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Beyond Diversity. Cultural conflicts conditions within the SME sector.

Comparative analysis from desk research: Great Britain-Poland-Spain.

Rzeszow, July 2010

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................3

1. THE ESSENCE, CAUSES, TYPOLOGIES AND SOLUTIONS FOR CONFLICTS............................ 5

2. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES' SITUATION WITHIN PARTNERING COUNTRIES ...... 11

3. DEMOGRAPHIC CONDITIONING OF CONFLICTS IN PARTNERING COUNTRIES ................. 18

3.1. WOMEN'S SITUATION IN PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES .................................................. 23

4. LABOUR MARKET SITUATION AS A DETERMINANT OF SME SECTOR'S CONFLICTS ......... 26

5. WORKING CONDITIONS AS A DETERMINANT OF CONFLICTS...........................................32

6. FINANCIAL SECURITY AS A DETERMINANT OF EMPLOYEES' SITUATION...........................33 SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................... 35

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................ 37

APPENDIX ....................................................................................................................... 38

TABLE INDEX ................................................................................................................... 38

CHART INDEX .................................................................................................................. 39

This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein." 2

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

INTRODUCTION
The consequence of dynamic and advanced globalisation and integration processes is a number of changes touching different spheres of live, both in terms of economic, social and cultural ones. For every business affected it stands for a change of operation conditions and the necessity to seek solutions addressing newly found problems, being the consequence of the undergoing changes. Sometimes however, new conditions do not only create additional obstacles, but also force to alter the perspective, enabling spotting issues which up to now have been unnoticeable or have been simply not considered important enough. Such complex links can be observed regarding approach to conflicts in organization. On one hand, firm belief of negative role of conflicts within company becomes obsolete, on the other one however, the ever-growing variety of organizations brings new potential reasons for future crisis situations. Taking into consideration the main aims of Beyond Diversity project, for which the hereby analysis was created, it was assumed that conflict is a social situation being the meeting point of two contradictory interests, attitudes and individuals or groups systems of values , that occur within the area of one organization, the effect of which are certain behaviours1. An attempt was made to perceive conflicts from the most complex point of view, i.e the one that covers all kinds of disputes, contradictions and dilemmas. Such contradiction may be derived from a variety of reasons which not always possess rational character and are caused by objective conflict of pursuits and aims or limited resources. It is often the case, that conflicts stand for effect of beliefs, stereotypical thinking, biases and lack of understanding regarding otherness. Hence, it is the culture that plays here a crucial role, both in terms of organizational aspect, as well as that concerning norms and values cherished within ones company, as well as social culture, within which the given organization operates. Workers originating from various environments not only hold different beliefs and obey different standards, but they can also may have problems with understanding of certain attitudes and acts of non-verbal communication. Thus, such a situation might create a background for mutual aversions and misunderstandings. This is especially true when it comes to companies where workers derive from different cultures and as a consequence they might possess completely opposite attitudes towards such basic issues as obeying law, usage and organization of working time, as well as savoir-vivre. This range of problems is particularly crucial for entities representing sector of small and medium enterprises. On the one hand they represent a much-needed propelling force for any economic (generating national gross product and creating vacancies), on the other one activity on the local level enables avoiding problems connected with cultural differences. However, rapid globalisation processes will soon confront the managers of this companies with situations where even though they operate on a local level but due to migration processes enabling flux of human capital, will have to cope with problems that they are not fully capable of dealing with
1

A. Pocztowski, Management of Human Resources. Outline of issues and methods, Antykwa, Cracow 1998, p. 281 Outline of Problematic and Methods, Antykwa, Cracow 1998, p. 281

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

yet Participating in training that addresses such issues is a good occasion to gain or develop new skills which will further facilitate dealing with any potential challenges caused by organizational conditions The aim of this research is conducting a comparative analysis of the factors belonging to the partnership countries implementing this project (i.e. Spain, Poland and Great Britain) which directly or indirectly tie in with conflicts, creating an atmosphere which might become (or not) a fertile ground for new conflicts. At the same time this analysis stands for a follow-up of those already written that characterize in details the specific situation of each of the partners. That is why, based on statistical data, the source of which was predominantly EUROSTAT, as well as taking advantage of other synthetic reports of various subject matters and in some aspects connected with the researched topic, a cross-section analysis was conducted within possibility of creation of potential conflicts. The analysis was started by reviewing the theory behind conflicts. In this part of the study a review of conflict types was made, their consequences, as well as their causes and at the same time presenting classification of conflict sources which is helpful during the latter part of the project's development, i.e. research by means of survey's questionnaire. In this part of the study types of approaches to conflict and possible methods of their solving were presented. After that, an analysis of SME sector was conducted in compared countries, presenting in the first place currently binding classification of EU companies, as well as basic economic indicators that synthetically describe economic situation in individual countries. The next part of the study characterizes selected issues connected with demographics that constitute "background" of company's conflicts. Here, a comparison of population's size was made, together with indicators illustrating the problem of migration and education in individual countries. Due to the fact that discrimination is a sign of conflict, the next part of the study compared the situation of women in individual countries, employing synthetic indicators of gender gap index, used for disproportion assessment of treatment of men and women. The next part of the study is focused on comparison of conditions concerning EU's labour market. The next part of the study deals with comparison of the selected aspects in terms of work organization and the final one concerns financial situation of workers in reference to salary guarantees (minimal salary) and salary level (average salary level).

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

1. THE ESSENCE, CAUSES, TYPOLOGIES AND SOLUTIONS FOR CONFLICTS


A conflict is a natural phenomenon that is inseparably connected with every venue where people live and function. Every human activity inevitably leads to creation of conflict, which does not necessarily mean that conflict itself ought to be perceived as something negative or unwelcome. On the contrary - if all activity went unhindered, without any trace of obstacles on its path and clash of different factions, would it be even possible to talk about development? The term conflict derives from Latin notion of "confliktus", which means "collision". It is also interpreted as: an incompatibility, a clash of interests and opinions, an argument, a quarrel. A conflict stands for all sorts of misunderstandings, disagreements and discrepancy of interests. Commonly, this notion possesses mostly pejorative connotation as people are afraid of conflicts. it is frequently associated with struggle, aggression, unpleasant situations, dissatisfaction and in general - negative emotions. Despite their undeniably destructive character, they may also have positive and constructive functions, supporting decision-making and possessing positive effect on organization's functioning. A Conflict Situations stands for2: a state of human relationships, which may in any given moment transform into a clash with all characteristic consequences, an overall of factual and legal circumstances accompanying an escalation of conflict's participants' behaviour, which in practice means the lack of possibility of preventing the conflict, as the "critical mass" has already been reached, causing further consequences. A conflict is a multi contextual notion, defined in a variety of ways within subject's literature. It is caused by a variety of reasons, where those worth mentioning are, for example, the way of perceiving the conflict by all participating parties, its type and course and many more. A review of definitions of conflicts has been included in chart 1.

