tranh cao. c im mng MPLS: - Khng c MPLS API, cng khng c thnh phn giao thc pha host. - MPLS ch nm trn cc router.
Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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- MPLS l giao thc c lp nn c th hot ng cng vi giao thc khc IP nh IPX, ATM, Frame Relay, - MPLS gip n gin ho qu trnh nh tuyn v lm tng tnh linh ng ca cc tng trung gian. Phng thc hot ng: Thay th c ch nh tuyn lp ba bng c ch chuyn mch lp hai.MPLS hot ng trong li ca mng IP. Cc Router trong li phi enable MPLS trn tng giao tip. Nhn c gn thm vo gi IP khi gi i vo mng MPLS. Nhn c tch ra khi gi ra khi mng MPLS. Nhn (Label) c chn vo gia header lp ba v header lp hai. S dng nhn trong qu trnh gi gi sau khi thit lp ng i. MPLS tp trung vo qu trnh hon i nhn (Label Swapping). Mt trong nhng th mnh ca kin trc MPLS l t nh ngha chng nhn (Label Stack). K thut chuyn mch nhn khng phi l k thut mi. Frame relay v ATM cng s dng cng ngh ny chuyn cc khung (frame) hoc cc cell qua mng. Trong Frame relay, cc khung c di bt k, i vi ATM di ca cell l c nh bao gm phn mo u 5 byte v ti tin l 48 byte. Phn mo u ca cell ATM v khung ca Frame Relay tham chiu ti cc knh o m cell hoc khung ny nm trn . S tng quan gia Frame relay v ATM l ti mi bc nhy qua mng, gi tr nhn trong phn mo u b thay i. y chnh l s khc nhau trong chuyn tip ca gi IP. Khi mt route chuyn tip mt gi IP, n s khng thay i gi tr m gn lin vi ch n ca gi; hay ni cch khc n khng thay i a ch IP ch ca gi. Thc t l cc nhn MPLS thng c s dng chuyn tip cc gi v a ch IP ch khng cn ph bin trong MPLS na.

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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1.2

Lch s pht trin v cc u im ca MPLS

Cc giao thc trc MPLS Trc MPLS, giao thc WAN ph bin nht l ATM v Frame relay. Nhng mng WAN c chi ph hiu qu c xy dng t nhiu giao thc khc nhau. Cng vi vic bng n mng Internet, IP tr thnh giao thc ph bin nht. IP khp mi ni. VPN c to ra qua nhng giao thc WAN ny. Khch hng thu nhng kt ni ATM v kt ni Frame relay hoc s dng knh truyn s liu (knh thu ring) v xy dng mng ring ca h trn . Bi v nhng b nh tuyn ca nh cung cp cung cp dch v lp 2 ti b nh tuyn lp 3 ca khch hng. Nhng kiu mng nh vy c gi l mng overlay. Hin nay mng Overlay vn c s dng nhng rt nhiu khch hng bt u s dng dch v MPLS VPN 1.2.1 Cc li ch ca MPLS Phn ny s gii thiu mt cch ngn gn nhng li ch ca vic s dng MPLS trong mng. Nhng li ch ny bao gm: o Vic s dng h tng mng thng nht o u im vt tri so vi m hnh IP over ATM o Giao thc cng bin (BGP) - li t do o M hnh peer to peer cho MPLS VPN o Chuyn lu lng quang o iu khin lu lng Ta s xem xt v l do khng c thc chy MPLS. y l l do m c xem hp l u tin trong vic s dng MPLS nhng n khng phi l l do tt trin khai MPLS. Li ch khng c thc (li ch v tc ): Mt trong nhng l do u tin a ra ca giao thc trao i nhn l s cn thit ci thin tc . Chuyn mch gi IP trn CPU c xem nh chm
Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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hn so vi chuyn mch gi gn nhn do chuyn mch gi gn nhn ch tm kim nhn trn cng ca gi. Mt b nh tuyn chuyn tip gi IP bng vic tm kim a ch IP ch trong phn mo u IP v tm kim kt ni tt nht trong bng nh tuyn. Vic tm kim ny ph thuc vo s thc hin ca tng nh cung cp ca b nh tuyn . Tuy nhin, bi v a ch IP c th l n hng hoc a hng (unicast hoc multicast) v c 4 octet (1 octet = 1 8 bit) nn vic tm kim c th rt phc tp. Vic tm kim phc tp cng c ngha l quyt nh chuyn tip gi IP mt mt thi gian. Thi gian gn y, cc ng kt ni trn nhng b nh tuyn c th c bng thng ln ti 40 Gbps. Mt b nh tuyn m c mt vi ng link tc cao khng c kh nng chuyn mch tt c nhng gi IP m ch s dng CPU a ra quyt nh chuyn tip. CPU tn ti ch yu s dng (iu khin) bng iu khin. Mt phng iu khin l mt tp cc giao thc thit lp mt mt phng d liu hoc mt phng chuyn tip. Cc thnh phn chnh ca mt phng iu khin bao gm giao thc nh tuyn, bng nh tuyn v chc nng iu khin khc hoc giao thc bo hiu c s dng cung cp mt phng d liu. Mt phng d liu l mt ng chuyn tip gi qua b nh tuyn hoc b chuyn mch. S chuyn mch ca cc gi - hay mt phng chuyn tip hin nay c thc hin trn phn cng c xy dng ring, hoc thc hin trn mch tch hp chuyn dng (ASIC - Application specific intergrated circuits). Vic dng ASIC trong mt phng chuyn tip ca b nh tuyn dn n nhng gi IP c chuyn mch nhanh nh cc gi c dn nhn. Do , nu l do duy nht a MPLS vo mng l tip tc thc hin vic chuyn mch cc gi nhanh hn qua mng, chnh l l do o.

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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S dng h tng mng n hp nht Vi MPLS, tng l gn nhn cho gi i vo mng da trn a ch ch ca n hoc tiu chun trc cu hnh khc v chuyn mch tt c lu lng qua h tng chung. y l mt u im vt tri ca MPLS. Mt trong nhng l do m IP tr thnh giao thc duy nht nh hng ln ti mng trn ton th gii l bi v rt nhiu k thut c th c chuyn qua n. Khng ch l d liu (s liu) chuyn qua IP m cn c thoi. Bng vic s dng MPLS vi IP, ta c th m rng kh nng truyn loi d liu. Vic gn nhn vo gi cho php ta mang nhiu giao thc khc hn l ch c IP qua mng trc IP lp 3 MPLS-enabled, tng t vi nhng kh nng thc hin c vi mng Frame Relay hoc ATM lp 2. MPLS c th truyn IPv4, IPv6, Ethernet, iu khin kt ni d liu tc cao (HDLC), PPP, v nhng k thut lp 2 khc. Chc nng m ti bt k khung lp 2 c mang qua mng ng trc MPLS c gi l Any Transport over MPLS (AToM). Nhng b nh tuyn ang chuyn lu lng AToM khng cn thit phi bit ti MPLS; n ch cn c kh nng chuyn mch lu lng c dn nhn bng vic tm kim nhn trn u ca ti. V bn cht, chuyn mch nhn MPLS l mt cng thc n gin ca chuyn mch a giao thc trong mt mng. Ta cn phi c bng chuyn tip bao gm cc nhn n trao i vi nhn ra v bc tip theo. Tm li, AToM cho php nh cung cp dch v cung cp dch v cng lp 2 ti khch hng nh bt k mng khc. Ti cng mt thi im, nh cung cp dch v ch cn mt h tng mng n c th mang tt c cc loi lu lng ca khch hng.

Cng ngh MPLS v ng dng trong IP VPN Nguyn Qunh Trang CHTVT 2006

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1.2.2 c im vt tri ca MPLS so vi m hnh IP over ATM Khi hp nht vi chuyn mch ATM, chuyn mch nhn tn dng nhng thun li ca cc t bo ATM - chiu di thch hp v chuyn vi tc cao. Trong mng a dch v chuyn mch nhn cho php chuyn mch BPX/MGX nhm cung cp dch v ATM, Frame, Replay v IP Internet trn mt mt phng n trong mt ng i tc cao. Cc mt phng (Platform) cng cng h tr cc dch v ny tit kim chi ph v n gin ha hot ng cho nh cung cp a dch v. ISP s dng chuyn mch ATM trong mng li, chuyn mch nhn gip cc dng Cisco, BPX8600, MGX8800, Router chuyn mch a dch v 8540 v cc chuyn mch Cisco ATM gip qun l mng hiu qu hn xp chng (overlay) lp IP trn mng ATM. Chuyn mch nhn trnh nhng rc ri gy ra do c nhiu router ngang hng v h tr cu trc phn cp (hierarchical structure) trong mt mng ca ISP. o S tch hp: MPLS xc nhp tnh nng ca IP v ATM ch khng xp chng lp IP trn ATM. MPLS gip cho c s h tng ATM thy c nh tuyn IP v loi b cc yu cu nh x gia cc c tnh IP v ATM. MPLS khng cn a ch ATM v k thut nh tuyn (nh PNNI). o tin cy cao hn: Vi c s h tng ATM, MPLS c th kt hp hiu qu vi nhiu giao thc nh tuyn IP over ATM thit lp mt mng li (mesh) dch v cng cng gia cc router xung quanh mt m my ATM. Tuy nhin c nhiu vn xy ra do cc PCV link gia cc router xp chng trn mng ATM. Cu trc mng ATM khng th thy b nh tuyn. Mt link ATM b hng lm hng nhiu router-to-router link, gy kh khn cho lng cp nht thng tin nh tuyn v nhiu tin trnh x l ko theo. o Trc tip thc thi cc loi dch v: MPLS s dng hng i v b
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m ca ATM cung cp nhiu loi dch v khc nhau. N h tr quyn u tin IP v cp dch v CoS trn chuyn mch ATM m khng cn chuyn i phc tp sang cc lp ATM Forum Service. o H tr hiu qu cho Mulicast v RSVP: Khc vi MPLS, xp lp IP trn ATM ny sinh nhiu bt li, c bit trong vic h tr cc dch v IP nh IP muticast v RSVP (giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn). MPLS h tr cc dch v ny, k tha thi gian v cng vic theo cc chun v khuyn khch to nn nh x xp x ca cc c trng IP&ATM o S o lng v qun l VPN: MPLS c th tnh c cc dch v IP VPN v rt d qun l cc dch v VPN quan trng cung cp cc mng IP ring trong c s h tng ca n. Khi mt ISP cung cp dch v VPN h tr nhiu VPN ring trn mt c s h tng n.Vi mt ng trc MPLS, thng tin VPN ch c x l ti mt im ra vo. Cc gi mang nhn MPLS i qua mt ng trc v n im ra ng ca n. Kt hp MPLS vi MP- BGP (a giao thc cng bin) to ra cc dch v VNP da trn nn MPLS (MPLS-based VNP) d qun l hn vi s iu hnh chuyn tip qun l pha VNP v cc thnh vin VNP, dch v MPSL-based VNP cn c th m rng h tr hng trm nghn VPN. o Gim ti trn mng li: Cc dch v VPN hng dn cch MPLS h tr mi thng tin nh tuyn phn cp. Hn na, c th tch ri cc nh tuyn Internet khi li mng cung cp dch v. Ging nh d liu VPN, MPSL ch cho php truy sut bng nh tuyn Internet ti im ra vo ca mng. Vi MPSL, k thut lu lng truyn bin ca AS c gn nhn lin kt vi im tng ng. S tch ri ca nh tuyn ni khi nh tuyn Internet y cng gip hn

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ch li, n nh v tng tnh bo mt. o Kh nng iu khin lu lng: MPLS cung cp cc kh nng iu khin lu lng sng dng hiu qu ti nguyn mng. K thut lu lng gip chuyn ti t cc phn qu ti sang cc phn cn ri ca mng da vo im ch, loi lu lng, ti, thi gian, 1.2.3 BGP - Free Core Khi mng IP ca nh cung cp dch v phi chuyn tip lu lng, mi b nh tuyn phi tm kim a ch ch ca gi. Nu nhng gi c gi ti ch nm ngoi mng ca nh cung cp ny, nhng tin t IP ngoi phi c th hin trong bng nh tuyn ca mi b nh tuyn. BGP mang tin t ngoi nh l tin t ca khch hng hay tin t Internet. C ngha l tt c cc b nh tuyn trong mng nh cung cp dch v phi chy BGP. Tuy nhin, MPLS cho php chuyn tip nhng gi da trn tm kim nhn hn l tm kim a ch IP. MPLS cho php mt nhn c kt hp vi mt b nh tuyn vo hn l vi a ch IP ch ca gi. Nhn ny l thng tin c gn vo mi gi th hin rng tt c b nh tuyn trung gian ti b nh tuyn bin vo m n phi chuyn tip ti. B nh tuyn li khng cn thit phi c thng tin chuyn tip nhng gi da trn a ch ch na. Do nhng b nh tuyn li trong mng nh cung cp dch v khng cn thit chy BGP. Mt b nh tuyn ti bin ca mng MPLS vn cn xem xt (look at) a ch IP ch ca gi v do vn cn phi chy BGP. Mi tin t BGP trn nhng b nh tuyn MPLS ra c mt a ch IP bc nhy tip theo BGP kt hp vi n. a ch IP bc nhy tip theo BGP l mt a ch IP ca b nh tuyn MPLS vo. Nhn kt hp vi gi IP l nhn m kt hp vi a ch IP bc nhy tip theo BGP. Bi v tt c cc b nh tuyn li chuyn tip gi

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da trn nhn MPLS c gn m kt hp vi a ch IP bc nhy tip theo BGP, mi a ch IP bc nhy tip theo BGP ca b nh tuyn MPLS vo phi c tt c nhng b nh tuyn li bit n. Bt k giao thc nh tuyn cng trong (nh giao thc OSPF hoc IS-IS) c th thc hin nhim v ny.

Hnh 1- 1 Mng li MPLS BGP free Mt nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) c 200 b nh tuyn trong mng li ca n cn phi chy BGP trn tt c 200 b nh tuyn ny. Nu MPLS c b sung vo mng th ch nhng b nh tuyn bin (khong 50 b nh tuyn) cn thit phi chy BGP. Hin nay tt c cc b nh tuyn trong mng li ang thc hin chuyn tip nhng gi c gn nhn, khng phi tm kim a ch IP, do chng ta phn no b bt c cc gnh nng chy BGP. Bi v bng nh tuyn Internet y c th c hn 150.000 b nh tuyn, vic chy BGP trn tt c b nh tuyn l rt ln. Cc b nh tuyn khng bng nh tuyn Internet
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y cn t dung lng b nh. Ta c th chy b nh tuyn li khng cn kt hp c BGP trn . 1.2.4 Lung lu lng quang Bi v chuyn mch ATM hoc Frame Relay ch n thun Lp 2, nhng b nh tuyn kt ni qua chng bi cc knh o c to ra gia chng. i vi bt k mt b nh tuyn chuyn lu lng trc tip ti mt b nh tuyn khc ti bin, mt knh o s c to ra thng gia chng. Vic to ra nhng knh o bng tay ny thng nhm chn. Trong bt k trng hp ny, nu yu cu kt ni any - to - any gia cc site, cn thit phi c mesh y ca nhng knh o gia cc site, iu ny lm tng tnh cng knh mng v tng chi ph. Nu cc site ch kt ni vi nhau nh hnh 12, lu lng t CE1 ti CE3 phi i qua CE2 trc.

Hnh 1- 2 Non-Fully Meshed Overlay ATM Network Kt qu l lu lng qua mng ng trc ATM hai ln v i ng vng qua b nh tuyn CE2. Khi s dng MPLS VPN nh a ra trong phn trc, lu lng trc tip - do ti u - gia tt c cc kt cui khch hng. i vi lu lng di chuyn ti u gia cc kt cui trong trng hp ca m hnh overlay VPN, tt c cc kt cui phi c kt ni vi nhau,
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do yu cu c thit k dng mesh y ca cc ng kt ni hoc cc knh o.

1.3 ng dng ca mng MPLS


1.3.1 Mng ring o VPN MPLS-VPN : Khng ging nh cc mng VPN truyn thng, cc mng MPLS-VPN khng s dng hot ng ng gi v m ha gi tin t c mc bo mt cao. MPLS VPN s dng bng chuyn tip v cc nhn tags to nn tnh bo mt cho mng VPN. Kin trc mng loi ny s dng cc tuyn mng xc nh phn phi cc dch v iVPN, v cc c ch x l thng minh ca MPLS VPN lc ny nm hon ton trong phn li ca mng. Mi VPN c kt hp vi mt bng nh tuyn - chuyn tip VPN (VRF) ring bit. VRF cung cp cc thng tin v mi quan h trong VPN ca mt site khch hng khi c ni vi PE router. Bng VRF bao gm thng tin bng nh tuyn IP (IP routing table), bng CEF (Cisco Express Forwarding), cc giao din ca forwarding table; cc quy tc, cc tham s ca giao thc nh tuyn... Mi site ch c th kt hp vi mt v ch mt VRF. Cc VRF ca site khch hng mang ton b thng tin v cc tuyn c sn t site ti VPN m n l thnh vin. i vi mi VRF, thng tin s dng chuyn tip cc gi tin c lu trong cc IP routing table v CEF table. Cc bng ny c duy tr ring r cho tng VRF nn n ngn chn c hin tng thng tin b chuyn tip ra ngoi mng VPN cng nh ngn chn cc gi tin bn ngoi mng VPN chuyn tip vo cc router bn trong mng VPN. y chnh l c ch bo mt ca MPLS VPN. Bn trong mi mt MPLS VPN, c th kt ni bt k hai

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im no vi nhau v cc site c th gi thng tin trc tip cho nhau m khng cn thng qua site trung tm. u im u tin ca MPLS-VPN l khng yu cu cc thit b CPE thng minh. V cc yu cu nh tuyn v bo mt c tch hp trong mng li. Chnh v th vic bo dng cng kh n gin, v ch phi lm vic vi mng li. Tr trong mng MPLS-VPN l rt thp, s d nh vy l do MPLS-VPN khng yu cu m ho d liu v ng i ca VPN l ng ring, c nh tuyn bi mng li, nn bn ngoi khng c kh nng thm nhp v n cp d liu (iu ny ging vi FR). Ngoi ra vic nh tuyn trong MPLS ch lm vic lp 2,5 ch khng phi lp 3 v th gim c mt thi gian tr ng k. Cc thit b nh tuyn trong MPLS l cc Switch router nh tuyn bng phn cng, v vy tc cao hn phn mm nh cc router khc. Vic to Full mesh l hon ton n gin v vic ti cc site ch cn da theo a ch c cu hnh sn trong bng nh tuyn chuyn tip VPN (VEF). 1.3.2 iu khin lu lng trong MPLS tng c bn ng sau vic iu khin lu lng l s dng ti u h tng mng, bao gm cc ng kt ni s dng khng ng mc, bi v chng khng th thuc cc tuyn u tin. iu ny c ngha l iu khin lu lng phi cung cp kh nng hng lu lng qua mng trn cc tuyn i khc nhau t tuyn u tin, y l tuyn c chi ph thp nht c cung cp bi nh tuyn IP. Tuyn chi ph thp nht l tuyn ng ngn nht nh tnh ton bi giao thc nh tuyn ng. Vi nhim v iu khin lu lng trong mng MPLS, ta c th c lu lng m c xc nh c th t trc hoc vi cht lng c th ca lung dch v t im A n im B dc theo mt tuyn (m tuyn ny khc vi tuyn c chi ph thp nht). Kt qu l lu

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lng c th tri rng hn qua nhng ng kt ni c sn trong mng v lm cho s dng nhiu ng kt ni khng s dng ng trong mng. Hnh 1-3 th hin v d ny.

