Está en la página 1de 139

Harrington’s Corporate Office Chino, California

To be your first choice for high-purity and corrosive solutions.

OUR MISSION

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Material Descriptions................................................................................................................................. 2-3 Relative Properties...................................................................................................................................... 4-5

Table of Contents

Industry Standards................................................................................................................................... 6-21 System Engineering Data........................................................................................................22-27 / 36-42 Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts..............................................................................................................28-35 Above-Ground Installation....................................................................................................................43-55 Below-Ground Installation................................................................................................................... 56-58 Hydrostatic Pressure Testing...................................................................................................................... 59 Joining Techniques....................................................................................................................................... 60 Solvent Cementing................................................................................................................................ 61-68 Threading Instructions...........................................................................................................................69-71 Flanged Joints..........................................................................................................................................72-73 Basic Principles of Socket Fusion..........................................................................................................73-75 Basic Principles of Butt Fusion..............................................................................................................76-81 Basic Principles of IR (Infrared) Fusion..................................................................................................... 82 Basic Principles of HPF Fusion................................................................................................................... 83 Basic Principles of Smooth Inner Bore (S.I.B.)Welding.......................................................................... 84 Basic Principles of Electrofusion.......................................................................................................... 85-86 Proper Assembly of Enfield Mechanical Joints..................................................................................86-87 Proper Assembly of Roll Grooved or Radius Cut Grooved PVC Pipe.................................................. 88 Thermoplastic Pipe Joint Repair & Hot Gas Welding....................................................................... 89-90 Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP)................................................................................................... 91-92 Hydraulic Fundamentals....................................................................................................................... 93-96 Piping System Selection Criteria................................................................................................................97 Pump Sizing Guidelines........................................................................................................................ 98-99 Conversion Data.................................................................................................................................100-112 Chemical Resistance Guide..............................................................................................................113-134
The data furnished herein is based on years of experiece, testing and our vendors engineering information. All reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this material; however, Harrington Industrial Plastics LLC shall not be liable or responsible for any loss whether direct, indirect, incidental or consequential arising out of the use of or reliance upon any of the contents of this material. Copyright 2011 Harrington Industrial Plastics LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or distributed with out prior written permission.

Disclaimer

www.harringtonplastics.com 1

1-800-877-4472

It has proved an excellent material for process piping (liquids and slurries). and radiation resistance. Joining methods are solvent welding. It is generally not as permeable as PTFE. POLYETHYLENE is generally described in three classifications according to the relative degree of branching (side chain formation) in their molecular structures and density. It may be hot gas welded if required. FEP is a true thermoplastic that can be melt-extruded and fabricated by conventional methods. and abrasion-resistant fluoroplastic material.Material Descriptions POLYVINYLS PVC (POLYVINYL CHLORIDE) has a relatively high tensile strength and modulus of elasticity and therefore is stronger and more rigid than most other thermoplastics. aromatics. FEP has a glossy surface and is transparent in thin sections. ECTFE (HALAR) is a durable copolymer of ethylene and chlorofluoroethylene with excellent resistance to a wide variety of strong acids. This allows for more flexibility in manufacturing. POLYOLEFINS POLYPROPYLENE (HOMOPOLYMER) is the lightest thermoplastic piping material. Good for temperatures to 140°F and is frequently used for food handling equipment. PTFE does not flow like other thermoplastics and it must be shaped initially by techniques similar to powder metallurgy. This fluoropolymer offers the most unique and useful characteristics of all plastic materials. but the temperature limits are -65°F to a maximum of 300°F. or flanging. low permeability. and similar applications above the temperature range of PVC. In chemical resistance. and demineralized water. It combines high chemical resistance with toughness and strength at operating temperatures from freezing to 200°F. www. It is made of high molecular weight copolymer polypropylene and possesses excellent dielectric and insulating properties because of its structure as a nonpolar hydrocarbon polymer. threading (Schedule 80 only). It has excellent abrasion resistance and good elasticity. threading. yet it has considerable strength. which makes it more rigid and less permeable than LDPE. bases. CPVC pipe may be joined by solvent welding. Halar has excellent abrasion resistance. The dielectric properties and chemical resistance are similar to other Teflons. Products made from this resin handle liquids or gases up to 500°F. Polypropylene is an excellent material for laboratory and industrial drainage piping where mixtures of acids. CPVC (CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE) is particularly useful for handling corrosive fluids at temperatures up to 210°F. it is comparable to PVC. bromine. water service. bases. Halar has excellent application for high purity hydrogen peroxide and is joined by thermal butt fusion. PTFE TEFLON is the original Teflon resin developed by DuPont in 1938.harringtonplastics. TEFLON There are three members of the Teflon family of resins. FEP Teflon is the most transparent of the three Teflons. and has low thermal conductivity. corrosive liquids. PFA TEFLON. outstanding chemical resistance. Once sintered it is machined to the desired part. chlorine. It has found wide application in the petroleum industry where its resistance to sulfur-bearing compounds is particularly useful in salt water disposal lines. and control tubing. Suggested uses include process piping for hot. PVDF is joined by thermal butt. electric properties. hot and cold water lines in office buildings and residences. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) has more extensive branching resulting in less compact molecular structures and lower mechanical strength than other Polyethylenes. All polyethylene has excellent chemical resistance to a wide range of common chemicals. solvents. and solvents are involved. PVDF is not recommended for strong caustics. Normally PTFE is an opaque white material. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) has minimal branching. and industrial and laboratory chemical waste drainage. The unique properties of this resin prohibit extrusion or injection molding by conventional methods. PVC has excellent chemical resistance to a wide range of corrosive fluids but may be damaged by ketones. or flanging. and other halogens. It may be hot gas welded. or electrofusion. FLUOROPOLYMERS PVDF (POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE) is a strong. As well as being ideally suited to handle wet and dry chlorine. brine tanks and dispensing equipment. and some chlorinated hydrocarbons. It eventually becomes translucent as thickness increases. It is widely used for its high ultraviolet light–transmitting ability. and organic solvents. When melted. The maximum service temperature is 140°F for Type 1. Joining methods are coil fusion and socket heat welding. tough. was introduced in 1972. will not sustain combustion (selfextinguishing). and may be used at temperatures up to 180°F in drainage applications. chill water loops. It has excellent melt-process ability and properties rivaling or exceeding those of PTFE Teflon. Good for temperatures to 160°F and is frequently used for abrasion resistant piping. Cross-Linked High Density Polyethylene (XLPE) is a threedimensional polymer of extremely high molecular weight with individual molecular chains bonded together using heat plus chemicals or radiation. It weighs about one-sixth as much as copper. Good for temperatures to 160°F with most common uses including large tanks for outdoor service. It also withstands most acids. and is joined by butt and socket fusion. COPOLYMER POLYPROPYLENE is a copolymer of propylene and polybutylene. PFA permits conventional thermoplastic molding and extrusion processing at high rates and also has higher mechanical strength at elevated temperatures to 500°F. and aqueous caustics. It is most widely recognized as the material of choice for high purity piping such as deionized water. caustic storage tanks. Cross-linked Polyethylene becomes a thermoset material after manufacturing and cannot be hot gas welded. It resists distortion and retains most of its strength to 280°F. socket. FEP TEFLON was also invented by DuPont and became a commercial product in 1960. Premium grade PFA Teflon offers superior stress and crack resistance with good flex-life in tubing. Avoid strong oxidizing agents and solvents. This structure provides superior environmental stress-crack resistance and extremely high impact strength.com 2 1-800-877-4472 . temperature capabilities from cryogenic to 340°F. a close cousin of PTFE.

It has good chemical resistance and excellent temperatures to pressure properties (to 300°F). Because of this extensive chemical compatibility which spans considerable concentration and temperature ranges. oils. Viton can be used in most applications involving mineral acids. and bacteria. fungi.harringtonplastics. Epoxy has been used extensively for fuel piping and steam condensate return lines. and instrumentation. When working with the PTFE products shown in this catalog. and eventual failure. One is the less expensive ABS resin used in drain. and vinylester have become a highly valuable process engineering material for process piping. Where these potentials exist. Made with no plasticizers and with a low level of extractables. It has excellent mechanical properties and good mechanical stress properties under corrosive environments. Caution: Polyester-based polyurethanes may be subject to hydrolysis under certain conditions. Fluid or gas temperatures inside the product should be limited to -60°F to 400°F (-51°C to 204°C) unless otherwise noted. polyester. and halogenated hydrocarbons. The product is very tough and abrasion resistant. oils. pumps. Viton has gained wide acceptance as a sealing for valves. For most services. waste. It is susceptible to attack by oils and is not recommended for applications involving petroleum oils. Material Descriptions www. Caution: Acids will cause softening. Accelerated testing indicates that polyether-based polyurethanes have superior hydrolytic stability as compared to polyester-based material. resilience. (b) broad range of chemical resistance. PTBP is used mainly for valve actuators and bonnet assemblies. POLYETHER. It does not harden when used with most oils. Both are used for tubing applications. esters. Vinylester has superior chemical resistance to epoxy or polyester. and solvents. Temperature limits are -10°F minimum to 190°F maximum. strong acids. and (c) wide temperature range from -30°F to 250°F.based is the toughest of the two. chlorinated hydrocarbons. and resistance to hydrolytic degradation than the polyester previously discussed. and petroleum oils. ELASTOMERS VITON (FLUOROCARBON) is inherently compatible with a broad spectrum of chemicals. PPS is also highly resistant to chemical attack. Compared with PVC tubing. it is a tougher material and does not require fabric reinforcement as do the other three materials. we recommend polyether-based polyurethane. PTBP Polybutylene terephthalate is a little known specialty material belonging to the polyimide group. POLYURETHANES There are essentially two types of polyurethanes: polyester based and polyether based. Polyurethane is extremely resistant to abrasives making it ideal for slurries. POLYESTER pipe and fittings have been used by the industry since 1963. THERMOSETS FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP) including epoxy. gasoline. DURAPLUS ABS (ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STRENE) There are many possibilities for polymer properties by combining these resins. high relative humidity at elevated temperatures. VINYLESTER resin systems are recommended for most chlorinated mixtures as well as caustic and oxidizing acids up to 200°F. and ketones. This tubing can withstand temperatures from -94°F to 200°F. Its broad range of chemical resistance is second only to that of Teflon (PTFE). loss of strength. including aliphatic. They can be used in applications up to 200°F. POLYESTER. RYTON (PPS) POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE remains quite stable during both long and short term exposure to high temperatures. polyurethanes have superior chemical resistance to fuels. Relatively few chemicals react to this material even at high temperatures. Temperature limit is 170°F. Teflon threaded connections will handle pressures to 120 psig. It will not contaminate laboratory samples and is totally non-toxic to cell cultures. The other resin for more stringent industrial applications has a different combination of the three polymers that make up the copolymer. (c) high strength-to-weight ratio. Temperature range is -40°F to 158°F. or strong alkalies.Caution: While the Teflon resin family has great mechanical properties and excellent temperature resistance. For our purposes we will limit it to two products. Ryton is used primarily for precision pump parts. and (e) good electrical insulation properties. EPOXY pipe and fittings have been used extensively by a wide variety of industries since 1960. polyether is ideal for high-purity work. having greater resistance to oil and chemicals. however. This material is used primarily for pump diaphragms. Its excellent tensile strength and toughness make it suitable for full vacuums. and vent applications. aromatic. and organic solvent. salt solutions. The high tensile strength and flexural modulus typical of PPS compounds decrease with an increase in temperature. Its chemical resistance is comparable to Neoprene. Their key characteristics are: (a) excellent resistance and low permeation to fuels. NYLONS are synthetic polymers that contain an amide group. External ambient temperatures ranging from -60°F to 250°F (-51°C to 121°C) may be handled safely. The Duraplus product is made from this copolymer and has outstanding impact resistance even at low temperatures. EPDM has good abrasion and tear resistance and offers excellent chemical resistance to a variety of acids and alkalies. care must be taken when selecting the proper method of connections for your piping system. EPDM (EPT) is a terpolymer elastomer made from ethylenepropylene diene monomer. (b) outstanding resistance to fatigue and repeated impact. and granular material transfer. Teflon loses its ability to bear a load at elevated temperatures quicker than other thermoplastics. Generally.based polyurethane possesses better low temperature properties. Always use extreme care when working with chemicals at elevated temperatures. solids.com 3 1-800-877-4472 . Polyester is noted for its strength in both piping and structural shapes. (d) ease of fabrication and flexibility of design. FRP has been accepted by many industries because it offers the following significant advantages: (a) moderate initial cost and low maintenance. HYTREL is a multipurpose polyester elastomer similar to vulcanized thermoset rubber. and some solvents. They have proven resistance to most strong acids and oxidizing materials. Buna-N and EPDM. Loose ferrule connections are limited to 60 psig at ambient temperatures. aerated water. rigidity.

100 2.65 2.2 3.500 15.05 0.200 — 3.000 4.500 — 3.0007.400 290 100 170 2.RELATIVE PROPERTIES Table 1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH psi ASTM-D695 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY IN TENSION psi @ 73°F X 105 IZOD IMPACT 78° ft.harringtonplastics.94 1.4 0.04 1. B ALUMINUM 3003 COPPER DURAPLUS (ABS) POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TYPE 1 CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (CPVC) POLYPROPYLENE (PP) NON PPFR POLYPROPYLENE FLAME RETARDANT (PPFR) POLYPROPYLENE/ POLYBUTYLENE COPOLYMER (PROLINE) POLYPHYLENE SULFIDE 40% GLASS FIBER REINFORCED (RYTON) POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE (PVDF) HALAR (ECTFE) TEFLON (PTFE) POLYTETRAFLUORETHYLENE TEFLON (PFA) PERFLUOROALKOXY TEFLON (FEP) FLUORINATED ETHYLENE PROPYLENE POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) .14 2.4 1.HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (XLPE) .2 2.02 0. www.400 1.6 1. lbs.350.751.1 0.3 19.14 .350.800 1.800 32 20 43 8.38 0.965 1. Harrington recommends specifying a specific manufacturer when engineering calculations are critical.6 .6 29.000 5.4 2.33 0. at 73°F ASTM-D570 TENSILE STRENGTH psi at 73°F ASTM-D638 SPECIFIC GRAVITY ASTM-D792 Relative Properties MATERIAL STEEL Gr.000 5.CROSS LINK PE EPOXY FIBERGLASS VINYLESTER FIBERGLASS POLYSULFONE 7.500 5.01 0.02 5.28 1.150 9.000 10.000 12.1.38 0.600 2.20 0.925 0.000 25.000 22.05 0.69 2.000 0.000 — — — 7.38-0.55 — — — — 0.000 30.5 7.500 7.500 10.38 0.24 0.02 00.LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) .6 1.900 4.86 2.58 0.40 1.5 0.50 0.7 7.0 — — — 6.600 15.300 4.0 No Break 9.0 0./in.500 1.0 0.905 0.6-4.600 9.940 8.6 1.02 5.0-4.2 — — — — 14.com 4 1-800-877-4472 POISSON’S RATIO ASTM-D638 — .000 18.0 0.38 1.05-0.7-2.5 1.500 3.35 1. notched ASTM-D256 FLEXURAL STRENGTH psi ASTM-D256 WATER ABSORPTION %/24 hr.000 15.13 2.700 2.3 21.3-0.000 1.1 2.0 2.200 1.000 0.02 0.40 4.73 8.04 0.8 No Break No Break 3.700 3.3 0.01 0.4 — — — — — — — — — Note: Common relative properties will vary slightly depending on the specific resin formulation used by each manufacturer even though all resins used may conform to the same ASTM specifications.78 1.000 10.000 16.4 3.8 — 1.000 10.905 0.000 2.33 — — 0.34-0.000 — 0.38 0.6 2.0 1.05 60.000 8.04 0.180 — 81.000 1.0 2.0005..0 4.000 5.000 10.600 4.500 2.

2 Slow — V-2 4.7 4.0 — 3.8 * * * * * * Very Slow Very Slow Slow * * * — 44 60 95 95 95 — 226 — — — 33 V-0 V-0 V-0 V-0 V-0 V-0 V-1 V-1 V-1 V-0 V-0 V-0 10.com 5 1-800-877-4472 .RELATIVE PROPERTIES Table 2 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BTU/hr/sq.8 1/16" 5/35" 1/8" 5/8" 1/3" 1/2" 750° 400° 400° 158° 140° 210° — — — 194 173 238 — — — 223 160 221 125140 290 1450 2610 1. www.0-22.300 — — — — — — — — — — — 6.95 — — — * * * — — — — 43 60 — — — — V-0 V-0 SMOKE — 850 295 — — — — — — — — — — — — — FLAME — 15 10 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 119 791 1.06 — — 5.0 1-1/4" 7.C177 COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION in/(in °F) x 10-5 ASTM-D696 HEAT DISTORTION TEMP °F @ 264 psi ASTM-D648 RESISTANCE TO HEAT °F Continous THERMAL EXPANSION inches per 10°F change per 100' of pipe BURNING CLASS UL 94 SURFACE BURNING OF BLDG MATERIALS E-84 HEAT DISTORTION 66 psi ASTM-D648 WORKING STRESS @ 73° FM.0 1.4-9.5 .0 1.6 8.0 3.0 5/8" 180° 220 800 8.2 Slow 17 V-2 115 412 1.2 10. psi LIMITED OXYGEN index (%) ASTM-D2863-70 BURNING RATE ASTM-D635 Relative Properties MATERIAL STEEL Gr.0.2 0.000 2.7 2.3 6.33 1" 200° — — — 2.91 195 151 — — — 1.07 6.8-8.9-3. Harrington recommends specifying a specific manufacturer when engineering calculations are critical.2-5.4-3.0 — 4.5 — 1./°F/in.1 7/8" — 1/10" 1/10" — 140° 100-121 90-105 160° 180° 300° 200° 300° 175196 180 — — — 110130 120 300 200 345 * Self-extinguishing Note: Common relative properties will vary slightly depending on the specific resin formulation used by each manufacturer even though all resins used may conform to the same ASTM specifications.0 2. ft.7 1.32 1. ASTM .000 — — — 2.0 7.5 1/2" 1" 1" 2/3" 9/10" 1/3" 200° 280° 300° 500° 500° 300° — 284 195 250 — 158 485 1.3-10.6 2.2-9. B ALUMINUM 3003 COPPER DURAPLUS (ABS) POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TYPE 1 CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (CPVC) POLYPROPYLENE (PP) NON-PPFR POLYPROPYLENE FLAME RETARDANT (PPFR) POLYPROPYLENE/ POLYBUTYLENE COPOLYMER (PROLINE) POLYPHYLENE SULFIDE 40% GLASS FIBER REINFORCED (RYTON) POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE (PVDF) HALAR (ECTFE) TEFLON (PTFE) POLYTETRAFLUORETHYLENE TEFLON PERFLUOROALKOXY (PFA) TEFLON FLUORINATED ETHYLENE PROPYLENE (FEP) LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) CROSS LINK PE POLYETHYLENE (XLPE) EPOXY FIBERGLASS VINYLESTER FIBERGLASS POLYSULFONE 20.0-10.3 3.000 725800 0.harringtonplastics.

INDUSTRY STANDARDS
The standards referenced herein, like all other standards, are of necessity minimum requirements. It should be recognized that two different plastic resin materials of the same kind, type, and grade will not exhibit identical physical and chemical properties. Therefore, the plastic pipe purchaser is advised to obtain specific values or requirements from the resin supplier to assure the best application of the material not covered by industry specifications; this suggestion assumes paramount importance. Listed below are some of the many organizations providing standards and specification for the products sold by Harrington Industrial Plastics. Note: not all applicable standards or specifications, from any of the organizations, are shown below. ANSI AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE, INC. 1819 L Street N.W. 6th Floor Washington, DC 20036 Phone (202) 293-8020 Fax (202) 293-9287 www.ansi.org ANSI PRESSURE CLASSES ANSI Class 125 means 175 psi at 100°F ANSI Class 150 means 285 psig at 100°F ANSI Class 300 means 740 psig at 100°F ANSI B-16-1 ANSI B-16.42 ANSI B-16.5 ANSI Z-124.6
Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings Class 25, 125, 150, 250, and 800 Ductile iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500

Industry Standards

ASSE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF SANITARY ENGINEERING 901 Canterbury Rd., Ste. A, Westlake, OH 44145 Phone: (440) 835-3040 Fax: (440) 835-3488 www.asse-plumbing.org ASSE is an ANSI accredited product certification agency ASSE 1020 ASSE 1035 ASSE 1043 Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly Laboratory Faucet Backflow Preventers Cast Iron Solvent Sanitary Drainage Systems

Standard for Plastic Sinks

The following ASTM standards have been accepted by ANSI and assigned the following designations. Table 3 ANSI ASTM Designation Designation B 72.1 B 72.2 B 72.3 B 72.4 B 72.5 B 72.6 B 72.7 B 72.8 B 72.9 D 2239 D 2241 B 723 B 724 B 723 B 725 D 1598 D 1785 D 2104 D 2152 ANSI Designation B 72.11 B 72.13 B 72.16 B 72.17 B 72.18 B 72.20 B 72.22 B 72.23 ASTM Designation D 2412 D 2447 D 2564 D 2657 D 2661 D 2672 F 645 D 2235

www.harringtonplastics.com 6

1-800-877-4472

INDUSTRY STANDARDS
ASTM AMERICAN SOCIETY OF TESTING AND MATERIALS 100 Barr Harbor Drive PO Box C700 Westconshohucken, PA 19428-2959 Phone: (610) 832-9500 Fax: (610) 832-9555 http://www.astm.org ASTM predates other standards organizations such as BSI (1901), DIN (1917) and AFNOR (1926), but differs from these in that it is not a national standards body, that role being taken in the USA by ANSI. However, ASTM has a dominant role among standards developers in the USA, and claims to be the world’s largest developer of standards. Using a consensus process, ASTM supports thousands of volunteer technical committees, which draw their members from around the world and collectively develop and maintain more than12,000 standards. Shown below are just a few of the most commonly sited standard encountered by our customers.

Industry Standards

ASTM STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS ASTM A 105/A105M ASTM A 126 ASTM A 216/A216M ASTM A 234/A234M ASTM A 395/A395M ASTM A 53/A53M ASTM A 587 ASTM D 1784 ASTM D 1785 ASTM D 1866 ASTM D 1998 ASTM D 2241 ASTM D 2464 ASTM D 2466 ASTM D 2467 ASTM D 2513 ASTM D 2564 ASTM D 2661 ASTM D 2665 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications Standard Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for HighTemperature Service Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service Standard Specification for Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless Standard Specification for Electric-Resistance-Welded Low-Carbon Steel Pipe for the Chemical Industry Standard Specification for Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Compounds Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120, Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Schedule 40 Drainage and DWV Fabricated Fittings Standard Specification for Polyethylene Upright Storage Tanks Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series) Standard Specification for Threaded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings Standard Specification for Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Systems Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Standard Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings

www.harringtonplastics.com 7

1-800-877-4472

INDUSTRY STANDARDS
ASTM STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS ASTM D 2672 Standard Specification for Joints for IPS PVC Pipe Using Solvent Cement Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution Systems Standard Specification for Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals Standard Specification for Polypropylene Injection and Extrusion Materials Standard Specification for Extruded Bars bade from Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) and Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Standard Terminology Relating to Plastics Standard Specification for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) Composite Pressure Pipe Standard Specification for Plastic-Lined Ferrous Metal Pipe, Fittings, and Flanges Standard Specification for Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Corrosive Waste Drainage Systems Standard Specification for Special Engineered Fittings, Appurtenances or Valves for use in Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) or Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Systems Standard Specification for Metal Insert Fittings for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene and Cross-linked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Cross-linked Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Standard Specification for Pressure-Rated Polypropylene (PP) Piping Systems Standard Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems Standard Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Standard Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Standard Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Standard Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Well Casing Pipe and Couplings Made in Standard Dimension Ratios (SDR), Schedules 40 and 80 Standard Specification for Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings Standard Specification for Primers for Use in Solvent Cement Joints of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe

Industry Standards

ASTM D 2846 ASTM D 3139 ASTM D 4101 ASTM D 6263 ASTM D 883 ASTM F 1282 ASTM F 1545 ASTM F 1673 ASTM F 1970 ASTM F 1974 ASTM F 2389 ASTM F 412 ASTM F 437 ASTM F 438 ASTM F 439 ASTM F 441 ASTM F 442 ASTM F 477 ASTM F 480 ASTM F 493 ASTM F 656 ASTM F 913

www.harringtonplastics.com 8

1-800-877-4472

INDUSTRY STANDARDS ASTM STANDARD TEST METHODS ASTM C 177 ASTM D 1505 ASTM D 1525 ASTM D 1598 ASTM D 1599 ASTM D 1693 ASTM D 2122 ASTM D 2152 ASTM D 2412 ASTM D 2444 ASTM D 256 ASTM D 2765 ASTM D 2837 ASTM D 2863 ASTM D 2924 ASTM D 3895 ASTM D 570 ASTM D 635 ASTM D 638 ASTM D 648 ASTM D 695 ASTM D 696 ASTM D 790 ASTM D 792 ASTM E 84 Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus Industry Standards Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique Standard Test Method for Vicat Softening Temperature of Plastics Standard Test Method for Time-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe Under Constant Internal Pressure Standard Test Method for Resistance to Short-Time Hydraulic Pressure of Plastic Pipe. and Fittings Standard Test Method for Environmental Stress-Cracking of Ethylene Plastics Standard Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings Standard Test Method for Adequacy of Fusion of Extruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Molded Fittings by Acetone Immersion Standard Test Method for Determination of External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate Loading Standard Test Method for Determination of the Impact Resistance of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings by Means of a Tup (Falling Weight) Standard Test Methods for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics Standard Test Method for Determination of Gel Content and Swell Ratio of Crosslinked Ethylene Plastics Standard Test Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials or Pressure Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Products Standard Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support CandleLike Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index) Standard Test Method for External Pressure Resistance of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe Standard Test Method for Oxidative-Induction Time of Polyolefins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics Standard Test Method for Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Plastics in a Horizontal Position Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics Standard Test Method for Deflection Temperature of Plastics Under Flexural Load in the Edgewise Position Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics Between -30°C and 30°C With a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials Standard Test Method for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials www.harringtonplastics. Tubing.com 9 1-800-877-4472 .

