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1. La distribucin de velocidades en un ro muy ancho de 2.

8 m de profundidad
vara desde 0.6 m/s muy cerca del fondo hasta 1.9 m/s en la superficie, de
acuerdo con la ecuacin:

y
v 0.6 1.3

2.8

0.45

Cuales son los coeficientes y cuya inclusin en las ecuaciones de Bernoulli


y Momentum respectivamente permite el anlisis unidimensional correcto.

y
v 0.6 1.3

2.8

v 0.6 0.8179 y

0.45

0.45

0.6 0.8179 y

2 .8

Q v dA
v
v
A B y
B 0.6 0.8179 y
2 .8

0.45

B y

0.45

B dy

B y

dy

0.6 0.8179 y

2 .8

0.45

dy

2 .8

Resolviendo la integral por Hewlett Packard la integral se tiene:

4.2
1.5m / s
2.8

v 1 .5 m / s

B 0.6 0.8179 y
v dA


v A
1 .5 B y
2 .8

0.45

dy

0.6 0.8179 y

2.8

0.45

dy
3

1.5 2.8
3

Resolviendo la integral por Hewlett Packard la integral se tiene:

10.415
1.102
1 .5 2 .8

1.102m / s

v dA

v A
2

B 0.6 0.8179 y
2 .8

1 .5 B y
2

0.45

dy

0.6 0.8179 y

2.8

1.5 2.8

Resolviendo la integral por Hewlett Packard la integral se tiene:

6.51
1.033 1.033m / s
1 .5 2 .8
2

0.45

dy
2

2. En una seccin transversal de un puente, las velocidades medidas de flujo


fueron medidas con los puntos medios de varias subreas, como se
muestra en la figura. Calcule los valores y para la seccin transversal.

v dA
3

v A
3

v A
3

v A
3

A A dA
A
1

Q v A v dA

8m 1.4m
5.6m
2

Q 5.6m 1m / s 5.6m / s
2

1.4m 1.6m
A
8m 12m Q 12m 1.3m / s 15.6m / s
2

1.6m 2.4m
A
8m 16m Q 16m 1.5m / s 24m / s
2

2.4m 2m
A
8m 17.6m Q 17.6m 1.6m / s 28.16m / s
2

2m 1.5m
A
8m 14m Q 14m 1.1m / s 15.4m / s
2

A
6

7m 1.5m
5.25m
2

A A 70.45m

Q Av

Q 5.25m 1m / s 5.25m / s
2

Q v A v dA 94.01m / s
3

Q 94.01m / s

1.33m / s v 1.33m / s
A
70.45m
2

v A
3

v A
3

1 5.6 1.3 12 1.5 16 1.6 17.6 1.1 14 1 5.25


1.33 70.45
3

181.94
1.097 1.097
1.33 70.45
v A 1 5.6 1.3 12 1.5 16 1.6 17.6 1.1 14 1 5.25

v A
2

1.33 70.45
2

129.13
1.036 1.036
1.33 70.45
3

3. If a flow of 1.8 m/s is a carried in flume at velocity of 1.2 m/s compute the
dimensions of the cross section if it is:
a) Circular with y = 0.72do.
b) Rectangular with the width equal to twice the depth.
c) Trapezoidal with b = y and side slope 3 horizontal to 4 vertical.
Q = 1.8 m/s
V = 1.2 m/s