Hnh 1- 3 iu khin lu lng trong MPLS (v d 1) Nh ngi iu hnh mng iu khin lu lng MPLS, ta c th hng lu lng t im A ti im B qua tuyn di (y khng phi l tuyn ngn nht gia A v B - 4 bc so vi 3 bc nhy tuyn trn). Theo ng ngha, ta c th gi lu lng qua cc ng kt ni m chng c th khng c s dng nhiu. Ta c th hng lu lng trong mng trn ng pha di bng vic thay i ngn ng giao thc nh tuyn. V d hnh 1-4.

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Hnh 1- 4 iu khin lu lng trong MPLS (v d 2) Nu mng ny l mng IP n thun, ta c th khng c b nh tuyn C chuyn lu lng dc theo tuyn pha di bng cch cu hnh mt vi th trn b nh tuyn A. B nh tuyn C quyt nh gi lu lng trn tuyn trn hay tuyn di ch l do quyt nh ca chnh n. Nu ta c th iu khin lu lng MPLS cho php trn mng ny, ta cn c b nh tuyn A gi lu lng ti b nh tuyn B dc theo tuyn di. iu khin lu lng MPLS bt buc b nh tuyn C chuyn tip lu lng A - B trn tuyn di. iu ny c th thc hin c trong MPLS do c ch chuyn tip nhn. B nh tuyn u (head end router) ( y l b nh tuyn A) ca tuyn iu khin lu lng l b nh tuyn m a ra tuyn y lu lng chuyn qua mng MPLS. Bi v n l b nh tuyn u cui (head end router) m ch r tuyn, iu khin lu lng cng c nhc n (xem tham kho refer) ti nh l dng (form) ca nh tuyn ngun c bn ( source - based routing). Nhn c dn (gn) vo gi bi b nh tuyn u cui (head end router) s to nn lung lu lng gi dc theo tuyn ng m do b nh

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tuyn u cui ch r. Khng c b nh tuyn trung gian no chuyn tip gi trn mt tuyn khc. Mt u im vt tri ca vic s dng iu khin lu lng MPLS l kh nng nh tuyn li nhanh (Fast ReRouting - FRR). FRR cho php ta nh tuyn li lu lng c nhn quanh mt ng kt ni hoc mt b nh tuyn m tr thnh khng dng c. Vic nh tuyn li lu lng xy ra nh hn 50ms, m n nhanh nh tiu chun hin nay. 1.3.3 Cht lng dch v trong MPLS (QoS) Cht lng dch v QoS chnh l yu t thc y MPLS. So snh vi cc yu t khc, nh qun l lu lng v h tr VPN th QoS khng phi l l do quan trng nht trin khai MPLS. Nh chng ta s thy di y, hu ht cc cng vic c thc hin trong MPLS QoS tp trung vo vic h tr cc c tnh ca IP QoS trong mng. Ni cch khc, mc tiu l thit lp s ging nhau gia cc c tnh QoS ca IP v MPLS, ch khng phi l lm cho MPLS QoS cht lng cao hn IP QoS. Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn khng nh MPLS l khng ging nh IP, MPLS khng phi l giao thc xuyn sut. MPLS khng chy trong cc my ch, v trong tng lai nhiu mng IP khng s dng MPLS vn tn ti. QoS mt khc l c tnh xuyn sut ca lin lc gia cc LSR cng cp. V d, nu mt knh kt ni trong tuyn xuyn sut c tr cao, tn tht ln, bng thng thp s gii hn QoS c th cung cp dc theo tuyn . Mt cch nhn nhn khc v vn ny l MPLS khng thay i v cn bn m hnh dch v IP. Cc nh cung cp dch v khng bn dch v MPLS, h bn dch v IP (hay dch v Frame Relay hay cc dch v khc), v do , nu h a ra QoS th h phi a ra IP QoS (Frame Relay QoS, v.v) ch khng phi l MPSL QoS.

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iu khng c ngha l MPLS khng c vai tr trong IP QoS. Th nht, MPLS c th gip nh cung cp a ra cc dch v IP QoS hiu qu hn. Th hai, hin ang xut hin mt s kh nng QoS mi h tr qua mng s dng MPLS khng thc s xuyn sut tuy nhin c th chng t l rt hu ch, mt trong s chng l bng thng bo m ca LSP. Cht lng dch v tr ln ph bin trong nhng nm qua. Mt vi mng khng c s hn ch v bng thng, do tc nghn thng xuyn c kh nng xy ra trong mng. Qos l mt phng tin (means) dnh s u tin cho nhng lu lng quan trng hn nhng lu lng km u tin khc v m bo rng n c vn chuyn qua mng. IETF c thit k 2 cch thc hin QoS trong mng IP: dch v tch hp (IntServ) v dch v khc bit (DiffServ). IntServ s dng giao thc bo hiu giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn (RSVP). My ch bo hiu cho mng qua RSVP s cn thit QoS l cho lung lu lng m n truyn. Vic a ra m hnh IntServ c v nh gii quyt c nhiu vn lin quan n QoS trong mng IP. Tuy nhin trong thc t m hnh ny khng m bo c QoS xuyn sut (end to end). c nhiu c gng nhm thay i iu ny nhm t mt mc QoS cao hn cho mng IP, v mt trong nhng c gng l s ra i ca DiffServ. DiffServs dng vic nh du gi v xp hng theo loi h tr dch v u tin qua mng IP. Nhng b nh tuyn tm kim nhng bit nh du, xp hng, nh hnh, v thit lp quyn u tin (drop) ca gi. Dch v Best effort: y l dch v ph bin trn mng Internet hay mng IP ni chung. Cc gi thng tin c truyn i theo nguyn tc n trc phc v trc m khng quan tm n c tnh lu

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lng ca dch v l g. iu ny dn n rt kh h tr cc dch v i hi tr thp nh cc dch v thi gian thc hay video. Cho n thi im ny, a phn cc dch v c cung cp bi mng Internet vn s dng nguyn tc Best Effort ny. u im ln ca DiffServ so vi IntServ l m hnh DiffServ khng cn giao thc bo hiu. M hnh IntServ s dng mt giao thc bo hiu m phi chy trn my ch v b nh tuyn. Nu mng c hng nghn lu lng, nhng b nh tuyn phi gi thng tin trng thi cho mi lung lu lng truyn qua n. y l mt vn ln lm cho IntServ tr nn khng ph bin. V d tt nht cho QoS l lu lng VoIP. VoIP cn thit c truyn ti ch trong thi gian thc, nu khng n s khng cn dng c. Do , QoS phi u tin lu lng VoIP m bo n c truyn trong mt thi gian xc nh. t c iu ny, Cisco IOS t VoIP vi mc u tin cao hn lu lng FTP hoc HTTP v m bo rng khi nghn mch xy ra, lu lng FTP hoc HTTP s b nh rt trc VoIP.

Hnh 1- 5 Cc k thut QoS trong mng IP


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CHNG 2 CNG NGH CHUYN MCH MPLS


MPLS vit tt ca Multiprotocol Label Switching chuyn mch nhn a giao thc. Mc d ti thi im u ch c IPv4 l chuyn mch nhn, sau c thm mt vi giao thc na. Chuyn mch nhn ch ra rng nhng gi c chuyn mch khng thuc gi IPv4, IPv6 hoc thm ch l khung lp 2 khi c chuyn mch, nhng chng u c dn nhn. Phn quan trng nht trong MPLS l nhn. Chng ny s gii thch nhn lm g, s dng nh th no v c phn phi trong mng ra sao.

2.1

Cu trc ca nt MPLS

Mt nt ca MPLS c hai mt phng: mt phng chuyn tip MPLS v mt phng iu khin MPLS. Nt MPLS c th thc hin nh tuyn lp ba hoc chuyn mch lp hai. Hnh sau m t cu trc c bn ca mt nt MPLS

Hnh 2- 1 Cu trc mt nt MPLS

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2.1.1 Mt phng chuyn tip (Forwarding plane): Mt phng chuyn tip c trch nhim chuyn tip gi da trn gi tr cha trong nhn. Mt phng chuyn tip s dng mt c s thng tin chuyn tip nhn LFIB chuyn tip cc gi. Thut ton m c s dng bi phn t chuyn tip chuyn mch nhn s dng thng tin cha trong LFIB nh l cc thng tin cha trong gi tr nhn. Mi nt MPLS c hai bng lin quan n vic chuyn tip l: c s thng tin nhn LIB v LFIB. LIB cha tt c cc nhn c nt MPLS cc b nh du v nh x ca cc nhn ny n cc nhn c nhn t lng ging (MPLS neighbor) ca n. LFIB s dng mt tp con cc nhn cha trong LIB thc hin chuyn tip gi. Nhn MPLS Mt nhn MPLS l mt trng 32 bit c nh vi cu trc xc nh. Nhn c dng xc nh mt FEC. i vi ATM, nhn c t c hoc l trng VCI hoc l VPI ca mo u ATM. Tuy nhin, nu l khung trong Frame Relay, nhn li c t trng DLCI ca mo u Frame Relay. K thut lp 2 nh Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, v kt ni point - to point khng th tn dng c trng a ch lp 2 ca chng mang nhn i. Nhng k thut ny mang nhn trong nhng mo u m (shim). Mo u nhn m c chn thm vo gia lp kt ni v lp mng, nh hnh sau y . Vic s dng mo u nhn m cho php h tr MPLS trn hu ht cc k thut Lp 2. Hnh 2-2 ch ra cu trc ca mt nhn MPLS.

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ATM cell header


GFC VPI VCI PTI CLP HEC DATA

Nhn

Shim header Layer 2 header Label Layer 3 header Layer 4 header Data

Hnh 2- 2 Cu trc ca nhn MPLS Vic h tr cho mo u m yu cu b nh tuyn gi c mt ng dn ch cho b nh tuyn nhn bit rng khung ny cha mt mo u chn thm. Cc k thut khc nhau s dng cc cch khc nhau. Ethernet s dng gi tr ethertype 0x8848 v 0x8847 ch s c mt ca mo u chn thm. Gi tr Ethertype 0x8847 c s dng ch ra rng mt khung ang mang gi unicast MPLS, v gi tr ethertype 0x8848 ch ra rng khung ang mang gi multicast MPLS. Token ring v FDDI cng s dng gi tr loi ny nh l mt phn ca mo u SNAP. PPP s dng mt Chng trnh iu khin mng c chnh sa (NCP Network Control Program) c bit n nh l giao thc iu khin MPLS (MPLS CP) v nh du tt c nhng gi cha mt mo u chn thm vi 0x8281 trong trng giao thc PPP. Frame Relay s dng ID giao thc lp mng SNAP (NLP ID - Network Layer Protocol) v m u SNAP c nh du vi gi tr dng 0x8847 theo ch ra khung ang mang mo u chn thm. ATM s dng mo u SNAP vi gi tr ethertype dang 0x8847 v 0x8848.

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Nhn MPLS cha cc trng sau: o Trng nhn (label field): 20 bit u l gi tr ca nhn. Gi tr ny nm trong khon t 0 n 220-1 hoc 1048575. Tuy nhin, 16 gi tr u tin khng c dng s dng; n c s dng vi nhng ngha c bit. o Cc bit t 20 n 22 l 3 bit thc nghim (EXP - experimental). Nhng bit ny ch c s dng trong cht lng ca dch v (QoS); khi cc gi MPLS xp hng c th dng cc bit EXP tng t nh cc bit IP u tin (IP Precedence). Ch : Nhng bit c t tn l thc nghim l c l do lch s. Trong qu kh, khng ai bit cch s dng nhng bit ny. o Trng ngn xp (stack field): 1 bit, bit 23 l bit cui ca ngn xp. Bit ny s c lp l 1 khi y l nhn cui cng ca ngn xp, cn i vi cc nhn khc n l 0 (bit BoS). Chng nhn l s tp trung ca nhng nhn m c t pha trn ca gi. Chng nhn c th ch gm 1 nhn, hoc nhiu nhn. S lng cc nhn ( y l trng 32 bit) m ta c th tm thy trong ngn xp l v hn, mc d ta t khi nhn thy mt ngn xp c bn nhn hoc hn. o Trng TTL: Bit th 24 n 31 l 8 bit s dng lm bit thi gian sng (Time to live TTL). Nhng TTL ny c chc nng ging nh TTL trong IP header. N c tng ln 1 sau mi bc nhy, v chc nng chnh ca n l trnh mt gi b mc kt trong vng lp nh tuyn. Nu vng nh tuyn xy ra v khng c TTL, th vng lp gi l mi mi. Nu TTL ca mt nhn v 0 th gi s b loi b. Ch : Nt ATM MPLS ch mang nhng nhn trong trng VCI hoc VPI/VCI ca mo u ATM. Cc trng EXP, Stack, TTL khng c h tr. Tuy nhin QoS v chc nng pht hin loop vn c v c th c thc
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hin khi s dng k thut ATM. Cc loi nhn c bit o Untagged: gi MPLS n c chuyn thnh mt gi IP v chuyn tip n ch. N c dng trong thc thi MPLS VPN. o Nhn Implicit-null hay POP: Nhn ny c gn khi nhn trn (top label) ca gi MPLS n b bc ra v gi MPLS hay IP c chuyn tip ti trm k xui dng. Gi tr ca nhn ny l 3 (trng nhn 20 bit). Nhn ny c dng trong mng MPLS cho nhng trm k cui. o Nhn Explicit-null: c gn gi gi tr EXP cho nhn trn (top label) ca gi n. Nhn trn c hon i vi gi tr 0 v chuyn tip nh mt gi MPLS ti trm k xui dng. Nhn ny s dng khi thc hin QoS vi MPLS. o Nhn Aggregate: vi nhn ny, khi gi MPLS n n b bc tt c nhn trong chng nhn ra tr thnh mt gi IP v thc hin tra cu trong FIB xc nh giao tip ng ra cho n.

Hnh 2- 3 Cc loi nhn c bit Ngn xp nhn Nhng b nh tuyn MPLS tt (capable) cn nhiu hn 1 nhn trn mi gi nh tuyn gi ny trong mng MPLS. Vic ny c thc hin bi

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vic t nhn trong mt ngn xp. Nhn u tin trong ngn xp c gi l nhn nh v nhn cui cng c gi l nhn y. gia ta c th c nhiu nhn. Hnh 2-4 a ra cu trc ca ngn xp nhn.

Hnh 2- 4 Ngn xp nhn Trong ngn xp nhn hnh trn ch l rng bit BoS l 0 i vi tt c cc nhn, tr nhn y. i vi nhn y, bit BoS l 1. Nhng ng dng thc t ca MPLS cn nhiu hn 1 nhn trong ngn xp nhn chuyn tip nhng gi c gn nhn. Hai v d ng dng ca MPLS l MPLS VPN v AToM. C hai ng dng trn ca MPLS u t hai nhn trong ngn xp. Trong cc gi MPLS c bn, nhn trn cng xut hin ngay sau mo u lp kt ni, v nhn cui cng xut hin ngay trc mo u lp mng. Gi chuyn tip c thc hin cng vi vic s dng gi tr nhn ca nhn trn cng trong ngn xp. Tuyn IP unicast khng s dng ngn xp nhn, nhng MPLS VPN v iu khin lu lng li s dng ngn xp nhn. M ha MPLS Ngn xp nhn c t u? Ngn xp t trc gi lp 3 - trc header ca giao thc vn chuyn, nhng sau header ca lp 2. Ngn xp MPLS thng c gi l header m (shim header) bi v tr ca n. Hnh 2-4 th hin v tr ca ngn xp nhn cho cc gi c gn nhn.

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C nhiu kiu ng gi m lp 2 c th p ng hoc lin kt c c s h tr ca Cisco IOS nh: PPP, HDLC, Ethernet ... Gi thit rng giao thc truyn ti l IPv4, v phng thc ng gi ng link l PPP, lu tr nhn hin nay l sau header PPP nhng trc header IPv4. Bi v ngn xp nhn trong khung Lp 2 c t trc header ca Lp 3 hoc nhng giao thc truyn ti khc, ta c th c nhng gi tr mi trong trng giao thc lp kt ni d liu, nhng gi tr ny ch ra c phn tip theo ca header lp 2 s l gi c dn nhn MPLS. Trng giao thc lp kt ni d liu l mt gi tr ch ra loi ti m khung lp 2 truyn i. Bng 2-1 ch ra tn v gi tr i vi trng nhn dng giao thc (Protocol Identifier - PI) trong header lp 2 i vi cc loi ng gi lp 2 khc nhau. Layer 2 EncapsulationLayer 2 Protocol Type PPP Ethernet/802.3 LLC/SNAP encapsulation HDLC Frame Relay Protocol NLPID (Network Level Protocol ID) Bng 2.1: Gi tr xc nh giao thc MPLS cho cc dng ng gi lp 2 ATM khng c mt trong bng 2-1 ni trn bi v n s dng duy nht cch ng gi theo nhn. Trong bng trn, NLPID l 0x80, gi tr ny cho bit header giao thc truy nhp mng con (subnetwork Access Protocol SNAP) 8847 80 Ethertype value Identifier name PPP Protocol field 0281 8847 Name Value (hex)

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ang c s dng. Header SNAP c s dng trong Frame Relay cho bn nhn bit rng Frame Relay ang s dng giao thc vn chuyn g. Header SNAP bao gm Nhn dng duy nht t chc (Organizationally Unique Identifier - OUI) ca 0x000000 v dng Ethernet l 0x8847 y giao thc truyn ti l MPLS. Giao thc truyn ti v mt l thuyt c th khng l g ht; Cisco IOS h tr IPv4 v IPv6. Trong trng hp AToM, ta s thy giao thc truyn ti c th l bt k giao thc ph bin lp 2 no, nh Frame Relay, PPP, HDLC, ATM v Ethernet. C s thng tin chuyn tip nhn (LFIB) LFIB c duy tr bi mt nt MPLS cha mt chui cc entry (mc nhp). Nh hnh di y, mi ng nhp vo cha mt nhn ti v mt hoc vi mc ph. LFIB c lp bng cha cc gi tr trong nhn ti.