FM Global offers product testing and certification that uses the highest standards of industry test methods.harringtonplastics.ca The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) has responsibility for coordination of the National Standards System (NSS) in Canada and has accredited CSA as one of four nationally accredited Standards Developing Organization (SDO). 2.O. Box 7500 Johnston. FM Global (formerly Factory Mutual Insurance) 1301 Atwood Avenue P. RI 02919 United States Phone: +1 (1) 401 275 3000. Fire is the largest cause of loss in industry.INDUSTRY STANDARDS ASTM STANDARD TEST METHODS ASTM F 2023 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Oxidative Resistance of Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing and Systems to Hot Chlorinated Water Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Quality of Molded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings by the Heat Reversion Technique ASTM STANDARD PRACTICES ASTM D 2321 ASTM D 2657 ASTM D 2774 ASTM D 2855 ASTM D 543 ASTM D 618 ASTM F 1057 ASTM F 402 ASTM F 645 ASTM F 690 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other GravityFlow Applications Standard Practice for Heat Fusion Joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping Standard Practice for Making Solvent-Cemented Joints with Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Fittings Standard Practices for Evaluating the Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents Standard Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing Standard Practice for Evaluating the Quality of Extruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe by the Heat Reversion Technique Standard Practice for Safe Handling of Solvent Cements.com 10 1-800-877-4472 . Design. and Cleaners Used for Joining Thermoplastics Pipe and Fittings Standard Guide for Selection.fmglobal. Development of consensus standards which adhere to the principles used in Canada governing the consensus process. Primers. several criteria must be met including: 1. ext. Ontario L4W 5N6 Canada Phone: (416) 747-4000 Fax: (416) 747-2473 www. www. and Installation of Thermoplastic Water Pressure Systems Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping Irrigation System Industry Standards ASTM F 610 ASTM STANDARD SYMBOLS & TERMINOLOGY ASTM D 2749 ASTM D 1600 Standard Symbols for Dimensions of Plastic Pipe Fittings Standard Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics CSA CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 5060 Spectrum Way Mississauga. FM not only offers commercial property insurance but they also have a staff of loss prevention engineers to identify potential areas of loss and make recommendations to eliminate them before a loss occurs. To achieve and maintain accreditation. both national and international. They have the largest fire testing facility in the world. Complying with criteria established for approval of National Standards of Canada.: 2036 Fax: +1 (1) 401 275 3032 www.com FM Global is a commercial insurance corporation. that embraces all aspects of risk management.csa.

which was established in 1994 to develop a single set of comprehensive and coordinated national model construction codes.iapmo. DC 20001-2070 Phone: 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233) Fax: (202) 783-2348 www. valves. and Appurtenances for Potable Water and Waste Water (NSF Testing Laboratory). Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC). and Alcohol-Gasoline Mixtures Standard for Safety for Thermoplastic Sprinkler Pipe and Fittings for Fire Protection Service Standard for Fire Test of Plastic Sprinkler Pipe for Visible Flame and Smoke Characteristics Standard for Test Methods for Determining the Combustibility Characteristics of Plastics Used in Semi-Conductor Tool Construction Industry Standards PVC Cold Water Gripper Fittings PVC Plastic Valves for Cold Water Distribution Systems Outside a Building and CPVC Plastic Valves for Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems 1285 1316 1821 1887 2360 www. security. mechanical.org NSF Seal of Approval: Listing of Plastic Materials. publishes codes that establish minimum performance requirements for all aspects of the construction industry. and zoning segments of the construction industry.ul. IAPMO International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials 5001 E. NSF/ANSI-60: Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals . energy conservation. Philadelphia St. and joining materials. now known as the International Code Council (ICC). fire prevention. Codes include: IAPMO PS 332007a IAPMO PS 1102006a IAPMO PS 1111999 IAPMO PS 1121999 Flexible PVC Hose for Pools.Health Effects Standard 60 is the nationally recognized health effects standard for chemicals.com 11 1-800-877-4472 . components and materials. NW.4100 Fax: (909) 472. materials. administrative. ingredients. Hot Tubs. IL 60062-2096 Phone: (847) 272-8800 Fax: (847) 272-8129 www. Pipe. fittings. building.nsf. NSF/ANSI-14: Plastics Piping System Components and Related Materials This Standard addresses healt effects (by reference to Standard 61) and performance of plastics plumbing system components such as pipe. UL — Underwriters Laboratories Inc. CA 91761 – USA Phone: (909) 472. Fittings. signage. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). which contact drinking water.harringtonplastics.Health Effects Standard 61 is the nationally recognized health effects standard for all devices. for Underground Fire Service Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Underground Storage Tanks for Petroleum Products.INDUSTRY STANDARDS ICC (Formerly ICBO) INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL 500 New Jersey Avenue. housing. ICBO is a founding member of the International Code Council (ICC). 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook. Spa and Hot Tub Code (USPC) and the Uniform Solar Energy Code (USEC). 6th Floor Washington. Spas and Jetted Bathtubs PVC Cold Water Compression Fittings NSF International World Headquarters (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation) 789 Dixboro Road P. Ontario.4150 www. ICBO Uniform Codes address the abatement of dangerous buildings. urban-wildland interface. which are used to treat drinking water.com UL Standards: 508A 651 651A 651B Standard for Industrial Control Panels Standard for Schedule 40 and 80 Rigid PVC Conduit and Fittings Type EB and A Rigid PVC Conduit and HDPE Conduit Standard for Continuous Length HDPE Conduit Standard for Safety Pipe and Couplings.org The International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). Alcohols. The IAPMO code development process is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). resins.iccsafe. Box 130140 Ann Arbor. MI 48113-0140 Toll Free: (800) NSF-Mark Phone: (734) 769-8010 Fax: (734) 769-0109 www.O.org Develops and maintains the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC). NSF/ANSI-61: Drinking Water System Components . Uniform Swimming Pool.

Watertight. and D designate the content of the hazardous atmosphere under Class 1 as follows: Group A . Drip Proof . Dust Tight.Indoor: Type 2 drip proof enclosures are for use indoors to protect the enclosed equipment against falling noncorrosive liquids and dirt. splashing or external condensation of non-corrosive liquids. Sleet (Ice) Resistant Outdoor: Type 3 enclosures are intended for use outdoors to protect the enclosed equipment against windblown dust and water. C or D in the National Electrical Code. benzene. UL 508. propane.Atmospheres containing ethyl ether vapors. in addition. or sleet (ice) proof. Class I. mines.nema.Air-Break Equipment: Type 7 enclosures are intended for use indoors. or cyclopropane. These enclosures do not protect the enclosed equipment against malfunction resulting from internal icing. naphtha. applying to “Rainproof Enclosures. NEMA enclosures: Submersible. Watertight. and Sleet (Ice) Resistant . and manholes. Superseded by Type 12 for Control Apparatus. Class I. Enclosures must be designed as specified in Underwriters’ Laboratories. They are not sleet (ice) proof.Atmospheres containing gasoline. falling or hose directed lint and seepage. “Industrial Control Equipment for Use in Hazardous locations.Indoor and Outdoor: This type is for use indoors or outdoors to protect the enclosed equipment against splashing and seepage of water or streams of water from any direction. B. Rainproof and Sleet (Ice) Resistant Outdoor: Type 3R enclosures are intended for use outdoors to protect the enclosed equipment against rain and meet the requirements of Underwriters’ Laboratories. They are required to protect equipment against a static head of water of 6 feet for 30 minutes and against dust. alcohols. Group D . and Sleet (Ice) ProofOutdoor: Type 3S enclosures are intended for use outdoors to protect the enclosed equipment against windblown dust and water and to provide for its operation when the enclosure is covered by external ice or sleet. It is sleet-resistant but not sleet proof. hexane. they provide protection against falling dirt. These enclosures are suitable for applications where condensation may be severe such as encountered in cooling rooms and laundries. Dust tight. Group A. primarily to prevent accidental contact of personnel with the enclosed equipment in areas where unusual service conditions do not exist. butane. such as in quarries. C or D . Virginia 22209 Phone: (703) 841-3200 Fax: (703) 841-5900 www. They are not sleet (ice) proof. Dust Tight and Corrosion-Resistant Indoor and Outdoor: This type has same provisions as Type 4 and. C. The group letters A. B. Inc. In addition. Group C .Indoor and Outdoor: Type 6 enclosures are intended for use indoors and outdoors where occasional submersion is encountered. in the atmospheres and locations defined as Class 1 and Group A.Atmospheres containing hydrogen or gases or vapors of equivalent hazards such as manufactured gas. acetone. Rain Tight. and D-Indoor Hazardous Locations .” UL 698. Dust Tight.Indoor Hazardous Locations Oil-Immersed Equipment: These enclosures are intended for indoor use under the same class and group designations as Type 7..com 12 1-800-877-4472 . B.org NEMA enclosures: General Purpose . Watertight and Dust Tight . Group B . Inc. C. but are also subject to immersion in oil. B. lacquer solvent vapors and natural gas. Class I locations are those in which flammable gases or vapors may be present in explosive or ignitable amounts. snow.Indoor: This enclosure is intended for use indoors.Atmospheres containing acetylene. Group A. Publication No. ethylene.INDUSTRY STANDARDS NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 North 17th Street Suite 1752 Rosslyn. Rain Tight. Industry Standards Type 6 Type 1 Type 2 Type 7 Type 3 Type 3R Type 8 Type 3S Type 4 Type 4X Type 5 www.harringtonplastics. is corrosionresistant.” They are not dust.

These enclosures shall prevent the ingress of explosive amounts of hazardous dust.Atmosphere containing metal dusts. and spraying of water. seepage.Dust Tight and Drip Tight Indoor: Type 12 enclosures are intended for use indoors to protect the enclosed equipment against fibers.harringtonplastics. or coke dust. F. Corrosion-Resistant and Drip Proof. verminproof material. UL 698.. for equipment to be used in mines with atmospheres containing methane or natural gas. selector switches. they shall be mechanically attached and of a non-combustible. Industrial Use .INDUSTRY STANDARDS NEMA enclosures: Class II. Group E. and light splashing.Atmospheres containing carbon black. foot switches. pilot lights.Atmospheres containing flour. They have oil-resistant gaskets. starch. or G in the National Electrical Code. including aluminum. etc. with or without coal dust. and grain dust. magnesium. If gaskets are used.com 13 1-800-877-4472 . OilImmersed-Indoor: Type 11 enclosures are corrosion-resistant and are intended for use indoors to protect the enclosed equipment against dripping. U.F. coal. and external condensation of corrosive liquids. The group letter E. and to protect these devices against lint and dust. These enclosures shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of Underwriters’ Laboratories. non-deteriorating. flyings.S.Indoor: Type 13 enclosures are intended for use indoors primarily to house pilot devices such as limit switches. Class II locations are those in which combustible dust may be present in explosive or ignitable amounts. dripping and external condensation of non-corrosive liquids. Department of the Interior. F and G . Group F . dust and dirt. Oil Tight and Dust Tight . Group G . they protect the enclosed equipment against the corrosive effects of fumes and gases by providing for immersion of the equipment in oil. push buttons. Industry Standards Type 9 Type 10 Type 11 Type 12 Type 13 www.Air-Break Equipment: Type 9 enclosures are intended for use indoors in the atmospheres defined as Class II and Group E. In addition. lint.Indoor Hazardous Locations . Bureau of Mines: Enclosures under Type 10 must meet requirements of Schedule 2G (1968) of the Bureau of Mines. oil or coolant. seepage. seepage. external condensation. and G designate the content of the hazardous atmosphere as follows: Group E . Inc. Publication No. and their commercial alloys.

harringtonplastics. DC 20220 1849 C Street NW Phone: (202) 622-2000 Washington. DC 20240 Fax: (202) 622-6415 Phone: (202) 208-3100 www. Lawrence Seaway Development Corp. industry’s Office of Public Affairs diversity and multiple needs. improved environmental quality. cuses on tasks vital to the country’s technology infrastructure The department’s information and other services.gov Fax: (202) 208-6950 The Bureau of Alcohol. and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. of the U. the NationThe Department of Energy is entrusted to contribute to the al Highway Traffic Safety Administration. the Federal Highway Administration. and other prohibited trade practices in the alcoholic beverage industry. As the nation’s principal conservation agency. developing ATF’s mission is to curb the illegal traffic in and criminal use and using resources in an environmentally sound manner. government with respect to American Indians and firearms and explosives industries.gov agency of the U. consumer deception. tobacco and firearms tax revenues.gov Fax: (301) 926-1630 The Department of Labor’s principal mission is to help working www. and scientific and educational foundation for technology. civil industry to develop and apply technology. and the Baldrige Phone: (202) 366-4000 National Quality Program. business organizations.interior.INDUSTRY STANDARDS Government Regulatory Agencies DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of Information and Public Affairs National Institute of Standards and Technology 200 Constitution Avenue. and rights groups and government agencies at all levels as well as the academic community. the Department ATF’s responsibilities are law enforcement.S.nist. and carrying out trust responsibilities tions of federal explosive laws. tobacco. Washington. the Federal Transit Administration. measurements. Bureau of Alcohol. pol. including employers. These programs include the Ad1200 New Jersey Ave SE vanced Technology Program. to investigate violaport of these objectives.S. Industry Standards www. carof firearms. DC 20590 nership.people and those seeking work. regulation of the alof the Interior’s responsibilities include: encouraging and pro.dot. Manufacturing Extension PartWashington. Department of the Treasury. Washington.energy. and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency tion. DC 20210 820 West Diamond Ave. a more productive and competitive economy. to regulate the alcohol.gov The Department of Transportation ensures the safety of all DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY forms of transportation.gov Administration. of the nation’s public lands and natural resources. tobacco. the Research and Special Programs Administraicy. firearms and explosives industries. the Federal Railroad www. economic growth by working with other groups.Coast Guard. MD 20889 Fax: (202) 219-8699 Phone: (301) 975-2762 www. Consumer Affairs conducts planning and research for the future. NW Public and Business Affairs Div. state and local law enforcement rying out related scientific research and investigations in supagencies in reducing crime and violence. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY and a secure national defense. It manages more than 440 million acres of fedall alcohol. Fax: (202) 366-6337 www.gov The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) fo.dol. preservation and operation ing the collection of taxes on alcohol. to ensure the collection of Alaska Natives. the U. and to suppress eral lands. tobacco.cohol. including the Federal Aviation AdministraFax: (202) 586-4403 tion. Part of the Commerce Department’s Technology AdministraDEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION tion. Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) is an www.S. NIST has four major programs that reflect U . and helps cities 1000 Independence Avenue SW and states meet their local transportation needs. Phone: (877) 889-5627 Gaithersburg. the St. particularly in that neither industry nor the government can do separately job training and labor law enforcement.com 14 1-800-877-4472 . DC 20585 The Department of Transportation Is composed of 10 operatPhone: (800) 342-5363 ing administrations. and ensurviding appropriate management. commercial bribery. standards. to assist federal.S.ustreas. in energy used. Tobacco and Firearms Liaison and Public Information 1500 Pennsylvania Ave NW DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Washington.. protects the interests of consumers. and firearms. Laboratory Research and Services. the Maritime Adminwelfare of the nation by providing the technical information istration. benefit and affect many NIST works to promote U. diversity in energy sources.S.

and inspection and enforcement to assure compliance. machinery. and enforcement.gov The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.INDUSTRY STANDARDS Government Regulatory Agencies ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Communication. accurately. and researches. and noncompliance is identified and corrected and any unsafe and unlawful products are removed from the marketplace. advances scientific knowledge and understanding of the Earth. SW Washington. government. which includes research. DC 20591 Phone: (866) 289-9673 www. DC 20594 Phone: (202) 314-6000 www. FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION 800 Independence Avenue.S.com 15 1-800-877-4472 . creating and disseminating methods for preventing disease. the solar system and universe. and informatively represented. MD 20857 Phone: (888) 463-6332 www. these products are in compliance with the law and the FDA regulations. and the common defense and security. NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD 490 L’Enfant Plaza SW Washington. THe EPA controls pollution through a variety of activities. Education and Public Affairs Ariel Rios Building 1200 Pennsylvania Ave NW Washington. economic conditions and environmental concerns. injury. biological products and medical devices are safe and effective. DC 20555-0001 Phone: (301)415-8200 Fax: (301) 415-3716 www. The board conducts safety studies.S. NIOSH identifies the causes of work-related diseases and injuries and the potential hazards of new work technologies and practices.ntsb.S. secure and efficient global aerospace system that contributes to national security and the promotion of U. conducting research and providing scientifically valid recommendations for protecting workers. evaluating hazards in the workplace. evaluates the effectiveness of government agencies involved in transportation safety. uses and enables the development of space for human enterprise. standards setting. DC 20201 Phone: (202) 245-0625 Fax: (202) 245-0628 www.gov The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent federal accident investigation agency that also promotes transportation safety. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is the federal institute responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related illnesses and injuries. develops. The Institute’s responsibilities include: investigating potentially hazardous working conditions as requested by employers or employees. the environment. monitoring. FAA is responsive to the dynamic nature of customer needs. NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 300 E Street SW Washington. promote. The Environmental Protection Agency supports research and antipollution efforts by state and local governments as well as by public service institutions and universities. verifies and transfers advanced aeronautics.harringtonplastics. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Office of Public Affairs Public Health Service Department of Health & Human Services 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville. As the leading authority in the international aerospace community. regulated products are honestly. and enhance the health of the American people by ensuring that foods are safe. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH 395 E Street SW Suite 9200 Patriots Plaza Building Washington.gov The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent agency in the executive branch of the U. and evaluates the effectiveness of emergency responses to hazardous material accidents. Industry Standards www. electronic products that emit radiation are safe. The mission is accomplished through licensing of nuclear facilities and the possession. wholesome.epa. and disability. use and disposal of nuclear materials. census of aviation accidents.gov The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the civilian uses of nuclear materials in the United States to protect the public health and safety. the development and implementation of requirements governing licensed activities. evaluates the safeguards used in the transportation of hazardous materials.gov The National Aeronautics and Space Administration explores. aerospace. It determines new ways to protect workers from chemicals. and sanitary.cdc. cosmetics are safe. DC 20460 Phone: (202) 272-0167 Fax: (202) 260-6257 www.nasa. DC 20546 Phone: (202) 358-0001 Fax: (202) 358-3469 www. uses the environment of space for research.nrc. and hazardous working conditions.fda.faa. space and related technologies. and providing education and training to individuals preparing for or actively working in the field of occupational safety and health. maintains official U. human and veterinary drugs.gov The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) works to protect. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Office of Public Affairs Washington.gov The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides a safe.

www. domestic and international ice breaking operations in support of commerce and science. and processes. OSHA issues standards and rules for safe and healthful working conditions. and to carry out other activities recognized as lawful for such organizations. Room N3647 Washington. Coast Guard is the United States’ primary maritime law enforcement agency as well as a federal regulatory agency and one of the armed forces.com The mission of the American Boiler Manufacturers Association is to improve services to the public. Suite 100 Phone: (202) 429-5100 Annapolis. DC 20210 Phone: (800) 321-6742 Fax: (202) 219-5986 www. Phone: (703) 356-7172 Fax: (703) 356-4543 www.S. social. Founded in 1907. PA 15222 Phone: (412) 232-3444 Fax: (412) 232-3450 www. marketing. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Office of Public Information One Lafayette Center 1120 20th Street NW. COAST GUARD Hazard Materials Standards Branch 2100 Second Street SW Washington. Industry Standards Chemical Industry Trade Associations ADHESIVES MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 1200 19th Street NW. maritime pollution preparedness and response. MD 21401 Fax: (202) 857-1115 Phone: (410) 266-3311 The Adhesives Manufacturers Association (AMA) is a national Fax: (410) 266-7653 organization comprised of major U. VA 22182 AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 1 Gateway Center. Ninth Floor Washington. 3rd Floor 420 Duquesne Blvd Pittsburgh. companies engaged in www. hesives or formulated adhesives coatings to the industrial AMERICAN BOILER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION marketplace.S.oshrc. to promote safe. scientific.This organization certifies environmental engineers. THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY 600 N Cleveland Ave.com 16 1-800-877-4472 . DC 20036-3457 Phone: (202) 606-5400 Fax: (202) 606-5050 www. DC 20036 130 Holiday Court. political.abma. and selling of formulated ad.mil The U. tools. Vienna. The association serves its members and the public by promoting environmental responsibility and providing technical and managerial leadership in the fields of air and waste management. the association provides a neutral forum in which all viewpoints of an environmental issue (technical.S. facilities.harringtonplastics.uscg. and search and rescue. Coast Guard duties include aids to navigation. Associate members supply raw materials to the 8221 old Courthouse Road. technical and educational organization with 17.org The Air & Waste Management Association (A&WMA) is a nonprofit.000 members in 58 countries. The U. Suite 202 industry.S. to be proactive with government in matters affecting the industry.net the manufacturing. marine inspection and licensing. DC 20593-0001 Phone: (202) 372-1420 Fax: (202) 372-1926 www.INDUSTRY STANDARDS Government Regulatory Agencies OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION Office of Information and Consumer Affairs 200 Constitution Avenue NW.aaee.osha.gov The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC) is an independent federal agency that serves as a court to provide decisions in workplace safety and health disputes arising between employers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the Department of Labor.awma. Suite 300 AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS Washington. port safety and security. maritime law enforcement.gov The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets and enforces workplace safety and health standards with a goal of ensuring safe and healthful working conditions for all Americans. economical. OH 43082 Phone: (614) 890-4700 Fax: (614) 794-5892 The American Ceramic Society is the headquarters for the professional organization for ceramic engineers. U. and environmentally friendly services of the industry. Suite 210 Westerville. economic. and health-related) receive equal consideration. equipment. defense operations.

METALLURGICAL AND www.com 17 1-800-877-4472 . insecticides. including herbicides.com Phone: (614) 274-6003 ACPA is the trade association for the manufacturers and forFax: (614) 274-6899 mulators/distributors representing virtually all of the active www. NY 10016-5991 P. and sold in the United States for agricultural uses. cooperating with all government AMERICAN SOCIETY OF BREWING CHEMISTS agencies having jurisdiction over the industry.1220 L Street NW neers.abcnet. The Minerals.St.Chemical Industry Trade Associations AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (ACS) AIME serves as the unifying forum for the member societies. DC 20036 The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the U.aimeny.org Phone: (404) 636-8400 The ACGIH is an organization of more than 5. CO 80127-4012 promoting the use of quality concepts and technology. Phone: (303) 948-4255 Fax: (303) 948-4260 www.org INDUSTRY STANDARDS Industry Standards www. It sells technical books as well as providing testing for certifiand fungicides. DC 20005 Phone: (202) 682-8000 AMERICAN COKE AND COAL CHEMICALS INSTITUTE Fax: (202)682-8154 1140 Connecticut Ave NW Suite 705 www. and discussion of prob. OH 43228-0518 www. 3 Park Avenue AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR QUALITY (ASQ) FORMERLY ASQC New York.asq. MN 55121 lems and promoting the use of coke and its byproducts in the Phone: (651) 454-7250 marketplace.O. Iron and Steel Phone: (202) 872-4600 or (800) 227-5558 Society. 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive.O.api. OH 45240 CONDITIONING ENGINEERS (ASHRAE) Phone: (513) 742-2020 1791 Tullie Circle NE Fax: (513) 742-3355 Atlanta. Fax: (651) 454-0766 AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL HY.ashrae. research.org GIENISTS (ACGIH) A nonprofit organization that publishes scientific books and Kemper Woods Center journals.harringtonplastics. DC 20005 1711 Arlingate Lane Phone: (202) 296-1585 P. and air conditioning.acs. cation for nondestructive testing. Suite 400 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (ASNT) Washington.org ingredients manufactured. It PROTECTION ASSOCIATION serves members through meetings and publications. Box 3005 Phone: (800) 242-4363 Milwaukee.www.aiche. and technical services to www. API provides public policy Fax: (202) 463-6573 development and advocacy.500 industrial hygienists Fax: (404) 321-5478 and occupational health and safety professionals devoted to the techwww. ASHRAE is an engineering society whose members are engineers CROPLIFE AMERICA .000 members.org Washington. Suite 600 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING. distributed. and Littleton. Society of Petroleum Engineers. communicating. REFRIGERATING AND AIR Cincinnati. 1155 Sixteenth Street NW which include the Society for Mining. GA 30329 www. The members are chemists. and the AIME Institute Fax: (202) 872-6067 Headquarters. www. petroleum Phone: (202) 452-7198 industry’s primary trade association. DC 20036 tion.asnt.croplifeamerica.3340 Pilot Knob Road rum for the exchange of information.accci.org nical and administrative aspects of worker health and safety. Metals & Materials Society.acgih. A nonprofit organization that has 10. Paul. tive and regulatory officials. refrigerating. Metallurgy and ExploraWashington.000 members worldwide. 1156 15th Street NW.S. Washington. chemical engi.org PETROLEUM ENGINEERS (AIME) This organization facilitates continuous improvement and in8307 Shaffer Parkway creased customer service by identifying. or people who have degrees in related fields.org AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API) ACS has 149. Box 28518 Fax: (202) 463-0474 Columbus.sion. providing a fo. Wl 53201-3005 Fax: (203) 775-5177 Phone: (414) 272-8575 www. This organization also pubAMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS (AIChE) lishes a monthly magazine.org Fax: (414) 272-1734 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING.FORMERLY AMERICAN CROP specializing in heating.org The ACCl’s mission is to represent the interests of the coke and enhance the ability of the petroleum industry to meet its miscoal chemicals industry by communicating positions to legisla.

the Hazardous Materials Advisory Council (HMAC) is an international.org This organization provides a number of services to its members: the selling of books.hmac.org INDUSTRY STANDARDS Industry Standards www. CHLORINE INSTITUTE.nace. publications. It offers free technical.chlorineinstitute. representing the majority of U. Suite 750 Washington.asse. VA 22209 Phone: (703) 894-4140 Fax: (703) 894-4130 www.personalcarecouncil. government. magazines. IL 60018-2187 Phone: (847) 699-2929 Fax: (847) 768-3434 www. PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS COUNCIL (FORMERLY THE CTFA) 1101 17th Street NW. Suite 300 Washington.Chemical Industry Trade Associations AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS Three Park Avenue New York. video training tapes. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ADVISORY COUNCIL 1100 H Street NW Suite 740 Washington. VA 22201 Phone: (703) 525-0511 Fax: (703) 525-0743 www. It has more than 32. national.org AMERICAN SOCIETY OF SAFETY ENGINEERS 1800 E. Suite 300 Westmont. regulatory. and a monthly magazine among other services. NY 10016-5990 Phone: (800) 843-2763 www. The society provides safety education seminars. publications. personal care product sales. state and local levels. DC 20036-4702 Phone: (202) 331-1770 Fax: (202) 331-1969 www. AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL (FORMERLY THE CMA) 1300 Wilson Boulevard Arlington. DC 20036 Phone: (202) 296-1725 Fax: (202) 296-2530 NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PRINTING INK MANUFACTURERS.org American Composites Manufacturers Association provides educational services including seminars.org Incorporated in 1978. Suite 450 Arlington. VA 22209 Phone: (703) 741-5000 Fax: (703) 741-6050 CMA is one of the oldest trade associations in North America. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHEMICAL RECYCLERS 1900 M Street NW. nonprofit organization devoted to promoting regulatory compliance and safety in the transportation of hazardous materials. Oakton Des Plaines. and services to the metal finishing industry. and an annual convention. NJ 07095 Phone: (732) 855-1525 Fax: (732) 855-1838 www. NC 27709 Phone: (919) 549-8411 Fax: (919) 549-8288 ISA develops standards for the instrumentation and control field. seminars and symposiums are among some of those services.O. and legal matters at the international. AMERICAN COMPOSITES MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 1010 N Glebe Rd.org This is a trade association for the paint industry. chemicals. substances. TX 77084-4906 Phone: (281) 228-6200 Fax: (281) 228-6300 www. and regulatory service to its members. NACE INTERNATIONAL National Association of Corrosion Engineers 1440 South Creek Drive Houston. The CMA is also the focal point for the chemical industry’s collective action on legislative.napim.org The Personal Care Products Council is the leading trade association for the personal care product industry. INC.com 18 1-800-877-4472 . DC 20005 Phone: (202) 462-6272 Fax: (202) 462-8549 www.org This is the oldest and largest organization servicing safety engineers. technical publications. classes. Box 12277 Research Triangle Park. The industry trade association was founded in 1894. Suite 525 Arlington.harringtonplastics. P.acmanet.paint.asme. METAL FINISHING SUPPLIERS’ ASSOCIATION 801 N Cass Avenue. (NAPIM) 581 Main Street Woodbridge. a monthly technical magazine.000 members and 139 local chapters. IL 60559 Phone: (708) 887-0797 Fax: (708) 887-0799 MFSA is an organization representing 175 member companies who are suppliers of equipment. and wastes. DC 20005 Phone: (202) 289-4550 Fax: (202) 289-4074 www. AMERICAN COATINGS ASSOCIATION 1500 Rhode Island Ave NW Washington. INC 1300 Wilson Boulevard.S.org This organization supports the chloralkaline industry and serves as a public service for safety and health. ISA 67 Alexander Drive.

