The Way the World Is Author(s): Nelson Goodman Source: The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Sep., 1960), pp.

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that forth the the of so are able to is relatively less relatively of of a the error systematic description a system Since has basic supposing mirrors or structure structure or primitive terms elements This paper was read at Princeton University in November. and that we to examine how the world is spelled. But transparent dangerous veridical world.1. and This content downloaded from 142. just sometimes structure that the of is the the world suppose structure of of of the description.51. Coherence the is a characteristic question our account of is not of descriptions. simplicity of the world achieve in describing it.212 on Sat. confusion at the than of level the of is merely the sort isolated of the simplicity we I am speaking and sentences. ought I suppose that before describing whether it is written the world in English we in English. very carefully ought the typography. the the tongue. whether And what not the we of the is the world call significant but whether it is. has since been read at Harvard and Brandeis Universities. world: coherent. reductio maintains world is ad atomic of atomic absurdum a to objects corresponding to atomic facts corresponding blossoms when can an be occasional certain proper A sentences. a distortion to this According thinking. 1 1955. Philosophers features of the world but we same reach as consists sometimes Introduction mistake features of discourse for of discourse. that happens simple description or asserts (and a coherent to be I have will appropriate heard this be description coherent. We seldom conclude that the subject a of words because true description of it does.THEWAY THEWORLD IS NELSON GOODMAN 1. when linguomorphism This we tendency conceive even may the world as the the point comprised and names. no of a description in the the verbosity reflect features parallel to determine world. philosopher if the only said in all unless line of that seriousness) the world simple. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . enough Obviously spelling.

questions. the differ "What's to I am willing friends?" Before admit that philosophy must make make But a determined I shall begin effort to formulate some by discussing alliances the preliminary. seemingly in effect. along. kind or All make another.212 on Sat. filtering a It is not just that each gives but that world. distortion We achieve each introduces part a really faithful portrayal the words Can't of the way the the world is. mystic?my like this: I've been telling "Yes. In this paper. the mind. and asking. descriptions can ever of these be language. that's something saying just what a our are All all Science. that strange. features theme I have of discourse with me. that meanings and so accept the concealed absolutism and involved in maintaining the distinction between analytic of the more synthetic propositions. the senses.1. difference related between I shall us. together seems more first-rate obviously by philosophers picture theory of language. perception. I am not just been stressing for but even touched concerned with but with any general certain recurrent here." Here repeating ence between speaks my own us? Bergsonian. as into absolute still divisible elements suppose uniquely commonly do resolve thus uniquely. the dangers of mistaking of the world. issues I have specific question. is a This main concern a more What me I want whenever to discuss I warn is not my is an uncomfortable the confusion against the arch enemy? anti-intellectualistic. we be obscurantist. through through through some all in media and these distort the way language. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .THEWAY THEWORLD IS out of these. concepts. This content downloaded from 142. Yet we still find acute philosophers to a notion of absolutely under pressure resorting simple qualities or of those who avoid And most of the world thinking particles. truth. partial only never even in of its own. however. you sorry travesty. we of corresponding 49 come to suppose easily atomic elements put in recent wrong than years the built and a graded hierarchy must consist that the world in similar No theory advocated fashion. philosophy?none upon I can hear the faithful utterly ventionalizations through to the world of one as it is. abstractions all filter the or con world that feeling in question.51. comes features this upon.

too extreme. primary. But and the actual given. qualitative along leaving spatial are big in so that our elements each containing everything lumps. in views and the Still and other thinkers is that the world both this seems Offhand. In order he says. colors. Carnap temporal easy enough. the grace the of their debates rephrase or But issue in terms of "ground-elements" "protocol-sentences. manufactured. Let's not differ look But which view of the given more is right? The several or what all the views can contains do be at the question is contained about what A certain visual closely. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . artificial divisions. in the Aufbau stream. pieces. is thus edge raw material product. etc. designs. Thus and synthesis the atomism." in one way the original. it is given the way a these days. least perceptible This content downloaded from 142. to require the ground Carnap wanted as possible to be as nearly to arrive at these. in the given. places. epistemologically we must the of any results all leave out of ordinary experience we we to which This means receive. implies.212 on Sat. presentation. all processes of knowing philosophers are all processes of synthesis.1. monism. of his elements system familiar medium-size in more given are applied. has sound slightly musty a little self-conscious have become about the futility philosophers over to and have the given. duplicated analysis we find given intermediate pluralisms of the to which of metaphysics. found certain there. .50 NELSON GOODMAN 2. to say this is to make our experience at a given moment. Perhaps we The Way the World is Given the world The is by of question Even hardened examining the given some on the way can gain light to us in experience.51. but of one single lumps. it contains agree. analysis subject what initially or out all divisions boundaries. material into or another basic. that the processes rather supposed that have consists of minimal therefore and that the given particles consists not of these big to be combined hold that both with these one views another are in knowing. assumes at the given that the processes But this way of arriving have are Other of analysis. we bare a good to down deal about getting from which all knowledge is elements as raw a of is tacitly conceived processing hear and an that we of knowl understanding the discover just what Knowing a finished supposed is.