Q Av
Q 1.8m / s
A
1.5m A 1.5m
v 1.2m / s
3

a) y = 0.72do.
y do
do

y = 0.72do


cos
2

d
2 cos 0.72 d 0.5d
d
0 .5 d
2
2

0.22d

cos
cos 0.44
2 0.5d
2
0

127.79

rad 231.21

rad
4.053
180

cos 0.44
2
1

1
1.5m 8
A d sen d A 8
2.4776m
8
sen 4.053 sen231.21
2

d 2.4776m d 2.4776m 1.57 m d 1.57 m


2

1
1
P d P 4.053 1.57m 3.18 P 3.18m
2
2
0

A 1 .5 m

0.47 m R 0.47 m
P 3.18m

T d sen T 1.57m sen 231.21 1.416m


2
2
0

A 1.5m
D
1.06m D 1.06m
T 1.416m
b) B = 2y

y
2y

A b y A 2 y y A 2y 1.5m 2 y
2

1 .5 m
y
0.86m y 0.86m
2

P b 2y

P 2 y 2 y P 4 y P 4 0.86m 3.46m P 3.46m


2

A 1 .5 m
R
0.433m R 0.433m
P 3.46m
2

A 1.5m 1.5m
1.5m
D

D 0.87m
T
b
2y
2 0.86m

c) b = y

y
3
b=y

A b y 2 y A y y 2 y A y 2 y A 3y
2

3 y 1.5 y 1.5m 0.7071m y 0.7071m


2

3
z 0.75
4

P b 2 y 1 z P 0.7071m 2 0.7071m 1 0.75


2

P 2.475m
R

A 1 .5 m

0 .6 m R 0 .6 m
P 2.475m
2

A
1.5m
1.5m
1.5m
D

D 0.85m
T b 2 z y y 2 z y 0.7071 2 0.75 0.7071m

4. En

un canal que conduce un caudal de 9 m/s; existe una transicin de


salida, que sirve para unir una seccin rectangular con una trapezoidal,
cuyas dimensiones se muestran en la figura.

Indicar cul es la velocidad en la seccin rectangular, considerar que las


prdidas entre la seccin 1 y 2 son solo por transicin, siendo la frmula para
v v
su clculo:
2

H 0 .3
L

2 g

v
v
z y
H z y
2 g
2 g
1

v
v v
v
0.2 m y
0 .3
1 .3
2 g
2 g
2 g
2

Q Av v

Q
Q

A b y

9m / s 2.37
v

3.8 y
y
1

A b y z y A 5.8m 1.3m 1.5 (1.3m)


2

A 10.075m

Q
9m / s
v

0.893m / s
A 10.075m
2

2.37
2.37

(0.893)
y
y
(0.893)
0 .3

0 .2 m y
1 .3
19.6
19.6
19.6
2

5.61
5.61
0 .8
y
y
0 .2 m y
0 .3
1.34
19.6
19.6
1

5.61 0.8 y
5.61
y
0 .2 m y
0 .3
1.34
19.6 y
19.6
2

5.61 0.8 y
0.286
0.2 y
0.3
1.34 y
y
19.6 y

0.2 y y 0.286
2

1.68 0.24 y
1.34 y
19.6
2

0.2 y y 0.286 0.0857 0.0122 y 1.34 y 0


2

y 1.13 y 0 y 0.2003 0
3

Resolviendo por Hewlett Packard


y1 = 0.63 m

D
1

A b y 3.8 0.63

0.63 D 0.63m
T
b
3.8
1

9m / s
v
3.76m / s v 3.76m / s
3.8m 0.63m
1

3.76
v
1.51 1
Fr
9.8 063
gD

Fr

Flujo Supercrtico

A b y z y 5.8 1.3 1.5 1.3 10.075m


D

D 1.038m 1.04m
T
b 2 z y
5.8 2 1.5 1.3
9.7m
2

Fr
2

0.893
v
0.28 1
Fr
9.8 1.04
gD
2

Flujo Subcrtico

5. Para unas

prdidas en el vertedero de 2Nm/N y un caudal unitario de 10


m/s, determinar la elevacin del piso para que ocurra un resalto.

6. Determine the normal discharges in channels having the following sections


for y = 1.5 m; n = 0.014, and So = 1%0
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

A rectangular section 3.2 m wide.


A triangular section with a bottom angle equal to 90
A trapezoidal section with a bottom of 4 m and side slopes 1 : 1.
A circular section 72 in diameter.
A parabolic section having an equation y = 0.3 X2.