VA 22314-1994 1400 K Street NW.org 3350 Riverwood Parkway SE.org Fax: (703) 241-5603 This society deals with education. dryers. manufacture of process equipment such as agitators. Suite 200 Washington. GA 30339 VALVE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA (VMA) Phone: (770) 984-5340 1050 17th Street NW.Chemical Industry Trade Associations NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) SOAP AND DETERGENT ASSOCIATION 1 Batterymarch Park 1500 K Street. and waste treatment equip. holds seminars and conferwww. grinding and screening equipment.cleaning101.org Fire protection standards and manuals.500 worldwide individuals in all areas of the plastics indusorganization of firms and corporations engaged in the try. NW Quincy.phrma.org The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) represents the country’s largest research-based SAMPE is a global. Membership of The Process Equipment Manufacturers’ Association is an 37. which supplies information on advanced statenearly $16 billion a year in discovering and developing new of-the art materials and process opportunities for career develmedicines. DC 20036 The Pulp Chemicals Association. INDUSTRY STANDARDS Industry Standards www. nonprofit trade association that represents tation of standards are available to members only. crushing. DC 20005 Fax: (703) 684-2492 Phone: (202) 682-4800 www.Washington. the manufacturers of soaps and detergents. and produces magazines and journals. mixers. MA 02269-9101 Washington.4spe.plasticsindustry.. CT 06470 201 Park Washington Court Phone: (203) 775-0471 Falls Church.com This is a national. Suite 1900 Atlanta. centrifuges.org Fax: (202) 682-4854 www.com 19 1-800-877-4472 . Suite 280 Fax: (404) 890-5665 Washington.pemanet. Suite 1000 tation and classification devices. Suite 300 1161 Park View Drive.1667 K Street NW. INC www.wef. not-for-profit pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. vacuum and THE SOCIETY OF THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY INC. VA 22046 Fax: (203) 775-8490 Phone: (703) 538-1796 www. kilns. PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND MANUFACTURERS OF SOCIETY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF MATERIAL AND AMERICA PROCESS ENGINEERING (SAMPE) 950 F Street NW. CA 91724-3759 Phone: (202) 845-3400 Phone: (626) 331-0616 Fax: (202) 835-3414 Fax: (626) 332-8929 www. member-governed. Any Fax: (202) 296-0378 person. Suite 900 Phone: (800) 666-0206 Washington.org The Rubber Manufacturers Association is a trade association representing the rubber and tire industry in North America.vma. volunteer.sampe. Phone: (202) 974-5200 Fax: (202) 296-7005 PINE CHEMICALS ASSOCIATION.www. firm or corporation who manufactures chemical prod.org www. in 70 countries.org ences. DC 20006 ment. Services and interpre. sedimen. DC 20004 Covina. SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS 13 Church Hill Rd PROCESS EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION Newton.www. PhRMA companies are the source of nearly all new opment within the materials and process industries.rma. drug discoveries worldwide. furnaces.nfpa. is an international trade Phone: (202) 331-8105 association serving the common goals of its membership. WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 601 Wythe Street RUBBER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION Alexandria. pressure filters.harringtonplastics. DC 20005 Phone: (617) 770-3000 Phone: (202) 347-2900 Fax: (617) 770-0700 Fax: (202) 347-4110 www. Inc.org ucts derived from the pulp and forest products industries is eligible for membership. Investing organization.

Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. 1 Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur. This system provides for identification of hazards to employees and to outside emergency personnel. Materials which. Materials. 2 1 Materials which on exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. 2 Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures befor ignition can occur. The numerical and symboled system shown here are the standards used for the purpose of safeguarding the lives of those who are concerned with fires occurring in an industrial plant or storage location where the fire hazards of material may not be readily apparent. temporary or residual injury even though prompt medical treatment were given 3 3 2 Material which on intense or continued exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury unless prompt medical treatment is given. 1 0 Materials which on exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material 0 Materials that will not burn.harringtonplastics. in themselves. Industry Standards IDENTIFICATION OF HEALTH HAZARD COLOR CODE: BLUE SIGNAL TYPE OF POSSIBLE INJURY Materials which on very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury even though prompt medical treatment were given. but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures or which may react with water with some release of energy but not violently. are normally stable. or which are readily dispersed in air and which will burn readily. Materials which in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive reaction but require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation or which react explosively with water Materials which in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. IDENTIFICATION OF FLAMMABILITY COLOR CODE: RED SIGNAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MATERIAL TO BURNING Materials which will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature. even if no treatment is given. 0 www. which in themselves are normally stable. IDENTIFICATION OF REACTIVITY COLOR CODE: YELLOW SIGNAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RELEASE OF ENERGY Materials which in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. even under fire exposure conditions. 4 4 4 3 Materials which on short exposure could cause serious. Also materials which may react violently with water or which may form potentially explosive mixtures with water.INDUSTRY STANDARDS HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SIGNALS Hazardous Material Signals based on the National Fire Protection Association Code number 704M and Federal Standard 313. and which are not reactive with water.com 20 1-800-877-4472 .

Report this information (if required by your state) to the state agency. It is designed to reduce the incidence of chemical source injury and illness in the workplace. Have labels on all hazardous chemical containers that: List the name and address of the manufacturer List the chemical name List the type of potential hazard that exist List the precautions necessary List target organ information Are easily related to the appropriate MSDS on file 6. health department or fire department depending on the state law that is in effect. records and logs for the entire program. Hard work is necessary to come into compliance with the law.harringtonplastics. OSHA and outside contractors who enter the workplace.INDUSTRY STANDARDS HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SIGNALS Shown below is the correct spatial arrangement and order of signals used for the identification of materials by hazard. 7. 5. Have Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) on file for every hazardous chemical in the workplace available to all employees during their work shift. Brady offers a wide variety of products to keep your work to a minimum. To accomplish this. department of labor. and the proper personal protection necessary when working with hazardous chemicals. Train employees about the potential hazards. This stan­ dard gives both employers and employees a right to know about the hazardous chemicals they use in the workplace. how to identify and safely work with hazardous chemicals. 4. Maintain reports. Identify and list all of the hazardous chemicals in the workplace. 2. Have a written hazard communication program available for employees. Figure 1 FIRE HAZARD COLOR CODE: RED 4 = BELOW 73°F 3 = BELOW 100°F 2 = BELOW 200°F 1 = ABOVE 200°F 0 = WILL NOT BURN Industry Standards HEALTH HAZARD COLOR CODE: BLUE 4 = DEADLY 3 = EXTREME DANGER 2 = HAZARDOUS 1 = SLIGHTLY HAZARDOUS 0 = NORMAL MATERIAL INSTABILITY HAZARD COLOR CODE: YELLOW 4 = MAY DETONATE 3 = SHOCK AND HEAT MAY DETONATE 2 = VIOLENT CHEMICAL CHANGE 1 = UNSTABLE IF HEATED 0 = STABLE OXY ACID ALK BIO COR CRY POI W SPECIFIC HAZARD COLOR CODE: WHITE = OXIDIZER = ACID = ALKALI = BIOLOGICAL = CORROSIVE = CRYOGENIC = POISONOUS = USE NO WATER = RADIATION HAZARD STORAGE TANK OSHA Standards The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Federal Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910. www.com 21 1-800-877-4472 . Employees must be trained before they start a work assignment 3. while enabling you to implement a complete program that will bring your company into compliance with the Hazard Communication Standard.1200 has become known as the “Right-To-Know” law. employers are required to: 1.

concentration. CONVERSION CHART U. Temperature 3.D. high purity. support spacing.750 12. personal preferences. Above or below ground. but also an awareness of the unique properties of thermoplastics.harringtonplastics.480 2. Media is the liquid being contained and its concentration.984 1.394 0. as defined and discussed in the Uniform Building Code and Uniform Fire Code.675 0. Flow Rate and Friction Loss Characteristics 5. and gasket materials are chosen for the service being considered. and crystallization should be determined. in a building or outside. and temperature.000 ISO Standards NOMINAL MILLIMETERS 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 110 140 160 225 280 315 355 400 ACTUAL O. Application 4. psi t = Wall Thickness. requires very careful consideration and compliance to provide piping systems that comply with the law and are safe to man and the environment. pressure rating.S.858 11. engineering the piping system begins with calculations for: 1. In various forms this equation is: 2S P = R-1 2S = R-1 P P(R-1) ) S = 2 or S = P(Do/t-1 2 Where: P = Internal Pressure.875 3. Refer to the Temperature-Pressure charts on pages 28-35 to conform the desired installation. Pressure Size of piping is determined by carrying capacity of the piping selected. and use of gaseous. percent of suspended solids.840 1.D. liquid. Consult with the chemical resistance chart to make a selection based on liquid.405 0.000 16. R = D0/t System Engineering Data Table 4 PIPE O. expansion and contraction.SYSTEM ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING In the engineering of thermoplastic piping systems to comply with the Uniform Building Code.375 2. and method of joining being employed.575 1. short-/or longterm application. diameter. and additional safety considerations are used to determine the right material for the service. and collapse pressure of piping must be determined from the tables on page 26.900 2.050 1. handling. valve. pressure.750 13. and double containment required are all questions which should be answered. Temperature refers to the temperature of the liquid being piped and is the most critical factor in selecting plastic piping. and Uniform Plumbing Code. in. psi S = Circumferential Stress. D0 = Outside Pipe Diameter.660 1. Uniform Fire Code.787 0. in. flame and smoke spread required. (INCHES) 0. These maximum and minimum temperatures directly affect chemical resistance.com 22 1-800-877-4472 .625 8. Pressure Ratings 2.512 6. Media 5. (INCHES) 0. After piping. If more than one material meets the STAMP criteria.563 6. wall thickness. Dimensional and Weight Data It must be noted that storage. It is this factor that determines the pressure that a section of pipe can withstand. and most other physical properties of the piping material.750 www. in a floor trench or in a ceiling. PRESSURE RATINGS OF THERMOPLASTICS DETERMINING PRESSURE-STRESS-PIPE RELATIONSHIPS ISO EQUATION Circumferential stress is the largest stress present in any pressurized piping system. drainage or pumped. These different considerations are discussed separately later.953 3. FDA requirement.315 1.260 1. and pipe dimensions is described by the ISO (International Standardization Organization) equation. Carrying capacity and friction loss are discussed on pages 28-35.472 0.500 4.540 0. Pressure is directly affected by temperature.630 0. Uniform Mechanical Code.299 8. Temperature of media must not exceed continuous resistance to heat. Temperature-Pressure Relationships 4.D. Pressure inside the pipe may be less than the surrounding soil or atmospheres such as in vacuum or deep burial applications. and solid hazardous production material (HPM). The relationship of stress. it is necessary to have not only a working knowledge of piping design. Size 2.331 5. The selection of the proper piping material is based upon S T A M P: 1.543 4. fitting. (ANSI) Standards NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (INCHES) 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 ACTUAL O.402 13. Pressure is the pressure within the piping.980 15.024 12. Specific gravity.625 10. cost of material.500 5.969 2. Refer to the Continuous Resistance To Heat column in the Relative Properties tables on pages 4-5 to select an appropriate plastic material. Temperature also refers to the maximum and minimum media or climactic conditions which the piping will experience. Application asks what the pipe is being designed to do. Water Hammer 3.

8 MPa) 1600 psi (11MPa) Figure 3 This curve is represented by the equation: Log = a = b log S Harrington offers a complete line of pressure instrumentation. of 0.5 provided adequate safety for many if not most uses. The PPI has issued a policy statement officially recommending this 0. as described below: (Hydrostatic design basis equals 4000 psi) HDS 2000 psi (13. This is equivalent to recommending that the pressure rating of the pipe should equal 1.com 23 1-800-877-4472 .5 service factor. many thousands of miles of thermoplastic pipe have been installed in the United States without failure.4 years). as well as for slight manufacturing variations and damage suffered during installation.Standard Test for Time-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe Under Long-Term Hydrostatic Pressure. it is generally understood within the industry that this “long period of time” is a minimum of 50 years.5 0. respectively.000 hours is known as the LongTerm Hydrostatic Strength (LTHS) for that particular thermoplastic compound. Please see our complete catalog for details. as outlined later in this section. again calculated with the ISO equation. require that the pressure rating of the pipe be based upon this hydrostatic design stress. Where: a and b are constants describing the slope and intercept of the curve. While not stated in the standards.000 hours (11.25 times the system design pressure for any particular installation. a shown below. SERVICE FACTOR The Hydrostatic Stress Committee of the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) has determined that a service (design) factor of onehalf the hydrostatic design basis would provide an adequate safety margin for use with water to ensure useful plastic-pipe service for a long period of time. It is best to consider the actual surge conditions. Numerical relationships for service factors and design stresses of PVC are shown below: SERVICE FACTORS AND HYDROSTATIC DESIGN STRESS (HDS) SERVICE FACTOR 0.4 service factor. While early experience indicated that this service factor. The regression curve may be plotted on a log-log paper.SYSTEM ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING LONG-TERM STRENGTH To determine the long-term strength of thermoplastic pipe. some experts felt that a more conservative service factor of 0. lengths of pipe are capped at both ends and subjected to various internal pressure to produce circumferential stresses that will produce failure from 10 to 10. or multiplier. The test is run according to ASTM D-1598 . From this (LTHS) the Hydrostatic Design Stress (HDS) is determined by applying the service factor multiplier. see page 9) to determine the characteristics of the regression curve that represents the stress/ time-to-failure relationship for the particular thermoplastic pipe compound under test.000 hours.000 to 100. The stress at 100. In addition. and extrapolated from 10. www.4 Material: PVC Type I & CPVC System Engineering Data Figure 2 The resulting failure points are used in a statistical analysis (outlined in ASTM D-2837. and T and S are time-to-failure and stress. Based upon this policy.4 would better compensate for water hammer pressure surges. using the 0. The standards for plastic pipe. substantial reductions in working pressure are advisable when handling aggressive chemical solutions and in high-temperature service.harringtonplastics.

5 PVC & CPVC NOMINAL SIZE (IN.harringtonplastics. The effects of temperature have been exhaustively studied and correction (derating) factors developed for each thermoTable 5 MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURES (PSI) AT 73°F BASED UPON A SERVICE FACTOR OF 0.. These correction factors are applicable to pipe and fittings only.) System Engineering Data plastic piping compound. i. threaded system normally reduces pressure capabilities substantially. multiply the pressure rating at ambient shown below by the temperature correction factor for that material shown on the next page.e. 1 Copolymer polypropylene is a copolymer of propylene and polybutylene. **For threaded joints properly backwelded. increases in impact strength. www. The pressure ratings of thermoplastic pipe must therefore be decreased accordingly. Systems that include valves. Attention must also be given to the pressure rating of the joining technique. As the system temperature increases. the thermoplastic pipe becomes more ductile. flanges. To determine the maximum operating pressure at any given temperature. correction factors for valves vary with manufacturers and designs. NOTE: The pressure ratings in this chart are based on water and are for pipe only. or other weaker items will require derating the entire piping system. N/A = Not Available (not manufactured) *Threaded polypropylene is not recommended for pressure applications. CLEAR PVC Sch 40 Sch 80 Solvent Weld N/A 570 460 420 340 320 260 240 200 210 190 N/A 160 N/A 140 POLYPROPYLENE (PP) Sch 80 Fusion N/A N/A N/A 410 330 310 260 230 200 N/A 190 N/A 160 N/A 140 N/A 45 N/A 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 N/A 150 150 150 150 150 150 N/A 150 N/A 150 N/A 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 Copolymer SDR 11 N/A 1 POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE (PVDF) Sch 80 Fusion Threaded N/A N/A PURAD™ SDR 21 N/A SDR 33 N/A ECTFE HALAR® Fusion N/A Sch 40 Solvent Weld 810 780 620 600 480 450 370 330 280 300 260 240 220 190 180 160 140 130 130 130 130 120 120 Sch 80 Solvent Solvent Threaded Weld Weld 1230 1130 920 850 690 630 520 470 400 420 370 350 320 290 280 250 230 230 220 220 220 220 210 N/A — — 420 340 320 260 240 200 210** 190** — 160** N/A 390 310 300 240 220 180 170 140 150 130 120 110 N/A 90 80 70 70 SDR 32 N/A 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 975 790 725 600 540 465 N/A 430 N/A 370 N/A 290 235 215 180 160 135 N/A 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 150 N/A 150 N/A 150 150 150 150 230 200 200 150 150 120 120 120 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 230 N/A 230 230 230 — = Data not available at printing. and decreases in tensile strength. N/R = Not Recommended.com 24 1-800-877-4472 .SYSTEM ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE AND MODULUS RELATIONSHIPS Temperature Derating Pressure ratings for thermoplastic pipe are generally determined in a water medium at room temperature (73°F).

— Data unavailable at time of printing.com 25 1-800-877-4472 .90 — 0.40 0.65 — 0.58 — 0.22 PURAD™ 1.88 0.41 0.82 — 0.40 0.65 0.76 0.68 — 0. Maximum pressure for any flanged system is 150 psi.83 0.62 0.00 0.00 0. N/R Not Recommended 1 Copolymer Polypropylene is a copolymer of propylene and polybutylene.00 0.35 0. Note pressure ratings for fittings vary with manufacturer and pipe sizes.20 — — 0.49 0.SYSTEM ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Table 6 TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTORS OPERATING TEMPERATURES °F 73 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 180 200 210 220 240 250 280 FACTORS PVC CPVC POLYPROPYLENE NATURAL 1.39 — 0.00 — — 0. At elevated temperatures the pressure capability of a flanged system must be de rated as shown.22 N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 1.20 * N/R N/R N/R N/R 1.50 0.38 0.10 N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R 1. Threaded must be backwelded for the above pressure capability to be applicable.18 HALAR System Engineering Data 1.61 0.14 0.87 0.42 0.28 0.25 — 0. **Threaded PP flanges size 1/2 through 4 inch as well as the 6" backwelded socket flange are not recommended for pressure applications (drainage only).73 — 0.10 * *Recommended for intermittent drainage applications only.harringtonplastics. not all manufacturers produce fittings with the same pressure rating as the equivalent size pipe.58 0.64 — — — 0. OPERATION TEMP °F 100 100 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 240 280 PVC* 150 135 110 75 50 N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R CPVC* 150 145 135 125 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 N/R N/R PP** 150 140 130 118 105 93 80 70 50 N/R N/R N/R N/R N/R PVDF 150 150 150 150 150 140 133 125 115 106 97 90 60 25 N/R = Not Recommended *PVC and CPVC flanges sizes 2 1/2 through 3 and 4 inch.74 0.00 0.47 0.91 0.54 0.25 0.65 0.40 — — 0.71 0. Threading requires a 50% reduction in pressure ratings stated for plain end pipe at 73°F.74 0.96 0.93 0. Table 7 MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE (PSI) FOR FLANGED SYSTEMS Design Pressure = Pressure rating at 73°F x temperature correction factor shown above.75 0.87 0. Warning: threading of Schedule 40 pipe is not a recommended practice due to insufficient wall thickness.82 0.28 0. Thread only Schedule 80 or heavier wall piping.58 0.36 — — 0.00 0.10 N/R N/R N/R N/R COPOLYMER 1 POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE SCHEDULE 80 1.54 0.45 0.51 0.30 0. www.23 0.80 — 0.40 0.35 — 0.38 0.93 0.00 0.66 0.57 0.82 0.95 0.50 0.

6 PROLINE PRO 45 PURAD™ 61 57 65 55 51 Where: Pc = Collapse Pressure (external minus internal pressure). Table 8 SHORT-TERM COLLAPSE PRESSURE IN PSI AT 73°F ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 SCHEDULE 40 PVC 2095 1108 900 494 356 211 180 109 54 39 27 22 SCHEDULE 80 PVC 2. For applications when using PVC. the collapse rating of the pipe determines the maximum permissible pressure differential between external and internal pressures. Dm = Mean Pipe Diameter.8 5.By using formula 2 on thick-wall pipe. Schedule 40 PVC will handle full long-term loading conditions. In these applications. such show no deformation at temperatures to 170°F and 27 inches of as in heat exchangers.Di2) pipe is determined by derating the short-term collapse pressures shown below. Solvent-cemented joints are recommended for vacuum terials charts for short-term collapse pressures at 73°F. t = Wall Thickness.IPS 2936 1576 1205 680 464 309 255 164 105 72 PROLINE PRO 150 40 1. psi v = Poisson’s Ratio Do = Outside Pipe Diameter. the Vacuum Service . Laboratory tests have been conducted on Schedule 80 PVC pipe SHORT-TERM COLLAPSE PRESSURE to determine performance under vacuum at temperatures above Thermoplastic pipe is often used for suction lines or in appli.6 40 1.NOTE: These are short-term ratings.6 40 1.6 40 1.8 Choice of Formula .6 40 1.harringtonplastics. The pressure temperature correction factors on page 25 may be used to adjust pipe pressure ratings for this purpose. shown in the table below. The 6 inch pipe showed slight deformation at differential pressure rating of the pipe between the internal 165°F.8 5. Approximately 0. in. or underwater loading conditions. c = Out-of-Roundness Factor. in. o and v from the relative properties charts shown are suitable for vacuum service up to 140°F and 30 inches of on pages 4-5 will yield reasonable results. The differential pressure rating of the www.recommended operating conditions. The basic formulas for collapsing external pressure applied uniformly to a long pipe are: 1. long-term ratings should be reduced essary to calculate. See individual ma.IPS 2772 2403 2258 1389 927 632 521 335 215 147 126 117 SCHEDULE 80 PRESSURE POLYPROPYLENE . psi E = Modulus of elasticity.6 40 1. in. For thick wall pipe where collapse is caused by compression and failure of the pipe material: Pc = o 2Do2 (Do2 . Pipe sizes under 6 inches cations where external pressures are applied to the pipe.SYSTEM ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING System Engineering Data EXTERNAL PRESSURES .6 40 1.All sizes of Schedule 80 thermoplastic pipe values of E.6 40 1.COLLAPSE RATING Thermoplastic pipe is frequently specified for situations where uniform external pressures are applied to the pipe. using both formulas and use the lower value as a guide to safe working pressure. should be used.66 202 99 92 44 41 22 5. pressures of the pipe. the collapse pressure by 1/3 to 1/2 of the short-term ratings. appropriate long-term data vacuum up to 24" diameter.8 5.mercury. and 20 inches of mercury. in. for a given pipe size.6 40 1.com 26 1-800-877-4472 .8 5. The mercury vacuum.IPS 1011 876 823 612 412 278 229 147 94 SCHEDULE 80 PVDF . For thin wall pipe where collapse is caused by elastic instability of the pipe wall: Pc = 2cE2 1-v t ) ( Dm 3 2772 2403 2258 1389 927 632 521 335 215 147 126 117 SCHEDULE 80 CPVC .6 40 1.8 5. failure and external pressures is determined by derating collapse occurred due to thread deformation.6 40 1. For short-term loading conditions. It is therefore nec. Above this temperature. such as in underwater applications. Di = Inside Pipe Diameter. Collapse pressures must be adjusted for temperatures other than 73°F.6 40 1. an excessively large pressure will be obtained. psi o = Compressive Strength.

= specific gravity SYSTEM ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING System Engineering Data www. Because most pressure applications require a pump of some type . and in this respect is superior to metal piping systems. FITTINGS AND VALVES INTRODUCTION A major advantage of thermoplastic pipe is its exceptionally smooth inside surface area.harringtonplastics.8655 for C = 150 Di Where: f = Friction Head in ft.2083( 100 ) X 4.852 q = 0. Flow velocity of the fluid. 3. C FACTORS Tests made both with new pipe and pipe that had been in service revealed C factor values for plastic pipe between 160 and 165. don’t forget to include the pressure drop through valves and strainers as shown on page 38. friction losses are presented in both psi and feet of head (per 100 feet of pipe). of Pipe P = Pressure Loss in psi per 100 ft. These pressures are mutually convertible .3208 A Where: V = velocity in feet per second G = gallons per minute A = inside cross-sectional area in square inches P = 0. PIPE SIZING Carrying Capacity & Friction Loss Tables are provided on pages 28 through 35 to assist the user in selecting the proper pipe size to carry a known volume of water or similar fluids. Friction loss in plastic pipe remains constant over extended periods of time. Next follow the column vertically until the pipe size is found.0983 4. 4. one to the other .com 27 1-800-877-4472 . the flow capacity of thermoplastics is greater under fully turbulent flow conditions like those encountered in water service.8655 C Di 1. of Pipe Di = Inside Diameter of Pipe. the factor of 150 recommended for water in the equation below is on the conservative side. as follows: psi X 2. the C factor for metallic pipe varies from 65 to 125.G. The length of the pipeline. Higher velocities may be used in cases where the operating characteristics of valves and pumps are known so that sudden changes in flow velocity can be controlled.852 q1. 1. The Plastics Pipe Institute has issued the following policy statement on water velocity: The maximum safe water velocity in a thermoplastic piping system depends on the specific details of the system and the operating conditions. The most significant losses occur as a result of the length of pipe and fittings and depend on the following factors. which reduces friction loss compared to other materials.31 = Head in Feet S. Where: psi = pound per square inch S.852 f = 0. On the other hand.G. 2. The obvious benefit is that with plastic systems it is often possible to use a smaller diameter pipe and still obtain the same or even lower friction losses.FRICTION LOSS CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER THROUGH PLASTIC PIPE.S. HAZEN AND WILLIAMS FORMULA The head losses resulting from various water flow rates in plastic piping may be calculated by means of the Hazen and Williams formula: 1. Thus. 5 feet per second is considered to be safe. in contrast to some other materials where the value of the Hazen and Williams C factor (constant for inside roughness) decreases with time. q = Flow Rate in U. Then simply read down the left-hand column to find the desired volume and then read right to a velocity column showing approximately 5 feet per second. C = Constant for Inside Roughness (C equals 150 thermoplastics) WATER VELOCITIES Velocities for water in feet per second at different GPM and pipe inside diameters can be calculated as follows: G V = 0.4335f VELOCITY Thermoplastic pipe is not subject to erosion caused by high velocities and turbulent flow. First select the Schedule or SDR of the desired piping system. Harrington Industrial Plastics does not recommend flow velocities in excess of five feet per second for any plastic piping system. Diameter of the pipe. 5. depending upon age and interior roughening. particularly where corrosive or chemically aggressive fluids are involved. As a result. The total pressure in the system at any time (operating plus surge or water hammer) should not exceed 150 percent of the pressure rating of the system. The type of fluid being transmitted. in. Surface roughness of interior of the pipe. In general. of Water per 100 ft. gal/min. To complete system friction loss calculations. especially its viscosity. Page 36 provides a table showing the equivalent lengths of straight pipe for the most common fittings.