Hnh 2- 5 Cu trc ca LFIB

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Mi mc ph bao gm mt nhn ra, giao din ra v a ch nt nhy tip theo. Cc mc ph vi ng vo ring bit c th ging hoc khc nhn vo. Chuyn tip Multicast yu cu mc ph vi a nhn ra, m mt nhn vo c a n ti mt giao din cn c gi ti a giao din ra. Thm vo gi ra, giao din ra v thng tin bc nhy tip theo, mt ng vo trong bng chuyn tip c th bao gm thng tin lin quan n ngun (resource) ca gi c th s dng, nh hng i ra m gi phi c t vo. Mt nt MPLS c th duy tr mt bng chuyn tip n, mt bng chuyn tip trn mi giao din ca n hoc l kt hp c hai. Trong trng hp c nhiu bng chuyn tip, chuyn tip gi c thc hin bi gi tr ca nhn ti cng nh giao din vo m gi n. Thut ton chuyn tip gi: Chuyn mch nhn s dng thut ton chuyn tip da trn vic trao i nhn. Nt MPLS m duy tr mt LFIB n ly gi tr nhn t trng nhn tm thy trong gi ti v s dng gi tr ny nh ch s trong LFIB. Sau khi mt nhn ti match (khp) c tm thy, nt MPLS thay th nhn ny trong gi vi mt nhn ra t mc ph v gi gi qua giao din ra c th ti nt tip c th theo bi mc ph. Nu mc ph ch ra mt hng i ra, nt MPLS t gi trong hng i c th. Nu nt MPLS duy tr nhiu LFIB cho mi giao din ca n, n s dng giao din vt l ni gi n chn mt LFIB c th phc v chuyn tip gi. Thng thng, thut ton chuyn tip s dng nhiu loi thut ton chuyn tip unicast, multicast v gi unicast vi bit ToS c thit lp. Tuy nhin, MPLS ch s dng mt thut ton chuyn tip da trn trao i nhn. Mt nt MPLS c th ly ra tt c thng tin n cn chuyn tip nhn cng nh xc nh ti nguyn dnh ring cn thit bng vic truy nhp b nh n. Tra cu tc cao v kh nng chuyn tip lm cho chuyn mch
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nhn (label switching) thnh k thut chuyn mch c tnh thc thi cao. MPLS cng c th c s dng vn chuyn giao thc Lp 3 khc nh IPv6, IPX hoc Apple Talk t IPv4. c tnh ny gip MPLS c th tng thch tt vi vic chuyn i cc mng t IPv4 sang IPv6. 2.1.2 Mt phng iu khin (Control Plane): Mt phng iu khin MPLS chu trch nhim to ra v lu tr LFIB. Tt c cc nt MPLS phi chy mt giao thc nh tuyn IP trao i thng tin nh tuyn IP vi cc nt MPLS khc trong mng. Cc nt MPLS enable ATM s dng mt b iu khin nhn (LSC - Label Switch Controller) nh router 7200, 7500 hoc dng mt m un x l tuyn (RMP - Route Processor Module) tham gia x l nh tuyn IP. Cc giao thc nh tuyn Link-state nh OSPF v IS-IS l cc giao thc c chn v chng cung cp cho mi nt MPLS thng tin ca ton mng. Trong cc b nh tuyn thng thng, bng nh tuyn IP dng xy dng b lu tr chuyn mch nhanh (Fast switching cache) hoc FIB - C s thng tin chuyn tip (dng bi CEF - Cisco Express Forwarding). Tuy nhin vi MPLS, bng nh tuyn IP cung cp thng tin ca mng ch v tin t subnet s dng cho nhn ghp (binding). Cc giao thc nh tuyn link-state nh OSPF gi thng tin nh tuyn (flood) gia mt tp cc router khng nht thit lin k nhau, trong khi thng tin lin kt nhn (binding) ch c phn b gia cc router lin k bng giao thc phn phi nhn (LDP) hoc TDP (Ciscos Proproetary Tag Distribution Protocol). iu ny lm giao thc nh tuyn link - state khng thch hp vi s phn phi thng tin lin kt nhn. Tuy nhin s m rng cc giao thc nh tuyn nh PIM v BGP c th c s dng phn phi thng tin lin kt nhn. iu ny lm cho vic phn phi thng tin lin kt nhn ph hp vi vic phn phi thng tin nh tuyn

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v trnh iu kin t xy ra m ti nt MPLS c th nhn thng tin lin kt nhn v khng c thng tin nh tuyn thch hp. N cng lm n gin ha ton b h thng vn hnh bi v n ngn nga s cn thit ca mt giao thc ring l nh LDP phn phi thng tin nhn ghp. Nhng nhn trao i vi cc nt MPLS lin k c s dng xy dng LFIB. MPLS s dng mt m hnh chuyn tip da trn trao i nhn m c th c kt ni vi mt phm vi cc module iu khin khc nhau. Mi module iu khin chu trch nhim nh du, phn phi mt tp cc nhn, cng nh chu trch nhim d tr thng tin iu khin khc c lin quan. Cc giao thc cng nh tuyn trong phm vi min IGP c dng xc nhn kh nng n c, s lin kt v nh x gia FEC v a ch trm k (next-hop address). Thng tin lin kt nhn ch c phn phi gia cc router ni trc tip vi nhau bng cch dng giao thc phn phi LDP. Cc mun iu khin MPLS gm: nh tuyn Unicast (Unicast Routing) nh tuyn Multicast (Multicast Routing) K thut lu lng (Traffic Engineer) Mng ring o (VPN - Virtual private Network) Cht lng dch v (QoS - Quality of Service)

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Hnh 2- 6 Cc thnh phn mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin ca MPLS 2.2

Cc phn t chnh ca MPLS


2.2.1 LSR (label switch Router)

Thnh phn c bn ca mng MPLS l thit b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR. Thit b ny thc hin chc nng chuyn tip gi thng tin trong phm vi mng MPLS bng th tc phn phi nhn. l kh nng cn thit hiu c nhn MPLS, nhn v truyn gi c gn nhn trn ng lin kt d liu. C 3 loi LSR trong mng MPLS: o Ingress LSR - LSR vo nhn gi cha c nhn, chn nhn (ngn xp) vo trc gi v truyn i trn ng kt ni d liu. o Egress LSR - LSR ra nhn cc gi c gn nhn, tch nhn v truyn chng trn ng kt ni d liu. LSR ra v LSR vo l cc LSR bin. o LSR trung gian (intermediate LSR) - cc LSR trung gian ny s nhn cc gi c nhn ti, thc hin cc thao tc trn n, chuyn mch gi v truyn gi n ng kt ni d liu ng.

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Bng sau m t cc hot ng ca nhn: Aggregate Pop Push Swap Untag G b nhn trn cng trong ngn xp v thc hin tra cu Lp 3 G b nhn trn cng v truyn ti cn li nh l mt gi IP c gn nhn hoc khng c gn nhn Thay nhn trn cng trong ngn xp vi mt tp nhn Thay nhn trn cng trong ngn xp vi gi tr khc G b nhn trn cng v chuyn tip gi IP ti trm IP k tip. LSR phi c kh nng ly ra mt hoc nhiu nhn (tch mt hoc nhiu nhn t pha trn ca ngn xp nhn) trc khi chuyn mch gi ra ngoi. Mt LSR cng phi c kh nng gn mt hoc nhiu nhn vo gi nhn c. Nu gi nhn c c sn nhn, LSR y mt hoc mt vi nhn ln trn ngn xp nhn v chuyn mch gi ra ngoi. Nu gi cha c nhn, LSR to mt ngn xp nhn v gn nhn ln gi. Mt LSR phi c kh nng trao i nhn. N c ngha rt n gin khi n nhn c gi gn nhn, nhn trn cng ca ngn xp nhn c trao i vi nhn mi v gi c chuyn mch trn ng kt ni d liu ra. LSR m gn nhn ln trn gi u tin c gi l LSR imposing (gn) bi v n l LSR u tin t nhn ln trn gi. y l mt vic bt buc i vi mt LSR vo. Mt LSR m tch tt c cc nhn t gi c dn nhn trc khi chuyn mch gi l mt LSR Disposing (tch) hay l mt LSR ra. Trong MPLS VPN, cc LSR ra v vo c bit n nh mt b nh tuyn cung cp bin (PE). LSR trung gian c bit n nh l b nh tuyn ca nh cung cp. B nh tuyn PE v P tr ln ph bin n ni n thng xuyn c s dng khi mng MPLS khng chy MPLS VPN.

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LER (label edge Router) B nh tuyn nhn bin mng (LER) l thit b hot ng ranh gii gia mng MPLS v mng truy cp. LER h tr nhiu cng ni n cc mng khc nhau nh ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet chuyn tip cc lu lng vo trong mng MPLS v phn phi lu lng ny tr li cc mng truy cp u ra. 2.2.2 LSP (label switch Path) ng chuyn mch nhn l mt tp hp cc LSR m chuyn mch mt gi c nhn qua mng MPLS hoc mt phn ca mng MPLS. V c bn, LSP l mt ng dn qua mng MPLS hoc mt phn mng m gi i qua. LSR u tin ca LSP l mt LSR vo, ngc li LSR cui cng ca LSP l mt LSR ra. Tt c cc LSR gia LSR vo v ra chnh l cc LSR trung gian. Trong hnh 2-5 di y, mi tn trn cng ch hng bi v ng chuyn mch nhn l ng theo mt phng hng duy nht. Lung ca cc gi c nhn trong mt hng khc - t phi sang tri - gia cng cc LSR bin s l mt LSP khc.

Hnh 2- 7 V d v mt LSP qua mng MPLS LSR vo ca mt LSP khng nht thit phi l b nh tuyn u tin gn nhn vo gi. Gi c th c gn nhn bi cc LSR trc . y l

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trng hp ny l mt LSP xp lng (ghp), hay l c mt LSP trong mt LSP khc. Trong hnh 2-8, ta c th thy LSP m tri rng ton b rng mng MPLS. Mt LSP khc bt u ti LSR th ba v kt thc trc LSR cui cng.Do , khi mt gi i vo LSP th hai trn cng LSR vo ca n (c ngha l LSR th ba), n thc s c dn nhn. LSR vo ca LSP nested (ghp) sau gn mt nhn th hai ln trn gi. Ngn xp nhn ca gi trn LSP th hai by gi c 2 nhn. Nhn trn cng s ph thuc vo LSP nested (ghp), v nhn di cng s ph thuc vo LSP m tri rng ht ton b mng MPLS. ng hm iu khin lu lng d phng l mt v d cho LSP nested (ghp)

Hnh 2- 8 M hnh LSP Nested 2.2.3 FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) Lp chuyn tip tng ng (FEC) l mt nhm hoc lung cc gi c chuyn tip dc theo cng mt tuyn v c x l theo cng mt cch chuyn tip. Tt c cc gi cng thuc mt FEC s c nhn ging nhau. Tuy nhin, khng phi tt c cc gi c cng nhn u thuc cng mt FEC, bi v gi tr EXP ca chng c th khc nhau; phng thc chuyn tip khc nhau v n c th ph thuc vo FEC khc nhau.
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B nh tuyn m quyt nh gi no thuc mt FEC no chnh l LSR bin vo. y l logic v LSR bin vo sp xp v dn nhn vo gi. Sau y l mt vi v d v FEC: Nhng gi vi a ch IP ch lp 3 khp (match) vi mt tin t no Gi truyn multicast thuc nhm no . Gi vi cng phng thc chuyn tip, da trn th t u tin hoc trng im m DiffServ IP (DSCP) Khung lp 2 chuyn qua MPLS nhn c trn mt VC hoc mt giao din LSR bin vo v truyn trn mt VC hoc giao din trn LSR bin ra. Nhng gi vi a ch ch IP lp 3 m thuc mt tp tin t BGP Giao thc cng bin, tt c vi cng BGP bc tip theo. V d cui cng ca FEC l mt s quan tm c bit. Tt c cc gi trn LSR bin vo m a ch IP ch ch ti mt tp cc tuyn BGP trong bng nh tuyn - tt c cng a ch bc nhy tip theo BGP - thuc cng mt FEC. iu ny c ngha tt c cc gi i vo trong mng MPLS c c mt nhn ty thuc vo bc nhy BGP tip theo l g. Hnh 2-9 a ra v d mng MPLS ti tt c cc LSR bin chy BGP trong (iBGP).

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Hnh 2- 9 Mng MPLS chy iBGP a ch IP ch ca tt c cc gi IP m i vo LSR vo s c tm thy trong bng chuyn tip IP. Tt c nhng a ch ny li ph thuc vo mt tp hp cc tin t m chng c tm thy trong mng nh tuyn nh l tin t BGP (BGP Prefixes). Rt nhiu tin t BGP trong bng nh tuyn c cng mt a ch bc nhy BGP tip theo, c th l mt LSR ra. Tt c cc gi vi mt a ch IP ch, m s tra cu IP trong bng nh tuyn quy ti cng a ch bc nhy BGP tip theo, s c ni ti cng mt FEC. Nh ni trn, tt c cc gi m thuc cng mt FEC c cng nhn c gn bi LSR vo.

2.3

Cc giao thc s dng trong MPLS


2.3.1 Phn phi nhn

Nhn u tin c gn trn mt LRS vo v nhn ny s thuc mt LSP. Tuyn i ca gi qua mng MPLS c quy nh (bound) bi mt LSP. S thay i chnh trong qu trnh chuyn tip l nhn trn cng trong ngn xp nhn c trao i ti mi bc nhy. LSR vo s gn mt hoc nhiu nhn

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ln gi. LSR trung gian s thc hin vic trao i nhn trn cng (nhn i vo) ca gi nhn c (gi c gn nhn) vi mt nhn khc (nhn i ra) v truyn gi trn ng kt ni ra. LSR ra ca LSP s ly ton b nhn ca LSP ny v chuyn tip gi. Xem xt v d v mt phng IPv4 trn MPLS, y l v d n gin nht v mng MPLS. Mt phng IPv4 - trn MPLS l mt mng m bao gm mt s cc LSR chy giao thc cng trong IGP (v d tuyn m ngn nht OSPF, IS - IS, v giao thc nh tuyn cng trong nng cao EIGRP). LSR vo tm kim a ch IPv4 ch ca gi, gn nhn, v chuyn tip gi. LSR tip theo (v bt k LSR trung gian khc) nhn gi trao i nhn nhn vi nhn gi, v chuyn tip gi. LSR ra tch nhn v chuyn tip gi IPv4 khng c nhn trn ng kt ni ra. thc hin vic ny, nhng LSR lin k phi ng vi nhn s dng cho mi tin t IGP. Do , mi LSR trung gian phi c kh nng tnh ton thc hin vic trao i nhn gi v nhn nhn cho nhau. iu ny c ngha l ta cn phi c mt k thut bo cho b nh tuyn bit nhn no c s dng khi chuyn tip gi. Gia mi cp b nh tuyn lin k l nhng nhn ni b. i vi nhng b nh tuyn lin k ng nhng nhn m s dng cho tin t no,gia chng cn c mt vi mu giao tip; nu khng, nhng b nh tuyn s khng bit nhn gi no cn ni vi nhn nhn no. Do cn thit phi c giao thc phn phi nhn. Phn phi nhn vi LDP Giao thc phn phi nhn c nhm nghin cu MPLS ca IETF xy dng v ban hnh di tn RFC 3036. Phin bn mi nht c cng b nm 2001 a ra nhng nh ngha v nguyn tc hot ng ca giao thc LDP. Giao thc phn phi nhn c s dng trong qu trnh gn nhn cho cc gi thng tin yu cu. Giao thc LDP l giao thc iu khin tch bit c cc LSR s dng trao i v iu phi qu trnh gn nhn/FEC. Giao thc ny
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l tp hp cc th tc trao i cc bn tin cho php cc LSR s dng gi tr nhn thuc FEC nht nh truyn cc gi thng tin.

Hnh 2- 10 Quan h gia cc LDP vi cc giao thc khc. Mt kt ni TCP c thit lp gia cc LSR ng cp m bo cc bn tin LDP c truyn mt cch trung thc theo ng th t. Cc bn tin LDP c th xut pht t trong bt c mt LSR (iu khin ng chuyn mch nhn LSP c lp) hay t LSR bin li ra (iu khin LSP theo lnh) v chuyn t LSR pha trc n LSR bn cnh pha sau. Vic trao i cc bn tin LDP c th c khi pht bi s xut hin ca lung s liu c bit, bn tin lp d tr RSVP hay cp nht thng tin nh tuyn. Khi mt cp LSR trao i bn tin LDP cho mt FEC nht nh th mt ng chuyn mch LSP t u vo n u ra c thit lp sau khi mi LSR ghp nhn u vo vi nhn u ra tng ng trong LIB ca n.

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Cc tnh cht c bn ca giao thc phn phi nhn LDP LDP c cc tnh cht c bn nh sau: o Cung cp c ch nhn bit LSR cho php cc LSR ngang cp tm kim nhau v thit lp kt ni. o nh ngha bn lp bn tin: Cc bn tin DISCOVERY Cc bn tin ADJCAENCY, gii quyt vn khi to, duy tr, hy b cc phin gia hai LSR. Cc bn tin LABEL ADVERTISEMENT, gii quyt thng bo, yu cu, thu hi v loi b kt hp nhn. Cc bn tin NOTIFICATION, s dng cung cp cc thng tin tr gip v thng tin li tn hiu. o Chy trn TCP cung cp phng thc phn phi bn tin ng tin cy (ngoi tr cc bn tin DISCOVERY) o Thit k cho php kh nng m rng d dng, s dng cc bn tin c xc nh nh mt tp hp cc i tng m ha TLV (kiu, di, gi tr). M ha TLV ngha l mi i tng bao gm mt trng kiu biu th v loi i tng ch nh, mt trng di thng bo di ca i tng v mt trng gi tr ph thuc vo trng kiu. Hai trng u tin c di c nh v c t ti v tr u tin ca i tng cho php d dng thc hin vic loi b kiu i tng m n khng nhn ra. Trng gi tr c mt i tng c th gm nhiu i tng m ha TLV hn. Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn ca LDP chy trn UDP v thc hin nh sau: o Mt LSR nh k gi i bn tin HELLO ti cc cng UDP bit trong tt c cc b nh tuyn trong mng con ca nhm multicast.
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o Tt c cc LSR tip nhn bn tinh HELLO ny trn cng UDP. Nh vy, ti mt thi im no LSR s bit c tt c cc LSR khc m n c kt ni trc tip. o Khi LSR nhn bit c a ch ca LSR khc bng c ch ny th n s thit lp kt ni TCP n LSR . o Khi phin LDP c thit lp gia 2 LSR. Phin LDP l phin hai chiu ngha l mi LSR hai u kt ni u c th yu cu v gi lin kt nhn.

Hnh 2- 11 Th tc pht hin LSR ln cn Trong trng hp cc LSR khng kt ni trc tip trong mt mng con (subnet) ngi ta s dng mt c ch b sung nh sau: LSR nh k gi bn tin HELLO n cng UDP bit ti a ch IP xc nh c khai bo khi lp cu hnh. u nhn bn tin ny c th tr li li bng bn tin HELLO khc truyn mt chiu ngc li n LSR gi v vic thit lp cc phin LDP c thc hin nh trn. Thng thng trng hp ny hay c p dng khi gia 2 LSR c mt nhn LSP cho iu khin lu lng v n yu cu phi gi cc gi c nhn qua ng LSP .
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Giao thc truyn ti tin cy Vic quyt nh s dng TCP truyn cc bn tin LDP l mt vn cn xem xt. Yu cu v tin cy l rt cn thit: nu vic lin kt nhn hay yu cu lin kt nhn c truyn mt cch khng tin cy th lu lng cng khng c chuyn mch theo nhn. Mt vn quan trng na l th t cc bn tin phi bo m ng. Nh vy liu vic s dng TCP truyn LDP c bo m hay khng v c nn xy dng lun chc nng truyn ti ny trong bn thn LDP hay khng? Vic xy dng cc chc nng bo m tin cy trong LDP khng nht thit phi thc hin ton b cc chc nng ca TCP trong LDP m ch cn dng li nhng chc nng cn thit nht v d nh chc nng iu khin trnh tc nghn c coi l khng cn thit trong LDP... Tuy nhin vic pht trin thm cc chc nng m bo tin cy trong LDP cng c nhiu vn cn xem xt v d nh cc b nh thi cho cc bn tin ghi nhn v khng ghi nhn, trong trng hp s dng TCP ch cn 1 b nh thi ca TCP cho ton phin LDP. Thit k mt giao thc truyn ti tin cy l mt vn nan gii. c rt nhiu c gng ci thin TCP nhm lm tng tin cy ca giao thc truyn ti. Tuy nhin vn hin nay vn cha r rng v TCP vn c s dng cho truyn ti LDP. Cc bn tin LDP C 4 dng bn tin c bn sau y: o Bn tin Initialization o Bn tin KeepAlive o Bn tin Label Mapping o Bn tin Release Bn tin Lable Withdrawal
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Bn tin Request Bn tin Request Abort. o Dng bn tin Initialization Cc bn tin thuc loi ny gi i khi bt u mt phin LDP gia 2 LSR trao i cc tham s, cc ty chn cho phin. Cc tham s ny bao gm: Ch phn b nhn Cc gi tr b nh thi Phm vi cc nhn s dng trong knh gia 2 LSR .