and quite This content downloaded from 142. as is not to come a kind of feeling of wholeness that near enough to finding to count. they depart nearest The way we see the world the ard. of degrees in representing the way the can learn a from this we back and less realistic. any sense can be made as. off from one another by perceptible small time such lines of demarcation for any view are there the given.51. pictorial approach sees it. then surely of realism. to the question turns at all. and pictures become progressively photograph. particles is a single undifferentiated a whole but many same how comprised it is given. into thin air. they are there within come we could The nearest what the world the material as is given in question for given would any meaning be to say that this To come near on whether is apprehended with broken-upness. partitioned if For lines of demarcation. or is it as a single whole as Is it given given at the This captures issue?and the precise I do not think For its emptiness. the question the world about is by the way 3. The most picture deal about of distortion. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." of the phrase That an experience is given "given mean are as several parts not that these does parts presented surely are nor can it mean that these parts torn asunder. is. The issue is not what is given of such parts. of to their approximate rate pictures degree easily according quite a one most like color is the realistic realism. a or a feeling of meaning So I am afraid we can get no light on the way the way about asking it is given evaporates For it is given. Perhaps we seen. best. our for only We ideas about pictures consider need everyday a moment to recognize For we this as an encouraging approach. is the way of the whole matter is simple. picturing absence world good If we the The Way the World is to be Seen is best or shall get further by asking how the world some confidence their grade ways of to according of faithfulness can with world seeing by reading the way the world is. to finding of the given.1. particles? discloses IS The 51 is not whether the given question or contains it is many lump tiny parts.212 on Sat. This version to the way the world the camera is.THEWAY THEWORLD and it is a whole. or as more from this stand conventionalized abstract. straightforward.

need only by any such artist to come to see and the world the way I remember the in somewhat we the same For seeing way.212 on Sat. Neumann saying faces of a movie audience realized how realistic an African to see screen we he first pictures An up on. our resistance to new resistance in the or exotic ways of normal to retraining. choice when he stems sees. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But the reveals 'distorted' much more photograph and possibilities is a rather experience. What of the is an activity our training. everywhere the view described every silver has every me. different of painting way represents of each uses its own vocabulary its selection. If I take feet may or come photograph out as large the man? of a man as his If with his Is this why as my feet towards torso. I think. or the one by or the one Manet Holbein by by by Durer ent way 'distortion' something of the photo or unfamiliar styles of of a man?the Sharaku or one the one or the one or the one by C?zanne Each differ by Picasso? a each of seeing. B. it 'realistic' picture. of example important. its emphasis.1. view then I can no longer claim to be standard of faith the photographic of the world The fact of the matter our in attention the way new to something that it differs facts and is that this 'distorted' photograph about from seeing an ordinary in visual trivial The that we had calls Just ignored. the other Thus the hand lethargic the excitement lies art thrilled of African French painters discovery to see and paint. him it shows sculptor This content downloaded from 142. of new acquisition regard that most as the most what Indeed our painting and on skill. the a generally lining thing in its favor except that it is. distorted? If not. or a a make African would quite Japanese that most asked to select the pictures closely sort of us. general to of new distortion the is comparable graph more faithful the is Which portrait painting.51. makes we at the pictures And look hard conventionalization.52 held. then I normally the way do we call such properly see photograph taking fulness. from pictures are unfortunately. in large part upon he happened that once when of the in the reflected glare sculptor are merely brought different depict saw faces. has a big a But black in philosophy cloud?and as NELSON GOODMAN else. quite wrong. so. from it new ways and they learned What is less art to realized that often the is is discoveryof European exciting a new the African for the same reason. it depends perform J.

are or others dull. of this but formula that is beside This way the point acceptance here) of a that corre constitutes spondence theory a natural of truth. excluded. for a true as for a false description. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . is to be Described version of the question Does to be described? of the what The Way now is. fact that to notice the obvious as different the same shock whenever slight "it is rain the sentence disparity Luckily. banal. the way it is. are many and various. matter technical to admittedly as possible This from the rainstorm. by and Had he seen Greek art and pin-up girls. sensitive. might the African different. (I think acceptance erroneous. The the French usually second no doubt Mediaeval is rather artist was influenced on calendar sculpture was fed art. the World familiar We way come to a more How the world is the world we call a true description Most is raining" of us have is true faithfully depict the world? that "it remark statement in our ears Tarski's ringing as well as his if and only if it is raining. artistic leads always is of the African deterioration is that social reasons. in results often African of while absorption European fortunately. realistic of the rest can lay any good claim to be the way of seeing or picturing the world 4. foolish. modifies accordingly. and picturing effective.212 on Sat. For the ways of seeing way of seeing or picturing some are strong.51. seeing. difficult attention is of we therefore.1. we must face is What descriptions. The upshot of all this is that we cannot find out much about the way the world is by asking about the best or most faithful or most it. useful. This content downloaded from 142. have been the results radically instead. tendency of putting in terms a the matter of mirror encourages or faithful ing we to think of truth happen is about ing" and we have reproduction.THEWAY THEWORLD way of IS 53 Un his work and he. weak. almost of European African an artistic advance. intriguing. concern with the ourselves need not here sort of the nature true we can confine our of truth. style adoption is for incidental this But to deterioration. none are even still or all latter if the But blurred. The first simultaneous reason with the more the best introduction intriguing: of African of European that while art. too. But I am digressing.