99 2.32 0.04 0.68 10.14 1.17 0.69 5.23 0.33 42.12 0.201 0.62 0.21 2.62 1.49 4.83 2.75 1.228 2.10 0.47 5.07 0.27 2.21 1.04 0.27 8.23 0.35 1.14 6.20 5.22 1.42 3.13 0.09 0.19 0.64 4.12 0.86 7.06 1.06 1.17 0.06 0.89 4.09 0.41 2.33 0.55 2.73 8.39 2.68 0.05 0.29 8.12 0.75 1.64 2.06 0.60 10.31 3.13 0.20 3.54 5.57 2.34 0.33 0.62 2.15 1.46 1.57 0.334 0.64 7.13 18" 0.16 4.37 0.368 14.47 5.003 1.12 3.65 2.63 0.25 0.81 3.37 1 2 5 7 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 1.24 0.24 CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.21 10.31 8.10 9.15 0.77 1.75 10.08 0.30 2.53 0.28 0.23 7.22 0.40 0.58 0.557 0.12 2.02 2.98 15.912 10.35 4.44 2.07 0.08 8.49 1.09 0.26 0.782 2.23 4.08 0.10 1.66 0.75 3.94 2.18 5.20 0.10 0.39 0.01 2.70 www.55 1.05 0.21 0.08 0.36 4.75 2.18 0.98 2.79 0.39 0.25 0.76 2.66 8" 0.47 1.44 1.84 10.58 1.32 1.62 6.02 0.29 3.19 0.46 5.41 0.84 9.03 1.73 9.11 1.76 1.045 0.06 0.04 0.10 0.84 3.99 3.20 0.42 4.13 0.42 5.03 0.668 0.27 9.59 9.15 0.69 6.58 3.74 0.07 0.63 0.92 1.79 3.72 9.43 0.36 5.94 10.30 0.65 1.09 0.30 0.92 1.14 6.73 0.47 4.62 4.16 0.09 0.41 25.21 0.32 7.94 11.86 1.70 3.14 8.482 15.19 0.23 8.92 2.75 5.06 4.78 9.92 1.29 0.20 4.05 0.29 0.02 0.10 0.13 0.78 7.15 2.43 0.51 0.70 4.05 0.45 26.89 1.36 1.22 1.76 0.30 0.92 3.033 0.13 1.03 6.710 17.39 0.49 6.55 0.98 7.21 0.123 0.05 0.53 2.53 0.17 1.50 7.23 1.560 1.16 8.46 1.18 0.12 9.08 11.47 7.87 14.17 0.46 1.33 3.28 5.37 0.83 11.39 1.60 0.43 17.62 7.18 0.02 2.00 12.88 5.83 6.23 5.14 0.76 0.078 0.70 6.93 3.48 0.75 12.62 1.04 0.06 0.15 6.04 4.66 0.95 1.74 2.59 2 1/2" 0.06 5.32 3.05 0.49 5.44 0.15 11.19 2.005 2.58 9.31 0.91 2.59 2.03 0.03 5.49 0.53 12.66 6.50 6.56 2.04 0.45 0.31 2.21 0.96 33.harringtonplastics.83 5.94 1.75 11.87 4.54 0.32 0.62 4.11 5.56 0.23 0.64 1.79 7.14 0.79 5.92 3.42 3.43 2.86 4.61 0.52 0.167 0.95 10.08 0.446 0.15 0.81 3.92 1.30 1.08 0.26 0.10 4.97 4.14 0.24 7.04 0.88 5.46 0.75 3.27 0.00 6.70 10.43 0.42 0.35 0.23 4.15 1.94 2.67 8.33 2.71 0.64 0.11 0.98 7.37 1.45 8.65 11.39 4.06 0.11 0.45 2.00 1.89 1/2" 1.14 0.42 5.79 1.57 2.29 2.74 1.71 1.03 2.40 1.44 0.18 2.61 0.83 5.48 0.87 0.134 0.60 7.37 20.22 3.89 10.03 0.96 1.100 0.48 2.87 5.05 0.08 0.46 2.37 3.06 0.06 2.02 0.83 7.19 0.10 0.25 2.82 6.38 0.81 1.026 11.15 1.com 28 1-800-877-4472 10000 0.05 0.42 0.55 2.14 0.43 0.77 1.01 0.89 3.50 1.04 0.23 0.49 0.16 4.36 0.56 8.21 20.32 0.59 0.01 12" 0.31 9.61 1.02 0.140 12.798 8.26 0.44 2.42 4.06 0.44 4.72 0.97 7.10 20" 0.84 7.04 24” 0.12 0.780 0.05 2.12 0.54 1.684 7.60 0.41 0.61 4.35 0.21 0.89 1.47 1.65 3.69 1.43 6.30 0.052 21.81 1.65 8.56 0.29 2.12 1.61 1.570 6.223 0.30 0.34 0.55 11.11 0.33 0.27 0.05 0.40 0.94 20.54 11.14 0.66 2.55 10.86 1.51 11.11 0.11 0.92 6.23 0.65 2" 0.19 0.70 1.85 6.08 0.69 0.08 1.03 1.50 0.08 16" 0.68 0.73 0.68 9.07 0.28 0.43 0.24 3.77 0.60 2.16 0.06 0.25 0.03 0.08 0.06 0.89 21.11 1.19 6.30 1.12 0.85 15.65 5.32 0.09 1.25 4.07 0.145 0.54 0.16 0.41 0.64 1.48 8.63 3.17 2.29 0.95 1.91 3.43 6.26 3.36 1 1/2" 0.78 2.24 9.254 13.34 6.73 2.49 5.19 0.71 2.02 0.03 0.89 3.16 0.10 1.002 0.824 18.15 0.65 2.16 0.19 0.70 5.25 0.49 0.20 0.87 3.00 1.73 1.13 0.39 2.36 2.21 28.09 3.56 2.22 23.96 8.20 4.17 0.25 0.13 0.53 1.73 1.11 6.85 5.11 3" 0.05 0.39 30.69 3.15 5" 0.31 4.08 0.69 0.93 2.05 0.5 2.11 0.97 1.23 0.82 0.05 0.342 4.16 10.41 1.63 1.45 1.58 0.03 2. 1.84 6.57 10.63 7.94 2.14 0.47 0.37 7.06 0.51 0.022 0.10 0.114 1.59 2.79 6.14 0.27 0.52 6.25 4.45 1.20 46.64 8.33 0.03 1.11 0.25 7.14 1.44 2.52 6.41 7.88 42.02 0.11 0.10 1.44 1.39 0.21 2.59 4.12 0.596 16.279 0.30 1.03 0.76 4.81 2.40 10.92 1.71 3.17 0.87 8.87 8.43 6.18 0.71 2.51 14.089 0.16 0.016 0.54 3.44 2.13 6.00 5.22 0.13 0.027 0.15 3.33 8.32 0.33 1.24 1.90 1" 1.49 0.41 3.37 9.26 5.09 0.44 1.03 5.73 4.15 0.08 3.67 1.34 5.91 1.25 1.53 3.067 0.09 0.77 4.48 Table 9 CARRYING CAPACITY AND FRICTION LOSS FOR SCHEDULE 40 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE 0.26 1.31 0.18 2.81 9.89 0.20 3.33 0.22 0.63 5.18 1.13 0.63 0.03 0.07 0.27 0.07 0.32 0.74 7.03 0.84 2.70 13.29 1.23 4" 0.50 1.08 8.44 20.46 0.07 0.51 0.22 0.30 0.08 0.21 0.938 20.07 4.Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) cu ft/sec GPM 3/4" 1.45 3.52 0.09 0.32 0.11 0.78 5.13 2.40 6.05 0.51 7.337 1.24 5.99 10.390 0.32 7.78 4.46 0.19 0.66 4.19 22.89 9.53 0.98 1.03 1.30 1.056 0.85 20.82 2.13 5.15 0.54 1 1/4" 0.08 0.03 0.22 5.50 0.80 8.07 0.12 6" 0.30 1.32 5.99 13.02 0.73 3.36 7.97 2.17 0.785 3.13 5.49 2.06 5.13 1.47 0.04 0.37 0.93 4.64 0.90 18.81 6.891 1.83 0.45 0.26 0.24 0.53 13.004 0.84 4.156 0.166 22.02 4.07 0.90 8.84 8.56 3.28 1.34 0.05 0.22 3.17 0.04 0.76 14" 0.17 0.31 1.45 9.06 0.011 0.42 3.21 0.83 2.18 8.64 0.19 1.71 0.38 0.87 3.05 2.178 0.09 0.27 10" 0.36 1.111 0.31 0.63 6.42 9.456 5.21 0.07 1.64 0.47 1.27 12.280 .98 1.72 1.90 4.62 2.39 0.97 3.70 0.34 5.41 3.66 1.41 0.45 0.45 0.58 5.26 18.73 8.95 2.02 0.19 0.52 8.24 3.67 1.86 1.25 8.89 3.95 1.

24 0.39 3.73 20" 0.10 0.11 3.14 2.002 0.63 0.66 0.54 9.04 10.06 0.027 0.32 2.27 4.15 0.38 8.33 0.21 3.31 6.16 1.57 2.64 2.13 8.06 1.53 0.58 3.14 0.28 3.14 6.06 1 1/2" 0.81 2.44 0.81 4.52 20.342 4.21 1.254 13.13 0.47 0.29 1.72 9.57 4.02 0.62 1.156 0.24 1.21 0.223 0.17 7.67 10.06 0.35 0.07 22.74 31.52 1.24 1.24 3.99 1.089 0.24 2.24 2.39 10.63 6.90 6.06 7.36 0.07 0.46 5.58 0.07 11.22 0.31 0.19 0.26 0.30 0.36 18" 0.70 0.01 4.93 7.91 4.93 2.09 0.43 0.51 3.785 3.09 0.42 0.02 8.00 9.01 7.48 3.36 0.06 0.90 0.11 0.73 9.98 11.20 2.022 0.33 0.14 0.11 0.37 9.05 0.43 0.28 4.70 7.334 0.53 3.70 7.02 5.46 0.29 0.16 2.47 6" 0.68 0.28 0.482 15.12 3.96 9.46 0.07 8.05 11.30 0.59 0.44 1.09 8.86 4.40 1.17 1.20 0.87 0.68 7.16 0.53 3.570 6.05 0.07 0.24 0.54 10.90 5.111 0.29 0.05 0.97 2.73 8.12 0.95 7.99 4.19 3.69 0.96 1.19 0.18 0.95 1.30 0.03 3.58 6.13 7.69 5.49 2.12 3.57 7.97 1.38 0.026 11.29 4.29 0.798 8.32 3.27 2.29 0.18 0.11 1.38 0.36 12.41 0.43 7.69 2" 0.05 1.66 10.71 3" 0.47 0.18 5.76 Table 10 CARRYING CAPACITY AND FRICTION LOSS FOR SCHEDULE 80 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE 0.83 3.99 10.(ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) cu ft/sec GPM 3/4" 1.64 1.70 0.22 0.14 0.12 0.60 1.50 8.61 0.71 17.43 0.41 11.03 0.228 2.70 0.24 0.84 7.16 0.19 0.95 2.68 0.98 1.24 0.12 3.390 0.07 0.63 4.74 0.67 3.74 1.85 3.26 1.61 11.64 17.20 4.41 4" 0.68 2.47 17.50 0.37 0.24 8.84 9.73 0.30 1.43 0.83 5.08 0.09 0.56 10.03 0.710 17.54 0.24 4.50 0.16 0.43 1.27 0.114 1.16 4.32 0.57 0.782 2.17 0.62 0.08 0.94 12.48 4.20 0.42 0.81 2.56 4.51 11.00 8.07 0.28 2.96 1.134 0.15 11.684 7.80 2.279 0.14 2.10 7.64 0.74 11.07 0.96 0.14 1.79 0.01 2.98 5.47 7.10 0.78 9.65 13.15 5.85 15.75 4.66 0.03 3.15 0.06 0.63 7.61 11.79 20.65 CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.94 1.70 3.33 11.16 0.99 5.29 7.91 8.06 0.43 1.74 8.12 0.23 2.79 1 1/4" 0.79 9.23 7.24 6.22 3.25 0.20 13.13 4.35 1.45 0.44 34.178 0.54 0.86 2.14 8.09 0.50 0.27 7.145 0.30 10.18 0.38 8.58 0.18 0.13 0.90 1.88 2.64 14.95 1.06 7.54 3.48 1.31 1.39 8" 0.12 0.45 4.56 0.18 0.92 1.40 0.77 0.89 5.57 0.17 0.85 1.54 5.35 1.44 9.07 0.34 1/2" 2.88 1.78 9.63 4.11 0.10 0.62 1.25 4.49 1.32 9.65 3.98 6.73 0.68 5.45 2.39 0.17 2 1/2" 0.80 9.43 14.005 2.34 0.98 9.38 6.08 4.27 0.22 0.08 10.12 0.16 0.80 5.85 6.201 0.76 4.94 14" 0.33 0.57 0.912 10.97 0.48 2.88 0.09 2.38 10.47 2.72 0.18 1.01 9.25 0.17 1" 0.93 10.97 5" 0.52 8.09 0.07 5.23 7.052 21.06 0.033 0.67 4.75 4.18 0.80 0.13 0.123 0.68 2.27 0.71 1.80 6.01 17.73 3.74 5.19 1.56 2.97 10.63 1.938 20.21 0.82 52.72 1.30 0.62 0.51 0.58 0.011 0.668 0.16 0.57 0.31 0.84 0.88 1.05 0.45 26.63 0.14 0.24 0.39 5.25 0.04 2.18 0.69 1.41 8.35 5.078 0.92 3.13 1.49 7.76 0.31 1.86 3.91 24" 0.891 1.03 0.19 2.38 10.21 82.07 1.33 3.68 2.90 72.22 0.21 0.57 8.05 20.32 1.78 5.07 0.70 8.02 2.56 1.40 0.56 4.79 1 2 5 7 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 1.100 0.22 23.45 2.28 0.82 8.60 7.82 5.37 1.70 13.05 6.16 2.60 4.31 1.10 0.49 6.48 4.62 2.38 0.456 5.88 3.18 5.42 0.09 0.780 0.17 0.88 4.59 1.30 0.20 0.14 0.90 2.06 0.23 0.51 19.78 8.04 0.53 3.96 1.65 34.15 1.23 2.557 0.34 0.19 0.045 0.65 2.13 3.10 0.368 14.04 0.22 0.75 2.85 8.596 16.90 4.77 9.75 10.37 7.52 0.88 2.10 0.03 0.81 3.88 1.09 0.76 4.78 10.07 0.03 0.27 0.harringtonplastics.62 2.19 8.167 0.09 10.64 6.04 5.71 6.14 35.14 3.28 5.20 2.38 0.13 0.04 0.57 1.68 0.54 1.66 0.93 1.34 1.79 1.35 1.25 2.74 3.87 7.82 2.04 2.11 0.03 0.05 1.66 0.64 0.17 1.27 0.99 3.53 3.49 7.55 0.23 3.29 1.560 1.63 2.41 0.26 1.36 1.10 0.71 1.17 3.04 0.03 5.14 0.47 8.87 1.15 3.47 0.74 Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts www.85 2.06 0.46 8.93 2.62 5.05 0.34 0.98 4.25 0.004 0.72 3.76 1.21 0.83 13.95 0.25 2.99 2.43 3.39 2.49 5.68 1.56 4.30 8. 1.06 1.34 2.49 0.34 0.67 6.01 4.79 2.29 10.70 0.24 2.02 0.59 1.74 1.14 0.57 3.06 0.08 9.65 0.97 4.98 1.003 1.23 1.46 0.166 22.36 1.14 0.21 12" 0.22 9.11 0.34 18.42 0.74 2.64 1.337 1.15 1.41 0.61 0.71 23.81 6.49 0.67 0.42 21.95 2.22 0.45 0.com 29 1-800-877-4472 10000 0.92 2.04 2.54 1.97 8.824 18.00 2.32 3.81 1.51 5.10 1.97 3.016 0.21 1.51 0.00 5.72 24.16 0.51 3.09 0.59 3.86 3.71 2.93 1.50 0.46 2.18 47.52 0.07 0.82 1.55 9.56 5.34 10" 0.08 0.54 1.35 3.26 8.04 0.72 20.39 6.44 7.02 9.82 2.49 3.37 4.63 5.97 1.49 2.03 4.92 5.27 0.23 0.03 1.38 1.97 4.97 2.067 0.24 0.57 1.56 0.44 1.17 0.56 0.71 2.04 0.93 10.08 0.08 7.87 2.40 0.15 0.40 2.19 6.10 44.73 3.28 0.53 0.26 7.07 1.67 5.99 2.15 0.280 .85 7.16 0.04 0.79 3.04 4.12 2.00 1.10 0.056 0.446 0.12 2.24 3.39 0.27 0.17 5.70 10.10 0.79 6.50 2.56 30.47 5.82 0.07 0.59 1.03 0.59 0.140 12.70 0.32 0.37 0.73 0.58 6.10 16" 0.

37 5.96 7.44 13.85 0.067 0.22 0.035 0.27 6.41 0.15 1 1/4" 0.30 2.70 1.24 0.95 1.92 0.78 16.201 0.17 0.96 1.48 4.078 0.30 0.74 1.089 0.71 0.10 0.56 0.056 0.07 0.93 1.52 0.05 1.58 0.178 0.054 0.58 21.07 0.017 0.86 2.17 1.16 0.111 0.24 5.09 0.69 7.12 0.25 0.26 0.50 2.16 0.27 0.22 9.85 5.24 1" 0.44 0.013 0.08 0.49 1.79 1.31 5.07 2.91 1.67 1.065 0.78 3.35 0.61 10.89 5.88 7.73 8.039 0.98 1.40 7.33 9.66 5.54 1.70 1.55 3.20 0.44 2.94 1.891 1.33 2.54 0.12 7.30 1.017 0.06 0.18 4.24 40.56 0.08 13.39 11.86 0.078 0.88 2.048 0.05 11.228 cu ft/sec GPM 0.446 0.74 0.20 0.11 2.043 0.04 1.030 0.056 0.40 7.12 1.48 1.68 1.10 2.85 1.07 5.50 13.069 0.033 0.37 5.167 0.24 0.49 0.69 4.com 30 1-800-877-4472 0.56 2.78 1.53 2.83 11.76 2.26 6. 0.01 2.37 9.32 0.99 1.62 3.03 10.05 3.75 5.075 0.36 1/2" 1.16 0.86 4.39 0.46 10.12 1.57 4.334 0.99 2.13 3.65 3.84 5.21 5.97 2.27 2.75 4.50 0.48 1.47 2.29 3.07 3.114 2.45 0.87 5.64 1.50 8.98 1.52 3.06 0.19 0.18 1.98 4.36 8.64 11.06 0.32 0.95 6.54 3.22 5.29 1.79 3.15 13.55 4.53 0.01 14.038 0.17 5" 0.05 3.19 9.86 0.33 1.03 0.37 7.04 8.045 0.10 8.02 8.82 4.74 2.16 1.77 10.14 0.030 0.24 2.81 3.56 9.03 5.42 0.15 0.34 0.49 0.29 1.38 0.65 33.011 0.40 0.035 0.03 0.02 0.03 2.46 4" 0.05 1 1/2" 0.01 9.10 0.10 1.52 7.31 0.49 0.19 0.03 0.84 2.20 0.82 7.66 2.31 1.022 0.27 0.20 8.80 1.46 4.22 0.42 1.03 2.17 0.20 11.56 0.31 1.69 4.75 0.34 3.38 0.91 8.05 7.34 0.026 0.88 4.04 0.51 0.17 0.51 1.18 10.087 0.21 0.65 0.023 0.70 5.88 1.11 1.13 0.091 0.28 3.082 0.46 3.14 7.028 0.60 0.24 0.18 0.44 8.61 0.40 3.24 4.46 2.017 0.26 4.90 1.013 0.46 0.06 0.59 1.36 3.49 10.43 10.01 13.71 0.048 0.23 4.125 0.72 1.Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) Table 11 CARRYING CAPACITY AND FRICTION LOSS FOR 315 PSI AND SDR 13.75 0.095 0.50 1.26 2.156 0.34 28.87 3.65 2.44 6.060 0.47 0.70 3.017 0.30 .40 3.16 9.52 9.27 0.52 0.90 22.91 4.26 27.26 3.21 0.26 4.80 5.29 4.039 0.44 2 1/2" 0.29 0.022 0.026 0.13 1.67 2.09 0.05 0.37 0.68 0.97 6.74 3" 0.33 0.58 6.35 2.668 0.088 0.17 1.66 0.12 0.65 0.99 1.20 0.08 4.42 1.20 4.20 0.87 2.58 2.134 0.13 0.94 11.016 0.91 19.25 3/4" 0.16 0.64 6.31 0.11 0.84 0.33 6.57 0.51 0.04 2.074 0.223 0.15 9.33 0.80 2.00 4.22 5.70 0.012 0.74 8.65 0.70 0.41 0.76 4.009 0.026 0.37 0.49 0.390 0.83 2.004 0.harringtonplastics.10 0.37 2.70 0.57 3.20 0.72 1.11 0.35 8.69 2.033 0.780 0.58 9.65 1.85 1.96 8.59 5.42 3.44 0.36 2.04 0.24 20.87 1.82 3.52 0.40 1.31 7.64 0.71 1.64 1.44 0.39 1.557 0.22 0.90 6.79 0.57 0.11 3.28 1.60 2.71 0.003 1.11 6" 0.80 5.62 0.15 4.64 23.97 5.074 0.68 3.36 0.10 6.42 0.72 4.013 0.06 6.68 3.04 0.13 0.75 9.061 0.16 1.016 0.83 13.00 9.14 1.70 0.04 1.41 9.5 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.80 0.55 6.279 0.09 2.68 2.14 0.97 7.33 3.08 0.15 0.23 4.18 0.57 6.002 0.97 17.035 0.32 0.13 2.28 4.55 3.07 0.97 2.78 12.09 2.17 0.05 1.70 10.02 1.06 0.40 1.50 2" 0.27 48.41 1.65 8.96 6.18 0.24 14.10 3.35 0.10 3.21 1.63 0.31 0.10 1.60 6.00 1 2 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 75 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 750 1000 0.91 3.65 9.73 0.68 7.49 1.04 0.93 4.89 2.08 0.50 0.59 5.14 0.27 0.24 0.84 3.03 0.68 1.100 0.01 www.20 17.11 0.18 15.

710 17.63 1.57 12" 0.63 0.80 1.16 0.33 0.87 1.07 0.62 0.08 2.71 6.07 3.06 2.60 0.05 0.35 12.84 1.93 7.05 0.44 6.10 1.67 0.20 3.94 19.39 4.86 16" 0.13 0.86 1.10 0.31 0.57 9.64 0.07 0.06 0.89 1.42 0.30 0.58 1.95 2.18 0.560 1.25 0.42 5.38 1.18 0.06 3.482 15.24 2.34 0. Table 12 CARRYING CAPACITY AND FRICTION LOSS FOR DR 21 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE 18" 1 2 5 7 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 1.20 2.73 2.16 1.05 1.50 3.86 7.51 2.67 0.72 3.824 18.52 6.19 0.045 0.44 3.64 1.08 0.570 6.55 1.81 22.63 2.09 0.63 7.96 3.05 0.70 0.24 7.58 0.60 2.27 5.02 7.37 1.785 3.35 0.85 3.04 0.29 8.557 0.6 4.33 8.10 3.83 3.20 3.16 0.74 1.37 4.92 8.61 5.342 4.75 5.31 2.38 6.25 0.52 6.52 11.04 2.10 1.80 2.48 0.83 5.15 0.71 3.65 3.78 24" 0.13 0.53 16.25 0.29 3.49 8.21 8.24 1.37 0.32 0.10 0.78 8.94 5.56 8.51 5.97 2.12 0.20 10.11 0.80 11.46 10.85 32.09 1.48 0.24 0.99 4.03 4.32 0.05 0.15 6.00 2.337 1.94 10.19 9.58 3.70 3.91 2.11 13.88 1.48 10.10 8" 0.35 1.74 9.70 2.279 0.73 4.88 4.12 3.97 2.71 1.69 0.27 4.011 0.42 12.22 0.12 0.33 1.65 0.02 1.56 13.89 3.01 1.57 0.45 7.84 2.27 0.00 1.89 5.17 1.90 8.88 9.056 0.24 2 1/2" 0.07 0.02 0.02 0.003 1.13 0.57 0.06 4.76 6.80 2.58 19.50 16.28 0.40 9.34 1.14 7.04 0.57 10.90 0.86 1.002 0.02 1 1/4" 1.780 0.20 0.48 0.25 1.13 0.42 0.20 0.13 5.96 1.99 1.03 0.47 0.28 0.40 4.31 1.223 0.067 0.56 1.24 0.43 22.46 0.76 5.10 1.10 0.78 5.16 3.14 1.09 0.79 74.68 2.37 0.167 0.15 0.20 0.027 0.48 2.56 2.37 1.38 0.08 5.10 10.07 0.45 13.08 0.37 0.90 2.68 0.22 8.16 0.97 1.37 0.46 8.07 3.14 3.32 6.46 0.96 8.85 0.84 1.14 0.53 0.05 5.052 21.29 0.66 2.06 5.33 10.42 0.80 3.334 0.88 38.30 3.86 1.80 2.21 0.27 1.49 10.19 1.99 6.23 4" 0.23 5.89 1.08 0.22 2.45 0.93 2.38 0.50 3.37 0.52 0.114 1.10 0.10 0.50 0.36 10.87 3.63 0.79 4.06 0.73 0.60 4.368 14.81 0.798 8.94 4.004 0.75 0.16 0.16 6.05 0.71 0.70 2.20 3.684 7.85 10.46 0.48 0.10 0.44 4.27 52.71 0.53 7.13 0.62 3.16 6.29 0.70 3.02 7.016 0.58 7.12 3.27 0.06 0.69 6.10 0.53 1.16 0.65 0.80 8.06 2.55 1.96 5.100 0.06 0.66 6.37 1.97 4.23 4.25 1.782 2.390 0.026 11.47 0.14 0.93 10" 0.90 4.10 1.18 0.73 2.45 CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.17 0.61 4.19 0.19 0.140 12.16 4.09 0.66 2.77 19.49 9.33 3.39 0.10 3.81 3.10 1.67 6.30 0.36 3.55 0.89 5.25 0.02 11.13 0.005 2.022 0.47 6.20 0.92 12.446 0.12 0.19 5.72 6.99 5.18 0.49 4.35 1.58 8.22 3.07 9.05 0.26 1/2" 2.77 9.09 1.84 Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts www.15 0.78 5.42 0.66 7.02 10.49 0.24 7.26 10.11 3.16 3.90 1.36 0.72 1.04 0.48 5.62 1.78 1.86 3.32 0.74 2" 0.40 0.37 3.16 0.31 6.37 0.891 1.61 1.76 7.08 0.30 0.81 4.87 10.33 0.08 0.63 5" 0.harringtonplastics.04 0.59 0.86 1.21 8.166 22.54 7.91 5.95 5.98 3.69 6.44 0.12 1.19 7.64 0.91 2.13 0.08 4.com 31 1-800-877-4472 10000 0.38 2.57 5.156 0.33 2.32 7.16 0.02 4.13 0.87 2.03 0.37 1.37 0.66 5.83 2.16 0.04 0.23 0.91 1.72 2.41 5.456 5.23 0.80 10.52 0.19 0.94 0.46 0.59 0.03 0.14 0.60 6.09 0.49 0.11 0.46 5.145 0.45 3.82 20.68 14.11 0.86 2.30 0.02 0.35 1.06 3.51 3.23 8.31 2.11 6.(ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) cu ft/sec GPM 3/4" 0.01 2.07 0.12 0.078 0.58 9.55 0.00 1.86 1.45 0.80 3.77 0.68 3.69 27.35 7.06 0.43 0.74 4.20 0.16 0.04 0.89 3.06 3.87 2.08 1.25 2.15 0.33 10.40 6.81 1.03 1.47 0.70 0.45 24.09 1.79 8.23 0.23 0.88 2.91 7.53 3.45 8.20 0.85 9.25 0.54 0.03 0.37 5.44 0.71 4.09 4.14 1.75 1.74 0.33 0.53 0.16 6.12 0.59 2.45 2.34 6" 0.28 0.38 0.45 0.15 2.03 0.95 4.31 0.00 3.39 0.08 0.228 2.82 1.17 0.63 21.97 1.254 13.17 9.123 0.111 0.24 0.28 1.90 8.24 0.10 0.12 1.51 3.36 0.46 6.30 2.89 1.22 3.00 13.23 0.63 20.36 7.93 9.89 1.95 1.15 0.07 0.41 1.04 0.19 2.134 0.56 0.04 1.67 9.25 1.92 6.51 1.38 0.21 0.97 0.47 2.88 1.51 4.04 2.48 0.29 4.39 8.26 4.06 0.45 7.35 8.08 1" 1.07 0.178 0.27 20" 0.06 0.27 0.83 0.938 20.66 6.76 2.86 6.45 2.90 2.07 1.95 7.30 29.27 2.32 10.76 6.52 0.12 9.10 0.88 3.35 12.54 0.63 3.84 1.089 0.05 0.65 0.89 4.201 0.60 16.22 7.12 2.90 10.26 1.912 10.28 8.90 8.78 1.20 1.59 0.75 1.11 0.95 4.29 0.45 2.81 7.76 3.24 0.23 1.41 9.68 2.42 0.75 2.31 6.033 0.65 1.90 5.51 1.59 0.16 0.52 0.60 4.48 8.31 14" 0.34 3.25 0.55 0.51 0.06 0.75 10.47 0.94 4.32 3" 0.08 0.87 2.52 0.45 2.83 1.12 3.32 2.33 11.60 0.38 11.56 1 1/2" 0.12 2.26 0.89 4.30 1.80 2.24 4.63 2.62 1.68 5.22 10.60 28.24 0.50 7.89 8.32 0.18 2.46 7.49 2.02 2.43 14.668 0.07 0.28 0.19 2.11 1.20 0.31 0.28 0.10 0.26 0.280 .46 4.45 0.53 1.34 8.87 5.72 1.38 6.54 4.55 2.52 0.57 3.03 0.62 2.17 49.72 4.56 0.74 9.07 7.59 0.13 0.95 3.25 2.36 0.55 1.17 3.37 0.596 16.32 0.40 0.