Z. Uniszewski, Conflict and Negotiations, Wyd. Proszyoski i S-ka, Warsaw 2000, p. 122.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

Table 1 Conflicts' definitions. Definition's author S. P. Robbins

Definition's content

R. Dahrendorf L. Coser

L. Kriesberg J. Galtung

A. Pocztowski

A. Potocki

U. Gros

A conflict is a process, where party A undertakes conscious efforts in order to stop the effects of actions conducted by party B, by means of blocking their pursued goals or blocking any actions that would facilitate achieving it. A conflict stands for all manifestations of competition, litigations or tensions between two or more social forces. A conflict is a struggle of people that represent different values or struggle for acquiring an access to status, power or limited goods, where the aim of interested parties is not only achieving their own goals, but also neutralising, destroying or eliminating their opponent. A conflict is a situation, where two or more parties firmly believe, that their individual goals are impossible to combine. A conflict is a resultant of attitudes, behaviours and contradictions. It is a three-element construct (triad). It can be above all identified by human behaviours, but main sources of conflict are attitudes and believes. A Conflict is a social situation, in which a clash of opposing interests, attitudes and individuals' values and (or) groups functioning within a given organization takes place, the consequences of which are specific behaviours. A conflict is a struggle, the aim of which is striving or counteracting towards acquiring power or access to valuable resources. It is a contradictory status of aims between groups, where some of them achieve their goals, while others are not able to do so. It takes a form of competition, litigations, tensions or evident social clashes. A conflict is a misunderstanding concerning goals and means of their achieving, or when emotional antagonisms are sources of conflict between people or groups.

Source: Own research based on: S. P. Robbins, Behaviours in Organization, PWE, Warsaw 2004, p. 308; Pocztowski A., Human Resources Management, Strategies, Structures, Processes, PWE, Warsaw 2003, p. 434; Organizational Behaviours. Selected Issues edited by A. Potocki, Difin, Warsaw 2005, p. 103, 205; A. Adamus Matuszynska, Contemporary Social Conflict Theories, Published by AE in Katowice, Katowice 1998, p. 13,

37.

According to J. Galtung, one has to differentiate between situations called3: 1. brushes - a brush is a situation between two people that pursue the same aim, which leads to hurting one of them, 2. dilemmas - a dilemma is one person's problem, where that person strives to pursue two contradicting aims; such a situation may lead to personal conflict and even to self-destruction;
3

A. Adamus Matuszynska, Contemporary Social Conflict Theories, op. cit.,p. 37

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

3. contradictions - contradictions are situations, where selected aim is not possible to be achieved in a given social system.

Conflicts can be perceived in two ways. The first view claims that in general, conflicts are negative and dysfunctional, as well as that they have a destructive character and that said, they are to be suppressed and not allowed to be fully developed. A different approach towards this problem emphasizes that although in general conflicts are unavoidable, they may also possess a positive (functional, constructive) character and may be used for the good of the entire organization. Positive and negative aspects of conflicts were presented in chart 2.

Table 2 Positive and negative aspects of conflicts. Positive aspects increases the quality of decisions made, stimulates creativity and innovation, frees group members' curiosity and interests, facilitates development of new concepts, binds group, increases work motivation, reveals "flashpoints" that need fixing, enables releasing of tensions and frustrations, begins significant changes, improves communication channels, creates positive competition, improves atmosphere at work,
Source: Own study.

Negative aspects deteriorates group relationships, can lead to group's destruction, smaller group's integrity, can lead to interference in communication processes, causes chaos, disorganizes group's work, lowers group member's morale, causes hostility and suspicion in contacts with other people,

Causes of conflicts are different contradictions that take place between people and have various character. They are not unambiguous. Their causes, which possess both subjective and objective character, are various and strongly connected with each other. Examples of definitions of conflicts has been included in chart 3.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

Table 3 Subjective and objective sources of conflicts. Subjective sources of conflicts. individual's features of characters people's attitudes ways of behaviour expressed opinions expectations and predictions resulting from work in a given enterprise people's features of personality

Objective sources of conflicts. contradictions between needs and possibilities of their satiating contradictions between interests of a given worker and interests of entire company incorrect communication cultural differences fulfilling social roles insatiable needs

Source: K. Zjawiona, Managing Conflict as a Determinant of Work Group's Efficiency "In Search for Strategic Competitive Advantages", edited by J. L. Czarnoty, K. Moszkowicz, Published by Czestochowa University of Technology Faculty of Management, Czestochowa 2003, p. 244

Creation of conflicts and types of individual's behaviour depend on cultural conditioning. Starting from the beginning of XX century one of psychological concepts of conflict (e.g. G. Trade, G. Le Bon, K. Horney) established that sources of individual and social conflicts ought to be traced in contradictions within social-cultural systems of modern societies) Also functionalism (as well as neopsychoanalytical theories) establishes that the main reasons of conflicts are discords between culturally determined norms and individual's aims and socially structuralized capabilities of group members concerning obeying those values and norms. If there is a compatibility between individual's pursuits already formed by the culture and institutionalised in social structure means of realizing these pursuits, then one may talk about social balance. All shifting of that balance leads to phenomena of social deviation, manifested by non-conforming and pathological behaviours. All of them are considered to be conflictfacilitating factors4.. Representatives of different cultures are characterized by different attitudes towards conflict, as well as means of coping with it. For instance, in countries that may be described by a high level of quality expectancy towards life (such as Scandinavian countries) the most frequent situation is either avoiding or giving in as a means of solving a given conflict situation, with compromise or competition being less common. On the other hand, open and more direct cultures (e.g. Americans) are more favourable towards competition and cooperation instead of avoidance or concession. In Japan or Greece - i.e. countries characterized by a high ratio of avoiding uncertainty, people are encouraged to cooperate (guarantee of employment and obeying formal rules facilitate minimization of conflicts)5.