C 2 LSR u c th gi cc bn tin Initialization v LSR nhn s tr li bng KeepAlive nu cc tham s c chp nhn. Nu c mt tham s no khng c chp nhn LSR tr li thng bo c li v phin kt thc. o Dng bn tin KeepAlive Cc bn tin KeepAlive c gi nh k khi khng c bn tin no c gi m bo cho mi thnh phn LDP bit rng thnh phn LDP khc ang hot ng tt. Trong trng hp khng xut hin bn tin KeepAlive hay mt s bn tin khc ca LDP trong khong thi gian nht nh th LSR s xc nh i phng hoc kt ni b hng v phin LDP b dng. o Dng bn tin Label Mapping Cc bn tin Label Mapping c s dng qung b lin kt gia FEC (Prefix a ch) v nhn. Bn tin Label Withdrawal thc hin qu trnh ngc li: n c s dng xa b lin kt va thc hin. Bn tin ny c s dng khi c s thay i trong cu hnh LSR lm tm dng vic chuyn nhn cc gi trong FEC . o Dng bn tin Label Release Bn tin ny c s dng bi LSR khi nhn c chuyn i nhn m n khng cn thit na. iu thng xy ra khi LSR gii phng nhn thy nt tip theo cho FEC khng phi l LSR qung b lin kt nhn/FEC .

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Trong ch hot ng gn nhn theo yu cu t pha trc, LSR s yu cu gn nhn t LSR ln cn pha trc s dng bn tin Label Request. Nu bn tin Label Request cn phi hy b trc khi c chp nhn (do nt k tip trong FEC yu cu thay i), th LSR yu cu s loi b yu cu vi bn tin Label Request Abort. Cc ch phn phi nhn Chng ta bit mt s ch hot ng trong vic phn phi nhn nh: khng yu cu pha trc, theo yu cu pha trc, iu khin LSP theo lnh hay c lp, duy tr tin tin hay bo th. Cc ch ny c tha thun bi LSR trong qu trnh khi to phin LDP. Khi LSR hot ng ch duy tr bo th, n s ch gi nhng gi tr Nhn/FEC m n cn ti thi im hin ti. Cc chuyn i khc c gii phng. Ngc li trong ch duy tr tin tin. LSR gi tt c cc chuyn i m n c thng bo ngay c khi mt s khng c s dng ti thi im hin ti. Hot ng ca ch ny nh sau: o LSR1 gi gn kt nhn vo mt s FEC n mt trong cc LSR ln cn (LSR 2) n cho FEC . o LSR2 nhn thy LSR1 hin ti khng phi l nt tip theo i vi FEC v n khng th s dng gn kt ny cho mc ch chuyn tip ti thi im hin ti nhng n vn lu vic gn kt ny li. o Ti thi im no sau ny c s xut hin thay i nh tuyn v LSR 1 tr thnh nt tip theo ca LSR2 i vi FEC th LSR2 s cp nht thng tin trong bng nh tuyn tng ng v c th chuyn tip cc gi c nhn n LSR1 trn tuyn mi ca chng. Vic ny c thc hin mt cch t ng m khng cn n bo hiu LDP hay qu trnh phn b nhn mi.

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u im ln nht ca ch duy tr tin tin l kh nng phn ng nhanh hn khi c s thay i nh tuyn. Nhc im ln nht l lng ph b nh v nhn. iu ny c bit quan trng v c nh hng rt ln i vi nhng thit b lu tr bng nh tuyn trong phn cng nh ATM - LSR. Thng thng ch duy tr bo th nhn c s dng trong cc ATM LSR. 2.3.2 Giao thc t trc ti nguyn Sau khi xem xt nhng thnh phn chnh trong cu trc dch v tch hp, phn ny chng ta s tp trung vo giao thc bo hiu RSVP l giao thc bo hiu ng vai tr rt quan trng trong MPLS. RSVP l giao thc cho php cc ng dng thng bo cc yu cu v QoS vi mng v mng s p ng bng nhng thng bo thnh cng hoc tht bi. RSVP phi mang cc thng tin sau: o Thng tin phn loi, nh n m cc lung lu lng vi cc yu cu QoS c th c th c phn bit trong mng. Thng tin ny bao gm a ch IP pha gi v pha nhn, s cng UDP. o Ch tiu k thut ca lung lu lng v cc yu cu QoS, theo khun dng TSpec v RSpec, bao gm cc dch v yu cu (c bo m hoc ti iu khin) R rng l RSVP phi mang nhng thng tin ny t cc my ch ti tt c cc tng i chuyn mch v cc b nh tuyn dc theo ng truyn t b gi n b nhn, v vy tt c cc thnh phn mng ny phi tham gia vo vic m bo cc yu cu QoS ca ng dng. RSVP mang cc thng tin trong hai loi bn tin c bn l: PATH v RESV. Cc bn tin PATH truyn t b gi ti mt hoc nhiu b nhn c cha TSpec v cc thng tin phn loi do b gi cung cp. Mt l do cho

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php c nhiu b nhn l RSVP c thit k h tr multicast. Mt bn tin PATH bao gi cng c gi ti mt a ch c gi l a ch phin, n c th l a ch unicast hoc multicast. Chng ta thng xem phin i din cho mt ng dng n, n c xc nhn bng mt a ch ch v s cng ch s dng ring cho ng dng. Trong phn tip theo chng ta s thy rng khng c l do no xem xt mt phin theo cch hn ch nh vy. Khi b nhn nhn c bn tin PATH, n c th gi bn tin RESV tr li cho b gi. Bn tin RESV xc nhn phin c cha thng tin v s cng dnh ring v RSpec xc nhn mc QoS m b nhn yu cu. N cng bao gm mt vi thng tin xem xt nhng b gi no c php s dng ti nguyn ang c cp pht. Hnh 2-12 biu din trnh t bn tin trao i gia b gi v nhn. y chng ta lu rng cc cng dnh ring l n cng. Nu cn s dng cc cng dnh ring song cng (v d nh phc v cho thoi truyn thng) th phi c cc bn tin b sung theo chiu ngc li. Cng ch rng cc bn tin c nhn v chuyn tip bi tt c cc b nh tuyn dc theo ng truyn thng tin, do vic cp pht ti nguyn c th c thc hin ti tt c cc nt mng cn thit. Khi cc cng dnh c thit lp, cc b nh tuyn nm gia b gi v b nhn s xc nh cc gi tin thuc cng dnh ring no nh vic kim tra nm trng trong phn mo u ca IP v giao thc truyn ti l: a ch ch, s cng ch, s giao thc (v d UDP), a ch ngun v cng ngun. Chng ta gi tp cc gi tin c nhn dng theo cch ny l lung dnh ring. Cc gi tin trong lung dnh ring thng b khng ch (m bo cho lung khng pht sinh lu lng vt qu so vi thng bo trong TSpec) v xp vo hng i ph hp vi yu cu v QoS. V d mt cch c dch v bo m l s dng cc hng i c trng s (WFQ), y mi cng dnh ring khc nhau c xem nh mt lung i vi cc hng i, v trng s
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c n nh cho mi lung ph hp vi tc dch v yu cu trong RSpec ca n. i vi cc lung unicast th RSVP l kh n gin. N tr nn phc tp hn trong mi trng multicast, bi v c th c rt nhiu b phn dnh ring cng cho mt phin n v cc b phn khc nhau c th yu cu cc mc QoS khc nhau. Hin nay MPLS ch yu tp trung vo cc ng dng unicast ca RSVP, chng ta s khng i su vo kha cnh multicast ca RSVP. im cui cng phi ch v RSVP: y l giao thc trng thi mm. c tnh phn bit giao thc trng thi mm vi cc giao thc khc l trng thi s t ng ht hiu lc sau mt thi gian tr khi n c refresh lin tc theo chu k. iu c ngha RSVP s nh k gi i cc bn tin PATH v RESV lm ti cc cng dnh ring. Nu chng khng c gi trong mt khong thi gian xc nh th cc cng dnh ring t ng b hy b.

Hnh 2- 12 Th tc bo hiu trong RSVP MPLS h tr RSVP Trong phn ny chng ta ch tp trung vo vai tr ca RSVP trong mng MPLS v kha cnh h tr QoS. Mc tiu u tin ca vic b sung h tr RSVP vo MPLS l cho php cc LSR da vo vic phn loi gi tin theo nhn ch khng phi theo mo u IP nhn bit cc gi tin thuc cc lung ca cng dnh ring. Ni cch khc, cn phi to v kt hp phn phi gia cc lung v cc nhn cho cc

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lung c cc cng dnh ring RSVP nh l mt trng hp ring khc ca FEC. iu ny tr nn kh d dng kt hp cc nhn vi cc lung dnh ring trong RSVP, t nht l vi unicast. Chng ta nh ngha mt i tng RSVP mi l i tng LABEL c mang trong bn tin RSVP RESV. Khi mt LSR mun gi bn tin RESV cho mt lung RSVP mi, LSR cp pht mt nhn t trong tp nhn ri, ti mt li vo trong LFIB ca n vi nhn li vo c t cho nhn cp pht, v gi i bn tin RESV c cha nhn ny trong i tng LABEL. Ch l cc bn tin RESV truyn t b nhn ti b gi l di dng cp pht nhn xui. Khi nhn c bn tin RESV cha i tng LABEL, mt LSR thit lp LFIB ca n vi nhn ny l nhn li ra. Sau n cp pht mt nhn s dng nh l nhn li vo v chn n vo bn tin RESV trc khi gi n i. R rng l, khi cc bn tin RESV truyn ln LSR ngc th LSP c thit lp dc theo tuyn ng. Cng ch l, khi cc nhn c cung cp trong cc bn tin RESV, mi LSR c th d dng kt hp cc ti nguyn QoS ph hp vi LSP. Hnh 2-13 minh ha qu trnh trao i ny. Trong trng hp ny chng ta gi s cc my ch khng tham d vo vic phn phi nhn. LSR R3 cp pht nhn 5 cho cng dnh ring ny v thng bo n vi R2. R2 cp pht nhn 9 cng cho cng dnh ring ny v thng bo n vi R1. By gi c mt LSP cho lung dnh ring t R1 n R3. Khi cc gi tin tng ng vi cng dnh ring ny (v d gi tin gi t H1 ti H2 vi s cng ngun, ch thch hp v s giao thc giao vn thch hp) ti R1, R1 phn bit n bng cc thng tin mo u IP v lp truyn ti to ra QoS thch hp cho cng dnh ring v d nh c im v hng i cc gi tin trong hng i li ra. Ni cch khc, n thc hin cc chc nng ca mt b nh tuyn tch hp dch v s dng RSVP. Hn na, R1 a mo u nhn vo

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cc gi tin v chn gi tr nhn li ra l 9 trc khi gi chuyn tip gi tin ti R2. Khi R2 nhn gi tin mang nhn 9, n tm kim nhn trong LFIB v tm tt c cc trng thi lin quan n QoS xem kim sot lung, xp hng i gi tin, v.v.. nh th no. iu ny tt nhin khng cn kim tra mo u lp IP hay lp truyn ti. Sau R2 thay th nhn trn gi tin vi mt nhn li ra t LFIB ca n (mang gi tr 5) v gi gi tin i.

Hnh 2- 13 Nhn phn phi trong bn tin RESV Lu rng, do vic to ra nhn kt hp c iu khin bi cc bn tin RSVP v vy vic kt hp c iu khin nh trong cc mi trng khc ca MPLS. Cng ch l y cng l mt v d chng t vic mang thng tin kt hp nhn trn mt giao thc c sn khng cn mt giao thc ring nh LDP. Mt kt qu th v ca vic thit lp mt LSP cho mt lung vi cng dnh ring RSVP l ch c mt b nh tuyn u tin trong LSP m trong v d trn l R1 lin quan ti vic xem liu cc gi tin thuc lung dnh ring no. iu ny cho php RSVP c p dng trong mi trng MPLS theo cch m n khng th thc hin c trong mng IP truyn thng. Theo quy c, cc cng dnh ring RSVP c th to ch cho nhng lung ng dng ring l, tc l nhng lung c xc nh nh nm trng mo u nh m t pha trc. Tuy nhin, c th t cu hnh R1 la chn cc gi tin da trn mt s cc tiu chun. V d R1 c th ly tt c cc gi tin c cng mt tin t ng vi mt ch v y chng vo LSP. V vy thay v c mt LSP
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cho mi lung ng dng ring, mt LSP c th cung cp QoS cho nhiu lung lu lng. Mt ng dng ca kh nng ny l c th cung cp ng ng vi bng thng m bo t mt Site ca mt cng ty ln n mt Site khc, thay v phi s dng ng thu bao ring gia cc Site ny. Kh nng ny cng hu ch cho mc ch iu khin lu lng, y mt lu lng ln cn c gi dc theo cc LSP vi bng thng ti lng. h tr mt vi cch s dng tng cng ca RSVP, MPLS nh ngha mt i tng RSVP mi c th mang trong bn tin PATH l: i tng LABEL_REQUEST. i tng ny thc hin hai chc nng. Th nht, n c s dng thng bo cho mt LSR ti pha cui ca LSP gi RESV tr v thit lp LSP. iu ny hu ch cho vic thit lp cc LSR site - to site. Th hai, khi LSP c thit lp cho mt tp cc gi tin, khng ch l mt lung ng dng ring, i tng cha mt trng xc nh giao thc lp cao hn s s dng LSP. Trng ny c s dng ging nh ethertype hoc tng t nh m phn knh xc nh giao thc lp cao hn (IPv4, IPX, v.v...), v vy s khng c trng phn knh trong mo u MPLS na. Do vy, mt LSP c th cn c thit lp cho mi giao thc lp cao hn nhng y khng gii hn nhng giao thc no c h tr. c bit, khng yu cu cc gi tin mang trong LSP c thit lp s dng RSVP phi l cc gi tin IP. RSVP v kh nng m rng Mt trong nhng iu chc chn v RSVP l n c th chu tn tht v kh nng m rng mt mc no y. Trong thc t, c tnh ny khng chnh xc hon ton. RSVP khi u c thit k h tr d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring v y l nhim v vi nhng thch thc v kh nng m rng vn c. Chnh xc th kh nng m rng l g? Ni chung thut ng ny c s
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dng ch gii hn s dng ti nguyn tng nhanh nh th no khi mng ln hn. V d trong mng IP quy m ln nh mng xng sng nh cung cp dch v Internet, chng ta c th quan tm n liu mt bng nh tuyn s chim b nh ca b nh tuyn ln n mc no, kh nng b x l v bng thng lin kt. V th, bng nh tuyn tng chm hn nhiu so vi s ngi s dng kt ni vo mng. D tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring r rng l nh hng xu n kh nng m rng. Chng ta c th cho rng mi ngi s dng s d tr ti nguyn ti mt vi tc trung bnh, v th s ti nguyn d tr c to ra qua mng ln c kh nng tng nhanh bng s ngi s dng ca mng. iu ny s dn n chi ph ln nu mi b nh tuyn phi lu tr trng thi v tin trnh mt vi bn tin cho mi ti nguyn d tr cho lung ng dng ring. Ni tm li, s chnh xc hn nu ni rng mc d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng l km hn so vi RSVP. S khc nhau ny c bit quan trng khi chng ta xem xt rng RSVP khng nhng i hi cho vic d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung ng dng ring m cn d tr ti nguyn cho lu lng tng hp. Trong mt min MPLS, mt nhn gn ti mt a ch (FIB) ch c phn phi ti cc lng ging ngc dng sau khi thit lp session. Vic kt ni gia mng c th vi nhn cc b v mt nhn trm k (nhn t router xui dng) c lu tr trong LFIB v LIB. MPLS dng cc phng thc phn phi nhn nh sau: - Yu cu xui dng (Downstream on demand). - T nguyn xui dng (Unsolicited downstream).

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Hnh 2- 14 Phng thc phn phi nhn

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CHNG 3 MNG RING O MPLS VPN


3.1 Gii thiu v MPLS VPN
3.1.1 nh ngha VPN Ngy nay, mt cng ty c tr s phn tn nhiu ni. kt ni cc my tnh ti cc v tr ny, cng ty cn c mt mng thng tin. Mng l mng ring vi ngha l n ch c cng ty s dng. Mng l mng ring cng vi ngha l k hoch nh tuyn v nh a ch trong mng c lp vi vic nh tuyn v nh a ch ca cc mng khc. Mng l mt mng o vi ngha l cc phng tin c s dng xy dng mng ny c th khng dnh ring cho cng ty m c th chia s dng chung vi cc cng ty khc. Cc phng tin cn thit xy dng mng ny c cung cp bi ngi th ba c gi l nh cung cp dch v VPN. Cc cng ty s dng mng c gi l cc khch hng VPN. Cc cng ty cung cp dch v VPN gi l SP (services Provider). VPN c th c s dng m rng phm vi ca mt Intranet. Bi v, Intranet thng c s dng trao i thng tin mt cch c quyn v ta khng mun nhng thng tin ny c truyn b trn Internet. Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp, cc vn phng cng ty trn din rng c nhu cu chia s thng tin v nhng ngi s dng t xa mun truy cp vo Intranet thng qua Internet. VPN s cho php kt ni vo Intranet mt cch an ton v khng lo ngi b l thng tin. C th coi kt ni loi ny nh l Extranet. im khc nhau gia hai trng hp Intranet v Extranet l cu hi ai l ngi t ra cc chnh sch ca mng VPN, trong trng hp mng Intranet th l mt cng ty cn trong trng hp mng Extranet th l mt nhm cng ty. S dng v d trn v c s d liu khch hng, rt d hiu l lm th no

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m VPN c th m rng kh nng ng dng ca Intranet. Gi s tt c cc nhn vin bn hng ca cng ty ang i cng tc hoc l lm vic ti nh. H c th s dng Internet truy cp vo cc WebServer cha nhng thng tin v khch hng. VPN cung cp kt ni m bo an ton gia my tnh ca nhn vin v WebServer cha CSDL v m ha d liu. VPN cho php kh nng s dng linh hot i vi bt c dch v mng no c s dng mt cch an ton thng qua Internet. c tnh ch yu ca mt mng ring l lu lng khch hng c tch ring vi c s h tng bn di v t cc khch hng m cng chia s c s h tng . S tch bit th hin hai kha cnh: Tch bit v topology (Topological Isolation): ngha l cc khch hng c th a vo bt c khng gian a ch v nh tuyn no h la chn. Mt vn ph bin s dng cho cc mng ring l a ch IP s dng khng thc s l duy nht (mang tnh tng th) v s xy ra va chm vi ngi khc s dng cng a ch hin hu trn mng Internet. Tch bit v thi gian (Temporal Isolation): Ngha l dch v mng ring ch ph thuc vo cc c tnh ca lu lng khch hng . To ra mng ring o yu cu cc c ch cho php mt c s h tng chung (v d, mt tp hp cc lin kt v cc router) c chia s trong khi vn lm cho cc khch hng tin rng h c m bo s ring t. Cc k thut chng h IP tunneling qua mt backbone IP c th h tr s tch bit v topology, nhng IP backbone vn cn thit c m bo bng thng kh dng xc nh v tr u cui n u cui cho cc IP tunnel khc nhau. C nhiu m hnh kt ni cc Site vi nhau. N c th l kt ni dng mt li hoc cng c th l kt ni hnh sao qua Hub. Mt v d khc v cu hnh kt ni gia cc Site thuc hai hoc nhiu nhm l cc Site trong mi nhm
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c kt ni vi nhau dng mt li cn cc Site trong cc nhm khc nhau c kt ni gin tip thng qua mt Site c th. VPN l mt cch m phng mng ring trn mt mng cng cng nh Internet. N c gi l o bi v n ph thuc vo vic s dng cc kt ni o, l nhng kt ni tm thi gm cc gi c nh tuyn trn nhiu my tnh trn Internet theo mt cu trc c bit. Cc kt ni o m bo an ninh c thit lp gia cc my tnh, gia cc mng, gia mng v my tnh. S dng Internet cho truy cp t xa s tit kim c chi ph. Ta c th quay s bt c u ch cn ti ISP c im truy nhp POP. Nu ISP c cc im POP mang tnh quc gia th i vi mng LAN s ch l cc cuc gi ni ht. Mt vi ISP c th c cc m rng quc t hoc c s tha thun vi cc ISP khc. Vic la chn ISP s r hn i vi vic truy cp t xa vi nhng ngi s dng roaming. VPN c thit lp gia cc router ti hai chi nhnh ca cng ty thng qua Internet. Hn na, VPN cho php hp nht cc kt ni Internet v WAN vo mt router v mt ng truyn, iu ny gip tit kim chi ph thit b v h tng c s vin thng. 3.1.2 M hnh Overlay VPN v Peer to Peer VPN VPN c gii thiu nh l mt mt mng ring m s dng trn h tng chung. Mt mng ring yu cu tt c cc u cui khch hng c th kt ni vi nhau v hon ton ring bit i vi cc mng VPN khc. Mng VPN thng l mt cng ty v c mt vi im kt cui kt ni qua h tng ca nh cung cp dch v chung. Da vo s tham gia ca mnh trong vic nh tuyn cho khch hng Nh cung cp dch v c th trin khai hai m hnh VPN chnh cung cp dch v VPN cho khch hng.