53 0.19 5.50 1.09 0.75 0.05 0.12 4.19 4.79 2.80 2.94 3.16 0.710 17.15 0.97 3.25 0.70 5.47 1.26 3.78 1.38 0.71 0.067 0.59 0.41 4.24 6.34 1.91 7.77 1.06 1.62 7.25 0.87 1.71 2.40 0.557 0.39 2.28 1.26 3.80 0.12 0.23 5.53 0.09 0.80 1.95 2.18 0.63 4.86 4.15 7.42 0.91 2.337 1.15 0.42 0.14 9.42 4.41 0.20 1.21 0.51 8.60 3.76 4.06 0.58 2.46 0.33 4.10 2.32 0.34 0.29 0.57 8.06 0.145 0.27 0.13 0.66 0.17 0.48 10" 0.38 0.18 0.32 0.58 0.25 0.08 0.66 10.57 10.73 2.38 2.390 0.011 0.53 0.09 0.43 0.11 0.18 0.48 6.97 www.28 0.00 1.73 5.82 2.79 5.93 2.596 16.90 3" 0.17 0.114 1.446 0.026 11.18 0.79 8.28 2.25 0.78 1.22 1 1/2" 0.43 0.09 0.40 1.18 0.42 0.21 0.39 0.51 0.50 1.056 0.66 2.41 0.67 1.72 3.06 6.798 8.73 1.89 2.14 0.06 0.33 0.11 0.63 2.99 8.74 9.30 1.45 12.94 10.36 0.79 1.42 0.04 0.55 2.10 0.64 0.20 0.27 0.68 2.09 0.73 0.58 3.75 0.09 0.79 4.50 0.83 4.73 8.09 2.01 2.223 0.61 0.80 2.95 6.97 4.43 0.86 6.782 2.09 3.05 0.44 1.912 10.20 2.82 3.27 7.05 5.12 0.04 0.99 3.06 20" 0.62 0.44 0.98 3.51 1.63 6.22 0.08 0.33 0.33 0.84 11.45 4.57 7.52 2.89 14" 0.05 7.32 12" 0.29 0.97 6.55 1.07 0.06 0.59 1.63 0.06 2.04 0.45 0.12 1.30 .13 1.75 1 2 5 7 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 0.94 7.21 4.780 0.123 0.49 6.18 0.201 0.34 0.81 2.21 0.52 6.47 5.59 4.57 Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) cu ft/sec GPM 1.92 7.21 0.68 1.06 6.54 9.36 2" 0.60 3.38 0.40 0.50 2.15 2.83 9.49 5.81 1.14 0.891 1.26 4.94 11.08 1.65 0.41 1.26 5.31 3.052 21.30 0.05 0.51 4.18 0.75 1.78 1.74 4.89 3.15 0.77 2.23 1.16 3.18 8.71 4.97 9.21 5.09 0.02 1.30 0.57 2.67 10.06 0.98 1.29 8.254 13.06 0.25 0.002 0.38 10.86 0.70 1.80 16.25 1.69 0.35 0.90 1.94 3.96 5.92 1.02 0.29 8.65 0.74 0.82 1.48 0.30 5.12 0.93 3.53 6.21 2.26 0.98 1.88 1.57 1.93 7.12 1.74 1.92 4.11 0.04 0.16 0.48 8.48 9.77 4.02 0.12 0.60 0.95 9.56 5.53 0.70 1.07 0.47 0.69 7.23 8.64 0.04 1.77 0.32 2.33 0.50 8.140 12.35 2.61 0.61 2.19 0.91 1.47 0.10 0.85 2.00 1.10 0.73 2.38 2.045 0.46 0.23 1.89 4.570 6.03 5.785 3.07 0.51 0.37 11.668 0.50 2.34 0.74 CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.166 22.15 1.12 0.24 4.99 3.12 0.63 5.07 0.85 5.14 0.45 5.76 5.05 0.98 7.09 0.09 2.43 0.07 0.77 4" 0.34 0.016 0.97 1.99 1.027 0.49 0.03 0.560 1.12 0.11 0.14 0.80 8" 0.111 0.08 0.01 1.10 2.10 0.87 8.29 0.10 2.51 8.08 2.82 5.22 0.73 3.47 5.89 2.13 0.24 1.42 3.06 1.77 0.29 0.98 2.72 10.82 0.178 0.21 0.68 6.93 2.167 0.022 0.824 18.74 3.42 5.59 0.41 24" 0.71 2.08 5.47 18" 0.06 0.79 1.78 1.67 4.22 0.10 9.43 0.37 9.28 0.20 2.07 0.50 0.24 0.033 0.98 9.83 1.13 3.82 3.41 0.04 0.94 6.77 1.18 2.37 2.15 0.04 1.39 17.11 0.22 1.93 7.85 0.24 2.60 8.19 5.684 7.76 3.22 0.28 0.51 0.79 3.938 20.36 1.91 4.27 0.342 4.45 6.09 0.31 6.47 0.03 3.14 4.04 0.73 7.03 0.97 1.57 0.13 2.45 8.com 32 1-800-877-4472 0.69 10.19 0.35 2.49 0.40 10.09 5.37 3.65 9.35 0.08 6.41 0.97 5.22 6.82 0.64 0.92 6.13 0.92 4.46 2 1/2" 0.98 6.65 1.34 1.24 3.05 0.16 2.96 2.48 0.089 0.68 0.58 0.26 0.279 0.81 6.52 0.17 0.46 10.05 0.93 9.078 0.16 9.57 2.50 0.03 0.15 0.14 0.18 7.52 2.134 0.62 7.67 0.55 0.41 16" 0.58 0.22 2.100 0.24 0.21 1.07 0.09 0.65 2.67 4.82 5.27 0.18 1.24 0.73 4.03 0.05 0.46 3.43 0.13 1.03 0.31 13.280 1.25 0.47 0.16 0.78 2.14 0.98 2.23 1.93 3.06 0.89 6.65 2.66 7.54 0.52 9.20 0.42 8.03 5" 0.23 0.37 1.08 0.13 5.58 0.99 1.harringtonplastics.83 10.005 2.03 3.456 5.80 1.87 2.37 0.89 7.30 0.47 3.88 6.95 3.63 1.71 5.05 0.00 18.07 2.91 2.004 0.78 4.77 0.56 0.52 2.93 2.16 0.17 3.18 1.53 0.73 7.35 20.30 2.003 1.02 0.53 3.368 14.33 0.02 0.34 0.58 4.43 0.12 0.92 11.34 0.89 3.23 0.62 4.09 0.98 1.84 9.66 1.27 0.22 2.36 8.76 3.84 3.06 4.334 0.65 2.27 7.17 0.21 0.18 0.38 0. Table 13 CARRYING CAPACITY AND FRICTION LOSS FOR DR 26 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE 0.87 1.57 3.26 0.Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss 3/4" 1" 1 1/4" (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure 1/2" not available not available not avaialble not available 1.44 1.09 1.14 0.18 1.16 0.34 0.84 5.63 1.21 6" 0.46 6.156 0.54 0.09 9.51 4.482 15.33 0.66 1.22 0.62 2.46 1.21 0.35 0.96 7.20 0.74 13.53 0.08 6.35 3.228 2.

83 1.34 3.02 0.12 0.12 0.92 1.68 8.18 1.03 0.50 1.05 0.78 3" 0.05 0.07 0.557 0.18 0.05 1.07 5.06 0.62 0.31 1.12 0.17 0.35 0.52 0.08 0.50 1.07 0.41 0.29 1.28 0.12 0.09 0.07 0.13 0.61 0.56 5.98 4.07 0.85 7.03 0.71 0.24 2.02 0.06 0.23 4.24 0.05 0.67 9.42 0.710 21.078 0.67 0.38 0.56 0.02 0.38 2.36 0.74 0.03 0.08 0.27 5.83 4.35 10.60 0.09 0.016 0.114 1.88 1.harringtonplastics.68 5.07 0.34 4. Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts www.87 2.44 2" 0.38 0.93 11.29 0.456 5.01 0.90 2.21 0.72 4.75 1.20 1.31 1.47 7.28 0.02 0.178 0.60 1.62 0.55 0.30 0.12 0.65 0.77 8.46 0.07 0.20 0.01 9.06 0.36 1.72 2.07 0.80 1.11 2.27 2.23 0.140 16.24 0.46 1.66 1.82 0.53 0.96 0.14 0.27 4.87 3.668 0.11 1.056 0.79 2.74 4.62 5.74 4.02 0.782 2.16 1.09 0.74 0.05 0.02 0.022 0.48 9.47 4" 0.70 0.72 2.07 0.32 0.99 1.03 0.38 0.067 0.57 5.51 0.55 1.24 4.55 0.280 1.37 0.35 2.04 0.003 1.77 0.53 11.04 6.98 6.66 1.07 0.62 2.12 1.01 0.67 3.41 4.780 0.44 0.14 0.86 1.02 0.14 0.01 0.62 0.92 2.35 3.39 9.05 0.94 1.38 4.44 1.68 Table 14 PROLINE-PRO 45 FLOW RATES CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.31 4.100 0.60 0.06 0.42 3.02 0.69 0.49 1.25 0.560 1.88 11.02 0.23 0.79 9.03 0.91 3.87 2.17 1.34 6.50 0.25 0.44 8.06 1.34 1.10 0.48 3.84 2.37 0.46 0.96 3.53 5.05 0.28 0.23 0.53 2.23 2.74 0.05 0.50 1.03 1.59 0.26 1.570 11.05 0.03 0.12 0.16 1.16 0.07 0.24 1.94 11.16 2.70 0.228 4.50 0.05 0.90 1.42 0.01 0.43 2.02 0.59 2.37 0.74 4.14 0.73 2.01 0.02 0.41 0.22 0.03 0.12 0.96 6" 0.02 3.68 0.02 0.005 2.80 7.51 1.88 0.69 4.99 2.09 0.87 0.01 0.06 0.22 7.36 1.05 0.02 0.09 0.12 1.88 14" 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.22 2.74 1.14 2.83 1.68 1.37 0.18 0.96 6.65 0.64 3.(ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) cu ft/sec GPM 2 1/2" 0.05 0.08 0.15 0.045 0.05 0.62 0.27 0.39 0.26 3.17 3.14 2.87 2.53 5.93 3.07 4.16 0.04 0.05 0.29 6.14 8.12 0.07 0.71 8" 0.73 7.75 5.02 0.07 1.18 0.93 3.45 0.16 0.12 1.35 14.03 0.54 6.35 0.55 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 2500 5000 7500 10000 0.81 0.68 1.68 9.27 0.16 0.48 1.71 3.99 2.67 0.01 0.05 2.33 1.87 3.43 1.32 0.51 0.10 1.54 12" 0.55 0.10 0.96 1.68 2.04 0.28 0.20 7.20 0.17 0.11 0.10 3.07 0.03 0.334 0.05 0.26 0.37 3.84 0.19 0.49 0.02 0.19 1.04 1.16 0.33 3.15 6.11 0.76 1.09 3.43 3.156 0.02 0.29 1.134 0.02 0.279 0.41 7.51 4.53 0.36 0.10 4.40 2.04 0.11 1.51 1.50 0.com 33 1-800-877-4472 1.31 1.05 0.07 0.24 5.87 0.02 0.26 0.446 0.19 4.04 16" 0.82 2.56 3.05 0.89 2.99 3.29 1.201 0.07 0.02 8.14 0.81 2.31 5.12 0.17 0.02 6.81 0.13 5.03 0.36 10.03 0.84 0.09 0.19 9.53 0.63 1.40 2.76 2.94 1.18 5.390 0.40 1.14 0.21 1.21 0.337 1.55 9.12 0.03 7.14 0.02 0.14 0.20 3.09 0.40 3.54 0.43 0.84 2.58 11.03 0.05 0.19 0.44 0.09 0.02 0.39 0.089 0.891 1.96 12.05 1.25 0.01 0.32 0.59 7.80 5.78 4.033 0.06 0.23 2.38 1.13 1.02 0.95 1.31 1.01 0.18 0.07 1.81 2.10 0.39 1.99 1.111 0.21 0.24 11.01 0.20 1.76 2.223 0.41 2.22 12.43 6.34 2.21 0.03 0.02 0.30 10" 0.05 0.011 0.29 3.49 5.48 14.93 1.25 5.36 0.07 0.08 0.97 1.03 0.26 0.43 1.79 1.00 .11 0.37 0.

05 0.16 3.50 4.46 2.891 1.06 0.02 0.18 11.81 3.07 0.77 0.02 0.53 0.02 0.35 1.70 19.11 1.02 0.02 0.16 0.99 4.25 4.75 11.33 0.64 1.04 2.98 3.79 1.111 0.21 6.62 2.15 12.09 0.334 0.05 1.31 11.60 0.05 0.60 25.54 2.60 2.01 0.02 0.55 1.14 0.15 0.38 2.68 0.557 0.44 3.50 2.70 5.446 0.02 0.24 0.89 2.26 0.31 2.05 0.69 6.02 0.34 21.37 0.78 4.41 1.16 1 1/2" 0.31 7.04 0.81 12.75 8.16 0.30 3.20 1.02 0.38 4.38 14.23 10.42 0.23 0.39 0.92 5.30 0.08 7.43 4.87 1.44 0.84 3.85 4.95 1.12 0.72 0.13 1.12 0.70 1.03 0.36 8" 0.04 0. www.81 3.02 0.69 0.23 1.59 2.28 0.05 0.09 1.02 0.68 8.59 1.05 0.03 0.90 6.13 2.03 0.25 6.57 1.178 0.92 1.09 0.09 10.067 0.60 0.10 0.45 3.17 2.22 4.13 0.20 25.07 0.37 3.41 5.97 1.12 0.88 5.91 10.51 0.09 0.18 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.74 0.79 6.30 0.57 0.71 2.79 10.07 3.01 0.71 6.39 0.07 0.62 6.40 0.05 0.24 0.48 2.01 0.19 0.05 0.14 0.027 0.06 0.23 1.03 0.05 0.25 1.46 1.02 0.89 4.63 1.84 20.24 0.560 1.30 12.16 1.98 1.004 0.94 4.51 9.02 0.390 0.04 0.03 0.22 0.94 2.28 2.77 6.40 0.056 0.50 34.18 0.69 90.011 0.83 1.92 1.95 2.19 0.81 5.05 0.69 1.02 0.05 0.140 16.37 3.23 0.37 0.156 0.46 2.92 3.97 2.04 0.36 1.50 8.13 0.01 0.30 0.16 0.52 4.02 0.07 0.43 1.34 0.13 0.01 0.73 2.88 1.59 1.134 0.16 0.02 0.68 6.86 9.46 4.74 5.12 0.11 0.32 0.43 20.com 34 1-800-877-4472 0.09 0.92 0.17 1.03 0.68 3.08 0.40 0.24 0.12 6.09 0.06 1.46 1.40 1.27 4.79 0.02 0.23 1.78 3.17 0.09 0.75 1.228 4.39 5.95 2.51 10.87 8.27 3.23 0.69 9.05 0.72 0.46 1.01 0.52 3.92 5.37 0.06 0.10 1.29 32.11 0.97 1.55 0.16 0.078 0.033 0.17 3.72 14.49 0.02 0.223 0.85 10.30 0.67 4.59 0.64 1 2 5 7 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 2500 5000 7500 0.25 5.02 0.19 2.34 8.02 0.69 0.01 0.07 0.72 9.76 2.95 4.05 0.37 4.92 6.56 4.089 0.14 0.02 0.30 0.58 2.84 .12 0.69 3.12 7.01 0.65 0.30 1.23 0.86 6.90 1.09 0.94 3.32 1.002 0.07 0.26 1.64 2" 0.52 6.31 0.78 9.81 1.35 0.10 0.89 5.53 6.92 10.49 0.016 0.21 2.03 8.99 10.54 1.32 0.11 0.49 0.79 11.05 0.31 14" 0.30 0.03 0.201 0.69 0.13 1.668 0.09 0.47 0.16 0.02 0.02 0.21 0.73 3.66 1 1 /4" 0.46 2.07 0.02 0.32 0.93 9.07 0.04 0.99 1.12 0.93 8.27 13.72 3.66 22.92 2.21 0.91 7.39 6.72 1.06 0.39 1.05 0.35 0.09 0.30 0.782 2.89 4.64 9.18 0.570 11.63 0.92 2.10 0.79 5.56 3.19 1.43 2.29 8.05 0.45 0.82 4.11 1.52 2.16 0.39 2.22 1.49 0.43 0.70 3.74 0.72 0.55 0.25 0.30 0.70 1.05 0.92 1.93 3.14 0.95 3.39 6.01 0.19 0.98 2.42 4.62 52.40 3.14 1.27 7.80 16" 0.456 5.13 9.44 1.70 0.31 2.70 1/2" 1.15 0.32 0.06 0.98 1.21 39.33 1.85 3.279 0.73 0.11 7.09 9.38 0.60 0.44 1.72 1.04 0.00 0.23 0.07 0.13 0.33 7.710 0.97 1.44 14.49 1.07 0.30 0.62 0.62 0.51 1" 0.37 0.79 0.21 0.25 0.78 1.07 0.32 0.780 0.28 11.03 0.89 7.27 0.14 0.24 2.92 4.16 6.48 1.39 1.70 1.02 0.07 0.29 1.11 0.55 5.01 0.03 0.67 6.14 0.19 2.79 1.34 0.00 47.17 0.78 1.55 1.24 2.71 6" 0.14 0.13 0.00 1.84 8.49 0.49 3.05 0.18 0.89 0.84 7.24 13.95 5.20 1.06 11.47 0.76 2.06 4.69 0.92 1.22 1.37 4.81 0.62 5.74 14.72 12.21 2.04 0.32 1.63 0.59 2.03 0.09 0.48 11.15 4.01 0.09 0.24 7.39 0.84 2.07 0.56 1.14 0.337 1.90 9.49 0.54 0.10 0.07 0.75 0.93 7.87 2.14 15.60 2.08 3.53 0.100 0.Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) cu ft/sec GPM 3/4" 0.04 2.59 0.05 0.10 0.46 2.02 0.23 0.55 1.90 6.09 0.99 1.37 0.87 2.85 9.97 7.07 0.80 4" 0.21 0.43 4.89 11.40 3" 0.045 0.05 0.77 0.05 0.88 5.05 0.05 0.21 22.68 1.003 1.62 2 1/2" 0.17 1.80 10" 0.57 3.11 2.07 12" 0.69 0.53 0.07 0.75 1.72 20.46 1.03 0.22 1.28 0.01 0.01 4.73 24.73 11.46 0.97 2.04 5.25 0.08 0.114 1.97 2.02 0.02 0.04 46.05 0.65 0.94 1.20 0.03 0.30 Table 15 PROLINE-POLYPROPYLENE 150 FLOW RATES CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.27 1.09 1.32 7.005 2.65 2.68 1.07 0.54 1.03 0.16 3.16 0.58 1.08 1.07 0.57 3.54 26.48 1.34 5.92 1.02 15.harringtonplastics.57 9.15 3.64 2.21 0.022 0.09 1.78 0.

21 0.100 0.56 3.12 0.01 0.40 0.11 1.05 1.40 10.18 0.85 1.80 26.83 4.05 0.38 0.75 14.34 4.58 12.02 0.003 1.66 3.31 2.80 6.32 0.67 0.16 1.57 7.14 0.30 22.004 0.782 2.23 0.37 0.19 0.06 0.27 4.94 9.20 4" 0.43 7.50 0.03 0.43 3.01 0.04 0.390 0.07 0.73 8.114 1.32 0.09 12.71 5.07 0.23 4.07 0.10 0.59 1.54 15.13 0.83 1.58 2.29 1.68 9.16 4.20 7.06 9.99 27.34 2.16 0.16 0.93 1.74 1.089 0.02 0.01 0.70 1" 0.08 0.09 1.10 12" 0.40 1.29 4.446 0.65 4.87 0.88 2.69 3.35 0.00 0.14 31.07 0.05 0.03 5.44 0.49 0.05 4.38 0.47 4. 0.72 35.12 0.61 1.16 2.01 0.17 0.80 16.06 0.76 2.56 17.48 7.016 0.37 3.20 0.078 0.01 3.49 3.79 0.00 7.67 6.36 2.93 11.26 0.93 0.49 1.79 11.456 5.48 3.17 1.337 1.99 3.10 7.85 2.07 0.02 0.57 7.01 0.74 1.668 0.73 2.09 5.79 2.62 2.43 0.49 0.11 1.36 1.11 0.06 0.46 1.36 10.37 5.056 0.70 3.05 0.34 1.85 4.29 0.90 1.80 1.99 2.14 0.18 0.14 0.69 3.74 0.03 0.00 1/2" 0.13 5.99 2.18 2.29 0.05 0.02 0.44 8.71 2.31 4.87 10.38 1.98 4.96 1.10 0.07 0.37 4.(ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) (ft/s) Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity Velocity (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) (psi/100 ft) Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Pressure Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss Friction Head Loss (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) (ft water/100 ft) cu ft/sec GPM 3/4" 0.81 1.46 0.12 6" 0.88 10.17 0.02 0.60 Table 16 PURAD PVDF FLOW RATES Pipe Carrying Capacity Charts www.156 0.64 2.11 0.16 0.02 6.21 0.28 0.03 0.92 4.94 1.18 0.05 0.35 3.09 3.95 7.63 7.08 2.09 0.334 0.07 0.82 0.99 1.60 0.64 16.14 7.07 0.99 1.01 0.09 0.570 11.84 3.73 6.002 0.25 0.08 9.05 0.96 0.39 0.37 7.04 0.39 0.13 0.50 .05 0.79 0.67 0.42 1.36 0.18 3.28 1.178 0.41 3.50 0.43 0.57 4.75 0.03 1.33 7.04 1.05 0.37 0.14 0.02 0.02 5.06 10.87 2.12 1.011 0.30 4.39 0.60 2" 0.61 0.96 3.85 7.06 6.74 4.23 0.29 8.01 0.14 17.12 0.68 1.74 7.45 0.90 1.10 0.67 0.32 0.07 0.201 0.57 0.35 2.55 5.79 3.24 2.005 2.03 0.81 1.61 0.21 1.02 8.22 2.24 3.74 1.90 3" 0.02 0.96 1.04 0.20 1 1/2" 0.55 1.07 0.17 2.60 0.38 2.00 12.70 0.17 1.74 0.29 0.51 0.50 9.85 6.21 0.04 0.02 0.111 0.23 0.42 10.64 8.88 3.08 0.38 2.21 0.05 0.39 0.05 1.279 0.68 5.80 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.59 0.02 9.43 2.31 6.30 26.04 4.03 2.23 0.16 0.10 8.36 0.com 35 1-800-877-4472 0.58 0.557 0.55 8" 0.36 1.20 0.140 0.13 1.18 2 1/2" 0.560 1.78 2.30 0.02 0.14 0.41 2.02 0.02 0.10 0.11 2.00 10.78 10.01 0.39 1.31 1.36 0.10 3.22 6.25 5.99 1.23 0.38 6.24 0.72 4.29 0.46 0.51 1.70 0.55 0.96 6.02 0.24 1.51 4.60 0.44 1.10 0.28 0.92 2.13 0.88 61.02 0.14 8.68 1.19 20.00 10" 0.98 6.56 10.04 6.44 8.26 38.96 5.12 0.27 0.12 1.37 6.62 23.56 4.07 1.62 0.29 0.223 0.56 2.06 0.50 0.17 0.02 0.18 0.29 13.61 3.49 2.11 2.02 0.25 1.83 1.06 1.55 18.23 2.17 7.60 0.07 0.58 1.134 0.48 15.08 0.42 13.94 1.25 0.67 0.24 3.36 7.06 0.10 0.03 7.30 0.12 3.86 5.09 0.41 0.22 3.71 1.19 1.74 1.96 6.09 0.03 0.62 0.81 2.34 60.88 0.033 0.31 4.18 5.03 0.22 1.06 0.99 1.39 1.02 0.96 2.02 0.60 4.13 1.07 0.045 0.12 0.18 0.78 3.93 11.23 0.43 3.32 0.228 4.14 0.16 0.71 8.36 0.35 3.49 9.02 2.70 CAUTION: Do not use or test the products in this manual with compressed air or other gases including air-over-water boosters.10 28.99 10.93 3.76 4.50 1.58 5.91 3.74 1.067 0.91 0.81 2.24 15.22 0.79 9.780 0.00 2.56 3.46 0.20 1.15 2.06 1 2 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 2500 5000 0.49 5.49 0.80 2.39 1.03 0.97 1 1/4" 0.05 0.10 2.harringtonplastics.24 5.12 0.08 0.37 0.84 4.40 2.28 0.55 2.41 1.41 1.65 4.60 1.60 10.19 4.49 0.07 0.891 1.37 4.14 0.37 2.022 0.09 0.83 0.20 0.02 0.19 9.78 0.39 0.60 0.05 0.09 0.71 2.84 8.79 5.10 10.13 1.94 1.73 7.87 3.05 2.18 0.43 8.79 1.49 0.83 5.01 17.65 9.75 1.08 0.06 0.31 1.62 1.62 2.14 0.47 0.03 0.73 2.07 0.21 0.42 2.60 0.80 0.03 0.67 0.72 2.76 11.15 0.00 5.03 0.01 0.30 8.05 0.68 9.71 3.03 0.10 4.03 0.81 1.54 0.93 14.27 5.06 1.14 0.

4 2.0 9.3 1.0 107.0 140.25 5.0 2.0 32.7 12.0 8.6 4.3 2.0 2.9 18.9 5.5 20.0 43.0 63.6 62.6 4.0 35.0 79.0 18.0 17.0 54.32 0.0 35.0 17.3 3.0 20.0 78.0 190.3 0.4 37.0 14.0 16.5 1.4 3.2 3.8 3.4 3.6 1.0 94.0 58.7 8.1 2.8 1.0 26.0 77.6 3.0 1.8 1.6 1.0 110.34 .0 5.5 4.0 137.0 18.0 6.0 90° Elbow screwed flanged SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING 90° Elbow .9 7.0 17.0 53.25 4.0 9.0 1.71 0.2 3.0 24.4 3.6 62.0 25.0 20.9 22.7 1.0 9.0 25.6 47.4 6.59 37.3 .1 42.0 .0 17.5 3.2 30.0 2.3 8.0 11.0 15.9 2.5 15.0 21.0 34.75 3.0 12.6 5.2 3.7 5.0 8.0 23.0 67.8 21.0 59.0 PROLINE & DUO-PRO FITTINGS Tee 90.0 21.0 12.79 1.8 12.0 15.0 1.5 9.0 118.0 90.9 2.0 22.84 Globe Valve Gate Valve 15.6 1.0 88.0 screwed flanged screwed flanged screwed Angle Valve flanged screwed flanged 18.0 17.0 37.0 240.0 8.2 3.5 3.0 9.82 5.9 3.6 2.4 4.5 3.0 15.0 3.0 1.0 www.4 13.0 1.0 11.2 4.0 21.0 110.8 0.4 8.7 16.5 5.0 1.8 2.1 2.2 4.0 18.4 1.1 .5 7.9 4.7 2.0 18.7 2.3 2.2 3.0 15.0 30.0 12.0 22.6 17.0 9.1 4.2 3.5 2.9 13.7 2.92 .3 .6 7.0 Standard Tee with flow through branch flanged screwed flanged 3.4 5.0 120.0 190.3 7.0 12.7 16.0 67.5 2.9 6.0 120.0 6.0 40.0 8.2 1.25 1.0 14.5 0.5 1.0 32.6 3.4 2.0 5.5 16.6 4.4 5.0 12.6 2.5 57.0 8.3 32.7 3.4 4.0 30.0 18.0 2.0 49.0 260.0 300.0 2.0 38.7 6.0 6.0 9.1 1.Long Radius 0.0 2.0 18.2 3.7 8.0 20.0 90° Elbow 45° Elbow EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF STRAIGHT NEW SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE FOR VARIOUS STEEL FITTINGS & VALVES TURBULENT FLOW ONLY* Standard Tee with flow through run screwed 4.5 1.com 36 1-800-877-4472 *Courtesy of Hydraulic Institute .0 10.70 2.0 3.0 7.0 0.0 15.6 1.0 27.2 2.92 1.0 55.0 12.0 10.7 2.0 6.56 0.0 29.0 70.0 15.0 1.2 2.0 140.5 10.7 4.1 12.7 1.0 22.0 3.0 7.0 21.0 23.1 4.0 44.0 18.0 13.9 2.0 40.3 11.2 3.0 25.2 43.6 7.2 4.81 1.2 45° Elbow 21.0 32.0 30.4 2.4 2.0 1.4 5.0 0.0 34.2 3.6 5.System Engineering Data Table 17 EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPE IN FEET ¼ ½ ¾ 1 1-¼ 1-½ 2 2-½ 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 PVC & CPVC FITTINGS Standard Tee with flow through run Standard Tee with flow through branch 90° Elbow 45° Elbow — — — 0.0 11.2 54.harringtonplastics.45 screwed flanged 14.0 390.0 210.0 11.0 45.0 7.0 25.7 5.0 16.0 2.0 17.0 1.3 12.0 18.0 38.1 14.3 2.8 1.0 160.5 1.0 18.0 80.2 52.0 2.2 2.9 3.0 7.0 7.5 9.6 4.67 0.0 .7 9.0 1.7 3.8 1.5 25.3 1.0 14.6 2.0 58.0 28.1 3.0 18.1 1.6 7.69 4.0 42.0 32.0 6.2 6.9 0.8 2.0 7.2 17.0 310.0 13.0 100.7 24.