Starting from the beginning of XX century one of psychological concepts of conflict (.e.g G. Trade, G. Le Bon, K. Horney) established that sources of individual and social conflicts ought to be traced in contradictions within social-cultural systems of modern societies) A. Adamus Matuszynska, Contemporary Social Conflict Theories, op. cit.,p. 13 5 S. P. Robbins, Behaviours in Organization, op. cit., p.317

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

Taking into consideration an undeniable influence of culture on both creation, as well as a way of conflict solving, the project takes advantage of S.P. Robbins's and D. De Dencoz's classification, grouping the reasons of all conflicts into three categories: 1. communication differences - these are misunderstandings that derive from semantic
difficulties, mutual misunderstandings and communication channels' interferences; which in conditions of cultural variety not only means problems connected with lack of language skills but also cultural context of given phrases and spoken utterances' 2. structural differences - they cause integration issues which often lead to conflicts; individuals do not agree in terms of common aims, potential decisions, effectiveness criteria or resources share. In such cases conflicts are not caused by insufficient communication or personal hostility rather than that, they are simply more rooted in the organizational structure and cultural differences might further strengthen these problems due to lack of both knowledge, as well as acceptance of employed management method; 3. personal differences - a conflict might be caused by a personal bias and systems of values; a mutual dislike between people hinders their cooperation; factors like: origin, education, gender, race, religion and experience constitute a unique human personality with a very specific collection of cherished values. In organizational conditions and during close personal contact these might cause a problem.

The knowledge concerning conflicts and ways of their solving can be found useful to every manager, no matter the level of his management because "... organizations are social systems, which means that they are formed by people with a variety of personalities, opinions, believes, aspirations and career pursuits. Apart from that, they hold different places in organizational hierarchy and perform different functions, as well as engage themselves on different levels into institution's functioning and take different amounts of responsibility in the enterprise..."6. All of these might cause tensions and already mentioned conflicts. It is up to manager to not let the situation get out of hand, paralysing functioning of the organization. There is a number conflict solving methods - presented in chart 4.

Organizational Behaviours Selected Issues, op. cit., p. 100

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

Table 4 Means of conflict solving. Strategy Most effective when: The conflict is small with some strong emotions present which will be remedied by time necessary to calm down, or when potentially Avoidance destructive effects of active behaviour prevail over benefits coming from conflict solving. The issue being the subject of the dispute does not hold any Giving in importance for all parties or they intend to acquire arguments for the future. The need for quick solution requires unpopular actions or when Imposing engaging others in conflict and its solving is not crucial. Parties have more or less comparable power and it is why it is Compromise advisable to postpone the issue, or when the time is the leading factor. Time pressure is minimal and all parties are serious about Cooperation achieving winner-winner solution, when the issue is to serious to risk any compromise. Source: S. P. Robbins, D. A. DeCenzo, Basics of Management, PWE, Warsaw 2002, p. 539.

If the conflict is positively solved it automatically increases the trust level between the workers, it integrates the group and introduces the feeling of better understanding. Finding constructive solution brings employees closer to each other which in turn should facilitate future struggles of this type.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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2. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES' SITUATION WITHIN PARTNERING COUNTRIES


Small and medium enterprises are pillars of economic development of all member UE countries and their functioning stands for a healthy competition, as well as reflection of societys entrepreneurship. Several last years have in a significant way changed the global economy. Due to advancing integration and globalisation processes, as well as creation and popularisation of new technology usage there was a radical change in functioning conditions of all enterprises, no matter their size. Still, it is small and medium enterprises that suffered the most due to environmental change, as once safe market niches are no more along with diminishing of local markets and increase in competition, as well as uncertainty concerning conditions reinforced by world economic crisis forces them to seek out new areas of operation and new possibilities. Current changes observed in many aspects of SME functioning are, first of all, internationalisation of their activity, growth of IT and communication technologies (ITC), as well as growing innovativeness and creation of various network connections. New functioning conditions of SME create, on the one hand, a chance for development and expansion, on the other one however, they are a clear threat to existence of many small companies. Economic integration and advancing globalisation advances SME's internationalisation. It is worth to emphasize, that motives of internationalisation within SME are very varied. These motives are above all a desire to improve the company's competitiveness, its development, access to technology and know-how or high production cost on domestic market. Thus, the decision concerning internationalisation is depends on company's different strategic aims. Moreover, access to new market being the motive behind internationalisation is mostly corresponding to one of two factors - the so called push factor, where domestic market is limited or so called pull factor, where the company notices its chance on foreign markets. Enterprises based on advanced technologies and innovative ones internationalise quicker, very often being international starting from their "birth"7. Creation of Single European Market (SEM) altered not only conditions of enterprises' functioning, but above all imposed and it is still imposing changes concerning way of thinking about enterprise management. Elimination of economic barriers between countries it the most spectacular example of influence of changes of environment on enterprises' activity. Nowhere else in the world the economic integration is so advanced. The companies operating on SEM cease to do so on international one - instead, on may say that they are present on enlarged domestic market. Boundaries between currently understood domestic market and SEM is getting more and more blurry. It is safe to assume, that there will be a similar change in understanding of SEM by the entrepreneurs. More and more significant number of SME is starting to perceive SEM as a domestic market (internal). In terminological sense, and to determine enterprises' criteria of classification, in order to describe which enterprises qualify to SME sector, it is necessary to add that it has an
7

N. Daszkiewicz, Small and Medium Enterprises - Chances and Dangers of their Growth , Published by CeDeWu, Warsaw 2007, p. 9-10

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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evolutionary character and thus constitutes a certain process. In 1996 the Commission agreed upon recommendation concerning setting of the first definition of SME 8. This definition has been widely used in the entire European Union. On 6th may 2003, the Commission accepted new recommendation9 in order to provide for tendency in economic growth after 1996. It became legally binding after January 1st 2005 and found application in all policies, programs and actions which the Commission implements regarding SME. Currently, the most up-to-date document regulating issues concerning definition and classification of enterprises is the Commission's regulation no. 800/2008 from August 6th 2008. For member countries usage of definition is not compulsory, however the Commission, European Investment Bank (EIB) and European Investment Fund (EIF) prompt member countries to use it the widest way possible. Enterprises classification according to their sizes takes into consideration the following categories: 1) Medium enterprise medium enterprise is an enterprise, which employs less than 250 workers and which annual turnover does not exceed 50 millions euro or total annual balance does not exceed 43 million euro; 2) Small enterprise is an enterprise which employs less than 50 workers and which annual turnover does not exceed 10 millions euro or total annual balance does not exceed 10 million euro; 3) Small enterprise is an enterprise which employs less than 10 workers and which annual turnover does not exceed 2 millions euro or total annual balance does not exceed 2 million euro; 4) Microenterprise - is an enterprise which employs less than 10 workers and which annual turnover does not exceed 2 millions euro or total annual does not exceed 2 million euro. Among factors shaping conditions of enterprises' businesses it is worth pointing economic conditions. Comparison of selected economic parameters in partnership countries in relation to average in EU countries presented in chart 5.