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M hnh Overlay VPN M hnh Peer to Peer VPN M hnh Overlay VPN Trong m hnh overlay VPN, nh cung cp dch v cung cp mt kt ni im - im hoc knh o t bn ny sang bn kia mng ca h gia cc b nh tuyn ca khch hng. Nh vy, m hnh Overlay VPN cung cp cho khch hng cc mng ring, nh cung cp khng th tham gia vo vic nh tuyn khch hng. Cc nh cung cp dch v ch vn chuyn d liu qua cc kt ni point-to-point o. Nu mch o l c nh, sn sng cho khch hng s dng mi lc th c gi l mch o c nh PVC. Nu mch o c thit lp theo yu cu (on-demand) th c gi l mch o chuyn i. Hn ch chnh ca m hnh Overlay l cc mch o ca cc site khch hng kt ni dng full mesh (ngoi tr trin khai dng hub-and-spoke hay partial hub-andspoke). Nu c N site khch hng th tng s lng mch o cn thit cho vic ti u nh tuyn l N(N-1)/2. Ban u Overlay VPN c thc thi bi SP cung cp cc kt ni lp 1 (physical layer) nh Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM), E1, E3, SONET, v ng kt ni SDH, hay mch chuyn vn lp 2 (d liu dng frame hoc cell) gia cc site khch hng bng cch s dng cc thit b Frame Relay hay ATM switch lm PE (v d lp 2 l cc knh o c to bi X.25, ATM hoc Frame Relay). Do nh cung cp dch v khng th nhn bit c vic nh tuyn pha khch hng. Hnh 3-1 ch ra mt v d v mng overlay trn Frame Relay. Trong mng ca nh cung cp dch v l nhng b chuyn mch Frame Relay m thit lp nhng knh o gia nhng b nh tuyn ca khch hng trn bin ca mng Frame relay.

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Hnh 3- 1 M hnh mng Overlay trn Frame relay Sau , Overlay VPN thc thi cc dch v qua IP (lp 3) vi cc giao thc nh ng hm nh L2TP, GRE, v IPSec. Tuy nhin, d trong trng hp no th mng ca nh cung cp vn trong sut i vi khch hng, v cc giao thc nh tuyn chy trc tip gia cc router ca khch hng.

Hnh 3- 2 Mng Overlay - Customer Routing Peering

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Phn ln nhng ng hm (tunnel) hay c s dng xy dng mng overlay trn IP l nhng ng hm ng gi nh tuyn chung (GRE generic routing encapsulation). Nhng ng hm ng gi lu lng vi header GRE v header IP. Header GRE v mt s ch tiu khc ch ra giao thc vn chuyn no ang c s dng. Header IP thng c s dng nh tuyn gi qua mng nh cung cp dch v. Hnh 3-3 ch ra v d v mng overlay vi ng hm GRE, mt trong nhng u im ca ng hm GRE l n c th nh tuyn lu lng khc hn lu lng IP.

Hnh 3- 3 ng hm GRE trn mng overlay M hnh Peer - to - Peer M hnh ngang cp (peer-to-peer) c pht trin khc phc nhc im ca m hnh Overlay v cung cp cho khch hng c ch vn chuyn ti u qua SP backbone. Trong m hnh ny, nhng b nh tuyn ca nh cung cp dch v vn chuyn d liu ca khch hng qua mng, nhng n cng tham gia vo vic nh tuyn ca khch hng. Ni mt cch khc, nhng b nh tuyn ca nh cung cp dch v s ngang hng vi b nh tuyn ca khch hng ti Lp 3. Trong m hnh peer-to-peer, thng tin nh tuyn c
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trao i gia cc router khch hng v cc router ca nh cung cp dch v, d liu ca khch hng c vn chuyn qua mng li ca nh cung cp. Thng tin nh tuyn ca khch hng c mang gia cc router trong mng ca nh cung cp (P v PE), v mng khch hng (cc CE router). M hnh ny khng yu cu to ra mch o. Quan st hnh trn ta thy, cc CE router trao i tuyn vi cc router PE trong SP domain. Thng tin nh tuyn ca khch hng c qung b qua SP backbone gia cc PE v P v xc nh c ng i ti u t mt site khch hng n mt site khc. Vic pht hin cc thng tin nh tuyn ring ca khc hng t c bng cch thc hin lc gi ti cc router kt ni vi mng khch hng. a ch IP ca khch hng do nh cung cp kim sot. Tin trnh ny xem nh l thc thi cc PE peer-topeer chia s (shared PE peer-to-peer).

Hnh 3- 4 a ra khi nim ca m hnh VPN ngang hng.

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Trc khi MPLS ra i, m hnh peer - to - peer VPN c th thit lp bng cch to ra nh tuyn ngang cp IP gia b nh tuyn ca khch hng v ca nh cung cp. M hnh VPN cng yu cu tnh c nhn (ring bit) v cch ly gia cc khch hng khc nhau. Ta cng c th thit lp bng cch cu hnh b lc gi (danh sch truy nhp) iu khin d liu ti v i t b nh tuyn ca khch hng. Mt cch khc thc hin c nh hnh thc c nhn l cu hnh nhng b lc nh tuyn thng bo nh tuyn hoc dng nh tuyn t vic thng bo ti b nh tuyn ca khch hng. Hoc ta c th thc hin tt c cc phng thc trn cng mt lc. Trc khi MPLS tr nn ph bin, m hnh trng lp overlay VPN c trin khai nhiu hn m hnh peer - to - peer VPN. M hnh peer - to peer VPN yu cu nhiu t pha nh cung cp bi v khi thm mt khch hng yu cu rt nhiu s thay i cu hnh ti rt nhiu site. MPLS VPN l mt ng dng ca MPLS m n to ra m hnh peer - to - peer VPN d dng hn thc hin. By gi vic thm vo hoc b ra mt im cui khch hng d dng hn trong vic cu hnh v do yu cu t thi gian v s c gng hn. Vi MPLS VPN, mt b nh tuyn khch hng (c gi l b nh tuyn khch hng bin - CE) ngang cp vi Lp IP vi t nht mt b nh tuyn ca nh cung cp dch v (c gi l b nh tuyn nh cung cp bin - PE). Tnh c nhn (private) trong mng MPLS VPN t c bi vic s dng khi nim ca chuyn tip nh tuyn o (VRF) v thc t d liu c chuyn tip trong mng ng trc nh l nhng gi c dn nhn. VRF m bo rng thng tin nh tuyn t cc khch hng khc nhau c gi ring bit, v MPLS trn mng ng trc m bo nhng gi c chuyn tip da trn thng tin nhn v khng phi l thng tin trn mo u IP. Hnh 3-5 a ra khi nim v VRF v gi dn nhn chuyn tip trn mng ng trc m ang s dng cng ngh MPLS VPN.

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Hnh 3- 5 MPLS VPN vi VRF

Hnh 3- 6 nh ngha m hnh peer to peer ng dng trong MPLS VPN Vic thm mt kt cui khch hng c ngha l trn b nh tuyn PE, ch ngang hng vi b nh tuyn CE, phi c thm vo. Ta khng gp nhiu rc ri trong vic to ra nhiu knh o nh vi m hnh overlay (overlay) hoc vi nhng cu hnh b lc gi hoc nhng b lc nh tuyn vi m hnh peer - to peer VPN qua mng IP. y chnh l u im ca MPLS VPN cho nh cung cp dch v.

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Phn ln nh cung cp dch v s dng mng hub - and - spoke, mt s li s dng mng meshed y quanh mng ng trc ca nh cung cp. S cn li s dng mt vi tnh nng ca c 2. Khch hng s c nhiu li ch nht ca MPLS VPN khi khch hng s dng mng Mesh y . Hnh 31 ch ra mng mesh y ca khch hng quanh mng Frame Relay, v so snh vi cng khch hng m s dng MPLS VPN trong hnh 3-6. Trong hnh 3-1 mi b nh tuyn bin khch hng tng ng (ngang hng) vi n-1 b nh tuyn bin ca cc khch hng khc - trong n l tng s cc b nh tuyn bin khch hng. Mt li ch khch ca nh cung cp dch v l ch cn cung cp ng kt ni gia b nh tuyn PE v CE. Vi m hnh overlay, nh cung cp dch v cn phi cung cp ng kt ni hoc nhng knh o gia cc im (site). iu ny d d on lu lng hn v bng thng yu cu ti mi im (site) hn l d on m hnh lu lng hon chnh gia tt c cc im cui khch hng. Nhng nhc im ca m hnh peer - to - peer VPN so vi m hnh overlay VPN.: Khch hng phi chia s trch nhim nh tuyn vi nh cung cp dch v. Yu cu phi c thm thit b bin ca nh cung cp. Nhc im u tin l khch hng phi c mt nh tuyn ngang hng vi nh cung cp dch v. Khch hng khng th kim sot (iu khin) mng end to end trn lp 3 v theo nh tuyn IP, nh vi m hnh overlay. Nhc im th hai l ca nh cung cp dch v. Gnh nng ca nh cung cp dch v chnh l vic phi trang b thm thit b bin - b nh tuyn PE. Nh cung cp dch v phi c trch nhim v nh tuyn hi t ca mng khch hng bi v cc b nh tuyn PE phi c kh nng mang tt c b nh tuyn ca nhiu khch hng trong khi cung cp nh tuyn hi t kp thi.
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3.1.3 M hnh mng MPLS VPN Nh cung cp dch v ang cung cp h tng cng cng chung cho khch hng.

Hnh 3- 7 Biu tng quan v MPLS VPN PE l b nh tuyn bin ca nh cung cp. B PE kt ni trc tip vi b nh tuyn bin CE ca khch hng ti lp 3. B nh tuyn P l b nh tuyn khng kt ni trc tip vi b nh tuyn ca khch hng. Trong khi thc hin, c hai b nh tuyn P v PE u chy MPLS. iu ny c ngha l chng phi c kh nng phn phi nhn gia chng v chuyn tip nhng gi c gn nhn. B nh tuyn CE cng kt ni trc tip vi PE ti lp 3. B nh tuyn khch hng C khng kt ni trc tip vi PE. B nh tuyn CE khng cn thit phi chy MPLS. Bi v c CE v PE u tng tc ti lp 3, gia chng phi c mt giao thc nh tuyn (hoc nh tuyn tnh). B nh tuyn CE ch ngang hng vi mt PE. Nu CE l multihomed (a im), n c th ngang hng vi nhiu PE. B nh tuyn CE khng th ngang hng vi bt k b nh tuyn CE ca cc site khc qua mng nh cung cp dch v, nh vi m hnh overlay. Tn m hnh peer to peer xut pht t thc t l CE v PE l ngang hng vi nhau lp 3.

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Ch P trong VPN vit tt ca Private. Theo , khch hng ca nh cung cp dch v c php c lc a ch IP ca chnh h. C ngha l h c th ng k a ch IP nhng cng l a ch IP dnh ring hoc thm ch l a ch IP m n cng c s dng bi khch hng khc m nhng khch hng ny ang kt ni ti cng nh cung cp dch v (nh l a ch IP trng lp). Nu gi c chuyn tip nh gi IP trong mng ca nh cung cp, n c th gy ra li, bi v b nh tuyn P c th b nhm ln. Nu lc a ch IP c nhn v a ch IP trng lp khng c cho php, th tt c khch hng phi s dng mt di a ch duy nht. Trong trng hp ny, gi c th c chuyn tip qua mng bi vic tm kim a ch IP ch trn mi b nh tuyn trong mng ca nh cung cp dch v. iu ny c ngha l P v PE phi c bng nh tuyn hon chnh ca tt c khch hng. N s l mt bng nh tuyn rt ln. Giao thc nh tuyn m c dung lng ln c kh nng mang s lng ln tuyn l Giao thc cng bin (BGP). Tt c cc P v PE u chy BGP trong (i BGP) gia chng. Tuy nhin, y khng phi l lc VPN, bi v n khng ring bit ti khch hng. Mt gii php khc l cc P v PE c mt bng nh tuyn ring cho mi khch hng. Mt vi qu trnh ca mt giao thc nh tuyn (mt thc thi trn VPN) c th ang chy trn tt c b nh tuyn phn phi tuyn VPN. Mi ln mt VPN c thm vo trong mng, mt quy trnh nh tuyn mi phi c thm vo trong mi b nh tuyn P. Hn na, nu gi IP i vo mt mt b nh tuyn P, lm th no P xc nh c gi thuc VPN no c th tm ra bng nh tuyn ring cho gi chuyn tip ng gi. Nu gi l mt gi IP, iu ny l khng th. Ta c th thm vo mt trng trong gi IP ch ra rng gi IP ny thuc VPN no. Sau b nh tuyn P c th chuyn tip gi IP ny bng cch xem trng thm vo ny v

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a ch IP ch. Mt ln na, tt c b nh tuyn P phi c thm cc kin thc v trng thm vo ny. Mt gii php na l b nh tuyn P hon ton khng c kin thc v VPN. Sau P khng cn c thm gnh nng v vic c phi c cc thng tin ca tuyn VPN. Ta c th thc hin iu ny bng vic s dng MPLS. Gi IP ca khch hng c gn nhn trong mng ca nh cung cp dch v t c VPN ring i vi mi khch hng. Hn na, b nh tuyn P khng cn phi c bng nh tuyn ca khch hng na bng vic s dng hai nhn MPLS. Do , P khng cn thit chy BGP. Xem thm phn BGP Free core hiu thm. Tuyn VPN ch c bit ti cc PE. Thng thng, nhng hiu bit VPN ch c th hin trn b nh tuyn bin ca mng MPLS VPN. Hnh 3-8 a ra m hnh ca MPLS VPN: gi chuyn mch nhn trong mng ca nh cung cp dch v v b nh tuyn PE.

Hnh 3- 8 M hnh MPLS VPN Trong kin trc mng MPLS VPN, cc router bin mang thng tin nh tuyn khch hng, cung cp nh tuyn ti u cho lu lng gia cc site ca
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khch hng. M hnh MPLS-based VPN cng gip cho khch hng s dng khng gian a ch trng lp (overlapping address spaces), khng ging nh m hnh peer-to-peer truyn thng trong vic nh tuyn lu lng khch hng yu cu nh cung cp phi gn a ch IP ring cho mi khch hng (hoc khch hng phi thc hin NAT) trnh trng lp khng gian a ch. MPLS VPN l mt dng thc thi y ca m hnh peer-to-peer; MPLS VPN backbone v cc site khch hng trao i thng tin nh tuyn lp 3, v d liu c chuyn tip gia cc site khch hng s dng MPLS-enable SP IP backbone. Min (domain) MPLS VPN, ging nh VPN truyn thng, gm mng ca khch hng v mng ca nh cung cp. M hnh MPLS VPN ging vi m hnh router PE dnh ring (dedicated PE router model) trong cc dng thc thi VPN ngang cp peer-to-peer VPN. Tuy nhin, thay v trin khai cc router PE khc nhau cho tng khch hng, lu lng khch hng c tch ring trn cng router PE nhm cung cp kh nng kt ni vo mng ca nh cung cp cho nhiu khch hng. Cc thnh phn ca mt MPLS VPN c trnh by trong hnh sau:

Hnh 3- 9 Cc thnh phn ca MPLS VPN Mng khch hng - thng l min iu khin ca khch hng gm cc thit b hay cc router tri rng trn nhiu site ca cng mt khch hng. Cc router CE - l nhng router trong mng khch hng giao

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tip vi mng ca nh cung cp. hnh trn, mng khch hng ca CustomerA gm cc router CE1-A, CE2-A v cc thit b trong Site 1 v Site 2 ca CustomerA. Cc router CE ca Customer A l CE1-A v CE2-A, v router CE ca Customer B l CE1-B v CE2-B. Mng ca nh cung cp - min thuc iu khin ca nh cung cp gm cc router bin (edge) v li (core) kt ni cc site thuc vo cc khch hng trong mt h tng mng chia s. Cc router PE - l cc router trong mng ca nh cung cp giao tip vi router bin ca khch hng. Cc router P - router trong li ca mng, giao tip vi cc router li khc hoc router bin ca nh cung cp. Trong hnh trn, mng ca nh cung cp gm cc router PE1, PE2, P1, P2, P3, v P4. PE1 v PE2 l router bin ca nh cung cp trong min MPLS VPN cho khch hng A v B. Router P1, P2, P3 v P4 l cc router nh cung cp (provider router). M hnh nh tuyn MPLS VPN MPLS VPN ging nh m hnh mng ngang cp vi router dnh ring. T mt router CE, ch cp nht IPv4, d liu c chuyn tip n router PE. CE khng cn bt k mt cu hnh ring bit no cho php n tham gia vo min MPLS VPN. Yu cu duy nht trn CE l mt giao thc nh tuyn (hay tuyn tnh(static)/tuyn ngm nh (default)) cho php n trao i thng tin nh tuyn IPv4 vi cc router PE. Trong m hnh MPLS VPN, router PE thc hin rt nhiu chc nng. Trc tin n phi phn tch lu lng khch hng nu c nhiu hn mt khch hng kt ni ti n. V th, mi khch hng c gn vi mt bng nh tuyn c lp. nh tuyn qua SP backbone thc hin bng mt tin trnh nh tuyn trong bng nh tuyn ton cc. Router P cung cp chuyn mch nhn gia cc router bin ca nh cung cp v khng bit n cc tuyn VPN. Cc router CE trong mng khch hng
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khng nhn bit c cc router P v do cu trc mng ni b ca mng SP trong sut i vi khch hng. Hnh sau m t chc nng ca router PE.