41 1.0416 n 0.8 17.93 2.0521 0.CROSS SECTIONAL AREA FOR FULL FLOW SQ. A.48 x 60) n System Engineering Data Table 18 PIPE SIZE (IN.486 x R2/3 x S1/2(7. SLOPE DISCHARGE VELOCITY DISCHARGE VELOCITY DISCHARGE VELOCITY GPM FPS GPM FPS GPM FPS – – – – – 10.50 1.01 3.3 24.7 1.0335 0.91 4.012 0.SLOPE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPING Horizontal drains are designated to flow at half full capacity under uniform flow conditions so as to prevent the generation of positive pressure fluctuations.52 3.0417 0.01 2. FT.78 1.01090 0.13 7.2080 0.1910 0.0208 0.72 1.3970 0.1 75.61350 Table 19 VALUES OF S AND S SLOPE INCHES PER FOOT 1/8 1/4 1/2 Table 20 VALUES OF n PIPE SIZE S 1/2 S FOOT PER FOOT 0.102 0.23 2.82 3.2210 0.52 12 500 2.86 4.8 68.06820 0.04365 0.harringtonplastics. R 2/3.016 11/2" 2" & 3" 4" 5" & 6" 8" and larger 0.27270 0.013 0./ FT.3 111 240 436 707 – – – – – 1.6 35.39270 0.204 Table 21 APPROXIMATE DISCHARGE RATES AND VELOCITIES IN SLOPING DRAINS ACTUAL IN1/16 IN. 0.01704 0. S.2500 0.53 6./ FT.34 5. and 1/16" per foot for 8" and larger. 1/8" per foot for 4" through 6".8 53.42 1. SLOPE 1/4 IN.25 2.6 157 340 616 999 1./ FT.4 96.78540 1.12 2.09820 0.42 15.57 4.02455 0.3 1.9 21.01412 0.07 3.03408 0.16 3.81 8.015.40 4.99 2.00706 0. A minimum of 1/4" per foot should be provided for 3" pipe and smaller.44 5.04910 0.com 37 1-800-877-4472 .67 3.04 6.34920 0. FT.02180 0.5 137 222 480 8721 1413 1.0625 0.08730 0.1040 0.36 5 48.12 8.19 3. 0.144 0.) 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 Where: Q = Flow in GPM A = Cross sectional area.47 5.1200 0. ft.54540 0.13 3. Table 21 gives the approximate velocities and discharge rated for given slopes and diameters of horizontal drains based on modified Manning Formula for 1/2 full pipe and n = 0.56 4.5 1.34 1.19640 0.0140 0.014 0.83 FLOWING HALF FULL DISCHARGE RATE AND VELOCITY 1/8 IN.73 3.3510 0. Q = A x 1.CROSS SECTIONAL AREA FOR HALF FULL FLOW SQ.2500 0. S 1/2 and n are in tables 18-21.90 2.1570 0. n = Manning coefficient R = D/4 FT.59 1. SLOPE SIDE DIAMDISCHARGE VELOCITY ETER OF PIPE GPM FPS (INCHES) 11/4 – – 13/8 – – 11/2 – – 15/8 – – 2 – – 21/2 – – 3 – – 4 26.1396 0.22700 A .015 0.13640 0.1670 0. The valves for R. SLOPE 1/2 IN.02 www.0833 0.04 5.3125 1/22 R = Hydraulic radius of pipe S = Hydraulic gradient R2/3 0. These minimum slopes are required to maintain a velocity of flow greater than 2 feet per second for scouring action.3030 0.43 2.80 11.1250 0.4610 A .17 10 308 2.6 37.17460 0.1040 0. sq./ FT. 0.78 8 170 2.58 6 78.

or a monograph may be used to assist in the design of a piping system depending upon the accuracy desired.4 6.0 5.5 — — 16 9. flow charts. Reynolds numbers 2000 to 4000.3 4.2 15 12 1/2" 14 15 . shows the relationship between the friction factor. www.0 — — — — — — — 5.0 4. orifices. however. R.31 and divide by the specific gravity. In the transition zone. Pipelines should be designed to avoid operation in the critical zone because head losses cannot be calculated accurately in this zone.0 25 23 20 8. a dimensionless parameter which indicates the degree of turbulence. changes in static head loss due to restrictions (valves.1 — 5.7 — 14 20 14 11/4" 72 — 26 — — — 11 — — — 18 — — 55 40 1-1/2" 155 40 45 40 43 36 26 71 — 45 22 130 34 58 15 2" 190 50 26 50 59 45 43 120 — 70 29 180 50 60 48 21/2" 365 — 75 65 — — 85 250 — — 57 415 — 290 — 3" 410 80 110 80 130 99 115 300 — — 78 470 110 300 200 4" 610 100 240 100 160 200 185 470 — — 115 690 165 350 230 FLOW OF FLUIDS AND HEAD LOSS CALCULATIONS Tables. The formula in Table 23 can be used to determine the head loss due to flow if the fluid viscosity and density and flow rate are known. In computing the internal pressure for a specified flow rate.harringtonplastics. etc. The head loss in feet of fluid is given by: h = :186 fLV d2 f. the degree of turbulence increases as the Reynolds number increases. f. It is seen that three distinct flow zones exist. due to the smooth inside surface of plastic pipe.3 — — 10 6. is a function of the Reynolds number. The Reynolds number is defined as: dVW f= 12U Figure 4 on the next page. complete turbulence rarely exists.4 — 7. In addition.5 18 13 Table 22 TYPICAL CV FACTORS FOR PLASTIC VALVES AND STRAINERS IN GPM 1" 47 25 9.) as well as flow head loss must be considered.SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Pressure Drop in Valves and Strainers Pressure drop calculations can be made for valves and strainers for different fluids. In the laminar flow zone. from Reynolds numbers 0 to 2000. the friction factor.08 3/4" 29 20 3.5 — — — — — — 7. the formula for laminar flow becomes: h = 143 ULV Wd Flow in the critical zone.8 — 8.com 38 1-800-877-4472 . Item Full Port Ball Valve Ball Check Valves Y-Check Valves Swing Check Valve 3-way Ball Valve “L” Port Double “L” Port Diaphragm Valves Butterfly Valves full open Needle Valves Angle Valve Globe Valve Gate Valve Y-Strainer Simplex Basket Strainer Duplex Basket Strainer 1/4" 1. and the Reynolds number. the friction factor is given by the equation: f = 64 R Substituting this in the equation for the head loss.0 20 10 8.0 1.7 — — — — — — — 7. flow rates.5 5.0 — — — — — 3/8" 7. Most pipe systems are designed to operate in the transition zone. is unstable and a surging type of flow exists. and sizes using the Cv values and the following equation: 2 liquid) P = (G) (specific gravity (Cv Factor)2 Some manufacturers also prefer to use the following formula to calculate pressure losses through their products: ΔP = Where: ΔP = Pressure Drop Q = Flow in GPM Cv = Flow Coefficient System Engineering Data [ Q ]2 Cv Where: P = Pressure drop in psi G = Gallons per Minute Cv = Gallons per minuter per 1 psi pressure drop To convert psi to feet of head multiply by 2. the unstable flow results in pressure surges and water hammer which may be excessively high.

values for E (Modulus of Elasticity) found in the properties 4.harringtonplastics. in psi result is a high momentary pressure surge. 5 feet per second is considered to be safe. The five factors that determine the Di = Inside Diameter of Pipe. The Plastics Pipe Institute has issued the following policy statement on water velocity: The maximum safe water velocity in a thermoplastic piping system depends on the specific details of the system and the operating conditions. Inside diameter of pipe. which assumes instantaneous valve closure. Modulus of elasticity of material of which the pipe is made.com 39 1-800-877-4472 . Ps = V Et +(3 5 x 10 Di) Since liquids are essentially incompressible. Higher velocities may be used in cases where the operating characteristics of valves and pumps are known so that sudden changes in flow velocity can be controlled. in inches see discussion of “Velocity “ above and “Safety Factor” on page 41. in feet per second hammer or hydraulic shock. Harrington Industrial Plastics recommends sizing all plastic piping systems to operate at velocities of (approximately) 5 feet per second or less. usually called water V = Liquid Velocity. in inches severity of water hammer are: E = Modulus of Elasticity of Pipe Material. Wall thickness of pipe. A maximum operating pressure figure. particularly where corrosive or chemically aggressive fluids are involved. ( ) www. contains stored energy. The Ps = Surge Pressure. Calculated surge pressure. can be calculated for any material using the 3. Valve closing time. In general. This surge pressure Surge pressures due to water hammer are a major factor should be added to the existing line pressure to arrive at a contributing to pipe failure in liquid transmission systems. 2. psi 1. pages 4-5. column of moving fluid within a pipeline. The most commonly used surge pressure tables for IPS pipe Maximum pressure surges caused by water hammer can be sizes are provided on the next page. Velocity (The primary factor in excessive water hammer: t = Wall Thickness of Pipe. 5.SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Table 23 Velocity Thermoplastic pipe is not subject to erosion caused by high velocities and turbulent flow. The total pressure in the system at any time (operating plus surge or water hammer) should not exceed 150 percent of the pressure rating of the system. and in this respect is superior to metal piping systems. chart. System Engineering Data Figure 4 WATER HAMMER & HYDRAULIC SHOCK calculated by using the equation below. this energy cannot Where: be absorbed by the fluid when a valve is suddenly closed. owing to its mass and 1/2 Et 3960 velocity.

2 5 139.1 14.0 157.4 24.5 30.7 70.9 37.4 78.5 33.0 73.0 118.5 91.2 6 133.6 43.8 143.8 62.5 125.4 15.8 23.4 5 111.2 30.1 14.5 83.0 150.6 64.4 12.2 79.7 3 66.5 126.8 41.2 28.5 20.6 19.4 49.2 10" 13.3 26. www.0 63.3 14.7 42.5 84.2 97.0 134.4 34. Another formula that closely predicts water hammer effects is: Ps = CV Where: Ps = maximum surge pressure.4 38.2 77.0 7.3 38.4 22.2 12.1 21. Tc>2L Vs Where: Tc = Valve Closure time.5 78.8 38.7 25.8 12.6 5 117.9 63.1 28.2 12.3 68.5 38.7 - WATER HAMMER (Continued) However.7 25. it is common practice to design valves for closure times considerably greater than 2L/C.5 71.6 67.5 99.2 96.2 3 46.8 3 70.4 68.5 39.6 18.5 12.4 51.5 108.4 24.8 50.5 12.8 7.4 61.2 35.0 106.5 149.5 6 167.9 4 111.5 66. such as would be expected from the instant closing of a valve.9 25.6 3 83.4 20.3 28.9 41.6 122.3 35. It would therefore yield a somewhat conservative figure for use with slow closing actuated valves.2 64.6 15.6 PURAD™ 1 22.0 19.9 104.7 75.0 107.6 62.0 40.0 2" 19.8 61.Table 24 Surge Pressure.1 21.5 38.2 3 75.9 25.9 50.0 91.7 25.2 22.9 63.7 78.2 54.3 42.0 55.2 51.2 42.6 12.6 60.1 36.9 27.5 115.0 63.8 58.6 38.8 4 100.9 53.7 83.4 70.9 117.4 65.4 86.9 31.6 45.2 53. psi V = fluid velocity in feet per second C = surge wave constant for water at 73°F It should be noted that the surge pressure (water hammer) calculated here is a maximum pressure rise for any fluid velocity.2 52.0 46.2 1 1/2" 21.4 38.3 4 61.0 105.7 50.7 4 131.9 23.2 50.6 5 164.8 67.7 7.2 26.8 131.4 24.8 73.7 25.8 23.0 75.5 113.5 85.0 80.8 17.0 18.2 49.4 24.3 System Engineering Data 1" 24.6 19.2 91.4 73.4 12" 13.3 92.9 37.7 7.8 70.7 7.6 94.4 5 126.7 4 94.2 135.8 25.5 37.1 34.7 62.8 111.6 59.4 105.3 68.5 6 PROLINE PRO 45 1 2 3 4 5 6 - SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING NOMINAL PIPE SIZE 11/4" 22.9 62.0 70.2 42.3 51.harringtonplastics.5 74.4 14.3 49.1 14.2 69.0 80.0 125.4 5 76.6 69.5 8" 14.6 59.6 87.2 76.6 57.6 11.4 56.5 39.2 51.3 2 55.4 86.4 35.5 172.0 133.2 64.7 114.1 28.4 88.3 97.8 35.1 74.4 12.5 79. in psi at 73°F WATER VELOCITY 1/2" 3/4" (FT/SEC) SCHEDULE 40 PVC & CPVC 1 27.9 2 47.com 40 1-800-877-4472 .0 14.6 29.5 6 197.0 42.0 92.3 72.6 38.6 39.4 44.0 14.8 77.8 52.5 63.2 24.0 74.0 17.2 20.0 60.6 88.5 38.2 89.3 19.2 64.0 17.2 50.4 90.8 51.6 119.6 47.2 18.4 179.6 97.2 50.6 101.6 15.3 4" 17.0 97.8 40.5 42.0 PROLINE PRO 150 1 15.1 35.6 14.5 102.1 74.9 63.6 18.2 51.6 25.8 11.5 104.6 2 50.4 85.2 63.7 7.2 52.2 21.5 102.1 79. etc.7 62.8 SCHEDULE 80 PVC & CPVC 1 32.0 85.4 63.8 58.5 111.2 39.2 89.8 86.5 93.4 66.6 104.6 53.5 38.3 49.1 69.4 45.3 62.4 45.6 102.4 36.8 12.7 47.5 78.6 38.8 37.0 104.8 25.5 117.2 28.7 55.7 75.3 21.4 42.5 109.1 26.1 14.8 12.0 87.2 16.2 28.7 51.3 99.0 76.3 52.5 24. ft.5 6 141.2 51.1 58.8 2 44.6 67.8 116.4 28.1 42.1 28.5 86.6 112.7 25.4 51.4 71.9 29.1 28.1 21.8 3 98.4 26.0 83.0 133.6 104.3 56.6 7.7 28.4 SCHEDULE 80 POLYPROPYLENE 1 23.0 49.6 35.5 77.9 46.0 129.3 30. sec.9 61.5 4 89.4 17.9 2 65.0 58.4 108.2 66.5 126.0 50.5 62.2 35.6 35.4 34.4 28.6 59.3 37.2 59.8 25.4 17.9 38.1 34.6 35.0 6 151.8 90.4 12.6 25.2 37.8 12. L = Length of Pipe run.6 92.8 59.4 69.7 57.5 31.8 25.1 34.4 51.4 12.5 3" 18.2 35.2 74.6 48.0 116.0 146.6 25.8 12.8 12.5 62.0 94.2 13.8 64.9 75.5 12.0 41.6 119.3 42.5 38.8 76.4 SCHEDULE 80 PVDF 1 25.4 13.0 92.8 56. Vs = Sonic Velocity of the Pressure Wave = 4720 ft/sec.9 73.9 37.8 71.0 17. to keep water hammer pressures within reasonable limits.2 64.8 12.2 43.0 42.0 21.0 77.6 56.2 44.7 89.0 100.3 36.8 37.3 84.0 120.2 49.4 47.4 48.2 15.0 125.7 52.2 51.1 14.3 74.8 6" 15.9 42.1 2 30.6 39.0 63.4 151.1 21.2 46.7 12.9 77.2 21.3 35.8 62.8 37.9 25.

2 .3 13. shown on page 23 (8470 psi for PVC Type 1).0 25.8 20.7 19.4 = 8470 = 5.8 15.7 33.D. Referring to Figure 3.6 16.8 19.harringtonplastics.3 22. from Table 26 = 24.2 27.2 in 2" Schedule 80 PVC pipe.3 34.8 19. C PIPE SIZE (IN. In each case. The calculation of safety factor may thus be based very conservatively on the 20-second strength value given in Figure 3.7 13.660 Wall = 0.4 12.8 13. Most centrifugal pumps require an immediate increase in pipe size to obtain a proper velocity of 5 ft/sec or less.2 20.2 18.11 1657 Note: The constants shown in this table are based on average wall thicknesses and average I.8 17.seconds.7 14.0 30.3 19.6 Proper design when laying out a piping system will eliminate the possibility of water hammer damage.191 HDS = 2000 psi The calculated surge pressure for 11/4" Schedule 80 PVC pipe at a velocity of 1 ft/sec is 26.1) (24. 4.8 29.2 16. based upon the listed criteria: Pipe = 11/4" Schedule 80 PVC OD = 1.7 12. such as solenoid valves. 2.4 12.0 psi Maximum circumferential stress is calculated from a variation of the ISO Equation: S = Pt (Do-t) = 431(1.7 17.2 23.8 24.1 14.1 17. it will be seen that the failure stress for very short time periods is very high when compared to the hydrostatic design stress.7 31. or more likely.9 21.9 23.7 31. (taken from table 25 on page 40).2 21.6 33.2) + 24.0 13.5 and 0.3 — — 25. In a plastic piping system.2 = 431.0 20.) PVC SCH 40 SCH 80 CPVC SCH 40 SCH 80 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING PP SCH 80 PVDF SCH 80 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 31. fractions of a second in determining the safety factor the maximum fiber stress due to total internal pressure must be compared to some very short-term strength value.5 16.5 23.0 24. 3. it may be necessary to place a valve in the air line to slow down the valve operation cycle.7 13. partially close the valve in the discharge line to minimize the volume of liquid which is rapidly accelerating through the system.660 -.9 17.3 26. System Engineering Data Note: The total pressure at any time in a pressure-piping system (operating plus surge or water hammer) should not exceed 150 percent of the pressure rating of the system.3 29.7 14. Using actuated valves that have a specific closing time will eliminate the possibility of someone inadvertently Table 26 on the next page.2 psi/ft/sec.6 30.8 18.2 22. shown on page 23.6 27.8 15.4 for the 11/4" PVC Schedule 80 pipe of the example shown above using the full pressure rating calculated from the listed hydrostatic design stress. gives the results of safety factor calculations based upon service factors of 0.3 28.8 14.1 23.3 25.2 21.3 — 16. when starting a pump.7 23.0 24. Static Pressure in System = 300 psi Total System Pressure = Static Pressure + Surge Pressure: Pt = P x Ps = 300 + 5 x 26.7 13.8 18.7 32.3 19. The following suggestions will help in avoiding problems: 1. the hydrostatic design www.5 17.7 29.6 18. With pneumatic and air-spring actuators.2 C1 = 26.2 C1 = (1.1 21. of pipe from various manufacturers and should not be construed as exact.2 20.5 22.0 — — — — — — — — slamming a valve open or closed too quickly.G. a fluid velocity not exceeding 5ft/sec will minimize water hammer effects.42 + 24.2 37.com 41 1-800-877-4472 .Table 25 Surge Wave Constant. Check the anticipated velocity at the discharge port of any pump before startup.2 19. even with quickly closing valves.2 2 C1 = 2.8 15. Water Velocity = 5 ft/sec.7 26. If possible.3 27.7 16.0 — 20.3 25.G.6 19.3 18.4 — — — — — — — 28. Once the pump is up to speed and the line completely full.2 31.6 15. -1) C + C 2 Where: C1 = Corrected Surge Wave Constant S.2 24.191 Safety Factor = 20 second strength Maximum stress = 1657. for a liquid with a specific gravity of 1. For fluids heavier than water. = Specific Gravity of Liquid For example.8 17. SAFETY FACTOR As the duration of pressure surges due to water hammer is extremely short .7 12. A sample calculation is shown below.8 27.3 25.7 28.1 34. the valve may be opened.6 16.1 18. the following correction should be made to the surge wave constant C C1 = (S.191) 2t 2 x.

5 to a more conservative 0. From these comparisons it is obvious that little is to be gained in safety from surge pressures by fairly large changes in the hydrostatic design stress resulting from choice of more conservative service factors Pressure rating values are for PVC pipe.0 547.5 0.38 (14. it is instructive to note that changing from a service factor of 0. changing the service factor from 0.PVC.0 131. Table 26 SAFETY FACTORS VS.System Engineering Data SAFETY FACTOR (Continued) basis = 4000 psi.5 SAFETY FACTOR 3.0 MAXIMUM STRESS PSI 2503.4 to 0. particularly at the higher temperatures. 100 x .03 www. and the water velocity = 5 feet per second. piping systems consisting of extruded pipe and molded fittings may have lower pressure ratings than those shown here. Caution should be exercised in design operating above 100°F.35 increases the safety factor by 24%.35 increases the safety factor only by 9%. Because molding compounds may differ in long term strength and elevated temperature properties from pipe compounds.4 HDS PSI 2000 1600 PRESSURE RATING PSI 520 416 SURGE PRESSURE AT 5 FT/SEC 131. TYPE 1 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE PIPE CLASS 11/4" Sch 80 11/4" Sch 80 SERVICE FACTOR 0.5 to 0.0 MAXIMUM PRESSURE PSI 651.38 4.com 42 1-800-877-4472 .harringtonplastics. Changing the service factor from 0.4 increases the safety factor only by 16%.5 2103. and for most sizes are calculated from the experimentally determined long-term strength of PVC extrusion compounds.3. SERVICE FACTORS .03 ) = 16% SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING In the same way. Comparing safety factor for this 1-1/4" Schedule 80 pipe at different service factors.

82 2.96 1.80 2.76 2.03 40 0. CHANGE ∆T°F LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET 10 0.52 80 0.97 1.72 0.37 1.58 0. piping should be allowed to move unrestrained in the piping support system between desired anchor points without abrasion. undergo dimensional changes as a result of temperature variations above and below the installation temperature.82 2.) .10 4.51 0.54 1. In critical applications. cutting or restriction of the piping.91 1.30 2.87 3.46 20 0. CHANGE ∆T°F Above-Ground Installation LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET 10 0.15 1.17 1.28 1.51 1.29 0.92 2.22 0.95 4.98 2.93 3.98 2.82 2.4 x 10-5 in/in/°F l = 100 ft.09 0.09 1.51 1.26 1.61 5.55 0.96 1.59 0.76 0.23 0.10 1.86 90 1.76 2.55 0.12 5. In most cases.32 0.59 100 1. improper pipe clamping and support.82 1.59 0.41 0.01 1.25 0.88 90 0.59 0.93 6.46 1.34 2.59 4.44 0.10 100 0. installed at 80°F.37 40 0.10 4. (See Figures 5.30 1.65 0.64 0.74 3.68 0.73 1.34 2.17 1.39 70 1.36 0.86 1.23 2.83 2.56 2.THERMAL EXPANSION ∆L (IN.64 3. like other piping materials.44 1.27 2.02 1.12 80 1.07 3.61 5.46 0.02 2.30 1.69 2.17 1. changes in direction or Teflon bellows expansion joints.44 1. inadequate expansion compensation.60 1.60 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1.02 1.72 Caution: Not all manufacturers formulate their resins the same.37 1.93 3.05 2.18 0.64 3.28 3.5.36 20 0.20 2.46 2.59 2.62 1.30 1.05 2. ΔL = 12yl (ΔT) Where: ΔL = expansion or contraction in inches y = 3.27 0.16 2.39 5.93 50 0.76 2.88 1.18 0.43 0.56 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Example 1: Calculate the change in length for a 100 foot straight run of 2" Schedule 80 PVC pipe operating at a temperature of 73°F.22 0.9 x 10-5 in/in/°F l = 100 ft.32 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 www.80°F) ΔL = 12 in/ft x 0.73 0.60 1. In example 2.66 4.86 6.91 30 0.46 2.) .54 2.88 1.09 1.08" ΔL = 12yl (ΔT) TABLE 29 -THERMAL EXPANSION ∆L (IN.19 3.86 0.46 1.19 2.28 60 0.59 7.44 0.94 2.29 0.26 1.18 0.76 2.) Copolymer Polypropylene TEMP.10 1.28 3.92 2.55 2.09 1.92 3.32 0.82 0.000029in/in/ft x 100 ft x 41°F ΔL = 1.43 0.05 2.02 2.87 3. the resultant stresses and forces may cause damage to the equipment or piping. installed at 32°F.08 1. CHANGE ∆T°F LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET 10 0.73 1.64 1.73 20 0.000034in/in/ft x 100 ft x 100°F ΔL = 4.05 2.28 2.29 0. = maximum service temperature of system and = temperature at time of installation (or difference between lowest system temperature and maximum system temperature.72 0.36 0.24 100 1. ΔT = 100°F (180°F .64 1. as a result the coefficient of linear expansion may be different from those used here.20 2.11 0.15 1.07 3.88 3.36 0.44 50 0.32 1. offsets.66 0.74 70 0.73 0.29 0.80 CALCULATING LINEAR MOVEMENT CAUSED BY THERMAL EXPANSION The rate of movement (change in length) caused by thermal expansion or contraction can be calculated as follows: ΔL = 12yl (ΔT) Where: ΔL y l ΔT Where: T1 T2 = expansion or contraction in inches = coefficient of linear expansion of piping material selected (see Relative Properties on pages 4.43 0.82 0.36 0. consult the manufacturer’s published physical properties data.32 1.46 30 0.27 0.76 1.19 80 0.10 4.20 40 0.32°F) ΔL = 12 in/ft x 0.30 2.32 0.08 1.82 1.14 0. and 7 for installed examples.54 0.50 30 0.88 1.66 60 0.86 1. TABLE 27 .55 0.16 70 0.PVC Type 1 TEMP.65 4.09 1.22 0.27 5.64 0. Where: ΔL = expansion or contraction in inches y = 2.91 1.97 1.44 0.55 0.69 4.37 1.harringtonplastics.24 3.40 1.55 2.29 3.91 1. ΔT = 41°F (73°F .62 1.46 0.72 2.54 0.32 1. The following tables have been prepared to assist in determining typical thermal expansion.65 0.76 1.27 0.51 3.68 0. Excessive piping movement and stresses between anchor points must be compensated for and eliminated by installing expansion loops.73 1.90 60 0.46 2.94 2.29 3.43" In this example the piping would expand approximately 1-1/2" in length over a 100 ft straight run once the operating temperature of 73°F was obtained.CPVC Schedule 80 TEMP.THERMAL EXPANSION ∆L (IN.95 4.56 3. or by a vessel to which the pipe is attached.01 1.92 3.93 3. 6.23 1.27 5.com 43 1-800-877-4472 .82 50 0.15 0.14 0.58 0.68 5.52 2.51 4.65 90 0.32 1.64 2.EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF PLASTIC PIPE ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Plastics.14 1. = length of piping run in feet = (T1-T2) temperature change in degrees fahrenheit.19 2. whichever is greater) 0.88 1.41 0.28 1.46 1.20 2. TABLE 28 .86 1.08 1.65 0.23 1. the piping would expand approximately 4" in length over a 100 ft straight run once the operating temperature of 180°F was obtained .73 0.66 0. Example 2: Calculate the change in length for a 100 foot straight run of 2" Schedule 80 CPVC pipe operating at a temperature of 180°F.46 1.37 0.) If movement resulting from these dimensional changes is restricted by adjacent equipment.59 2.