Commission's recommendation 96/280/WE from April 3th 1996 concerning small and medium enterprises, Journal of Law 107 from 30.04.1996, p. 4-9 Commission's recommendation 2003/361/WE from April 36h 2003 concerning small and medium enterprises, Journal of Law 124 from 20.05.2003, p. 36-41

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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Table 5 Selected economic indicators of partnership countries in 2008 (in %). Spain inflation unemployment investments in relation to GDP budget deficit in relation to GDP budget debt in relation to GDP GDP per capita 4.1 14.3 29.4 -3.8 39.5 103 Poland 4.2 7.0 22 -3.9 47.1 56 Great Britain 3.6 6.4 16.7 -5.5 52.0 116 EU countries (27) 3.7 7.6 21.1 -2.3 61.5 100

Source: basing on SME Sector in Poland in 2007-2008, Warsaw, PARP 2009, p. 22

Indicators presented in chart 5 illustrate in a synthetic way discrepancies in economic condition of compared countries. The smallest inflation level is in Great Britain and it is slightly lower than European average, while in both Spain and Poland it is very close (4,1 and 4,2% respectively). It is possible to notice discrepancies in GDP per inhabitant. Poland has the worst situation and its GDP per inhabitant makes for only 56% of value reached in EU countries. In comparison of economic situation of individual countries, it is worth to take notice of enterprises' expenditure structure (chart 1).

Chart 1 Business economy overview operating expenditure, non-financial business economy, 2006 [%].
18,8 81,2

UK

Poland

10,2 89,8

Spain

15,6 84,4

EU

16,1 83,9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Purchases of goods &services

Personnel costs

Source: Eurostat (SBS).

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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From partnership countries, the highest work cost level in 2006 can be found in Great Britain (18,8%), while the lowest one in Poland (10,2%) It means, that in comparison with other countries Poland spends the smallest amount of money connected with working costs. Employment rate, as well as value added due to enterprises' size for 27 EU countries is presented in chart 2.

Chart 2 Employment and value added by enterprise size class, non-financial business economy, EU-27, 2005 [%].
42,4 32,9

Large

Medium -sized

17,8 16,8

Sm all

18,9 20,6

Micro

20,9 29,6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

em ploym ent

value added

Source: Eurostat (SBS).

As it can be observed, in scale of the entire EU the biggest companies employ the largest numbers of workers and work out the most significant added value. The second economic force that generates income and creating work places in UE are the smallest companies: micro enterprises. Number of enterprises from SME sector in compared countries is presented in chart 3.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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Chart 3 Number of enterprises economy by size-class, 2006 [% share of total].


1,7 1 0,8 1,1 10,5 Sm all 2,9 6,8 6,9 87,5 Micro 95,9 92,2 91,8 99,6 99,8 99,9 99,8 0 20 40 EU Spain 60 Poland UK 80 100 120

Med.

SMSs

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

In all analysed countries SME sector is a significant economy force - more than 99% of all enterprises are companies from that sector. The most numerous are micro enterprises, yet in Poland these are the biggest part of active companies than in other countries. On the other hand, the number of small companies is the lowest in Poland, where in Great Britain it is the biggest. Chart 4 presents structure of added value in.
Chart 4 Value added by size-class, 2006 [% share of total].
16,6 Med. 20,1 17,3 17,8 15,5 Sm all 11,5 24,1 18,9 18,5 16,8 26,5 21 50,7 48,4 67,9 57,7 0 10 20 30 EU Spain 40 Poland 50 UK 60 70 80

Micro

SMSs

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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Microenterprises and small companies generate the biggest part of added value in Spain and the smallest in Poland. The scale of employment in enterprises from SME sector is presented in chart 5.
Chart 5 Number of enterprises economy by size-class, 2006 [% share of total].
15,4 18,7 14,8 17 17,9 Sm all 12 25,5 20,7 21,5 Micro 29,7 54,8 SMSs 69,8 78,0 67,4 0 10 20 30 EU 40 Spain 50 Poland UK 60 70 80 90 39,2 37,7

Med.

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

In all analysed countries, the biggest number of people is employed in microenterprises, yet in Great Britain it the significantly smaller percent (21,5%) than in Poland (39,2%) or Spain (37,7%). Number of created employment positions by SME sector in individual countries is presented in chart 6.
Chart 6 Ratio of average employment in SME sector to total employment in 2005 [%].
UK

54,0

Poland

69,8

Spain

78,7

EU

67,1

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Source: Own study based on: SME Sector in Poland in 2007-2008, Warsaw, PARP 2009

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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The biggest part of all workers is employed in SME sector in Spain (78,7%) and then in Poland (69,8%). It turns out that the smallest share of working places created by this sector is in Great Britain. Scope of employment in SME sector's enterprises is huge: starting from selfemployment up to 249 people. Chart 7 presents average level of employment in SME sector's enterprises in individual countries.
Chart 7 Average level of employment in SME sector's in 2005.
9
7,9

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 EU27 Spain Poland UK


6,8 6,1 5,7

Source: Observatory of European SMEs Analytical Report , The Gallup Organization, 2007, p. 13.

On average, in 27 EU countries SME sector enterprise employs 6,8 people full time. The smallest enterprises are in Poland (employing 5,7 people full time) which seems to be understandable due to the biggest number of microenterprises.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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3.

DEMOGRAPHIC COUNTRIES

CONDITIONING

OF

CONFLICTS

IN

PARTNERING

Chart 8 Share of EU-27 population of partnership countries [%].