y = 1.5 m
n = 0.014
So = 1%0 = 0.001
a) Wide = 3.2 m

1.5 m

3.2 m

A b y z y A 3.2m 1.5m 4.8m A 4.8m


2

P b 2 y

P 3.2m 2 1.5m 6.2m P 6.2m


2
3

A A
S
n P

A
R S
n

4 .8 m 4 .8 m

0.001 9.14m / s Q 9.14m / s


0.014 6.2m

2
3

1
2
0

Q
2

2
3

1
2

1
2
0

b) Angle = 90
X

1.5 m

tan 45
Z=1

x
x tan 45 1.5m 1.5m x 1.5m
1.5m

A z y A 1 (1.5m) 2.25m A 2.25m


2

P 2 y 1 z P 2 1.5m 1 1 5.91m P 5.91m


2

A
Q R S
n
2
3

2.25m
0.014

c) b = 4 m
1:1

2
3

A A
Q S
n P

1
2
0

2
3

1
2
0

2.25m

0.001 4.58m / s Q 4.58m / s


5.91m
2

1
2

H 1.25

1.25
V
1
1

1.5 m
1.25

4m

A b y zy A 4m 1.5m 1.25 (1.5m) 8.81m A 8.81m


2

P b 2 y 1 z

P 4m 2 1.5m 1 (1.25) 8.8m P 8.8m


2

A
Q R S
n
2
3

1
2
0

2
3

A A
Q S
n P
2
3

1
2
0

8.81m 8.81m
Q

0.001 19.91m / s Q 19.91m / s


0.014 8.8m
2

1
2

d) d0 = 72 in
y 1.5m
( in )

1in
59.05in y 59.05in
0.0254m
( in )

23 in
59 in

72 in

23in

cos
cos 0.63
2 36in
2

2 0.63 100.58

100.58

rad 259.42

rad
4.53rad
180

1
A d sen
8
1
A 72in 4.53 sen259.42 3570.93in
8
1Ft
A 3570.93in
24.8 Ft A 24.8 Ft
(12in)
2

( Ft )

1
1
P d P 4.53 72in 163.08in P 163.08in
2
2
0

P 163.08in
( Ft )

Q 1.49

1Ft
13.59 Ft A 13.59 Ft
12in
2
3

A
A A
R S Q 1.49 S
n
n P
2
3

1
2

2
3

1
2
0

13.59 Ft 13.59 Ft
Q 1.49

0.001 124.64 Ft / s Q 124.64 Ft / s


0.014 13.59 Ft
2

1
2

e) y = 0.3X2

1 .5
1.37 x T 1.37
0 .8

2
A T y
3
2
A 1.37 0.3 x A 2 1.37 0.3 1.37 1.001m A 0.375m
3
3
2

X > 1

T
1

Ln
x

2
x
2

P 0.5 1.37 1 (1.37)


Ln1.37 1 (1.37)
1.37

P 1.718m
2

A
Q R S
n
2
3

1
2
0

2
3

A A
Q S
n P
2
3

1
2
0

0.375m 0.375m
Q

0.001 0.301m / s Q 0.301m / s


0.014 1.718m
2

1
2

7. Using the Manning formula, determine the normal depths in channels having
the following section when Q = 2 m/s, n = 0.017, S 0 = 2%o.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

A rectangular section 4 m wide.


A triangular section with a bottom angle equal to 90
A trapezoidal section with a bottom width of 3.8 m and side slopes
A circular section 1.5 m diameter.
A parabolic section having an equation y = 0.8 X2.

Q = 2 m/s
n = 0.017
So = 2%0 = 0.002
a) Wide = 4m

1.5 m

3.2 m

A b y

P b 2 y
A
Q R S
n
2
3

1
2
0

2:1.

2m / s
3

2m / s
3

2
3

b y b y

(0.002)
0.017 b 2 y

1
2

2
3

4 y 4 y

0.044
0.017 4 2 y
2
3

2m / s 0.017
2 y
2 y

y
0.193 y

4m (0.044)
(2 y )
(2 y )
3

2
3

Resolviendo por Hewlett Packard:


y = 0.4 m
b) Angle = 90

Z=1

A z y

P 2 y 1 z

A
Q R S
n

A A
Q S
n P

2
3

1
2
0

2
3

1
2
0

2
3

z y
z y

2m / s

(0.002)
0.017 2 y 1 z
3

2
3

1y
1y

2m / s

(0.002)
0.017 2 y 1 1
2

1
2

1
2

2m / s
3

2
3

1y
1y

(0.002)
0.017 2 y 1 1
2

1
2

2
3

y
2m / s 58.82 y
0.044
2
.
83
y

2m / s

y y
58.82 0.5 0.044
y 1.54 y 1.54 y 1.175m
2

8
3

2
3

c) b = 3.8 m
2:1

H 2
2
V 1

y
2

A b y zy

3.8 m
2

P b 2 y 1 z

A
Q R S
n
2
3

1
2
0

2
3

A A
Q S
n P

1
2
0

2
3

b y z y b y z y
2m / s

(0.002)
0.017
b 2 y 1 z
2

1
2

2
3

3.8 y 2 y 3.8 y 2 y
2m / s

0.044
0.017
3.8 2 y 1 2
2

2
3

3.8 y 2 y
2m / s (223.53 y 117.65 y )
0.044
3
.
8

Resolviendo por Hewlett Packard:


y = 0.372 m

d0 = 1.5 m
y

d
2

d0 = 1.5 m

1
A d sen
8
2

1 sen
R 1
d
4

2
3

A
A A
Q R S Q S
n
n P
0.125 sen 1.5

sen
2m / s
0.25 1
1.5 0.002
2
3

1
2

1
2

2
3

1
2

0.017

0.125
sen 1.5
180

2m / s
0.017
3

2
3

sen
1.5 0.044
0.25 1

180

Resolviendo por Hewlett Packard:

227.74
360 360 227.74 132.26 132.26

cos

y 0.75

y cos 0.75 0.75

2
2
0.75

132.26
y cos
0.75 0.75 1.053m y 1.053m
2

d) y = 0.8x

2
A T y
3
2 T y
R
3T 8 y
2

Si

0 x 1 x 4 y T 4 y
T

4 0.8 x
T
3.2 x T 3.2 x
x
2

A
Q R S
n
2
3

1
2
0

2
3

A A
Q S
n P

1
2
0

2
T y 2 T y
3
2m / s

(0.002)
0.017 3 T 8 y
2
3

2
3.2 x 0.8 x
3
2m / s
0.017

1.706 x
2m / s
0.017

2 3.2 x 0.8 x

0.044
3 3.2 x 8 0.8 x
2

2
3

2
3

16.38 x

0.044
9.6 x 5.12 x
4

16.38 x

9.6 5.12 x
16.38 x
0.45 x

9.6 5.12 x
3

2m / s

x
100.35 0.044

1
2

2
3

2
3

Resolviendo por Hewlett Packard:


x = 0645

y 0.8 x y 0.8 (0.645) 0.516m y 0.516m


2

8. Un canal trapezoidal revestido de concreto (n = 0.014) de ancho de solera


0.5 m, talud 3H:4V y trazado con una pendiente del 1%o, conduce un caudal
de 700 Lit/s, en cierto tramo del canal tiene que atravesar una carretera, con
una alcantarilla (n=0.014) de 1.5 m de dimetro.
Para unir la seccin trapezoidal con la circular se construye una transicin con
la misma pendiente del canal y de 10 m de longitud. Si las prdidas en la
transicin son despreciables, indicar:
a) Cul es la velocidad a la entrada de la alcantarilla?
b) Cul es la pendiente con la que se debe trazar la alcantarilla para
conseguir que se establezca el flujo uniforme?
n = 0.014
b = 0.5 m
3H:4V
S0 = 1%o = 0.001
Q = 700 Lit /s = 0.7 m/s
d0 = 1.5 m
a)

Q
Q

2
3

A A
S
n P

1
2
0

2
3

(b z y ) y (b z y ) y

(0.001)
0.014
b 2 y 1 z

1
2

2
3

(0.5m 0.75 y ) y (0.5m 0.75 y ) y


0 .7 m / s

0.316
0.014
0
.
5

0
.
75

Resolviendo por Hewlett Packard:


y = 0.67 m
2
3

1 A
v S
n P
v

2
3

1 (b z y ) y

0.001
0.014 b 2 y 1 z
2

2
3

1 (0.5 0.75 0.67) 0.67


v

0.001 1.032m / s
0.014 0.5 2 0.67 1 0.75
2

v 1.032m / s
b) d0 = 1.5 m
y

d
2

cos

d0 = 1.5 m

y 0.575
0.67 0.575 cos 0.165

cos
2
0.575
2
2
0.575
1

160.98
360 360 160.98 199.02
rad 199.02

A
Q R S
n
2
3

rad
3.473rad
180

1
2
0

0.125 sen 1.5

sen
0 .7 m / s
0.25 1
1.5 S
0.017

0.125 3.473 sen199.021.5

sen199.02
0 .7 m / s
0.25 1
1.5 S
0.017
3.473

0.7 m / s 44.857 0.273 S


2

3/ s

0.7 m
S
44.857 0.273

S 0.0571 0.0032 S 0.0032 3.2%o


1

9. A

channel with the cross section shown in the following figure has a
Mannings coefficient of 0.040 from station (0) to station (3) and 0.054 from
station (3) to station (8).

The flow through the channel is 13 m/s, and the water surface is 1.7 m high.
Find the following:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Weighted Mannings Coefficient


Slope of the channel.
Top channel.
Wetted Perimeter.
Flow regime (supercritical or subcritical)

a)

n p
n
Pt

1.5

i 1

2
3

P1 =
X

P1

0.2

0.2 0.5

x 0.4m
x
1

P 0.2 0.4 0.447 P 0.447m


2

P2 = 1 m
P3 =
1.5

P3
1

P 1 .5 1 1 .8 m P 1 .8 m
2

P4 = 2 m
P5 =
P5

P 1 1 1.41m P 1.41m
2

P6 = 1 m
P7 =
x

0.7 m

P7

x 1
x 0 .7 m
0 .7 1

P 0.7 0.7 0.99m P 0.99m


2

PTotal = 6.937m

0.04 0.447 0.04 1 0.04 1.8 0.054 2 0.054 1.41 0.054 1 0.054 0.99
n

6.937

1 .5

1 .5

1 .5

2
3

0.09373
n
0.0567

6
.
937

1 .5

1 .5

1 .5

1 .5

2
3

b)

A 2 * 1 2m

1 * 1 .5
0.75m
2

1 *1
0 .5 m
2

A 4 * 0.7 2.8m A 0.2 * 2 0.4m A 0.2 * 0.4 0.04m


2

A
7

0 .7 * 0 .7
0.245m
2

ATotal = 6.735 m
2
3

A A
Q S
n P

1
2
0

2
3

6.735m 6.735m
13m / s

S
0.0567 6.937 m
2

1
2

1
2

S
0

13m / s
S 0.11 0.0121 S 0.0121 1.21%
0.98 *118.78
2

c)

T 6 0.4 0.7 T 7.1m

d)

P 0.447 1 1.8 2 1.41 1 0.99 P 8.647 m

e)

Fr

v
gD
2

A 6.735m
D
0.948m
T
7.1m
3

Q 13m / s
Q Av v
2.04m / s v 2.04m / s
A 6.375m
2

Fr

2.04m / s
0.66
9.8 * 0.948

Fr 0.66 1 Flujo Subcrtico

10.

A stream with the cross section shown in the previous figure has a flow
rate of 5 m/s. The stream has a longitudinal slope of 0.002m/m and a
natural stony bottom (n = 0.05, stations 0 to 8)
a) Using Mannings equation, what is the water surface elevation of the
stream?
b) What is the maximum capacity of the channel?
c) How would the capacity of the channel be affected if you were to
pave the center of the channel (n = 0.013) between stations 3 and 5?

Q = 5 m/s
n = 0.05
S0 = 0.002
a)

Suponiendo un y = 1.5 se tiene:

P
P
P
P
P
1

1 1 .5 1 .8 m
2m
1 1 1.41m
1m
0.5 0.5 0.7071m
2

P 1.8m 2m 1.41m 1m 0.7071m 6.924m


Total

A 2m *1m 2m
1m *1.5m
A
0.75m
2
2

1m *1m
0 .5 m
2
A 4 m * 0 .5 m 2 m
A

A
5

0 .5 m * 0 .5 m
0.125m
2

2m 0.75m 0.5m 2m 0.125m 5.375m


2

Total

2
3

A A
Q S
n P

1
2
0

2
3

5.375 5.375

(0.002) 4.0607 m / s
0.05 6.924
1
2

Suponiendo un y = 1.7 se tiene:

1 1.5 1.8m
2m
1 1 1.41m
1m
0.7 0.7 0.99m
1m
0.4 0.2 0.447 m
1.8m 2m 1.41m 1m 0.99m 1m 0.447m 8.654m
2

P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
1

Total

A 2m *1m 2m
1m *1.5m
A
0.75m
2
2

1m *1m
0 .5 m
2
A 4 m * 0 .7 m 2 .8 m
A

0 .7 m * 0 .7 m
0.245m
2
A 2 m * 0 .2 m 0 .4 m
0 .4 m * 0 .2 m
A
0.04m
2
A

A 2m 0.75m 0.5m 2.8m 0.245m 0.4m 0.04m 6.735m


2

Total

2
3

2
3

6.735 6.735
A A

Q S Q
(0.002) 5.09m / s
0.05 8.654
n P
1
2

1
2

Interpolando los dos datos se tiene:


y
Q

1.7 5.09

Q 5m / s y 1.68m
3

1.5 4.0607

Suponiendo un y = 1.68 se tiene:

1 1.5 1.8m
2m
1 1 1.41m
1m
0.68 0.68 0.96m
1m
0.36 0.18 0.40245m
1.8m 2m 1.41m 1m 0.96m 1m 0.40245m 8.572m
2

P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
1

Total

A 2m *1m 2m
1m *1.5m
A
0.75m
2
2

1m *1m
0 .5 m
2
A 4m * 0.68m 2.72m
A

0.68m * 0.68m
0.2312m
2
A 2m * 0.18m 0.36m
0.376m * .18m
A
0.0324m
2
A

Total

2m 0.75m 0.5m 2.72m 0.2312m 0.36m 0.0324m 6.5936m


2

2
3

2
3

A A
6.5936 6.5936
Q S Q

(0.002) 4.947 m / s
n P
0.05 8.57245
1
2

1
2

Interpolando Nuevamente se tiene:


y
Q

1.7 5.09

Q 5m / s y 1.688m
3

1.68 4.9475

Suponiendo un y = 1.688m se tiene:

1 1.5 1.8m
2m
1 1 1.41m
1m
0.688 0.688 0.97 m
1m
0.376 0.188 0.42038m
1.8m 2m 1.41m 1m 0.97m 1m 0.42038m 8.61m
2

P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
1

Total

A 2m *1m 2m
1m *1.5m
A
0.75m
2
2

1m *1m
0 .5 m
2
A 4m * 0.688m 2.752 m
A

A
5

0.688m * 0.688m
0.2366m
2

A 2m * 0.188m 0.376 m
0.376m * 0.188m
A
0.0353m
2
2

2m 0.75m 0.5m 2.752m 0.2366m 0.376m 0.0353m 6.65m


2

Total

2
3

A A
Q S
n P

1
2

2
3

6.65 6.65
Q

(0.002) 5.006 m / s 5m / s OK
0.05 8.61
1
2

y = 1.688m
b) y = 2 m se tiene:

1 1.5 1.8m
2m
1 1 1.41m
1m
1 1 1.41m
1m
0.5 0.5 1.118m
1.8m 2m 1.41m 1m 1.41m 1m 1.118m 8.738m
2

P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
1

Total

A 2m *1m 2m
1m *1.5m
A
0.75m
2
2

1m *1m
0 .5 m
2
A 4m * 1m 4m
A

1m *1m
0 .5 m
2
A 2m * 0.5m 1m
1m * 0.5m
A
0.25m
2
A

2m 0.75m 0.5m 4m 0.5m 1m 0.25m 9m


2

Total

2
3

2
3

9 9
A A

Q S Q
(0.002) 8.21m / s
0.05 8.738
n P
1
2

1
2

c)

n p
n
Pt

1 .5

i 1

2
3

0.05 0.4204 0.05 1 0.05 1.8 0.013 2 0.05 1.41 0.05 1 0.05 0.97
n

8.61

1 .5

1 .5

1 .5

1 .5

1 .5

1 .5

ne = 0.0089

2
3

2
3

6.65 6.65
A A

S Q
(0.002) 28.13m / s
0.05 8.61
n P
1
2

Q 28.13m / s

1
2

1 .5

2
3