96 Above-Ground Installation CHANGE ∆T°F 20 0.68 8.72 80 1.96 1.54 1. This will allow the piping system to absorb the forces generated by expansion/contraction without damage.91 7.80 60 1.14 6.88 3. ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET 10 0.86 0.73 1. the distance between anchors will have to be reduced until the support guide spacing distance is equal to or less than the maximum recommended support spacing distance for the appropriate pipe size at the temperature used. Do not restrain “change in direction” configurations by butting up against joists.18 6.08" ℓ = √ _____ 3ED(ΔL) 2S __________________________ ℓ = √ 3 x 360.03 4.88 3.58 1. studs.02 2.36 4.92 2.36 3.38 6. the installation of an expansion joints.08 2 x 500 ℓ = 102. Piping supports should restrict lateral movement and should direct axial movement into the expansion loop configuration.30 2.) .58 0.com 44 1-800-877-4472 .76 6.84 4.77 0.84 50 0. offset.73 3.38 6.54 1.77 0. straight runs. offsets.34 2.78 4. Once the change in length (AL) has been determined.15 1.46 4. walls or other structures.000 x 2.84 4. and bends should be installed as nearly as possible at the midpoint between anchors. or bend required to compensate for this change can be calculated as follows: ℓ = Where: ℓ E D ΔL S √ ______ 3ED(ΔL) 2S = Length of expansion loop in inches = Modulus of Elasticity = Average outside diameter of pipe = Change in length of pipe due to temperature change = Working stress at maximum temperature Example: 2" Schedule 80 CPVC pipe operating temperature 180°F. Concentrated loads.76 70 1.44 1. If that occurs. Expansion loops.29" Figure 6 Typical Offset www.77 1.375 x 4.91 7.18 5.59 2.80 5. the length of an offset.70 5. Long.54 3.61 5.61 5.68 90 1.64 100 1.92 2.34 1.32 4. straight runs of piping are more susceptible to experiencing measurable movement with changes in temperature.38 0.69 3.40 2.73 2.38 0.72 7.92 30 0.96 1. or change of direction as indicated above and must not compress or restrict the pipe from axial movement.30 2.67 0.84 4.92 3. As with other piping materials. The use of threaded components to construct the loop configuration is not recommended.69 3.30 2.PVDF Schedule 80 TEMP.32 5.46 3. expansion loop.15 1.07 3.15 2.05 6. should not be installed in the developed length. COMPENSATING FOR MOVEMENT CAUSED BY THERMAL EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION In most piping applications the effects of thermal expansion/ contraction are usually absorbed by the system at changes of direction in the piping.19 0.05 6.03 4.46 4. Calculated support guide spacing distances for offsets and bends must not exceed recommended hanger support spacing for the maximum anticipated temperature.48 0. installed at 80°F where ΔL = 4.TABLE 30 THERMAL EXPANSION ∆L (IN. expansion loops or offsets is required on long.60 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 5 Bend or Change in Direction Hangers or guides should only be placed in the loop.harringtonplastics.64 9.88 40 0. Use only solvent-cemented connections on straight pipe lengths in combination with 90° elbows to construct the expansion loop. offset or bend. such as valves.07 3.

In critical applications. PVC Type 1. Copolymer Polypropylene NOM. 10 12 Note: Table based on stress and modulus of elasticity at 160°F.050 1. E = 1.750 18 20 22 25 27 30 36 41 50 57 64 69 25 28 32 35 38 42 52 58 71 81 90 98 31 35 39 43 46 52 63 71 87 99 111 121 36 40 45 50 54 60 73 83 100 114 128 139 40 45 50 56 60 67 81 92 112 128 143 155 44 49 55 62 66 74 89 101 123 140 156 170 47 53 59 66 71 79 96 109 132 151 169 184 50 56 63 71 76 85 103 117 142 162 181 197 54 60 67 75 81 90 109 124 151 172 192 209 57 63 71 79 85 95 115 131 159 181 202 220 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 0.660 1.500 4.840 1. E = 2.500 6.375 3.500 6. CPVC Schedule 80 LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET AVERAGE O.harringtonplastics. PIPE SIZE TABLE 32 EXPANSION LOOPS AND OFFSET LENGTHS.375 3.625 8.375 3. 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 Note: Table based on stress and modulus of elasticity at 160°F.900 2. PIPE SIZE LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET AVERAGE O.625 10.840 1. E = 0.ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING NOM.050 1.315 1.050 1. LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LENGTH OF LOOP “ℓ” IN INCHES LENGTH OF LOOP “ℓ” IN INCHES 1/2 0.1 x 10 psi Note: Table based on stress and modulus of elasticity at 160°F. ∆T = 100°F.900 2. consult the manufacturer’s published physical properties data.315 1.625 8. TABLE 34 EXPANSION LOOPS AND OFFSET LENGTHS.83 x 10 lb/in.840 1.750 15 17 19 21 23 25 31 35 42 48 54 59 21 22 26 30 32 35 43 49 59 67 75 82 26 27 32 36 39 43 53 60 73 83 93 101 30 31 37 42 45 50 61 69 84 96 107 116 33 34 42 47 50 56 68 77 94 107 119 130 37 38 46 52 55 62 75 85 103 118 131 143 39 40 49 56 59 67 81 92 111 127 142 154 42 43 53 59 64 71 86 98 119 135 151 164 45 46 56 63 67 75 91 103 125 143 160 174 47 48 59 67 71 80 97 109 133 152 169 184 Figure 7 Typical Expansion Loop The following expansion loop and offset lengths have been calculated based on stress and modulus of elasticities at the temperature shown below each chart. ∆T = 100°F.04 x 10 psi www.900 2. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LENGTH OF LOOP “ℓ” IN INCHES 1/2 0.500 6. E = 3.660 1. S = 600 psi.315 1.D. S = 240 psi.625 8. as a result the modulus of elasticity may be different from those used here.91 x 10 psi TABLE 33 EXPANSION LOOPS AND OFFSET LENGTHS. TABLE 31 EXPANSION LOOPS AND OFFSET LENGTHS.com 45 1-800-877-4472 .900 2. ∆T = 100°F.500 4. PVDF Schedule 80 NOM.315 1. Schedule 40 & 80 NOM.050 1.750 11 12 14 15 16 18 22 25 30 35 39 42 15 17 19 22 23 26 31 35 43 49 55 60 19 21 23 26 28 32 38 43 53 60 67 73 22 24 27 30 33 36 44 50 61 69 77 84 24 27 30 34 36 41 49 56 68 78 87 94 27 30 33 37 40 45 54 61 74 85 95 103 29 32 36 40 43 48 58 66 80 92 102 112 31 34 38 43 46 52 63 71 86 98 110 119 32 36 41 46 49 55 66 75 91 104 116 126 34 38 43 48 51 58 70 79 96 110 122 133 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 Note: Table based on stress and modulus of elasticity at 130°F ∆T = 50°F.750 12.D.660 1. S = 750 psi.500 4. PIPE SIZE AVERAGE O.375 10 11 13 14 15 17 15 16 18 20 22 24 18 20 22 25 27 30 20 23 26 29 31 34 23 26 29 32 34 38 25 28 31 35 38 42 27 30 34 38 41 46 29 32 36 41 44 49 31 34 38 41 44 49 32 36 40 45 49 54 Caution: Not all manufacturers formulate their resins the same.660 1.750 12.750 12.625 10. S = 1080 psi. Above-Ground Installation 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LENGTH OF LOOP “ℓ” IN INCHES 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 0. PIPE SIZE LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET AVERAGE O.D.840 1.D.625 10.

908 15. In critical applications.) PVDF Schedule 80 PIPE CROSS-SECTIONAL WALL AREA (IN.030 10.380 4.860 3.407 8.581 8.075 2.430 3.639 . ) .RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (Lb.860 5.960 ∆T = 100°F S = 1610 PSI 520 700 1.405 2.840 SCHEDULE 80 PVC CROSS SECTIONAL WALL AREA (IN.036 7. www.035 ∆T = 50 °F S = 550 PSI 147 199 293 404 489 663 1.922 26.922 26.080 1.016 4.016 4.434 .860 7.) PVC.405 12.420 1.068 1.068 1.100 13.840 32.550 10.174 5.639 .405 12.035 ∆T = 50°F S = 805 PSI 260 350 515 710 860 1.275 15.810 4.580 15.490 SIZE 1/2 TABLE 36 .590 16.350 2.882 1.381 2.320 .477 3.882 1. Schedule 40 and 80 SCHEDULE 40 PVC PIPE SIZE CROSSSECTIONAL WALL AREA (IN.250 . consult the manufacturer’s published physical properties data.068 1.290 7.) .190 2.895 8.276 4.920 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 Caution: Not all manufacturers formulate their resins the same.320 .000 3.) .882 1.229 3.775 5.763 18. Type 1.434 .690 17.922 26.295 8.500 1.460 41.320 .530 20.399 11.ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING These tables are based on the formula: F = AS = restraining force.255 2.harringtonplastics. Above-Ground Installation Where: A = Cross sectional wall area.882 1.899 5.745 ∆T = 50°F S= 630 PSI 155 210 310 420 505 675 1.110 1.320 .763 18.018 3.407 8.) Copolymer Polypropylene Schedule 80 PIPE SIZE 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 CROSS-SECTIONAL WALL AREA (IN .035 ∆T = 50°F S= 630 PSI 200 275 405 555 675 930 1. as a result the modulus of elasticity and coefficient of linear expansion may be different from those used here.669 .230 20.765 10.332 23.000 19.407 ∆T = 50°F S = 850 PSI 270 370 540 750 905 1.494 .698 11. in.016 4.030 1.900 2.848 TABLE 38 RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (Lb.745 ∆T = 100°F S = 1700 PSI 540 740 1.720 2.407 8.477 3.920 ∆T = 100°F S= 1260 PSI 310 420 622 840 1.010 1.405 12.) CPVC Schedule 80 PIPE SIZE 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 CROSS-SECTIONAL WALL AREA (IN.810 2.929 ∆T = 100°F S = 1110 PSI 294 398 586 808 978 1.515 5.130 7.477 3. ) 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 .040 11.080 23.434 .350 1.920 16.400 ∆T = 100°F S= 1260 PSI 400 550 810 1.550 30.2 S = e(ΔT)E e = Coefficient of the linear expansion* E = Modulus of elasticity* ∆T = Temperature change.477 3. lbs.500 9.325 2.550 6.000 7.com 46 1-800-877-4472 . °F * All values are available from the relative properties chart on page 4-5 2 TABLE 35 RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (Lb.800 TABLE 37 RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (Lb.639 .800 1.333 .565 3.434 .) .666 11.016 4.068 1.639 .763 18.510 5.

To ensure satisfactory operation of a thermoplastic piping system.225 2.360 2. thrust blocks or encasement.500 28. hangers should provide as much bearing surface as possible. In practice.) & junctions Bends 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 1 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 60 90 140 220 300 450 650 970 1.420 45° Bends 50 70 110 170 230 345 500 745 1.280 9.820 2. The following considerations are critical to proper support. its weight and contents.960 10.060 12. The size or need for reinforcements should be based on the design engineer's evaluation of flow velocities and pressure increases due to the fluid's momentum. etc.414 for 90° Elbows www. The mechanical properties of the pipe material must also be taken into consideration. Proper design will prevent stress concentration areas as a result of weight loading. Valves should be braced against operating torque.980 9.D.480 6.900 21.170 1. and the location of heavy valves or fittings.080 6.790 15..440 17. the pipe must then be supported immediately adjacent to any extra load. the location and type of hangers must be carefully planned. plus operating temperatures. Consider using structural angle or channel that is free from rough or sharp edges.240 4.080 4.610 5. support spacing is a function of pipe size.080 6. Sharp supports or sharp edges on supports should not be used with thermoplastic piping because they will cause mechanical damage if and when the pipe moves Changes in direction (e.370 2. Heavy metal valves should be supported so as not to induce additional stress on the thermoplastic piping system. valves. 90° elbows) should be supported as close as practical to the fitting to avoid introducing excessive tensional stresses into the system. Table 39 Thrust at Fittings in pounds Per 100 psi (internal pressure) Pipe 90° Blank ends Size (in. design and a successful project.450 5. Since changes in direction in the system are usually sufficient to allow expansion and contraction. it may be more economical to provide continuous support for the system. the hanger should not deform the pipe when it has been tightened. Note that in some instances it may be desirable to use a clamptype hanger to direct thermal expansion or contraction in a specific direction.550 3. Plugs and Caps = .e.100 12. Above-Ground Installation Additionally.200 12. Since thermoplastic piping is somewhat notch sensitive.600 3.400 20. Always consult local building. allowance must be made for expansion and contraction of the piping system.750 17. Check with all local authorities having jurisdiction over the installation.390 for 221/2° Bends = 764 for 45° Elbows = 1.650 4.850 9. Should this be impractical. For more detail regarding estimating and compensating for thrust forces.790 11.400 31. restraining hangers.harringtonplastics. bending stresses. These forces must be reduced by means of anchors.060 ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SUPPORT Adequate support for any piping system is a matter of great importance.700 221/2° Bends 25 35 55 90 120 180 260 385 635 1.320 3. hangers must be placed so proper movement is not restricted.) should be supported directly to eliminate high stress concentrations on the pipe.g. risers. 60° Elbows.060 34.940 111/4° Bends 15 20 30 45 60 90 130 200 320 690 1. The method chosen will depend on whether the system is buried or above ground.800 15. When a thermoplastic piping is designed to operate at or near maximum recommended temperature limits.400 19. Note that the thrust created at unrestrained fittings can be considerable (as shown in Table 39 and should be addressed during installation.400 45.020 5. In systems where large fluctuations in temperature occur. the calculation for thrust due to static pressure is: Thrust = ((Average I. mechanical. When using a clamp-type hanger. flanges.560 43.THRUST Thrust forces can occur at any point in a piping system where the directional or cross-sectional area of the waterway changes or where additional structural loads such as valves are installed. Concentrated loads (i.960 63.) �) X (Working Pressure) X (z) 4 2 Where: z = 1.100 7.150 35.100 25.com 47 1-800-877-4472 . The principles of design for steel piping systems (simple and continuous beam calculations) are generally applicable to thermoplastic piping systems. the effects of thermal expansion/contraction and limit pipe displacement (sag).830 8. and plumbing codes before installation.300 85 130 200 320 420 630 910 1. refer to engineering textbooks such as the Uni-Bell Handbook of PVC Pipe.0 for Tees.460 24.

selected hangers. at changes in direction of the system. It is also extremely important that all supports provide an adequate load bearing surface to handle the weight loading and all stress plus movement of the piping system caused be thermal expansion and contraction. Vertical lines must also be supported at proper intervals so that the fitting at the lower end is not overloaded. Riser clamps squeeze the pipe and are not recommended.com 48 1-800-877-4472 . Increase in temperature will require additional supports and in some cases it may be more economical to provide continuous support for the system via structural angle or channel. Anchors are utilized to direct movement of the piping by providing restraint at key points in the system. Anchors and guides must be engineered and installed such a manor to perform adequately without point loading the system. Many hangers designed for use with metallic piping are suitable for thermoplastic piping systems too.ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING HANGERS. and where expansion joints and other methods of thermal compensation are utilized. but should not restrict longitudinal movement of the pipe through the guide. forces generated by pressure surges. ANCHORS & GUIDES Proper selection and location of pipe supports are critical to the life of any piping system. The supports should not exert a compressive strain on the pipe such as the double-bolt type. The use of improper supports can generate excessive sag resulting in failure of the piping system. Anchors and guides are typically installed on long straight runs. Regardless of the method chosen the support system must allow axial movement while prohibiting transverse or lateral movement. however. Guides must be rigidly attached to the structure to prevent lateral movement. vibration. anchors and guides must be free of rough or sharp edges that could damage the piping system. Above-Ground Installation RECOMMENDED PIPE HANGERS FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS PIPE RING PIPE ROLLERS www. Their use may be required to control the effects of movement caused by expansion and contraction. each clamp should be located just below a coupling or other fitting so that the shoulder of the coupling provides bearing support to the clamp. and other transient conditions. Guides are necessary to help direct movement between anchors by allowing longitudinal movement while restricting lateral movement. Since guides act as support they should have the same load bearing surface and other requirements of hangers designed for the system. Sleeving plastic pipe at horizontal support points with one pipe size larger which allows unrestricted movement is recommended. If possible.harringtonplastics.

ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING HANGERS. ANCHORS & GUIDES PIPE STRAPS AND HOOKS Above-Ground Installation PIPE CLAMPS PIPE ADJUSTABLE CLAMPS www.harringtonplastics.com 49 1-800-877-4472 .

25 2.25 8.5 3.75 5.5 8.25 7.0 8. CAUTION: Support spacing subject to change with SDR Polypropylene and PVDF piping systems from different manufacturers’ using different resins.25 3.75 3.5 4. w = Weight per unit length.0 4.25 5.5 4. in.0 4.5 7. Continuous support can be accomplished by the used of a smooth structural angle or channel.100 inch is chosen arbitrarily as the permissible sag (y) between supports then: L4 = 18.5 6.25 5.0 3.25 2.5 4.2 I = Moment of inertia.5 2.0 3.75 5.75 3.25 4. lb/in. protective shields should be installed. L = Support spacing.0 8. Tables are based on the maximum deflection of a uniformly loaded.75 4.0 4.75 3.5 8.75 4.0 3.75 3.75 4.0 7.0 3.)Polypropylene Sch 80 PIPE SIZE 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 TEMPERATURE (°F) 73 3. they must be properly supported to avoid unnecessary stresses and possible sagging.25 120 3.0 7.75 5. in.50 3.75 10.5 7.5 10.0 200 2.25 6. lb/in.0 4.0 www.5 11.75 4.75 3.5 9.75 6.0 Note: The preceding tables for Schedule 80 Polypropylene and PVDF are based in 100 inch SAG between supports.75 7.25 3.25 4.5 7.Above-Ground Installation SUPPORT SPACING OF PLASTIC PIPE When thermoplastic piping systems are installed above ground.5 9.5 3.0 4.48 El W Where: W = Weight of Pipe + Weight of Liquid.976 E (Do4-Di4) W W Table 40 SUPPORT SPACING “L” (FT.0 180 2.0 4.25 5.75 5.5 4.0 5.75 9.25 2./in.0 8.5 5.75 4.25 5.0 6.75 4.4 ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING PIPE SIZE 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 68 3.0 4.5 160 3.75 6.0 7.25 4.5 4.75 5. continuously supported beam calculated from: Where: wL4 y = .5 10. lb.5 6. in.75 4.25 9.0 2.0 7.75 8.harringtonplastics.0 6.5 4. Horizontal runs require the use of hangers spaced approximately as indicated in the tables for individual material show below.50 2.0 3.com 50 1-800-877-4472 .5 140 3.75 8.5 260 2.25 7.25 8. Where the pipe is exposed to impact damage.5 8.5 6.25 9.25 4.75 7.75 7. For a pipe l = � (Do4-Di4) 64 Where : Do = Outside diameter of the pipe Di = Inside diameter of the pipe Then: L = .25 200 2.75 6.25 6.0 3.5 3.25 4.5 3.75 3.0 3.5 3.25 3.25 10.5 2.75 6.5 3.0 5.0 6. Note that additional support is required as temperatures increase.0 6.5 11.0 4.25 240 2. E = Modulus of elasticity at given temp.0 4.907 E (Do4-Di4)1/4 = .50 2.0 4.0 3.0 5.5 4.25 2.0 Table 41 SUPPORT SPACING “L” (FT.75 8.25 6.0 3.25 280 2.25 5.75 5.25 5. If 0.0 3.25 7.0 3.75 5.5 6.5 8. See manufacturers support spacing guide prior to installation.25 120 3.5 3.5 6.25 3.75 7.00541 El y = Deflection or sag.5 5.75 3.75 4.5 7.) PVDF Sch 80 TEMPERATURE (°F) 160 2.5 9.75 9.

9 4. www.5 11 11.4 3.5 6 6.1 4.6 14.4 3.6 N/A 5.5 N/A N/A 2.9 11.3 19.4 15.2 16.3 N/A 8.9 N/A 6.8 5.7 16.5 9.5 12.5 4.3 4.7 13.5 8 8.5 2.com 51 1-800-877-4472 .6 3 3.2 N/A 8.5 4. 1.1 3.5 7 7.5 5 5.5 7 7.5 5 5. the recommendations of two different manufacturers are shown below for comparison purposes.0) the hanging distance must be decreased by dividing the recommended support distance by the fluid’s specific gravity.1 14.5 10.5 6 6 7 7 7.5 15.5 2.8 140°F 2 2 2.5 9 9. but resulting in slightly different physical properties.5 3 3 3 3.9 10.5 7 8.G.5 10 11 12 13 13. Harrington recommends specifying a particular manufacturer and using their support spacing recommendations throughout the complete system.7 15.5 8 8.4 13.5 3. For example.5 5.9 4.5 17.5 13 14 15 Above-Ground Installation SCHEDULE 40 PVC 60°F N/A N/A 3.5 5 5.0.4 N/A 6.6 17.3 N/A 9. support system spacing data for PVC and CPVC was a little simpler as most manufacturers used the same resin formulations and processing techniques.5 9 9.6 19 20 20 100°F 3.5 14.5 10 10.6 15. Bearing surfaces of supports should be at least 2" wide.5 4 4 4.5 N/A N/A 2.5 9.5 5 N/A 6.5 6 6.5 5.5 10.6 N/A 7.3 12 13.7 12 13.5 3 3 3.4 3.1 3.5 12.5 19.5 8 9 9.7 3.1 20 *Manufacturer B states “based on a sag limit of 0.4 4.9 N/A 9.5 5 5 5 5.9 3.7 N/A 7.0 3.1 13.5 7.” N/A = Data not available at time of printing All recommendations shown above are based on handling solutions with a specific gravity of 1.5 14 N/A N/A 3.4 100°F 3.5 N/A N/A 2.4 N/A 7.5 9 10 11.5 11 11.8 18.2 11.5 4.6 12. all within the same ASTM standard.2 3.5 7 7.) 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 4 4 4.5 6 6.5 10 10.0 4.8 12.7 11.5 7 7.5 5 5.2 N/A 10.5 6. This conservative calculation is also intended to accommodate expansion and contraction.3 16.1 4.2% span length that is well within the bending stress limits of the material.3 10.2 4.5 4 4.9 18.5 4 4 4 4.9 N/A 7.ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Support Spacing (Continued) In years past. Therefore.5 4.2 14 15.5 3.5 2.5 17 N/A N/A 3.5 6 6 6. However today many suppliers formulate their own resins.6 4.0 3.5 12 12.5 14 14.9 16.7 15.4 5 N/A 6.9 18.5 2.5 5 5 5 6 6 6.5 13.6 SCHEDULE 80 PVC 60°F 4 4.2 10.6 5 5.7 5.7 4.2 N/A 6. pressure surges and entrained air.2 9.5 4 4 4.5 7.6 16.9 4. Table 42 Recommended Maximum Support Spading in feet by two manufacturers Manufacturer A Manufacturer B* PIPE SIZE (IN.2 17.5 14. When the fluid has a specific gravity greater than water (S.4 N/A 7.6 N/A 9.harringtonplastics.7 15.5 8 8.5 20 140°F 2 2.7 N/A 8.5 12 12.

3 10 15.3 11/4 5.8 7 8.5 3 1 6 4.5 5. www.5 5.5 4.5 8.5 5.3 14 15 16.9 3 3. NOT PUBLISHED BY THIS SUPPLIER 200°F 2.5 N/A 8 N/A 7.5 11.0.9 5.5 3.5 13 10 12.5 4.6 6 4.2 7.5 12.5 4.2 8.1 All recommendations shown above are based on handling solutions with a specific gravity of 1.5 4.5 14.4 2.2 10 11.5 3.3 4.6 5 9.8 7 13.4 4.4 11 15 9.5 4.5 2.5 3.5 18.4 10 11.) SCHEDULE 80 CPVC 73°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F 200°F 2.8 7.2 4 3.8 4 6.7 3.1 5.3 10 10.1 6 3.5 8.5 14 12 14.5 13.9 4. Bearing surfaces of support should be at least 2" wide.1 6 10 10.5 4.5 11/4 6.5 2.5 8.5 8.5 7 4.5 7 6.5 3.4 3.3 6.6 11.5 2. Greater than 200°F requires continuous support. Table 44 PIPE SIZE (IN.5 8 14.6 6.3 13.1 12.5 5.4 2.7 2.7 4 5.7 10 11.3 3.5 4.5 N/A 7.5 21/2 7 6.1 5 3 4.5 13.8 5.5 N/A 5 N/A 4.8 31/2 7.7 6 5.5 7.3 6 5.2% of span length. 1.5 8.2 3 7 6.1 8 9.5 6 4.2 11 13.1 9 9.1 16 16 17.5 4.6 4 5.1 6.6 6 12.6 3 8 7.5 12.4 9.8 3.5 14.5 15.1 11 14.5 3 3.5 3.7 9.0) the hanging distance must be decreased by dividing the recommended support distance by the fluid’s specific gravity.5 11.5 6.8 7 6.8 12 16.2 3 3.9 5.2 14.ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Table 43 Recommended Maximum Support Spading in Feet by Two Manufacturers Manufacturer A Manufacturer B* PIPE SIZE (IN.5 4.2 31/2 8.5 14.2% of span length.6 7 5.1 2.4 *Based on a sag limit of 0.5 10.5 13.5 N/A 4 8.5 10.5 5.5 12.5 2.5 N/A 7 N/A 6.5 7.3 7.3 4.7 8.5 2.5 9.4 5 3.1 7.9 *Based on a sag limit of 0.5 2.9 6.2 3 4 2 6 5.G.3 6 5.3 12.4 8 9.5 10.7 4.4 10.6 3/4 5 3.3 9 8.4 13.6 5 7.4 5.5 5.4 8.5 7.7 11.8 11 13.7 2.5 7.5 2.5 3.2 4.8 8 9.9 12.9 5.1 6 10.4 9 11 6 10.9 4.8 10 13.3 6 11.5 14.5 5.1 5 4 3 3.5 12 11.2 8 7 7.9 4.4 7 7.8 6 4.8 9 10.1 4 6 3.7 8.4 9.5 2.5 10.2 7.4 12 15 11.5 3.4 13.5 13 9.7 3.5 4.3 5.5 16.9 12 12.1 2.8 4.2 3.7 7 6.8 9.4 N/A 6.5 13.5 2.4 3.5 10.5 6.5 5 5 4.1 3 4 11/2 7 5.8 3 2.8 3.6 5 8.8 10.8 N/A 6.5 3 2.5 6.7 5.4 10.0 6.1 7 5.6 9.7 4 4.2 16 13 15.5 15.5 7.6 3.3 2 7 5.3 3.7 2.6 3 3.5 3.com 52 1-800-877-4472 NOT PUBLISHED BY THIS SUPPLIER .5 9.5 4.5 3.6 4.2 5.5 6.5 6.1 7.5 3.2 6.5 5.1 10.7 6.7 7.5 N/A 8.1 8.5 12 15.5 11.8 15 17.5 7. Greater than 200°F requires continuous support.5 9.4 4 6.9 5.7 3 4.5 3.4 5.4 9 13 8 12.5 9.5 10.9 21/2 8 6.3 Above-Ground Installation 1/2 5.2 5 9 8 11 12.5 6.5 4.8 4 2.) SCHEDULE 40 CPVC 73°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F 1/2 5 3 4.harringtonplastics.6 5.8 5 3.5 4. Bearing surfaces of support should be at least 2" wide.7 6 4.5 14.3 6 6.5 3.9 1 5.5 5.3 4.6 6 8.2 4 5 3. When the fluid has a specific gravity greater than water (S.5 N/A 4 N/A 4 N/A 4 7.5 4.4 5 4.8 5 3.5 15.8 11/2 6 4.1 3.4 5 3.5 12.7 3/4 5.7 5.5 8 11.9 6 11.