14 12,2 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 12,2 12,2 12,3 12,3

8,6 7,9

8,7 7,8

8,8 7,8

8,9 7,7

9,0 7,7

Spain Poland United Kindom

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

Chart 9 Crude rate of net migration plus adjustment per 1 000 persons.
17 15,6 14,9 15 14,3 14,8 13,7 13

11 9,2 9 Spain 7 Poland United Kindom EU (27 countries) 5 4,2 3,0 3 1,3 1 -0,2 2004 0,0 -0,4 2003 -3 -0,3 2005 -0,9 2006 -0,5 2007 -0,4 2008 2009 1,7 4,0 3,8 3,8 3,6 3,8 3,2 3,0 2,9 3,3 2,9

2,9

-1

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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Chart 10 Asylum applications [persons].


70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Spain Poland United Kindom

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

These figures refer to all persons who apply on an individual basis for asylum or similar protection, irrespective of whether they lodge their application on arrival at the border, or from inside the country, and irrespective of whether they entered the country legally or illegally. Due to different methods of collecting the information, data from different countries may not be entirely comparable.

Table 6 Acquisition of citizenship in the EU27, 2008 [number]. 2007 Spain Poland United Kingdom EU (27 countries) 71,940 1,540 164,540 707,110 2008 84,170 1800 129260 695,880 per 1000 inhabitants 1.8 0.0 2.1 1.4

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

One of the most important features characterizing a development level of a given society is a level of education. At the same time it is also a measuring tool utilized for human capital category assessment which comprises of knowledge, experience, skills, motivation, as well as morale of a given population. Even though it is known that no contemporary educational system can ensure a life-lasting education, still it is still capable of better preparation for requirements that are set by potential employers. School education, even on the highest level possible should only serve as a beginning to a permanent one, the one that last through the entire lifespan.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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Chart 11 Educational attainment: adult population in 2006.


24

Tertiary education
18

30

29

Post-secondary non-tertiary education

0
4 45

Upper secondary education

56

21
64 31

Lower secondary education

14

27
14

Pre-primary and primary education

23

10

20

30 Poland Spain

40 UK EU_19

50

60

70

Source: On the basis: Education at a glance 2008, Report OECD

Chart 12 Population that has attained tertiary education [%, 2006].


18 24

55-64
13

15 21

45-54
13

22 25

29

35-44
17

31 31 30

25-34
28

37

39

10

15 Poland

20 Spain

25 UK

30 UE19

35

40

45

Source: On the basis: Education at a glance 2008, 2008, OECD

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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Chart 13 Structure of people with higher education level in reference to gender [%, 2006].
UE19 25 23 30 31 28 28 20 16 0 5 10 15 m ales 20 fem ales 25 30 35

UK

Spain

Poland

Source: On the basis: Education at a glance 2008, OECD Distribution of the 25-to-64-year-old male/female population, by highest level of education attained.

Table 7 Percentage of population between 25- 34 years old that have reached high level education in 2008 [%]. Total Men EU (27) Spain Poland UK
Source: INE

Women 34.7 43.7 38.7 40.3

30.9 38.8 32.1 38.6

27.2 34.2 25.6 37.0

As requested by the European Commission Resolution of 15 November 2007, the Communication New skills for new jobs (COM(2008) 868 final) presents a first assessment of the EUs future skills and jobs requirements up to 2020. On 16 December 2008, the European Commission published its proposal for better matching and anticipating labour market needs, accompanied by a staff working document, outlining more effective ways to analyse and predict which skills will be needed in tomorrows labour market. In order to put Europe on the road to recovery after the severity of the economic crisis, it is essential to enhance human capital and employability by upgrading skills and ensuring a better match between the supply of skills and labour market demand. Diversified level of solutions concerning human resources management is confirmed by a number of facts. One of them is for instance approach towards age management in the enterprise: activeness of entities engaged in age management development partnership realized within EQUAL boundaries. The Development Partnerships was realized cross follows topics: Employability - (Re-)integration to the labour market Employability Combating racism 21

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

Entrepreneurship Business creation Entrepreneurship Social economy Adaptability - Life long learning Adaptability - Adaptation to change and NIT Equal opportunities Reconciling family and professional life Equal opportunities Reducing gender gaps and desegregation Asylum seekers

It is possible to take notice of a substantial difference in number of realized partnerships within age management in partnership countries. Poland completed 6 of them, Spain 3 while Great Britain 4010.
Chart 14 Participation in lifelong learning, by country and gender, 2008 [%].
25
23,2 19,9

20
16,6

15
11,3 9,5 10,4 8,7 5,2 4,7 10,4 9,6

Men Women Total

10

4,2

0 Spain Poland United Kindom EU (27 countries)

Source: A European Age Management Network: the way forward? EQUAL European Social Fund, June 2007, p. 35

In scale of the entire EU it is women who are more eager to take part in life long learning programs and in general show more active attitude towards forming of their professional career.

10

A European Age Management Network: the way forward? EQUAL European Social Fund, June 2007, p. 35