Hnh 3- 10 Chc nng ca router PE

3.2 Cc thnh phn chnh ca kin trc MPLS VPN


thc hin c MPLS VPN, ta cn xy dng mt s khi c bn trn PE. Nhng khi ny l: VRF, RD - route Distinguisher (b phn bit tuyn), RT route targets (tuyn ch), s nh x tuyn qua MP-BGP v chuyn tip gi c gn nhn. 3.2.1 VRF - Virtual Routing and Forwarding Table Khch hng c phn bit trn router PE bng cc bng nh tuyn o (virtual routing tables) hoc cc instance, cn c gi l VRF. Thc cht n ging nh duy tr nhiu router ring bit cho cc khch hng kt ni vo mng ca nh cung cp. Chc nng ca VRF ging nh mt bn nh tuyn ton cc, ngoi tr vic n cha mi tuyn lin quan n mt VPN c th. VRF cng cha mt bng chuyn tip CEF cho VRF ring bit (VRF- specific CEF forwarding table) tng ng vi bng CEF ton cc xc nh cc yu cu kt ni v cc giao thc cho mi site khch hng kt ni trn mt router PE. VRF xc nh bi cnh (context) giao thc nh tuyn tham gia vo mt VPN c th cng nh giao tip trn router PE cc b tham gia vo VPN, ngha l s
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dng VRF. Giao tip tham gia vo VRF phi h tr chuyn mch CEF.Mt VRF c th gm mt giao tip (logical hay physical) hoc nhiu giao tip trn mt router. VRF cha mt bng nh tuyn IP tng ng vi bng nh tuyn IP ton cc, mt bng CEF, lit k cc giao tip tham gia vo VRF, v mt tp hp cc nguyn tc xc nh giao thc nh tuyn trao i vi cc router CE (routing protocol contexts). VRF cn cha cc nh danh VPN (VPN identifier) nh thng tin thnh vin VPN (RD v RT). Hnh sau cho thy chc nng ca VRF trn mt router PE thc hin tch tuyn khch hng.

Hnh 3- 11 Chc nng ca VRF Cisco IOS h tr cc giao thc nh tuyn khc nhau nh nhng tin trnh nh tuyn ring bit (OSPF, EIGRP,) trn router. Tuy nhin, mt s giao thc nh RIP v BGP, IOS ch h tr mt instance ca giao thc nh tuyn. Do , thc thi nh tuyn VRF bng cc giao thc ny phi tch ring hon ton cc VRF vi nhau. Bi cnh nh tuyn (routing context) c thit k h tr cc bn sao ca cng giao thc nh tuyn VPN PE-CE. Cc bi nh nh tuyn ny c th c thc thi nh cc tin trnh ring bit (OSPF), hay nh nhiu instance ca cng mt giao thc nh tuyn (BGP, RIP, ). Nu nhiu instance ca cng mt giao thc nh tuyn c s dng th mi

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instance c mt tp cc tham s ca ring n. Hin ti, Cisco IOS h tr RIPv2, EIGRP, BGPv4 (nhiu instance), v OSPFv2 (nhiu tin trnh) c dng cho VRF trao i thng tin nh tuyn gia CE v PE. Ch : cc giao tip VRF c th l lun l (logical) hoc vt l (physical) nhng mi giao tip ch c gn vi mt VRF. Trong m hnh MPLS VPN, router PE phn bit cc khch hng bng VRF. Tuy nhin, thng tin ny cn c mang theo gia cc router PE cho php truyn d liu gia cc site khch hng qua MPLS VPN backbone. Router PE phi c kh nng thc thi cc tin trnh cho php cc mng khch hng kt ni vo c khng gian a ch trng lp (overlapping address spaces). Router PE hc cc tuyn ny t cc mng khch hng v qung b thng tin ny bng mng trc chia s ca nh cung cp (shared provider backbone). iu ny thc hin bng vic kt hp vi RD trong bng nh tuyn o (virtual routing table) trn mt router PE. Ta c th to VRF trn PE vi lnh ip vrf .Ta s dng lnh ip vrf forwarding gn mt giao din PE - CE trn PE ti VRF. Ta cng c th gn mt giao din ti mt VRF duy nht, nhng cng c th gn nhiu giao din ti cng mt VRF. Sau PE s t ng to mt bng VRF v CEF. Bng nh tuyn VRF khng ging vi bng nh tuyn thng thng trong Cisco IOS tr khi n c s dng cho mt tp VPN site duy nht v hon ton ring bit vi tt c cc bng nh tuyn khc. Sau y l v d cu hnh VRF cho VRF cust-one.

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! ip vrf cust-one rd 1:1 route-target export 1:1 route-target import 1:1 ! Interface Serial15/1 ip vrf forwarding cust-one ip address 10.10.4.1 255.255.255.0 ! sydney#show ip route vrf cust-one Routing Table: cust-one Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2 ia - ISIS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route o - ODR, P periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 9 subnets, 2 masks B C C B 10.10.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.200.254.2, 00:31:04 10.10.4.0/24 is directly connected, Serial5/1 10.10.4.2/32 is directly connected, Serial5/1 10.10.100.1/32 [200/1] via 10.200.254.2, 00:31:04

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B Prefix

10.10.100.3/32 [20/0] via 10.10.4.2, 00:13:29 Next Hop no route receive 10.200.214.1 attached receive receive attached receive 10.200.214.1 POS0/1/0 Serial5/1 POS0/1/0 Serial5/1 Interface

sydney#show ip cef vrf cust-one 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/32 10.10.2.0/24 10.10.4.0/24 10.10.4.0/32 10.10.4.1/32 10.10.4.2/32 10.10.4.255/32 10.10.100.1/32

Ch : trong Cisco IOS, CEF ch l phng thc chuyn mch h tr cho chuyn tip gi IP t giao din VRF. Thng thng, CEF phi c cho php ton cc trn tt c PE v tt c cc giao din VRF. 3.2.2 RD - Route Distinguisher L mt nh danh 64-bit duy nht, thm vo trc 32-bit a ch tuyn c hc t router CE to thnh a ch 96-bit duy nht c th c chuyn vn gia cc router PE trong min MPLS. Do ch duy nht mt RD c cu hnh cho 1 VRF trn router PE. a ch 96 bit cui cng (tng hp ca 32bit a ch khch hng v 64-bit RD) c gi l mt a ch VPNv4. a ch VPNv4 trao i gia cc router PE trong mng nh cung cp. RD c th c hai nh dng: dng a ch IP hoc ch s AS. Gi tr 64 bit c th c 2 nh dng: ASN:nn hoc IP-address:nn ( y nn l mt s). Trong nh dng ASN:nn c s dng nhiu hn ( y ASN vit tt ca s h thng t tr - autonomous system number). RD c s dng trnh trng hp tuyn IPv4 ca mt khch hng trng vi tuyn IPv4 ca khch hng khc. Nu tin t IPv4 10.1.1.0/24 v RD 1:1, tin t vpnv4 s l 1:1:10.1.1.0/24.
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Mt khch hng c th s dng cc RD khc nhau cho cng mt tuyn IPv4. Khi mt VPN site c kt ni ti 2 PE, tuyn t VPN c th c 2 RD khc nhau, ph thuc vo PE no m tuyn nhn c. Mi tuyn IPv4 c th c 2 RD khc nhau v c 2 tuyn vpnv4 hon ton khc nhau. iu ny cho php BGP nhn thy chng nh l cc tuyn khc nhau v p dng mt chnh sch khc nhau cho mi tuyn. Hnh bn di cho thy hai khch hng c a ch mng ging nhau, 172.16.10.0/24, c phn bit nh vo cc gi tr RD khc nhau, 1:100 v 1:101, u tin qung b a ch VPNv4 trn router PE.

Hnh 3- 12 V d v RD Giao thc dng trao i cc tuyn VPNv4 gia cc PE l multiprotocol BGP (MP- BGP). IGP yu cu duy tr iBGP (internal BGP) khi thc thi MPLS VPN. Do , PE phi chy mt IGP cung cp thng tin NLRI cho iBGP nu c hai PE cng trong mt AS. Hin ti, Cisco h tr c OSPFv2 v ISIS trong mng nh cung cp nh l IGP. MP-BGP cng chu trch nhim

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ch nh nhn VPN. Kh nng m rng l l do chnh chn BGP lm giao thc mang thng tin nh tuyn khch hng. Hn na, BGP cho php s dng a ch VPNv4 trong mi trng MPLS VPN vi dy a ch trng lp cho nhiu khch hng. Mt phin lm vic MP-BGP gia cc PE trong mt BGP AS c gi l MP-iBGP session v km theo cc nguyn tc thc thi ca iBGP lin quan n thuc tnh ca BGP (BGP attributes). Nu VPN m rng ra khi phm vi mt AS, cc VPNv4 s trao i gia cc AS ti bin bng MP-eBGP session. Cu hnh mt RD
sydney#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. sydney(config)#ip vrf ? WORD VPN Routing/Forwarding instance name sydney(config)#ip vrf cust-one sydney(config-vrf)#rd ? ASN:nn or IP-address:nn sydney(config-vrf)#rd 1:1 VPN Route Distinguisher

3.2.3 RT - Route targets Nu RD ch c s dng cho ring mt VPN, vic giao tip gia cc site ca cc VPN khc nhau tr nn kh gii quyt. Mt site ca cng ty A khng c kh nng trao i kt ni vi mt site ca Cng ty B bi v RD khng ni vi nhau (khng khp nhau). Khi nim nhiu site ca Cng ty A c kh nng kt ni trao i vi nhiu Site ca Cng ty B c gi l extranet VPN. V vic kt ni trao i gia cc site trong cng Cng ty A c gi l Intranet VPN. Vic giao tip gia cc site c iu khin bi mt chc nng khc ca MPLS VPN gi l RT - route target. RT l mt thuc tnh m rng ca BGP, n ch ra nhng tuyn no nn c nhp t MP-BGP trong VRF. RT c thc thi bi cc thuc tnh m rng BGP s dng 16 bit cao ca
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BGP ecxtended community (64 bit) m ha vi mt gi tr tng ng vi thnh vin VPN ca site c th. Khi mt tuyn VPN hc t mt CE chn vo VPNv4 BGP, mt danh sch cc thuc tnh community m rng cho VPN router target c kt hp vi n. Export RT dng xc nh thnh vin VPN v c kt lp vi mi VRF. Export RT c ni thm vo a ch khch hng khi chuyn thnh a ch VPNv4 bi PE v qung b trong cc cp nht MP-BGP. Export RT c ngha l tuyn vpnv4 xut nhn mt thuc tnh m rng chnh l RT - c cu hnh di ip vrf trn PE, khi tuyn c phn phi li t bng nh tuyn VRF trong MP-BGP. Import RT kt hp vi mi VRF v xc nh cc tuyn VPNv4 c thm vo VRF cho khch hng c th. nh dng ca RT ging nh gi tr RD. Import RT c nha l tuyn vpnv4 nhn c t MP-BGP c kim tra li khp thuc tnh m rng - l RT - vi mt ci khc trong vic cu hnh. Nu kt qu l khp, tin t ny c t vo bng nh tuyn VRF nh mt tuyn IPv4. Nu kt qu khng khp, tin t ny s b y ra. S tng tc ca RT v gi tr RD trong MPLS VPN domain khi cp nht c chuyn thnh cp nht MP-BGP nh hnh sau. Cu lnh cu hnh RT trong VRF l route-target{import | export | both} route-target-ext-community. T kha both c dng ch c import v export.

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Hnh 3- 13 V d v RT Khi thc thi cc cu trc mng VPN phc tp (nh: extranet VPN, Internet access VPNs, network management VPN,) s dng cng ngh MPLS VPN th RT gi vai tr nng ct. Mt a ch mng c th c kt hp vi mt hoc nhiu export RT khi qung b qua mng MPLS VPN. Nh vy, RT c th kt hp vi nhiu site thnh vin ca nhiu VPN. Cc tin trnh xy ra trong sut qu trnh qung b tuyn hnh trn nh sau: Mng 172.16.10.0/24 c nhn t CE1-A, tham gia vo VRF CustomerA trn PE1- AS1. PE1 kt hp mt gi tr RD 1:100 v mt gi tr export RT 1:100 khi cu hnh cho VRF trn router PE1-AS1. Cc tuyn hc t CE1-A c phn phi vo tin trnh MP-BGP trn PE1-AS1 vi prefix 172.16.10.0/24 v thm vo u gi tr RD 1:100 v ni thm export RT 1:100 gi i a ch VPNv4 khi tham gia cp nht MP- iBGP gia cc PE. Nhn VPN (3 byte) c gn cho mi a ch hc t cc tin trnh ca CE kt ni trong mt VRF t tin trnh MP-BGP ca PE. MP-BGP chy trong
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min MPLS ca nh cung cp dch v nn mang theo a ch VPNv4 (Ipv4 + RD) v BGP RT. Lu : RT l cu hnh bt buc trong mt MPLS VPN cho mi VRF trn mt router, gi tr RT c th c dng thc thi trn cu trc mng VPN phc tp, trong mt site c th tham gia vo nhiu VPN. Gi tr RT cn c th dng chn tuyn nhp vo VRF khi cc tuyn VPNv4 c hc trong cc cp nht MP-iBGP. Nhn VPN ch c hiu bi egress PE (mt phng d liu) kt ni trc tip vi CE qung b mng . Cc trm k (next hop) phi c hc t IGP khi thc thi MPLS VPN ch khng phi qung co t tin trnh BGP. Trong hnh trn nhn VPN c m t bng trng V1 v V2. Cp nht MP-BGP c nhn bi PE2 v tuyn c lu tr trong bng VRF tng ng cho Customer A da trn nhn VPN. Cc tuyn MP-BGP nhn c c phn phi vo cc tin trnh nh tuyn VRF PE-CE, v tuyn c qung b ti CE2-A. Cc thuc tnh commynity BGP m rng khc nh SoO (site of origin) c th dng ch yu trong qung b cp nht MP-iBGP. Thuc tnh SoO c dng xc nh site c th t tuyn hc c ca PE v ng dng trong vic chng vng lp tuyn (routing loop) v n xc nh c ngun ca site nn c th ngn vic qung co li mng cho site gi qung co . SoO xc nh duy nht mt site t mt tuyn m PE hc c. SoO cho php lc lu lng da trn site m lu lng xut pht. Kh nng lc ca SoO gip qun tr lu lng MPLS VPN v chng vng lp tuyn xy ra trong cu trc mng hn hp v phc tp, cc site khch hng trong c th x l cc kt ni qua MPLS VPN backbone nh cc kt ni ca sau (backdoor link) gia cc site. Khi thc thi mt MPLS VPN, mi VPN site thuc vo mt khch hng c th lin lc vi mi site trong cng min ca khch hng c gi l VPN n gin hay intranet VPN. RT c th c s dng thc hin cu trc
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VPN phc tp, cc site ca mt khch hng c th truy cp n site ca cc khch hng khc. Dng thc thi ny c gi l extranet VPN. Cc bin th ca extranet VPN nh network management VPN, central services VPN v Internet access VPN c th c trin khai. Address family l mt khi nim quan trng trong hot ng ca MPBGP cho php chuyn vn cc tuyn VPNv4 vi cc thuc tnh community m rng. Theo RFC 2283 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4, BGPv4 ch c kh nng mang thng tin nh tuyn thuc vo IPv4. BGP-4 c th mang thng tin ca nhiu giao thc lp mng. BGP-4 h tr nh tuyn cho nhiu giao thc lp mng, BGP-4 phi ng k (account) mt giao thc lp mng c th lin quan mt trm k (next hop) nh NLRI (network layer reachability information). Hai thuc tnh mi c thm vo ca BGP l MP_REACH_NLRI MP_UNREACH_NLRI (Multiprotocol (Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI) v NLRI). Unreachable

MP_REACH_NLRI mang mt tp cc ch n c (reachable destination) vi thng tin trm k c dng chuyn tip cho cc ch n ny. MP_UNEACH_NLRI mang mt tp cc ch khng n c. C hai thuc tnh ny l optional v nontransitive. V th, mt BGP speaker khng h tr tnh nng a giao thc ny s b qua thng tin c mang trong cc thuc tnh ny v s khng chuyn n n cc BGP speaker khc. Mt address family l mt giao thc lp mng c nh ngha. Mt nh danh h a ch (AFI - address family identifier) mang mt nh danh ca giao thc lp mng kt hp vi a ch mng trong thuc tnh a giao thc ca BGP. AFI cho cc giao thc lp mng c xc nh trong RFC 1700, Assigned Numbers. PE thc cht l mt LER bin (Edge LSR) v thc hin tt c chc nng ca mt Edge LSR. PE yu cu LDP cho vic gn v phn phi nhn cng
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nh chuyn tip cc gi c gn nhn. Cng thm cc chc nng ca mt Edge LSR, PE thc thi mt giao thc nh tuyn (hay nh tuyn tnh) vi cc EC trong mt bng nh tuyn o (virtual routing table) v yu cu MP-BGP qung b cc mng hc c t CE nh cc VPNv4 trong MP-iBGP n cc PE khc bng nhn VPN. Router P cn chy mt IGP (OSPF hoc ISIS) khi MPLS cho php chuyn tip cc gi c gn nhn (mt phng d liu - data plane) gia cc PE. IGP qung b cc NLRI n cc P v PE thc thi mt MPiBGP session gia cc PE (mt phng iu khin - control plane). LDP chy trn cc router P gn v phn phi nhn. 3.2.4 Hot ng ca mt phng iu khin MPLS VPN Mt phng iu khin trong MPLS VPN cha mi thng tin nh tuyn lp 3 v cc tin trnh trao i thng tin ca cc IP prefix c gn v phn phi nhn bng LDP. Mt phng d liu thc hin chc nng chuyn tip cc gi IP c gn nhn n trm k v ch. Hnh sau cho thy s tng tc ca cc giao thc trong mt phng iu khin ca MPLS VPN.

Hnh 3- 14 S tng tc gia cc giao thc trong mt phng iu khin

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Cc router CE c kt ni vi cc PE, v mt IGP, BGP, hay tuyn tnh (static route) c yu cu trn cc CE cng vi cc PE thu thp v qung co thng tin NLRI. Trong MPLS VPN backbone gm cc router P v PE, mt IGP kt hp vi LDP c s dng gia cc PE v P. LDP dng phn phi nhn trong mt MPLS domain. IGP dng trao i thng tin NLRI, nh x (map) cc NLRI ny vo MP- BGP. MP-BGP c duy tr gia cc PE trong mt min MPLS VPN v trao i cp nht MP-BGP. Cc gi t CE n PE lun c qung b nh cc gi Ipv4. Hot ng ca mt phng iu khin MPLS VPN nh hnh sau:

Hnh 3- 15 Hot ng ca mt phng iu khin MPLS VPN Sau y l cc bc hot ng ca mt phng iu khin MPLS VPN (minh ha bng hnh trn): Cp nht Ipv4 cho mng 172.16.10.0 c nhn bi egress PE (mt phng d liu). PE1-AS1 nhn v vn chuyn tuyn Ipv4, 172.16.10.0/24, n mt tuyn VPNv4 gn vi RD 1:100, SoO, va RT 1:100 da trn cu hnh VRF trn PE1-AS1. N nh v mt nhn VPNv4 V1 ti cp nht 172.16.10.0/24 v vit li thuc tnh trm k cho dja ch 10.10.10.101 ca loopback0 trn PE1-AS1. S qung b nhn cho 10.10.10.101/32 t PE1AS1 ti PE2-AS2 nhanh chng c thay th ngay khi mng MPLS VPN ca nh cung cp c thit lp v thc hin qung b VPNv4 trong mng. Cc
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buc sau thc hin tin trnh qung b nhn cho 10.10.10.101/32: Router PE2-AS1 yu cu mt nhn cho 10.10.10.101/32 s dng LDP nh x nhn yu cu t lng ging xui dng (downstream neighbor) ca n, P1- AS1. PE1-AS1 xc nh mt nhn implicitnull cho 10.10.10.101/32, chnh sa mc trong LFIB lin quan n 10.10.10.101/32, v gi n P1-AS1 bng LDP reply. P1-AS1 s dng nhn implicit-null nhn c t PE1-AS1 lm gi tr nhn xut (outbound label) ca n, xc nh mt nhn (L1) cho 10.10.10.101/32, v sa mc trong LFIB cho 10.10.10.101/32. Sau P1-AS1 gi gi tr nhn ny n P2-AS1 bng LDP reply. P2-AS1 dng nhn L1 lm gi tr nhn xut, xc nh nhn L2 cho 10.10.10.101/32, v sa mc trong LFIB cho 10.10.10.101/32. Sau d P2-AS1 gi gi tr nhn ny n PE2-AS1 bng LDP reply. PE1AS1 c cu hnh VRF nhn cc tuyn vi RT 1:100 nn chuyn cp nht VPNv4 thanh Ipv4 v chn tuyn trong VRF cho Customer A. Sau n qung b tuyn ny ti CE2-A. 3.2.5 Hot ng ca mt phng d liu MPLS VPN Vic chuyn tip trong mng MPLS VPN i hi phi dng chng nhn (label stack). Nhn trn (top lable) c gn v hon i (swap) chuyn tip gi d liu i trong li MPLS. Nhn th hai (nhn VPN) c kt hp vi VRF router PE chuyn tip gi n cc CE. Hnh sau m t cc buc trong chuyn tip d liu khch hng ca mt phng d liu t mt site khch hng CE2-A ti CE1-A trong h tng mng ca SP.