Is then. none of them features contend. even kind it falls short of being a faithful picture. or picturing or describing it conveys 5. the conventions and no verbal when we emphasis. is given nor any way of seeing to us the way the world is. to bring them more into accord with here are is that just the respects respects in in those descriptions unsystematic Now the tacit the world. is a delusive For we way amounts of picturing In painting. We come now The Way the World : what. descrip we artificial should then make order. is even earlier. according between faithfulness if we say that in terms of grading a difference and good descriptions all true descriptions and good pictures This content downloaded from 142. etc. Some philosophers tions our introduce the way as I noted of the world. to the vehicle. show how that has a it has been undermined.1. saying.. the are different less variable. description the goal realistic and the tacit goal a living gives seen that have merely no to one is to achieve as possible nearly one. than from those but of the most of conventionalization. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of making loses its point the most than descriptions understand faithful exchanging Thus neither picture possible some conventions the way the world approximate pictorial depiction that to turn a description into more to nothing amount would for others. reinforced. of the world described. a that way. NELSON GOODMAN description the world nowhere near faith reproducing A systematic more vulnerable of construction.51. idea the selection. for I have very much just reached conclusion that there is no representation of the way seems on the surface But if our accord to have been second look will have been The faithful descriptions in degree pictures. less peculiar The language.54 the fully fact that even the truest comes is.212 on Sat. description to this charge. a description a But which assumption is unsatisfactory that as which likeness. for it has explicit routes primitives. an arbitrary that if systematic therefore. is the way the to the question world It looks is? Am I still threatened with the friendship of my enemies? the mystic's the world is. true description in terms or true by what we or is un complaint to the world given distorts of some of significance of But to faithfulness.

I spoke of the obvious falsity language. or standard 55 of are we of what is some speaking? faithfulness test of realism would longer Thus before or faithfulness I reject in addition are and we are true. one of them. goodness true of different the world. is not captured the world is and that this way by any description. the world is many The mystic holds that there is some way ways.THEWAY THEWORLD are unfaithful.1. is. descriptions equally is the only standard And when of their faithfulness. that they of these also all involve different true. but a chatter. This content downloaded from 142." answer. is. in sum. is exclusively descriptions of them tells us is." And if I am asked foods. is. The rather that smugly or even represent it describes. the to the very many their truth say of of pictorial There and descriptive truth. is the way the world is? What a shush.51. the world we them that no one saying are since the others world is. what picture was I declared it describes. None conventionalizations. must is the way the world I For likewise "none. be must. but each the way of them tells us a way If I were answer what asked what is the food for men. But there are many ways the world difference and every true description captures me friend and between my is. I should have to For there are many "none. my The are or many descriptions. way question am I rather with Since the ways concerned the world response answer the ways must be to construct one to the question "What the world is?" is not is and to the silence. 6. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . there is no way which is the way the world is. his ultimate response as of the the world is he recognizes. the enormous The difference Since the mystic is concerned with the way the world cannot finds that the way be expressed. Near the beginning of the picture a description the structure the picture theory does not of what of of Postscript of this paper. between absolutism and relativism. language forth the world doesn't represent observed theory or mirror that a picture against devastating charge a description cannot that as it is. equally relative faithfulness us any clear notion the idea that there tests IS then in terms of what We sample have no be. For me.212 on Sat. and so of course no description can capture it. But we have since I began by dropping do this either.

212 on Sat. Perhaps eventually most isn't.1. thing fail to conform of anything the picture to conform This content downloaded from 142. false sometimes obviously is as false University of Pennsylvania.51. of is false is not the picture that what theory a both notion but certain absolutistic concerning pictures language seems what that I shall learn and language.56 the picture theory of language I rejected of pictures. as the structure to. theory the ground that the structure the such or structure of the world. 6 Apr 2013 09:54:22 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or in other words. You as and ended the NELSON GOODMAN language on language not conform to there is no the by adopting picture theory of a description does But I then concluded the world for that of that of say might theory as of true and the picture language theory pictures.

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