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

22

3.1. WOMEN'S SITUATION IN PARTNERSHIP COUNTRIES


A natural feature of specific social groups, including work teams is a variety. This might apply to gender, age, education, believes or followed values. Advancing globalisation and integration processes that lead towards eradication of human capital flows' barriers are also considered to be an accelerator of a variety growth within work teams. It is not always however, that this same variety is used in a positive way for both enterprise, as well as workers, as one of its consequences might be negative phenomena and social pathologies, including discrimination. This problem was noticed in the 50s when International Labour Organization passed the convention against this phenomenon. Convention no. 100 concerns unified salary level for both working men and women for the jobs with the same value from 1951 and Convention no. 111 concerning discrimination in terms of employment and carrying out of profession from 1958. Discrimination became the subject of legal regulations within countries that constitute the European community, introducing proper regulations in terms of forbidding it legally. Art. 2 of directive from February 9th 1976 concerning introduction of equal treatment of men and women in terms of access to employment, education and professional promotion and working conditions (76/207/EWG) defined the rule of equality as a "lack of discrimination due to gender, both direct and indirect, especially in terms of marital and family statuses". Ban on discrimination includes rules concerning employment selection, access to all job positions and all hierarchy levels, as well as counselling and professional education. In order to eradicate symptoms of discrimination, EU partnership countries are to invalidate or alter all provisions within normative acts that are in direct violation with women and men equality at work. Countries were also obliged to monitor that all regulations not complying with rule of equal treatment included in collective agreements, individual work contracts, inner enterprises regulations or rules regulating execution of free professions became invalid or it would be possible to be deemed invalid, or at least changed. The directive obliges all partnership Union countries to equip both men and women with the same working conditions, without any form of discrimination due to age, including terms of leave. Understanding "working conditions" concerns employer's obligation to assure safe and hygienic working conditions, as well as unified behaviour towards all workers when terminating a work contract. The Global Gender Gap Index examines the gap between men and women in four fundamental categories: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, political empowerment and health and survival. Economic participation and opportunity This area is captured through three concepts: the participation gap, the remuneration gap and the advancement gap. The participation gap is captured through the difference in labour force participation rates. The remuneration gap is captured through a hard data indicator (ratio of estimated female-to-male earned income) and a qualitative variable calculated through the World Economic Forums Executive Opinion Survey (wage equality for similar work). Finally, the gap between the advancement of women and men is captured through two hard data statistics (the ratio of women to men among legislators, 23

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

senior officials and managers, and the ratio of women to men among technical and professional workers). Educational attainment. In this category, the gap between women and mens current access to education is captured through ratios of women to men in primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level education. A longer-term view of the countrys ability to educate women and men in equal numbers is captured through the ratio of the female literacy rate to the male literacy rate. Political empowerment. This category includes mainly measures of the gap between men and women in political decision-making at the highest levels. This concept is captured through the ratio of women to men in minister-level positions and the ratio of women to men in parliamentary positions. In addition, we include the ratio of women to men in terms of years in executive office (prime minister or president) in the last 50 years. A clear drawback in this category is the absence of any variables capturing differences between the participation of women and men at local levels of government. Should such data become available at a global level in future years, they will be considered for inclusion in the Global Gender Gap Index. Health and survival. This category attempts to provide an overview of the differences between women and mens health. To do this, we use two variables. First, we use the gap between women and mens healthy life expectancy, calculated by the World Health Organization. This measure provides an estimate of the number of years that women and men can expect to live in good health, by taking into account the years lost to violence, disease, malnutrition or other relevant factors. The second variable included in this subindex is the sex ratio at birth. This variable aims specifically to capture the phenomenon of missing women prevalent in many countries with strong son preference. The Global Gender Gap Index shows that the 134 countries covered in the Report, representing over 90% of the worlds population
Table 8 Comparisons The Global Gender Gap Index 2009 rankings.
2006 rank Spain Poland UK 11 44 9 score 0.7319 0.6802 0.7365 rank 10 60 11 2007 score 0.7444 0.6756 0.7441 rank 17 49 13 2008 score 0.7281 0.6951 0.7366 rank 17 50 15 2009 score 0.7345 0.6998 0.7402

Source: On the basis The Global Gender Gap Report, World Economic Forum, Geneva 2009.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

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Table 9 The Global Gender Gap Index 2009 [ rank].


Economic Participation and Opportunity Spain Poland UK 90 71 35 Educational Attainment 56 33 1 Health and Survival 80 41 72 Political Empowerment 9 40 22

Source: On the basis The Global Gender Gap Report, World Economic Forum, Geneva 2009.

Chart 15 The Global Gender Gap In 2009 score.

Political Empowerment

Health and Survival

Educational Attainment

Economic Participation and Opportunity 0 0,2 0,4 Spain 0,6 Poland 0,8 United Kindom 1 1,2

Source: On the basis The Global Gender Gap Report, World Economic Forum, Geneva 2009.

Chart 16 Unadjusted gender pay gap, as percentages of mens gross hourly earnings [%].
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Spain Poland United Kindom EU (27 countries)
24,3 21,1 17,9 17,6 17,7 17,4

2006 2007

7,5

7,5

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

25

4. LABOUR MARKET SITUATION AS A DETERMINANT OF SME SECTOR'S CONFLICTS

Chart 17 Unemployment rates Member States [%].


25

20 Spain Poland United Kindom 10 EU (27 countries)

15

0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

Chart 18 Unemployment rates [%].


25
19,3 19,9

20

15 December 2009
9,8 9,3 7,8 7,9 9,6

May 2010

10

8,4

0 Spain Poland United Kindom EU (27 countries)

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

26

Chart 19 Unemployment rates by gender in 2004.


25,0
20,0

20,0
14,3

18,2

15,0

Male, 2004
9,8

Female, 2004

10,0

8,0 5,1 4,2

8,5

5,0

0,0 Spain Poland United Kindom EU (27 countries)

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

Chart 20 Table unemployment rates by gender in 2009.


20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Spain Poland United Kindom EU (27 countries)
8,7 7,8 6,4 8,6 8,8 9,4 18,4

17,7

Female, 2009 Male, 2009

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

27

Chart 21 Long-term unemployment rates, by gender, 2008 [%].


6 5 4 3 2
1,1 2,5 1,7 1,6 0,9 1,3 2,8 4,6 5,4 4,9

3,3

3,0

1 0 Spain Poland
Men Wom en

United Kindom
Total

EU (27 countries)

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

Chart 22 Gender gap in employment, by country, 2007 [%].


25
21,5

20

15

14,2 13,0 12,0

10

0 Spain Poland United Kindom EU (27 countries)

Source: Annual review of working conditions in the EU 2008-2009, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2009, p. 5

A difference in women's situation on partnership countries' labour market is highly noticeable11: Women employment indicator in 2007 was 55% for Spain and 50% for Poland, while in Great Britain it reached 65%, with EU27 average of 58%.

11

Source: Annual review of working conditions in the EU 2008-2009, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2009, s. 6-7.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

28

There was a visible change in women's situation on labour markets between 2002 and 2008; during that time there was a 10,4% increase in Spain's women's employment rate while the same indicator in Poland increased by 3,9% and in Great Britain only by 0,3%. An average growth in women's employment in 27 EU was 2,8%.
Chart 23 Table unemployment rates by age in 2009.
40 35 30 25
20,6 37,8

20 15 10 5 0

19,1

19,6

<25 years 25-74 years

15,9

6,8

7,6 5,5

Spain

Poland

United Kindom

EU (27 countries)

Source: On the basis of Eurostat (SBS).