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Hnh 3- 16 Cc bc chuyn tip trong mt phng d liu Khi d liu c chuyn tip ti mt mng c th dc theo mng VPN qua li MPLS, ch c nhn trn (top lable) trong chng nhn b hon i (swap) khi gi i qua backbone. Nhn VPN vn gi nguyn v c bc ra khi n router PE ng ra (egress)/xui dng(downstream). Mng gn vi mt giao tip ng ra thuc vo mt VRF c th trn router ph thuc vo gi tr ca nhn VPN. Sau y l nhng buc trong vic chuyn tip ca mt phng d liu minh ha cho hnh trn: CE2-A to ra mt gi d liu vi a ch ngun 172.16.20.1 v ch l 172.16.10.1. PE2-AS1 nhn gi d liu, thm vo nhn VPN V1 v nhn LDP L2 ri chuyn tip gi n P2-AS1. P2-AS1 nhn gi d liu v chuyn i (swap) nhn LDP L2 thnh L1. P1-AS1 nhn gi d liu v bc (pop) nhn trn (top label) ra v n nhn mt nh x nhn implicitnull cho 10.10.10.101/32 t PE1-AS1. Kt qu, gi c gn nhn (nhn VPN la V1) c chuyn tip n PE1-AS1. PE1-AS1 bc nhn VPN V1 ra v chuyn tip gi d liu dn CE1-A ni c a ch mng 172.16.10.0 c nh v.

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3.2.6 nh tuyn VPNv4 trong mng MPLS VPN VRF tch ring khch hng trn b nh tuyn PE, nhng lm th no tin t c vn chuyn qua mng ca nh cung cp dch v? bi v, nhiu kh nng, s lng ln cc tuyn - c th l mt trm nghn - c vn chuyn qua. BGP l mt ng c vin bi v n l giao thc nh tuyn tnh v proven c th mang rt nhiu tuyn. Ch thy rng BGP l giao thc nh tuyn c bn mang bng nh tuyn Internet hon chnh. Bi v tuyn VPN ca khch hng c thc hin duy nht bng cch thm RD vo mi tuyn IPv4 - chuyn n thnh tuyn VPNv4 - tt c cc tuyn khch hng c th c vn chuyn an ton qua mng MPLS VPN.

Hnh 3- 17 S truyn tuyn trong mng MPLS VPN B nh tuyn PE nhn tuyn IPv4 t b nh tuyn CE qua giao thc cng trong (IGP - Interior Gateway Protocol) hoc BGP ngoi (external BGP eBGP). Nhng tuyn IPv4 t site VPN c t vo trong bng nh tuyn VRF. VRF c s dng ph thuc vo VRF m c cu hnh trn giao din trn b nh tuyn PE ti b nh tuyn CE. Nhng tuyn ny c ni vi RD m c ch nh ti VRF. Do , chng tr thnh tuyn VNPv4, tuyn ny sau c a vo MP - BGP. BGP quan tm n s phn phi nhng tuyn VPNv4 ti tt c cc b nh tuyn PE trong mng MPLS VPN. Trn

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b nh tuyn PE, nhng tuyn VPNv4 c tch RD v a vo bng nh tuyn VRF nh tuyn IPv4. Tuyn VNPv4, sau khi c tch b RD, c c a vo bng VRF hay khng cn ph thuc vo RT c cho php truy nhp vo VRF hay khng. Nhng tuyn IPv4 sau c qung b ti cc b nh tuyn CE qua giao thc IGP hoc eBGP (giao thc chy gia b nh tuyn PE v CE). Hnh sau m t cc bc trong s truyn tuyn t CE n CE trong mng MPLS VPN.

Hnh 3- 18 S truyn tuyn trong mng MPLS VPN step by step Bi v nh cung cp dch v m ang chy mng MPLS VPN chy BGP trong h thng t tr, iBGP ang chy gia cc b nh tuyn PE. S truyn t eBGP - giao thc chy gia PE v CE - ti MP -iBGP trong mng MPLS VPN v ngc li l t ng v khng cn cu hnh thm. Tuy nhin vic phn phi li ca MP - iBGP trong IGP m hin ang chy gia PE v CE l khng t ng. Ta phi cu hnh phn phi li ln nhau gia MPiBGP v IGP.

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3.2.7 Chuyn tip gi trong mng MPLS VPN Nh ni trong phn trc, nhng gi khng th c chuyn tip nh gi IP n thun gia cc site. B nh tuyn P khng th chuyn tip chng bi v n khng c thng tin VRF t mi site. MPLS khng th gii quyt vn ny bi dn nhn vo gi. B nh tuyn P sau phi c thng tin chuyn tip ng cho nhn chuyn tip gi. Cch chung nht l cu hnh giao thc phn phi nhn (LDP) gia tt c cc b nh tuyn P v PE nn tt c cc lu lng IP l chuyn mch nhn gia chng. Ta cng c th s dng giao thc RSVP m rng cho iu khin lu lng (TE) khi thc thi MPLS TE, nhng LDP l phng thc chung nht cho MPLS VPN. Gi IP sau c chuyn tip nhn vi mt nhn t b nh tuyn PE vo ti b nh tuyn PE ra. B nh tuyn P khng bao gi phi thc hin vic tm kim a ch IP ch. y l cch cc gi c chuyn mch gia cc b nh tuyn PE vo v ra. Nhng nhn ny c gi l nhn IGP, bi v n l nhn phi c trong tin t IPv4 trong bng nh tuyn ton cc ca b nh tuyn P v PE, v IGP ca mng nh cung cp dch v qung b n. Lm th no b nh tuyn PE bit c gi no thuc VRF no. Thng tin ny khng c trong mo u IP, v n khng th c nhn ly t nhn IGP, bi v y ch c s dng chuyn tip gi qua mng ca nh cung cp dch v. Gii php y l thm mt nhn khc trong chng nhn MPLS. Nhn ny s ch ra gi no thuc VRF. Do tt c cc gi ca khch hng c chuyn tip vi 2 nhn: nhn IGP nh l nhn trn cng v nhn VPN nh l nhn di cng. Nhn VPN phi c t trn b nh tuyn PE vo ch ra b nh tuyn PE ra no m gi thuc VRF . Lm th no b nh tuyn PE ra bo hiu ti b nh tuyn PE vo m nhn c s dng cho tin t VRF? Bi MP - BGP thc s c s dng qung b tin t

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VPNv4, n cng bo hiu nhn VPN (c bit n nhn BGP) m c kt ni vi tin t VPNv4. Ch : Thc s th khi nim c mt nhn VPN ch ra gi no thuc VRF cng khng thc s ng. N c th ng trong vi trng hp, nhng a s l khng. Nhn VPN thng ch ra nt tip theo m gi c chuyn tip ti trn b nh tuyn PE ra. Do , mc ch ca n l ch b nh tuyn CE ng nh bc tip theo ca gi. Ni tm li, lu lng VRF - to - VRF c 2 nhn trong mng MPLS VPN. Nhn trn cng l nhn IGP v c phn phi bi LDP hoc RSVP cho TE gia tt c cc b nh tuyn P v PE hop by hop. Nhn di cng l nhn VPN m c qung b bi MP - iBGP t PE n PE. Nhng b nh tuyn P s dng nhn IBG chuyn tip gi ti b nh tuyn PE ra tng ng. B nh tuyn PE ra s dng nhn VPN chuyn tip gi IP ti b nh tuyn CE tng ng. Hnh sau y m t vic chuyn tip gi trong mng MPLS VPN. Gi i vo b nh tuyn PE trn giao din VRF nh l gi IPv4. N c chuyn tip qua mng MPLS VPN vi hai nhn. B nh tuyn P chuyn tip nhn bng vic tm kim ti nhn trn cng. Nhn trn cng c trao i vi nhau ti mi b nh tuyn P. Nhng nhn ny c tch ra ti b nh tuyn PE v gi c chuyn tip nh mt gi IPv4 trn giao din VRF ti b nh tuyn CE. B nh tuyn CE tng ng c tm thy bi vic tm kim nhn VPN. Trong phn ny ta s xem xt v s sng ca gi IP v n i ngang qua mng ng trc MPLS VPN t mt a im ca khch hng ti mt a im khc. u tin phi xt n nhng khi xy dng c bn ca MPLS VPN. Gia cc PE cn c a giao thc iBGP, giao thc ny s phn phi tuyn vpnv4 v nhn VPN kt hp. Gia cc b PE v P cn thit phi c mt giao thc phn phi nhn. y l gi thit rng giao thc phn phi nhn ny l

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LDP. Gia cc b nh tuyn PE v CE cn thit phi c mt giao thc nh tuyn chy v t nhng tuyn ca khch hng vo trong bng nh tuyn VRF trn PE. Cui cng,nhng b nh tuyn ny cn c phn b trong MP-iBGP v ngc li. Hnh 3-19 v 3-20 gip ta hiu r hn v vn ny. Hnh 3-26 ch tuyn qung b ca vpnv4 v nhn t PE ra ti PE vo v s qung b ca tuyn IGP - biu din bc nhy tip theo BGP ca PE ra - v nhn ti PE vo. a ch bc nhy tip theo BGP trn PE ra l 10.200.254.2/32, m mt IGP qung b ti PE vo. Nhn cho tuyn IGP c qung b hop by hop bi LDP. Tuyn IPv4 ca khch hng 10.10.100.1/32 c qung b bi giao thc nh tuyn PE - CE t CE ti PE ra. PE ra thm RD 1:1, chuyn n vo trong tuyn vpnv4 1:1:10.10.100/32, v gi n n PE vo vi nhn 30 qua iBGP a giao thc.

Hnh 3- 19 S sng ca mt gi IPv4 qua mng ng trc MPLS VPN tuyn v qung b nhn.

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Hnh 3-20 a ra v d v mt gi vi a ch IP ch 10.10.100.1 ang c chuyn tip vi 2 nhn nh c qung b trong hnh 3-26.

Hnh 3- 20 i sng ca gi IPv4 qua mng ng trc MPLS VPN: chuyn tip gi Khi mt gi IP i vo ingress PE t CE, PE vo s tm kim a ch IP ch trong bng CEF, VRF cust-one. PE vo tm VRF ng bng vic tm ti giao din gi vo b nh tuyn PE, v vi bng VRF m giao din ny lin kt ti. Cc mc vo (entry) c th trong bng CEF VRF thng th hin rng c 2 nhn cn thit c thm vo. Ch : Khi PE vo v PE ra c kt ni trc tip, cc gi s ch c mt nhn duy nht - nhn VPN. u tin, PE vo gn nhn VPN 30 - nh c qung b bi BGP cho tuyn vpnv4. N tr thnh nhn cui. Sau , PE vo gn nhn IGP nh nhn trn cng. Nhn ny l nhn m lin kt vi tuyn IGP /32 cho a ch IP bc nhy tip theo BGP. y thng l a ch IP ca giao din loopback trn PE ra. Nhn ny c qung b hop by hop gia cc b nh tuyn P cho ti khi n ti c PE ra. Mi bc nhy thay i gi tr ca nhn. Nhn IGP m c gn bi PE vo l nhn 16. Gi IPv4 i ra khi PE vo vi 2 nhn trn ca n. Nhn trn cng - nhn iGP cho PE ra - c hon i ti mi bc nhy. Nhn ny t gi IPv4

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VPN ti ng PE ra. Thng thng, bi v y l hot ng mc nh trong Cisco IOS - hot ng PHP c t gia b nh tuyn P cui cng v PE ra. Do , nhn IBP c g ra trn b nh tuyn P cui cng v gi i vo trong b PE ra ch vi mt nhn VPN trong ngn xp nhn. B PE ra tm kim nhn VPN trong LFIB v a ra quyt nh chuyn tip. Bi v nhn i ra (outgoing label) l nhn s (No label), ngn xp nhn cn li b g b v gi c chuyn tip nh gi IP ti b nh tuyn CE. B PE ra khng phi thc hin vic tra cu a ch IP ch trong mo u IP nu nhn ra (outgoing label) l nhn s (No label). Thng tin bc nhy ng tip theo c tm thy bi s tm kim nhn VPN trong LFIB. Ch khi nhn ra l Aggreate, b PE ra phi thc hin vic tra cu IP trong bng CEF VRF sau khi tra cu nhn trong LFIB. Cc v d sau y cho thy nhn c qung b bi LDP v MP-iBGP v vic s dng ca chng trong bng CEF VRF v LFIB. Nhng nhn ny tng ng vi nhng nhn trong hnh 3-19 v 3-20. V d: Bng VRF CEF Cust-one trn PE vo
Ingress-PE#show ip cef vrf cust-one 10.10.100.1 255.255.255.255 detail 10.10.100.1/32, epoch 0 recursive via 10.200.254.2 label 30 nexthop 10.200.214.1 POS0/1/0 label 16

V du: tuyn Vpnv4 trn PE vo


Ingress-PE#show ip bgp vpnv4 rd 1:1 10.10.100.1 BGP routing table entry for 1:1:10.10.100.1/32, version 81 Paths: (1 available, best #1, table cust-one) Not advertised to any peer Local 10.200.254.2 (metric 3) from 10.200.254.2 (10.200.254.2) Origin incomplete, metric 1, localpref 100, valid, internal, best Extended Community: RT:1:1, mpls labels in/out nolabel/30

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V d: LFIB Entry trn PE ra


Egress-PE#show mpls forwarding-table labels 30 Local Outgoing Prefix Bytes Label Label Label or VC or Tunnel Id Switched 30 No Label 10.10.100.1/32[V] 0

Outgoing interface Et0/1/2

Next Hop 10.10.2.1

Hnh 3- 21 Chuyn tip gi trong mng MPLS VPN

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CHNG 4 NG DNG CA MPLS TRONG VIC CUNG CP DCH V IPVPN CA EVNTELECOM


Nm bt xu th pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin v vin thng, lu lng mng cng cng chy trn mng s dn chuyn sang cc ng dng ca giao thc IP v c xu hng chuyn v m hnh IP VPN. T nm 2004, EVNTelecom a mng NGN y vo s dng vi hai tng i in thoi ti H Ni v H Ch Minh. Mng NGN ny da trn h tng truyn dn IP, c xy dng bi cc b nh tuyn Juniper. EVNTelecom hin ang trin khai cc h thng cung cp dch v vin thng cng cng nh: dch v VoIP - 179, dch v Internet, dch v cho thu cng quc t qua trm v tinh, dch v knh thu ring quc t v trong nc v c bit l dch v in thoi c nh khng dy da trn cng ngh CDMA 2000 1x450Mhz. Vi h thng mng ng trc sn sng cho kt ni EVNTelecom ang dn chim th phn trong lnh vc cung cp dch v VoIP - 179 v dch v thu knh ring. EVNTelecom c 2 mng ng trc Bc - Nam tc cao. y l nhng ng trc quan trong, kt ni 3 khu vc Bc - Trung - Nam, s dng cng ngh SDH vi bng thng ln ti 10Gbps (sn sng nng cp ln cng ngh DWDM). Trong thi gian ti, EVNTelecom s gii thiu h thng ng trc th 3 a vo vn hnh vi dung lng ln ti 40Gbps s dng cng ngh DWDM. Ngoi ra, EVNTelecom thit lp PoP ti hu ht cc tnh ca Vit Nam. Sau EVNTelecom s tip tc xy dng nhng PoP mi nhm ci thin cht lng ca dch v. Hin nay, EVNTelecom c mt trung tm vn hnh mng iu khin mng truyn dn v mng IP vi chc nng h tr v x l s c 24/24. Bn

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cnh , EVNTelecom cng c nhng trung tm vn hnh ti Bc, Trung v Nam iu hnh mng ni ht. Cng ngh MPLS/VPN l mt s thay i ca cng ngh IPoA truyn thng (IP over ATM). Do , mng IP ca EVNTelecom c c nhng u im ca k thut ATM (nh tc cao, mm do linh hot, controllable current...) v nhng tnh nng mi ca cng ngh IP trong nhng nm qua. Mng IP ca EVNTelecom c th cung cp tt c cc dch v: Internet (ISP,IXP), Internet CDMA, Intertnet qua CATV, mng NGN, UIN (unified Intelligent Network)...................................... EVNTelecom a ra m hnh cung cp dch v MPLS/VPN cho khch hng vi nhng u im ca MPLS: - Ring bit v bo mt - c lp vi mng khch hng - Linh hot v n nh - Kh nng qun l hiu qu, n gin. - Mng khch hng c th s dng a ch IP private. - Chi ph thu knh r, nht l trong vic kt ni im - a im, hoc a im - a im.

4.1 ng dng MPLS trong mng IP core ca EVNTelecom


Cc thit b BRAS, Edge, Core Router u h tr MPLS Tt c cc thit b BRAS, Edge, Core Router u thuc mt hng. Hin phn h tng mng IP core s dng MPLS C h thng qun l VPN center Khng cn u t thm cho h thng core.

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Hin ti cc thit b BRAS, Edge, Core Router u l ca hng Juniper v tt c u h tr MPLS nn chng u c kh nng p ng c dch v MPLS VPN. Mt khc ton b cc thit b ny u thuc mt hng nne chng c qun l v hng mt gii php chung cung cp dch v VPN. Phn mm c kh nng p ng tnh nng VPN center gip vic khai bo v qun l cc site ca khch hng mt cch d dng hn. Do cc thit b t BRAS n core u h tr MPLS nn i vi mng core khng cn phi u t thm thit b hon ton c th p ng c vic cung cp dch v MPLS VPN. Cu trc mng ca EVNTelecom l cu trc Client - Server (ch - t). Hin nay EVNTelecom ang s dng nn tng qun l mng: h thng TNMS ca Siemens, h thng ONMS ca Lucent, ZONME 300, h thng T2000 ca Huawei. Cu trc IP ca EVNTelecom bao gm 3 lp: Core, Egde v Access. Nhng b nh tuyn Core c thit lp ti H Ni, Nng v Tp H Ch Minh. B nh tuyn Edge c thit lp ti H Ni, Nng, Cn Th v Tp H Ch Minh. Cn b nh tuyn Access c thit lp ti cc vn phng thng tin ca EVNTelecom (EVNTelecoms Information Departments) ti tt c cc tnh. Nh hnh 4.1sau y:

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Hnh 4- 1 M hnh mng IP ca EVNTelecom Trong chc nng chnh ca cc thnh phn nh sau: CORE c nhim v kt ni v Forward data trn mng li. Edge l b m gia access v core, gom tt c cc lu lng t cc access v ri chuyn mch ln core theo ng tuyn VPN. Access th kt ni trc tip xung khch hng thng qua cc phng thc ca nh cung cp nh ADSL, cable, FTTH hoc leasedline. Access bao gm BRAS, DSLAM, CMTS. Router POP l access BRAS (Broadband Remote Access Server) l mt phn t mng c chc nng tp hp v iu khin cc phin truy nhp ca thu bao. BRAS cn c chc nng qun l v tnh cc cc thu bao truy nhp internet.

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4.1.1 Dch v knh thu ring leased line


Dch v thu knh ring Lease Line ca EVNTelecom hay cn gi l ELine cung cp cho khch hng ti H Ni da trn mng truyn dn SDH ni ht. Dung lng ca mi knh E-Line thng khng ln hn 2Mb/s. Do gii php c la chn l khch hng kt ni bng cc modem cp quang hoc cp ng vo mng SDH ca EVNTelecom. Mi khch hng s c cung cp mt knh E1 trn mng SDH. i vi nhng khch hng thu mt chm knh th s c b sung thm thit b ghp knh DACS. i vi nhng khch hng thu knh ring tc cao nh STM1, STM4, GE th gii php c a ra l lp t thit b truyn dn SDH ti khch hng kt ni vo mng truyn dn.
Modem Khch hang Modem

MUX

FE Router khch hng Thit b truyn dn SDH Mng truyn dn SDH

Thit b truyn dn SDH Modem Modem Khch hang

Cp ng

Modem GE Thit b truyn dn SDH

Modem Khch hang

Router khch hng

Hnh 4- 2 S kt ni dch v leased line

4.1.2 Dch v IP VPN


p ng nhu cu ca cc doanh nghip trong vic xy dng h thng mng ring c quy m ln ti Vit Nam cng nh i quc t, EVNTelecom cung cp dch v mng IP VPN. y l mt dch v mng c th dng cho

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cc ng dng khc nhau, cho php vic trao i thng tin mt cch an ton bng nhiu la chn kt ni vi nhiu tnh nng ni tri nh: Kt ni trc tip gia cc im bt k (Any - to - Any Connectivity); nhiu la chn cng ngh kt ni (Choice of Access Technology; tch hp d liu, thoi v video (Data, Voice and Video Conver-gence); bo mt cao (High Network Privacy); d s dng (Easy of Operation). Dch v IP VPN ca EVNTelecom cung cp cho khch hng da trn nn h tng mng IP chia s nhng vn m bo c tnh ring t ca d liu. EVNTelecom trin khai mng NNI vi i tc nc ngoi nhm mc ch m rng dch v IP VPN i quc t. Dung lng ca mi knh IP VPN thng khng ln hn 2Mbps. Do gii php c la chn l khch hng kt ni bng cc modem cp quang vo im kt ni (Access) ca EVNTelecom. Hin nay EVNTelecom trin khai mng NNI vi dung lng ban u l 2xE1s vi i tc nc ngoi nhm mc ch cung cp dch v IPVPN i quc t. Trong thi gian ti, EVNTelecom s tng dung lng ln 4xE1s.

Dch v nhiu u im
S dng dch v ny, tt c cc a im trong mng c th lin h trc tip vi nhau ch vi mt kt ni vt l duy nht ti mi im, khng dng Leased line hay PVC. iu ny lm cu trc mng tr nn n gin v cho php cc doanh nghip m rng mng mt cch nhanh chng khng cn thit k li mng hay lm gin on hot ng ca mng. Vi cc cng ngh qun l cht lng dch v (QoS) chun, tt c cc ng dng d liu, thoi v video c th chy trn mt mng IP ring, khng cn c cc mng ring r hay cc thit b chuyn dng. H thng bo mt c sn trong mng s dng cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MultiProtocol Label Switching - MPLS) cho php phn tch lung d liu ca mi
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khch hng ra khi Internet cng nh cc khch hng khc. Mc bo mt tng ng cc dch v lp 2 nh X.25, frame relay v ATM. IP VPN cn hn ch yu cu i vi ngi dng trong vic thc hin cc cng vic phc tp nh thit k mng, cu hnh b nh tuyn, do vy gim rt nhiu chi ph vn hnh.

Nhng ng dng ph hp vi nhiu i tng khch hng


Khi s dng dch v, khch hng s truyn file, dch v th tn in t, chia s ti nguyn trn mng (file hoc my in), c s d liu, Web ni b, truyn nh, cc ng dng ERP, cc ng dng thit k k thut; truy nhp Internet v s dng cc dch v trn nn mng ny nh mt khch hng Internet trc tip bnh thng; cc ng dng v m thanh, hnh nh trong mng ring ca khch hng (khch hng c kh nng thit lp mt tng i PBX s dng cng ngh IP v c th gi trong phm vi mng ni b ca mnh).Ngoi ra khch hng c th ng dng nhiu dch v cao hn nh: Hi tho qua mng MPLS VPN, hosting... Dch v VPN ph hp vi i tng khch hng l cc n v hot ng trong lnh vc ngn hng, bo him, hng hi...; cc vn phng i din cc cng ty nc ngoi t ti Vit Nam lin quan n vin thng, tin hc; cc doanh nghip sn xut c chi nhnh nc ngoi trong cc khu cng nghip, khu ch xut, doanh nghip sn xut; cc khu cng ngh phn mm, cc n v sn xut phn mm; cc c nhn thuc mt trong cc n v k trn c nhu cu s dng dch v v cc c quan Chnh ph, cc B, cc Tng cng ty. s dng c dch v, khch hng cn p ng y cc thit b nh: Modem NTU, Router, ng kt ni truyn dn trc tip vi mng MPLS VPN, modem gin tip, line thoi, my tnh vi cc truy nhp gin tip.

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Hnh 4- 3 S kt ni dch v IPVPN EVNTelecom m bo kt ni IP gia cc site ca khch hng, h tr kt ni im - im, im - a im, a im - a im. 4.2 Cht lng dch v mng EVNTelecom Cc cp dch v (CoS - Classes of Services) truyn gi trong mng Gi Vng: 99.9% mt thng. Mc u tin cao nht dng truyn cc ng dng yu cu tr thp v d nh voice, video. Gi Bc: 99.5% mt thng. Lu lng n nh theo yu cu vi tr v mt gi theo cam kt nh cc dch v SAP, ERP v nhng giao dch ti chnh khc. Gi ng: 99.0% mt thng. Lu lng khng n nh p dng cho cc dch v nh Email, Intranet hoc lu lng Internet.

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Ty thuc vo khch hng la chn gi dch v no m mc u tin trn ng truyn s khc nhau. Hnh 4-4 m t mc u tin gia cc gi trong mng:

Gi tr ToS 0 3 5 tr gi trong mng:

Class Bronze Silver Gold

Hnh 4- 4 Mc u tin gia cc gi dch v ca EVNTelecom tr ton trnh Delay: tr qu mc t u cui n u cui khin cuc m thoi bt tin v mt t nhin. Mi thnh phn trong tuyn truyn dn: my pht, mng li, my thu u tham gia lm tng tr. ITU-TG.114 khuyn co tr ti a theo mt hng l 150ms m bo thoi c cht lng cao. Di y l thng s tr gi trong mng m EVNTelecom cam kt cung cp cho khch hng i vi cc knh cp trong khu vc. Region IP Precedence Intra-Asia (Tier1) GOLD 5 <= 110ms Class of Service (CoS) SILVER BRONZE 3 0 <= 120ms <= 130ms

phn bit c cc lp dch v khc nhau th b CE chu trch nhim


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nh du bit ToS/Differv cho cc lp dch v khc nhau ca lu lng khi lu lng i vo PE. Sau PE s sao chp nhng bit ToS/Differv tng ng vo bit EXP MPLS v chuyn tip gi vo mng MPLS Kh nng cp dch v - Service Availability Kh nng cp dch v c xc nh nh l kh nng ca trao i gi IP ca mt khch hng vi mng EVNTelecom. Hin nay EVNTelecom cam kt cp cho khch hng 99.99% trong mt thng. tr pha Jitter: nh lng tr trn mng i vi tng gi khi n my thu. Cc gi c pht i mt cch u n t Gateway bn tri n c Gateway bn phi cc thi khon khng u Jitter qu ln s lm cho cuc m thoi t qung v kh hiu. Jitter c tnh trn thi gian n ca cc gi k tip nhau. B m jitter c dng gim tc ng tri st ca mng v to ra dng gi n u n hn my thu. mt gi packet Loss: C th xy ra theo cm hoc theo chu k do mng b nghn lin tc. Mt gi theo chu k n 5-10% s gi pht ra c th lm cht lng thoi xung cp ng k. Tng cm gi b mt khng thng xuyn cng khin m thoi gp kh khn. Cc thng s ny ( truyn gi - packet delivery, tr, kh nng cp dch v - service availability) c o bng cch ly trung bnh ca nhng mu o trong mt thng gia cc PoP VPN trong cng mt khu vc hoc gia cc khu vc. Ch : QoS c p dng cho giao din ngoi cua CE, EVNTelecom s p dng cc dng lu lng cho lu lng CoS v thng bo ti CE thng lng ln nht ca giao din gia PE v CE trong trng hp bng thng IPVPN yu cu ca khch hng khng tng ng vi kt ni vt l.

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Cc c trng yu cu Tn tnh nng Yu cu ca ANC Phn on ni ht ca giao din h tr Cc dng khc nhau ca dch v ny: n x 64k Knh trng DS1, DS3 SONET OC3 STM1 SONET OC12STM4 E1 E3 ATM (DS-3 / OC-3) Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Others phng thc H tr ng gi: Cisco HDLC Frame Relay ATM PPP Ethernet Others H tr nh tuyn v CE VPNT gia PE H tr Layer-3 VPN : Static OSPF

Kh nng h tr ca EVNTelecom Cc dng khc nhau ca dch v ny: n x 64k SDH STM1 E1 E3 Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

H tr ng gi: Cisco HDLC PPP Ethernet PPP

ng gi knh

H tr Layer-3 VPN: BGP Static OSPF

Layer- BGP-4

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RIPv2 EIGRP Others Cc ph Ph hng thng = cc thu s dng CoS Internet Access ANC a ra 5 mc CoS Kh nng truy nhp Internet l n.

RIPv2

Others

Ph hng thng = cc

cng + bng thng thc s ph ca cng EVNTel a ra 4 mc CoS H tr truy nhp Internet s n. s dng ng kt ni vt dng ng kt ni vt l

Hnh 4-5 di y a ra cc v d v vic cung cp dch v IP VPN cho khch hng kt ni theo kiu im - a im.

Hnh 4- 5 Kt ni IP VPN im - a im Hnh 4-6 v 4-7 sau y a ra v d v vic kt ni gia 4 a im khch hng vi nhau v so snh gia dch v IPVPN v IPLC trong trng hp yu

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cu kt ni ny.

Hnh 4- 6 Kt ni gia 4 im khch hng da trn gii php ca IPLC Dch v IPLC kt ni gia 4 im to thnh mt mng full - mesh, gi thnh cao hn rt nhiu v kh vn hnh qun l. Vi dch v IP VPN vic kt ni gia 4 im tr nn n gin v gi thnh r.

Hnh 4- 7 Kt ni gia 4 im khch hng da trn gii php ca IPVPN

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4.3 Gii thiu v vic cp knh ti khch hng


Khch hng yu cu knh truyn tc 256K t Tp H Ch Minh i Hong Kong, vi CoS l Silver.
Access M20 ti HCM
Dy nhy quang

im cui khch hng


Dy nhy quang

Z T E

Cp quang hin hu
E1
Modem quang G.703
ODF ODF

V.35
Modem quang V.35
Router khch hng

EVNTelecom

Core HCM
Router M10

Core HN
Router M20k

Z T E

MPLS EVNTelecom

MPLS EVNTelecom

i quc t

Hnh 4- 8 S kt ni ca khch hng kt ni ti mng EVNTelecom


Subject: Fresenius IPVPN [HGC-EVN] (HK, Vietnam) Date: 3 Sept 2008 Carrier Order Number HGC IB Ref No. Circuit ID Customer Name PoP City Local Loop Provider (if any) Local Loop circuit ID (if any) Orer Type Billing Type Port No. Port Speed PE Router WAN IP Address CE Router WAN IP Address PE-CE Routing Protocol EVN PM (M) PM (M) VF800039Z005 FreseniusKabi Asia Pacific Ltd. Vietnam (EVN) EVN (TBA) IPVPN N/A PM (O) 256K 192.168.177.81 / 30 192.168.177.82 / 30 BGP HGC 08-IP-VPN00254 S00003261 VF800039W001 Fresenius Netcare Gmbh Hong Kong HGC VF800039W001 IPVPN N/A PM (O) T1 192.168.230.1 / 30 192.168.230.2 / 30 BGP

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PE-CE Encapsulation Customer LAN IP Prefix and Subnet Mask

PPP Customer AS number : 65141 EVN AS number : 24086 100% Silver V.35 8-Aug-08 8-Sep-08 TBA TBA

PPP Customer AS number : 65205 HGC AS number : 9304 100% Silver V.35 8-Aug-08 8-Sep-08 TBA TBA

QoS Electrical Interface Order Issue Date Customer Request Date ITMC Test Date End-2-End Test Date

4.4 Kh khn trong vic cung cp MPLS VPN


Vic cung cp dch v MPLS VPN ca EVNTelecom cng gp nhiu kh khn nh: Cc thit b BRAS v mng Access khng thuc quyn qun l ca EVNTelecom Vn ang xy dng quy trnh cung cp dch v. Cha c chnh sch v gi cc dch v y . Nhn lc cha p ng c vic cung cp dch v ang ngy cng c khch hng s dng nhiu. Khng nh dch v Leased line l dch v Lp 1, chng ta ch cung cp ng truyn vt l cho khch hng. Dch v MPLS VPN din ra lp 2.5 v lp 3 nn vic cung cp dch v s phc tp v kh khn hn. Ngoi vic thit lp ng truyn vt l, cn phi cu hnh cc thit b Router trn mng t u cui n u cui (cu hnh cc lp trn) cung cp dch v cho khch hng. Ngoi ra do MPLS vn l cng ngh mi i vi khch hng, do khch hng vn cha c s hiu bit nht nh nn vic thuyt phc s dng gp nhiu kh khn.

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Cha c nhn lc lm ch cng ngh c th chun on, g ri, ng cu khi c s c i vi khch hng (y l dch v lp cao nn vic chun on, g ri, ng cu khc hon ton vi vic x l thng tin ca leased line). Trong bi cnh EVNTelecom ang tham gia tch cc v nhanh chng vo th trng vin thng cng cng, tn dng trit c s h tng vin thng hin c ca ngnh in nhanh chng trin khai hng lot cc d n trc tin phc v ngy mt tt hn cho ni b ngnh in, tip theo l cung cp mt cch a dng cc loi hnh dch v cho ngi s dng. Vic trin khai dch v IPVPN vi 03 tng i t ti 3 vng, thit lp mt h thng mng li mnh tin n mc tiu a EVNTelecom tr thnh mt trong 3 nh cung cp dch v vin thng mnh ti Vit Nam.

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KT LUN V KIN NGH


Cng ngh MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) l kt qu pht trin ca nhiu cng ngh chuyn mch IP (IP Switching) s dng c ch hon i nhn nh ca ATM tng tc truyn gi tin m khng cn thay i cc giao thc nh tuyn IP. MPLS l mt cng ngh chuyn mch IP c nhiu trin vng. Vi tnh cht c cu nh tuyn ca mnh, MPLS c kh nng nng cao cht lng dch v ca mng IP truyn thng. Bn cnh , thng lng ca mng s c ci thin mt cch r rt. y l xu hng tt yu ca mng truyn dn trong qu trnh trin khai v xy dng mng NGN Vit Nam.

Hng pht trin ca ti


Trong cng ngh mi ngy nay, mng truyn dn quang ang dn chim lnh v tr s mt. Mng truyn dn quang c dung lng cao, nhng gim chi ph trn mt n v bng thng th cn n s kt hp ca hai cng ngh: mng Quang v IP. S kt hp ca cng ngh IP v Quang s mang li s pht trin v dung lng, kh nng m rng v s linh hot. S kt hp IP v Quang p ng yu cu cho cc nh cung cp dch v: - B sung cng ngh Quang cho nn tng IP. - Tip tc tch hp IP v d liu trn nn tng Quang. - Pht trin mt mc qun l thng nht, da trn tiu chun y mnh hn na vic trin khai v tng cng hiu qu mng IP v Quang - Cng c nhng cng c qun l mng s dng cho cc thnh phn IP v Quang Cng vi chuyn mch IP, chuyn mch Quang cng ang c ci tin cng vi s pht trin ca MPLS tng qut (GMPLS - General MPLS)
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GMPLS m rng s nh hng ca vic iu khin MPLS vt ngoi thit b nh tuyn v chuyn mch ATM, n nhng thit b lp vt l nh thit b kt ni cho quang v thit b TDM truyn thng nh cc b ghp knh xen k SONET. GMPLS cung cp tn hiu thng minh v phn iu khin nh tuyn cung ng mt cch nng ng cc ti nguyn quang cung cp tnh bn vng ca h thng s dng cc k thut bo v v phc hi. Trong mi trng quang, khi nim nhn c tng qut ha bao gm cc i tng trong cc mi trng phn chia theo thi gian, tn s v khng gian. V d, trong mi trng chuyn mch TDM (SONET/SDH), cc khe thi gian u c nhn. Trong chuyn mch khng gian (cng vo ingress v cng ra egress) nh trong u ni cho quang cc cng u c nhn. Trong ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM, cc bc sng u c nhn. l l do m rng MPLS trong mi trng quang c gn vi ch Tng qut. Thay v hon chuyn cc nhn mi Router, STS (khe ca SONET), bc sng (quang) hoc si cp quang, n c hon chuyn ti mi ch u ni cho quang. Nh vy, tuyn chuyn mch nhn trong GMPLS l mt tuyn quang c thit lp bng th tc tn hiu GMPLS. Mng thng minh ang c nh ngha l mt tiu chun m, theo cc yu cu c ch ra trong tiu chun Mng truyn ti chuyn mch t ng ASTN (Automatic Switched Transport Network) ca ITU m gn y c chp nhn nh G.807. Nhng dch v ny cho php thay i mng quang tnh ngy nay thnh mng nng ng cho khch hng v gim chi ph cung cp cho cc nh khai thc mng. GMPLS l c ch l tng cho giao din chuyn tn hiu ASTN gia khch hng v mng, trong phm vi mng gia cc mng quang. Trong mng chuyn mch gi hin nay, cu hnh b gii hn bi cc lin kt quang c thit lp t trc. Lp mng gi khng th thit lp
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c cc tuyn quang mt cch c lp p ng c theo s yu cu bng rng. Nu nhng yu cu v lu lng mi xut hin, c th a ra yu cu cho nh cung cp mng quang v vic bng rng b sung m iu ny cn phi c k hoch thc hin trc (nhiu ngy). Khi s dng dch v ASTN, cc kt ni c th tin hnh vi nhiu mc v kh nng lu tr, ph hp vi mc cht lng dch v QoS mng gi. Do nhiu tnh nng khc bit, GMPLS lm cho mng Internet quang nhanh hn v thng minh hn, gim thi gian cung cp hng thng xung cn hng giy cho dung lng mng quang. Vic s dng NUNI quang h tr cc khch hng IP v a dch v, kh nng kt ni nng ng vi lp mng quang c qun l c hiu nng cao hn v em li li nhun cao cho mng VPN quang. GMPLS l im mu cht cho vic tch hp ca c mng quang cng nh mng ton quang sau ny. Hng nghin cu GMPLS l mt hng m cho cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS c cp trong bi lun vn tt nghip.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


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