Based on EUROSTAT's data, it is safe to claim, that the indicator of seniors' employment rate in 2007 was the highest in Great Britain and reached 58%, with Spain having a very similar rate near European average (27 EU) - 44%. At the same time, in Poland it was less than 30%. (p. 12). Some changes can be also noted between analysed countries in relation to average age of leaving labour market. Poles are considered to be the group with the least professional activity as they leave labour market at the age of 59,3. Spaniards work until 62,1 and in Great Britain it is 62,6, with European average age being 61,2. (Annual review of working conditions in the EU 2008-2009, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2009s.13)

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

29

Chart 24 Youth unemployment rates, by gender, 2008 (%).


30
25,8

25 20

23,7

24,6 19,9 17,3 15,2 17,0 15,0 12,7 15,5 15,2 15,4

Men Women Total

15 10 5 0 Spain Poland

United Kindom

EU (27 countries)

Source: Annual review of working conditions in the EU 2008-2009, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2009, p. 5

Chart 25 Share of employed in the age of 55-56 during 2007.

EU (27 countries)

44,7

United Kindom

57,4

Poland

29,7

Spain

44,6

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Source: Age management Mayday Model of Active Support of Employees from 50+ Companies, published by Politechnika Gdanska, Gdansk 2008

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

30

Chart 26 Share of women employed in the age of 55-64 during 2007.

EU (27 countries)

36,0

United Kindom

47,9

Poland

19,4

Spain

30,0

0,0

10,0

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0

Source: Age management Mayday Model of Active Support of Employees from 50+ Companies, published by Politechnika Gdanska, Gdansk 2008

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

31

5. WORKING CONDITIONS AS A DETERMINANT OF CONFLICTS

The proportion of non-permanent employees, that is, with temporary employment contracts, in the EU in 2007 was 14.4% of total employment, the same as in 2006 (p. 29, report concerning working conditions). The situation on the label market is creating by wide range factors. Among them there it is necessary to note about temporary work as a way of increasing of flexibility of employment and enlarge the opportunity for work. The measure we can use to show the role of Private Employment Agency is TAW penetration rates. It is a number of temporary agency workers in FTE/total employment (Eurostat statistics). This rate was established in 2006 for Poland 0,2%; for Spain 0,7% and for UK 4,5%. It means that there is big difference between UK and other two partner country: temporary work is much popular in UK and as the different research and publications have shown such kind of work is acceptable by people in much more wide range than in Poland or Spanish. Such kind of work gives many positives, e.g. . But it has one big disadvantage: it doesnt give safety filing and stabilization that people expect form work. It confirms answers of temporary workers that in UK 33% among them dont want a permanent job, in Spain it is 13% respondents12. Average working time in EU for full-time employed decreased from 41,9 to 41,8 hours (in years 2006-2007). The longest working week is that of British (both in 2006 and 2007) with a similar amount of time in 2006 in Poland, with a slight decrease in the next year. In 2006 Spaniards devoted slightly more than 42 hours weekly for work, but during the next year it was exactly 42 hours.13

12 13

More work opportunities for more people, Report Commissioned by Eurociett, 2007. Annual review of working conditions in the EU 2008-2009, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2009, p.49.

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6. FINANCIAL SECURITY AS A DETERMINANT OF EMPLOYEES' SITUATION

Table 10 Comparison of minimum wages conditions.


Specification Year implementations Subject-matter scope Spain 1980 All workers Poland 1990 All workers Regulated by government on the basis of recommendation from social partners One or twice per year based on government's inflation forecasts monthly UK 1999 All workers above 16 years Regulated by government on based on recommendation from social partners By government based on social partners' recommendation Hourly 5.80 - the main rate for workers aged 22 and over 4.83 - the 18-21 rate 3.57 - the 16-17 rate for workers above school leaving age but under 18

Method of determining

Regulated by government Mostly once per year by government monthly and daily

Method of valorisation Type of rate Statutory level in national currency on 01.01.2010

633,30 EUR

1317 PLN

Source: Minimum Wages in 2008. Statistics in focus 105/2008, EUROSTAT

Chart 27 Comparison of minimum wages in February 2006 [EUR].

United Kindom

1269

Poland

234

Spain

631

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Source: Statistics in focus, Theme 3 9/2006, Eurostat.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

33

Chart 28 Total yearly salary averages of researches in EU25, 2006, [EUR].

United Kindom

52776 56048

Poland
11659

21591

Spain

38873 34908

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

remuneration average in EUR

remuneration average in EUR in terms of PPS

Source: Remuneration of researches in the Public and Private Sectors. Final Report . European Commission, April 2007

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

34

SUMMARY
Being inseparably tied with society's structures, a conflict is an inevitable phenomena. It is said that the more means of communication there is among people, the bigger the chance for having a conflict. A conflict is very negative, as the majority of people is not able to cope with it effectively. On the other hand, it is very tempting to take part in it, even though we are fully aware of negative consequences of such an action. The evil lies within the conflicts, which despite being a natural phenomena of social life are also related to a lot of undesirable effects. The destructive consequences of conflicts are, for the most of the time, a result of incorrect proceeding during conflict situation.14Conflicts take place in every institution and their scale and intensity is largely varied for those involved in them. Some take advantage of a conflict for their purposes, treating it as merely a tool being a part of their overall strategies. They use it to realize their own agenda. These individuals are not interested in solving the conflict. Some use it as an element of demonstrating strength. No matter whether people want to solve the conflict or not, it still has a significant influence on their ability to communicate and work performance. The costs of an on-going argument is suffered by the entire organization, its workers and co-workers. In its most serious form, a conflict is capable of leading the entire work teams and in some rare cases even the entire enterprise to a stalemate situation. Now that diversity is a major factor to address, analyse and manage; companies and institutions are starting to address the issue of differences. The two major factors of differences the business world has awaken to are: immigration and women in the workplace. Age, which is a critical factor that impacts the social security system and therefore the sustainability of the present welfare state, is in danger. The social environment lacks infrastructure to face an aging population without health and social care in place. The double income families have a lack of support for children schooling. Yet these issues are still to become part of the agenda. Only major corporations which have been active multi-nationally have had to face multiculturalism some time ago. And have developed diversity and inclusion policies to control conflicts, which they rightly had identified as a major source of corporate losses. SMEs have not had this multinational experience and now face multiculturalism for the first time with lack of references, knowledge and resources. SMEs are part of the global economy with highly diverse clients and suppliers every day with the possibility of purchasing and selling operating virtually and interacting with the rest of the world to survive in very competitive and innovative scenarios. The need for SMEs to access tools such as the Beyond Diversity CD training and exchange platform is critical for the social and economic development, considering that SMEs are the real base of the EU economy and the creators of over 70% of jobs. Managing conflicts originated by the new typology of the European scenario is critical to make companies of all sizes more efficient, create more and new types of jobs; and stop outsourcing production and services to other parts of the world in search of lower costs.

14

J. Marciniak, op.cit., p. 69.

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35

Managing conflicts bring down the operations costs of companies and improve the quality in work and life of the European citizens.

"This project has been funded with support from the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme.

36

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Adamus - Matuszynska A., Contemporary Theories of Social Conflict, Published by AE in Katowice, Katowice 1998 2. A European Age Management Network: the way forward? EQUAL European Social Fund, June 2007. 3. Annual review of working conditions in the EU 2008-2009, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2009. 4. N. Daszkiewicz, Small and Medium Enterprises - Chances and Dangers of their Growth, Published by CeDeWu, Warsaw 2007 5. Education at a glance 2008, Report OECD 6. Eurostat (SBS). 7. More work opportunities for more people, Report Commissioned by Eurociett, 2007. 8. Observatory of European SMEs Analytical Report, The Gallup Organization, 2007 9. A. Pocztowski, Management of Human Resources. Strategies, Structures, Processes, PWE, Warsaw 2003. 10. A. Pocztowski, Management of Human Resources. Outline of Problematic and Methods, Antykwa, Cracow 1998 11. SME Sector in Poland in 2007-2008, Warsaw, PARP 2009 12. S. P. Robbins, D. A. DeCenzo, Basics of Management, PWE, Warsaw 2002 13. S. P. Robbins, Behaviours in Organization, PWE, Warsaw 2004. 14. Statistics in focus, Theme 3 9/2006, Eurostat. 15. The Global Gender Gap Report, World Economic Forum, Geneva 2009 16. Uniszewski Z., Conflict and Negotiations, Published by Proszynski i S-ka, Warszawa 2000 17. In Search for Strategic Competitive Advantages, edited by J. L. Czarnoty, K. Moszkowicz, Published by Czestochowa University of Technology Faculty of Management, Czestochowa 2003 18. Organizational Behaviours Selected Issues, edited by A. Potocki, Difin, Warsaw 2005, 19. Commission's recommendation 2003/361/WE from April 6th 2003 concerning small and medium enterprises 20. Commission's recommendation 96/280/WE from April 3th 1996 concerning small and medium enterprises 21. Age management Mayday Model of Active Support of Employees from 50+ Companies, published by Politechnika Gdanska, Gdansk 2008

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37

APPENDIX

TABLE INDEX
Table 1 Conflicts' definitions.................................................................................................................... 6 Table 2 Positive and negative aspects of conflicts. ................................................................................. 7 Table 3 Subjective and objective sources of conflicts. ............................................................................. 8 Table 4 Means of conflict solving. ......................................................................................................... 10 Table 5 Selected economic indicators of partnership countries in 2008 (in %). .................................... 13 Table 6 Acquisition of citizenship in the EU27, 2008 [number]. ............................................................ 19 Table 7 Percentage of population between 25- 34 years old that have reached high level education in 2008 [%]. ............................................................................................................................................... 21 Table 8 Comparisons The Global Gender Gap Index 2009 rankings. .................................................... 24 Table 9 The Global Gender Gap Index 2009 [ rank]. ............................................................................. 25 Table 10 Comparison of minimum wages conditions. .......................................................................... 33

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38

CHART INDEX
Chart 1 Business economy overview operating expenditure, non-financial business economy, 2006 [%]. ............................................................................................................................................................... 13 Chart 2 Employment and value added by enterprise size class, non-financial business economy, EU-27, 2005 [%]. ............................................................................................................................................... 14 Chart 3 Number of enterprises economy by size-class, 2006 [% share of total]. ................................. 15 Chart 4 Value added by size-class, 2006 [% share of total]. ................................................................. 15 Chart 5 Number of enterprises economy by size-class, 2006 [% share of total]. ................................. 16 Chart 6 Ratio of average employment in SME sector to total employment in 2005 [%]. .................... 16 Chart 7 Average level of employment in SME sector's in 2005. ........................................................... 17 Chart 8 Share of EU-27 population of partnership countries [%]. ....................................................... 18 Chart 9 Crude rate of net migration plus adjustment per 1 000 persons. ............................................ 18 Chart 10 Asylum applications [persons]. .............................................................................................. 19 Chart 11 Educational attainment: adult population in 2006. .............................................................. 20 Chart 12 Population that has attained tertiary education [%, 2006]. .................................................. 20 Chart 13 Structure of people with higher education level in reference to gender [%, 2006]. .............. 21 Chart 14 Participation in lifelong learning, by country and gender, 2008 [%]. .................................... 22 Chart 15 The Global Gender Gap In 2009 score. ............................................................................... 25 Chart 16 Unadjusted gender pay gap, as percentages of mens gross hourly earnings [%]. ............... 25 Chart 17 Unemployment rates Member States [%]. ............................................................................ 26 Chart 18 Unemployment rates [%]. ...................................................................................................... 26 Chart 19 Unemployment rates by gender in 2004. .............................................................................. 27 Chart 20 Table unemployment rates by gender in 2009. ..................................................................... 27 Chart 21 Long-term unemployment rates, by gender, 2008 [%]. ......................................................... 28 Chart 22 Gender gap in employment, by country, 2007 [%]. ............................................................... 28 Chart 23 Table unemployment rates by age in 2009. .......................................................................... 29 Chart 24 Youth unemployment rates, by gender, 2008 (%). ................................................................ 30 Chart 25 Share of employed in the age of 55-56 during 2007. ............................................................ 30 Chart 26 Share of women employed in the age of 55-64 during 2007. ............................................... 31 Chart 27 Comparison of minimum wages in February 2006 [EUR]. ..................................................... 33 Chart 28 Total yearly salary averages of researches in EU25, 2006, [EUR]. ........................................ 34

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39