5 8. = 2.5 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 8.G.5 2.25 2.5 8 8.25 2.5 2 2.5 3 3 3 3.5 4.5 4 4 4.5 2.5 3 3 3.25 2.8 for S.25 2.5 5 5.5 4 4.5 4.5 10 10.5 2 2 2.75 3.5 122°F 50°C 1.5 4 4 5 5.5 5 5.5 7 7.85 for S.5 6 6.5 3 3 3.5 10 86°F 30°C 2.5 68°F 20°C 2.) 1/2 3/4 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 68°F 20°C ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING ASAHI/AMERICA PROLINE PRO 150 SUPPORT SPACING IN FEET 86°F 30°C 104°F 40°C 122°F 50°C 140°F 60°C 158°F 70°C 176°F 80°C Above-Ground Installation 3 3 3.5 2.5 68°F 20°C 2. Correction factors must be used when handling higher specific gravities as follows: 0.5 2.5 2.75 3 3.5 8 140°F 60°C 2 2.5 6 6.25 2.5 6 6.5 4 4 5 5.5 9 104°F 40°C 2 2.5 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 2 2.5 6.5 3. 0.5 6 7 7.5 4 4 4 5 6 6.5 5 5.5 4.25 2.5 2.5 6 7 2 2.5 4.5 8.5 3.5 4 4 4 4.5 2.5 5 6 6.5 6 *Above values are based on water with a specific gravity of 1.5 5 5 6 7 7.75 3.5 5 5.5 www.5 3 3 3.5 4 4.5 4 4.75 3 3.5 4.75 3.5 7 2 2.5 2.5 4.5 9.5 3 3 3 3.5 1.5 4 4.5 4 4 4 176°F 80°C ASAHI/AMERICA PROLINE PRO 150 SUPPORT SPACING IN FEET 3 3 3.5 3.5 4 4.5 3.5 9.5 5 5.5 86°F 30°C 2.5 4.5 158°F 70°C 2 2 2.5 8.5 6.90 for S.G.25 2.5 7 7.5.5 4 4.5 4 4 4.5 4 4.5 2.5 4.5 3 3 3 3.5 6 7 7.5 5 6 6.5 8.0.5 122°F 50°C 2 2.5 2.75 3.5 3 3 3 3.5 7.5 4 4.) 1/2 3/4 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 PIPE SIZE (IN.0.5 7 176°F 80°C ASAHI/AMERICA PROLINE PRO 45 SUPPORT SPACING IN FEET 2.harringtonplastics.5 6 7 7 7.25 2.5 11.5 4 4 4 5 6 6.5 2.5 5 5.5 6.5 5 5 5.5 5 5 6 7 7.5 4 4 4.5 1.5 3 3 3 3.Table 45 PIPE SIZE (IN.) 2 21/2 3 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 PIPE SIZE (IN.5 8.5 104°F 40°C 2 2.75 3.5 3.5 4 4 4 4.5 2. = 1.5 3 3 3 3.5 158°F 70°C 1.5 4 4.G.5 9.5 3.5 3 3 3. = 2.5 140°F 60°C 1. 0.com 53 1-800-877-4472 .

All piping systems will trap air or other gases at high points in www. For some limited purposes PVC. It is recommended that air release valves 1/4 of line size be placed at all high points in a piping system. full pump or line pressure is transferred downstream caus­ ing a potentially catastrophic failure to piping. The latex paint must be thickly applied as an opaque coating on the pipe and fittings that have been cleaned well and very lightly sanded. i.04 to 5 PPM and presents no problem to plastic piping in aqueous form. the elastomers used for seats and seals become a matter for concern. On the plastics. most plastics will react chemically with chlorine. and polypropylene are used. Oxidized piping does not lose any of its pressure capability. Schedule 40 PVC with sol­ vent cemented joints (Schedule 80 with screwed joints) may be used. Trapped gases are a common cause of greatly reduced flows and broken plastic pipe and fittings during a hydro test and while the system is being operated. become much more susceptible to impact damage. Ozone. DRY CHLORINE LIQUID OR GAS Dry chlorine in liquid or gaseous phase has the following recommendations from the Chlorine Institute Edition #10 of March 1979. This reaction can be dangerous. Plastics should be used only as specified by a designer experienced in the handling of chlorine or as recommended by the manufacturer of the chlorine handling equipment. the piping will “spider web” stress crack and turn brownish.. such as PTFE.AIR RELIEF ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING OZONE Ozone is a form of oxygen. Tests have shown that air moving under pressure multiplies the applied pres­ sure 15 times. Trapped gases are usually stationary at the high point and act as a partially open valve to liquid trying to pass. PVC. exterior water base latex paint. and ethylene chlorotrifluorethylene (Halar) possess adequate chemical properties to be useful in chlorine ser­vice. The polyolefins. Instruments: When pressure measuring systems are iso­ lated from chlorine by a liquid filled system. but PVC is marginally acceptable. a pressure relief valve should be sized to 1/4 of line size. Fluorolube). as the pigment acts as an ultraviolet screen and prevents sunlight damage. and polypropylene. If the UV light is not blocked. In general. PVDF holds up best. For 212°F max. CPVC. PVDF or Teflon should be used for gaseous ozone. is used as a bactericide in deionized water systems in low concentrations of 0. Polypropylene will stress crack.. polypropylene and polyethylene are attacked. Ozone deteriorates rubber in trace amounts. however. White or some other light color is recommended as it helps reduce pipe temperature. Plastic Construction: As with all hydrocarbon based materials. ABS. Butyl rubber (EPDM) has good resistance to ozone as does Fluorine rubber FKM (Viton) and chlorine sulphonyl polyethylene (Hypalon). All pressure reg­ ulators are capable of failure due to a ruptured diaphragm. The surface oxidation is evident by a change in pipe color from gray to white. SUNLIGHT WEATHERING AND PAINTING Plastic pipe and fittings have varying resistance to weathering. When a pressure regulator fails. as it is too expensive to ship. PRESSURE REGULATION AND PRESSURE RELIEF Pressure regulators are usually installed near a pump to maintain constant downstream pressure. the recom­ mended filling fluid is a polymer of trifluorovinylchloride of appropriate viscosity (e. The color of the paint is of no particular importance. the trapped gas is compressed and stores energy. In high concentrations. PVC and CPVC pipe and fittings can be easily protected from ultraviolet oxidation by painting with a heavily pigmented. CPVC. even explosive. CPVC pipe or fiberglass reinforced pipe fab­ ricated from a resin specifically recommended by the pro­ducer of that resin as suitable for chlorine service may be used. CPVC. Gases readily compress compared to a liquid. and creating pressure surges far greater than the piping system is designed for. Gases in small amounts go into and come out of solution while a system is being operated.g. Commercial mixtures are ordinarily 2% ozone and are produced by electronic irradiation of air. It is recommended that a black or red pig­ mented or natural PVDF piping system with insulation be uti­lized. and with its increasing use to sterilize high-purity water systems. It is formed naturally in the air from lighting and is seen as a blue halo effect. 30" Hg vacuum to 6 psi pressure. You might wish to review your ozone application with the Technical Services staff at Harrington. In its pure form it is an unstable blue gas with a pungent odor. Pipe and Fittings: Chlorine gas only. Above-Ground Installation the system. polyvinylidene fluoride (Kynar). PVDF is excellent for the handling of chlorine liquid or gas provided all ultraviolet light is prevented from coming in con­ tact with the gas. It is usually manufactured on the spot. releasing its stored energy. 03. Neoprene and Buna-N or Nitrile are severely attacked. These notes do not apply to chlorine dis­ solved in water. Surges created by opening and closing valves or starting and stopping pumps will cause the gas to suddenly move downstream. For 130°F max. When pressure is applied to a liquid being pumped. PVDF is unaffected by sunlight but is translucent when unpigmented. The Chlorine Institute can be consulted at (703) 894-4140. and Polypropylene undergo surface oxidation and embrittlement by exposure to sunlight over a period of several years. These gases will continue to cause operat­ ing problems and possible piping damage unless automatic air release valves are used which are capable of releasing air while the valve is in contact with the liquid being pumped. polyeth­ ylene. Pigments and resin addi­ tives will be leached out of PVC.e. It does. Ozone acts as a strong oxidizer.harringtonplastics. Pressure relief valves should be installed on the downstream side of all pressure regulators and discharge into the suction side of the pump or into a storage tank. or lodging of debris. Only a few halogenated plastics.com 54 1-800-877-4472 . Polypropylene and PVDF pipe and fittings are very difficult to paint properly and should be protected by insulation. seal.

increasing the pipe’s pressure capacity and its ability to resist earth-loading deflection. there is a decrease in pipe tensile strength and stiffness and a reduction in pressure capability. the heat loss increases four times. The tape should be Spattern wrapped on the pipe to allow pipe repairs and to avoid deflection caused by heating one side of the pipe. ULTRA VIOLET(UV) LIGHT STERILIZATION UV sterilizers for killing bacteria in deionized water are becoming common. VIBRATION ISOLATION Plastic piping will conduct vibration from pumping and other sources of resonance frequencies. Teflon.250 inches. the pipe’s stiffness and tensile strength increases. prevent liquid freezing. Although plastics are poor conductors of heat. Thermal conductivity is expressed as BTU/hr/sq/ft/°F/in. or equipment to reduce pipe breakage during an earthquake. ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Metallic or thick rubber expansion joints lack the flexibility to provide flange movement and vibration isolation and should not be used in plastic piping systems. With a drop in temperature.” Section 4202 (a) states: “The maximum flame-spread class used on interior walls and ceilings shall not exceed that set forth in Table No. temperature-sensing tape such as Raychem Chemelex Autotrace will maintain a 90°F temperature to prevent sodium hydroxide from freezing. 68. The proper bellows expansion joint will also provide for pipe system flexibility against a stationary mounted pump. The most popular is a two-half foam insulation installed within a snap together with aluminum casing. and PVDF piping over time. storage tank. A comparison to steel. The surface burning characteristics of building materials are based on UBC 42-1 Standards and ASTM E-84 testing to provide flame and smoke spread information of plastic materials. heat tracing of plastic piping may be necessary to maintain a constant elevated temperature of a viscous liquid. HEAT TRACING AND INSULATION Plastic piping. aluminum. as outlined in the Temperature-Pressure charts on page 25. from crystallizing in a pipeline at 68°F. Inch refers one inch of pipe wall thickness. or thin rubber bellows expansion joint installed near the pump discharge or source of vibration. The intense light generated will stress crack PVC. Vibration isolation is best accomplished using a flanged. Heat tracing should be applied directly on the pipe within the insulation and must not exceed the temperature-pressure-chemical resistance design of the system. PVC will lose only 1. Insulation to further reduce plastic piping heat loss is available in several different forms from several manufacturers. is a construction standard and building plan that is subject to interpretation and approval from local building and fire officials under the law. which fireproofs any plastic piping system to a 0 flame spread and 0 smoke spread. The smoke density shall be no greater than 450 when tested in accordance with UBC 42-1 in the way intended for use.610 BTU/hr per square foot of surface area with a wall thickness of one inch. per ASTM E-84 testing has been used effectively to meet fire codes. As the operating temperature falls. 1994 edition. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY. and copper can be seen on pages 4-5. polypropylene.THERMAL EFFECTS ON PLASTICS The physical properties of thermoplastic piping are significantly related to the operating temperature. With an increase in temperature. PVDF goes through a cross-linking of H-F causing a discoloration of the fitting and pipe material as well as joint stress cracking.harringtonplastics. impact strength is reduced. Square foot refers to one square foot where heat is being transferred. where BTU/hr or British Thermal Unit per hour is energy required to raise temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit in one hour. such as liquid flow through a partially open valve. Section 4202 addresses testing and classification of materials and states: “The classes of materials based upon their flame-spread index shall be as set forth in Table No. Plastic piping is not addressed specifically with regard to UBC 42-1 flame and smoke spread ratings required. Electric heat tracing with self-regulating. such as 50% sodium hydroxide. Copper. 66. Insulation can also provide weathering protection and fireproofing to plastic piping and is discussed later. CPVC. will lose 2. PLASTICS AND FIRE The Uniform Building Code (UBC). An underwriters lab approved kaolin clay thermal insulation cloth wrap. ASTM E-84 is a flame test conducted on both vertical and horizontal plastic material to determine the flame and smoke spread of the particular material being tested for its use in specific areas of construction. a good conductor of heat. As pipe wall increases. is a very poor conductor of heat. or to prevent a liquid. There are also new resin formulations of CPVC and PVDF that meet ASTM E-84 for use in all classifications of construction. thermal conductivity decreases. Above-Ground Installation www.2 BTU/hr! If wall thickness is reduced to 0. unlike metal.com 55 1-800-877-4472 .

100 13. 1/2 inch to 21/2 inch nominal diameter.25 7. effect. ible pipe will be less than on a rigid pipe buried in the same When the newly cemented joint has dried.25 relation to the trench center line is recommended.25 6.0 26. on newly cemented pipe joints that a poorly made joint might Static loads comprise the weight of the soil above the top of pull apart.5 9. ture should be adjusted to within 15°F of the operating tembut at depths greater than ten feet.5 5. the pipe temperations live loads should be considered and added to static loads. See Figure 8.00 nique of offsetting 1/2 to 21/2 inch nominal diameter pipe with 50 6. thrust after joints are properly cured but before backfilling.) COMPENSATE FOR should be relatively smooth and free of rocks. WIDTH The width of the trench should be sufficient to provide adequate room for “snaking” 1/2 to 21/2 inch nominal diameter pipe from side to side along the trench bottom. Before backfilling to the extent trains and other heavy equipment. the pipe should be installed by snakIn installing underground piping systems.25 20. necessary). pipe tion temperature is substantially lower than the operating support/hangers. The trench width can be held to a minimum with most pressure piping materials by joining the pipe at the surface and then lowering it into the Snaking of thermoplastic pipe within the trench to compensate trench after adequate joint strength has been obtained. The straight alignment and brought up to operating temperature depth and width of trenching. On a hot summer day.75 6. air and pressure relief. This problocking. These can range from static to dynamic overnight. For example. thickness of pipe must be considered. the depth of the ing in the trench. be installed with virtually eliminated by proper below-ground installation. if possible. it is recommended that the MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE VARIATION (°F) BETWEEN TIME trench bottom be cushioned with at least four inches of sand SNAKOF CEMENTING AND FINAL BACKFILL or compacted fine-grained soils.00 42. This degree of contraction would put such a strain loads. the snaking tech20 2. expansion/contraction. is attained.00 29. Where hardpan. the pipe would undergo a temperature change by the weight of the backfill material and by loads applied at of 80°F and every 100 feet of pipe would contract 3 inches the surface of the fill. FIGURE 8 Pipe intended for potable water service should be buried at least twelve inches below the maximum expected frost penetration.00 37.0 11.0 12. for thermal expansion and contraction. bearing surface along the entire length of the pipe run. ING LENGTH 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 100° SNAKING (FT.00 31.harringtonplastics.00 19. and for placing and compacting the side fills. the pipe should. THERMAL CONTRACTION ledge rock or boulders are present.) To compensate for thermal expansion and contraction when LOOP OFFSET (IN.75 7.75 8. Soil loads curves.0 18. the direct rays of the require a greater trench depth and cover than are technically sun on the pipe can drive the surface temperature up to 150°F. An important point is that the load on a flex. When the installasuch as weathering/painting. In this hypoUnderground pipes are subjected to external loads caused thetical case. This added length will compensate for any contraction are minimal with narrow trenches until a pipe depth of 10 feet after the trench is backfilled. For shallow burial condi. This is because the flexible conduit transfers part of from one side of the trench to the other in gentle alternate the load to the surrounding soil and not the reverse. OFFSET (IN.00 40. stalled in straight alignment. the air temperature may drop to 70°F. BEDDING The table shown below gives the required loop length in feet The bottom of the trench should provide a firm.50 17. if possible. continuous and offset in inches for various temperature variations.20 5.25 15.5 3.00 BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Below-Ground Installation www. the pipe plus any additional material that might be stacked A practical and economical method is to cement the line toabove ground.INTRODUCTION Many problems experienced by above-ground plastic piping A. It Table 46 SNAKE LENGTH VS.00 18.) laying small diameter pipe in hot weather. state and national codes that may perature change.com 56 1-800-877-4472 . 3 inch and larger nominal diameter pipes should be inDynamic loads are loads due to moving vehicles such as trucks. snaking.0 22.that longitudinal movement is restricted. When the installation temperature is substantially above the TRENCHING AND BEDDING DEPTH operating temperature. fire.50 35. and size and wall cedure will permit expansion of the pipe to be accommodated by a “snaking” action. as described below. a 100-foot length of PVC Type trench is determined by the intended service and by local con1 pipe will expand or contract about 3/4 inch for each 20°F temditions (as well as by local.gether at the side of the trench during the normal working day. and external mechanical damage are temperature. live loads have very little perature. At night. the pipe is snaked manner. bedding and backfilling.5 4.75 14. B.

ΔX = Deflection in Inches @ 5% (.) E = Modulus of Elasticity t = Pipe Wall Thickness r = Mean Radius of Pipe (O. Static loads comprise the weight of the soil above the top of the pipe plus any additional material that might be stacked above ground.) PIPE Wc' = LOAD RESISTANCE OF PIPE (LB/FT. Soil loads are minimal with narrow trenches until a pipe depth of 10 feet is attained.DETERMINING SOIL LOADING FOR FLEXIBLE PLASTIC PIPE. If Wc’ is less than Wc at a given trench depth and width.) PIPE 2 FT. but at depths greater than 10 feet. 152 233 314 318 190 291 392 398 230 352 474 482 280 429 469 586 320 490 660 670 360 551 743 754 445 681 918 932 530 812 1093 1110 690 1057 1423 1445 E'=200 E'=200 E'=200 E'=200 11/2 1084 1282 2809 2993 2 879 1130 2344 2581 21/2 1344 1647 3218 3502 3 1126 1500 2818 3173 31/2 1021 1453 2591 3002 4 969 1459 2456 2922 5 896 1511 2272 2861 Table 47 LIVE LOAD FOR BURIED FLEXIBLE PIPE (LB/L IN/FT. NOTE 1: Figures are calculated from minimum soil resistance values (E’ = 200 psi for uncompacted sandy clay foam) and compacted soil (E’ = 700 for side-fill that is compacted to 90% or more of Proctor Density for distance of two pipe diameters on each side of the pipe). This is because the flexible conduit transfers part of the load to the surrounding soil and not the reverse. These can range from static to dynamic loads.) PIPE SIZE 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 H20 WHEEL LOADS FOR VARIOUS DEPTHS OF PIPE (LB/L IN/FT. For shallow burial conditions live loads should be considered and added to static loads.061 3 r Where: Wc' = Load Resistance of the Pipe. lb. NOTE 2: These are soil loads only and do not include live loads. An important point is that the load on a flexible pipe will be less than on a rigid pipe buried in the same manner.com 57 1-800-877-4472 .D./ft. 125 182 207 214 156 227 259 267 191 273 306 323 231 336 366 394 266 380 426 450 297 432 493 503 370 529 592 625 437 636 725 745 569 828 945 970 4 FT.000 lb/wheel. SIZE SCHEDULE 40 (IN. then soil compaction will be necessary. Dynamic loads are loads due to moving vehicles such as trucks. SCHEDULE 80 Underground pipes are subjected to external loads caused by the weight of the backfill material and by loads applied at the surface of the fill.D. live loads have very little effect. ft. 136 212 254 269 170 265 317 337 210 321 377 408 252 392 384 497 293 446 524 568 324 540 603 639 407 621 730 790 477 742 888 941 621 966 1156 1225 5 FT. www. .) AT TOP OF PIPE (LB/FT. Soil load and pipe resistance for other thermoplastic piping products can be calculated using the following formula or using tables 47-48.harringtonplastics.05 x I. trains and other heavy equipment.t)/2 E' = Modulus of Passive Soil Resistance. I = Moment of Inertia t3 12 BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING Table 48 SOIL LOAD AND PIPE RESISTANCE FOR FLEXIBLE THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Schedule 40 and 80 PVC Pipe NOM. E'r3)80 Wc' = ΔX(EI+.) Below-Ground Installation Wc = SOIL LOADS AT H VARIOUS TRENCH WIDTHS SCHEDULE 80 (FT. psi H = Height of Fill Above Top of Pipe. 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 106 138 144 — 132 172 180 — 160 204 216 — 196 256 266 — 223 284 300 — 252 328 342 — 310 395 417 — 371 484 503 — 483 630 656 — 602 785 817 — 714 931 969 — 3 FT.) 2 309 442 574 837 1102 1361 1601 4 82 118 154 224 298 371 440 6 38 56 72 106 141 176 210 8 18 32 42 61 82 101 120 10 16 21 27 40 53 68 78 6 880 1620 2469 3173 8 911 1885 2360 3290 10 976 2198 2597 3764 710 774 860 1032 1204 1317 1177 1405 1774 1209 1527 1801 942 919 1020 1225 1429 1562 1397 1709 2104 1434 1811 2136 12 1058 2515 2909 4298 NOTE: H20 Wheel load is 16.

Plastic pipe is not designed to provide structural strength beyond sustaining internal pressures up to its designed hydrostatic pressure rating and normal soil loads. or laid alongside or just above the pipe during installation to permit the use of a locating device. Above-ground valves or other connections must be supported independently. Shallow backfilling eliminates expansion/contraction problems. Elevated temperatures can lower the pipes pressure rating below design levels. LOCATING BURIED PIPE The location of plastic pipelines should be accurately recorded at the time of installation. Since pipe is a non-conductor. it should be run within a protective metal or concrete casing. W = Trench width at top of pipe. rigidly supported metal pipe sleeve at the danger areas. ft. The test should last long enough to determine that there are no minute leaks anywhere in the system. it does not respond to the electronic devices normally used to locate metal pipelines. If pipe is exposed to external damage. However. An air relief valve should be provided at the highest point in the system to bleed off any air that is present. ft.BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING HEAVY TRAFFIC When plastic pipe is installed beneath streets.com 58 1-800-877-4472 . it should be protected with a separate. The test pressure should in no event exceed the rated operating pressure of the lowest rated component in the system such as a 150-pound flange. The piping system should gradually be brought up to the desired pressure rating using a pressure bypass valve to assure against over pressurization. Anchors.harringtonplastics. railroads. Below-Ground Installation Figure 9 H = Height of fill above top of pipe. RISERS The above piping design rule applies also where pipe is brought out of the ground. taped to. valves. a copper or galvanized wire can be spiraled around. Thermoplastic pipe should not be brought above ground where it is exposed to high temperatures. www. Water is normally used as the test medium. NOTE: For additional information see ASTM D-2774. INITIAL LOW-PRESSURE TEST The initial low-pressure hydrostatic test should be applied to the system after shallow backfilling which leaves joints exposed. and other connections must be independently supported to prevent added shearing and bending stresses on the pipe. Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping. TESTING THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS We strongly recommend that all plastic piping systems be hydrostatically tested (as described below) before being put into service. or use marker tape. The water is introduced through a pipe of 1-inch diameter or smaller at the lowest point in the system. or other surfaces that are subjected to heavy traffic and resulting shock and vibration. Note: Do not pressure test with compressed air or gas! Severe damage or bodily injury can result.

it is recommended that the pressure be maintained for a reasonable length of time. Burrs and sharp edges of metal racks should be avoided. buckling. INSPECTION Before installation. chains are not to be used./sec. it is recommended that prolonged storage be under cover so as to maintain its installation suitability. in case of a pipe or joint rupture. or have any objects dropped upon them. it can be visually inspected for leaks without waiting for the pressure gauge to reveal the presence or absence of a pressure drop. wrap jaws with emery cloth or soft metal. threaded fittings. Plastic fittings and flanges should be stored in separate bins or boxes and never mixed with metal piping components. however. The run of pipe should be more heavily backfilled to prevent movement of the line under pressure..) Only nylon or rope slings should be used for lift­ ing bundles of pipe. HANDLING Care should be exercised to avoid rough handling of pipe and fittings. that entire run of piping must then be visually inspected. HIGH-PRESSURE TESTING Following the successful completion of the low-pressure test. Standard pipe wrenches should not be used for making up threaded connections since they can deform or scar the pipe.g. Pipe should be stored on racks that afford continuous support and prevent sagging or draping of longer lengths. or unions. All sharp edges on a pipe carrier or trailer that could come in contact with the pipe should be padded. LOCATE ALL LEAKS Even though a leak has been found and the pipe or joint has been repaired.com 59 1-800-877-4472 . Plastic pipe should not be stored or installed near a steam line or other source of heat that could overheat the pipe. Joints should be exposed during testing. Hydrostatic Pressure Testing INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING HANDLING & STORAGE OF PLASTIC PIPING Normal precautions should be taken to prevent excessive mechanical abuse. (e. If the gauge indicates leakage. (3) Do not test with air or gas. Use strap wrenches instead. When unloading pipe from a truck. and any other imperfections which may have been imparted on the pipe during shipping. can use old fire hose or heavy rubber strips.HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TESTING PRESSURE GAUGE METHOD Where time is not a critical factor. Flanged connections are limited to 150 psi. it is recommended that a plastic male thread be joined to a metal female thread. Any kinks or buckles that occur should be removed by cutting out the entire damaged section as a cylinder.harringtonplastics. whichever is lowest. gouges. unloading. paying special attention to the joints–to locate the source of the leak. Any leaks that may develop probably will occur at the fitting joints. and stringing. VISUAL INSPECTION METHOD After the line is pressurized. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS (1) Do not test with fluid velocities exceeding 5 ft. the system should be high-pressure tested for at least 12 hours. storing. that SCRATCHES AND GOUGES ON THE PIPE SURFACE CAN LEAD TO REDUCED PRESSURE-CARRYING CAPACITY. for example. its stacks should not exceed two feet in height. Remember too. The storage area should be clean and have adequate ventilation. and threaded connections are limited to 50% of the rated pressure of the pipe. Because the two materials have different coefficients of expansion. these should be left uncovered. Solvent-cemented piping systems must be fully cured before pressure testing. the low-pressure test should be continued until there is a reasonable certainty that no other leaks are present. it is not recommended that the cover consist only of a tarpaulin. it is unwise to drag a length off the tailgate and allow the free end to crash to the ground. (2) Do not allow any personnel not actually working on the highpressure test in the area. Even though no leaks are found during the initial inspection. TEST PRESSURE The test pressure applied should not exceed: (a) the designed maximum operating pressure. since excessive water hammer could damage the system. dropped. TRANSITION FROM PLASTIC TO OTHER MATERIALS Transitions from plastic piping to metal piping may be made with flanges. FIELD STACKING During prolonged field storage of loose pipe. (b) the designed pressure rating of the pipe or (c) the designed pressure rating of any system component. Locating and repairing leaks is very much more difficult and expensive after the piping system has been buried. For cure times. refer to the solvent cementing instruction tables on page 66. Bundled pipe may be double­ stacked providing its weight is distributed by its packaging boards. the reading of a regular pressure gauge over a period of several hours will reveal any small leaks. Because of possible heat buildup. NOTE: When tying into a threaded metal piping system. Any pipe or pre-coupled fittings containing harmful or even questionable defects should be removed by cutting out the damaged section as a complete cylinder www. They should not be pushed or pulled over sharp projec­tions. When using a pipe vise or chuck. Particular care should be taken to avoid kinking or buckling the pipe. all lengths of pipe and fittings should be thor­ oughly inspected for cuts. the male plastic fitting will actually become tighter within the female metal fitting when expansion occurs. Checking the gauge several times during this period will reveal any slow developing leaks. scratches. FIELD STORAGE Although plastic pipe has excellent resistance to weathering.

change over time. IR (INFRARED) Fusion Improving upon conventional butt fusion.) FLANGES Flanges are available for joining all thermoplastic piping systems. crevices and intrusions into the fluid system. CPVC. HPF Fusion The HPF welding technology is an electric socket fusion system that joins Purad™ PVDF piping components. each with its own advantages and limitations: SOLVENT CEMENTING The most widely used method in Schedule 40 PVC.com 60 1-800-877-4472 . The “smooth” interior surface of the weld eliminates all beads. Threaded pipe must be derated by 50% from solvent-cemented systems. The O. food and beverage industries.B. of the pipe and the I. (described in detail below. IR welding uses the critical welding parameters of heat soak time. repair. Since this method makes the piping system easy to disassemble.JOINING TECHNIQUES FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING There are several recommended methods of joining thermoplastic pipe and fittings. This joining method is most suitable for under sink and under counter piping. IR fusion produces a cleaner weld with more repeatable and smaller bead sizes. PVDF.D. coated with special cement and joined together. is a mechanical sealed joint that consists of a seal-ring and nut. This results in fusion and bonding of the pipe to the fitting. and the possibility of bacterial growth and contamination is virtually eliminated.I. Available in Kynar® (PVDF) and polypropylene.B.harringtonplastics. Joining Techniques www.) S. (Threaded joints are not recommended for PP pressure applications.) BUTT FUSION This technique us used to connect all sizes of polypropylene (Proline). By avoiding direct contact with the heating element. efficient fusion method especially in larger diameters.D. MECHANICAL JOINT Traditionally mechanical joint polypropylene and PVDF drainage systems are used extensively for accessible smaller sized piping areas. ELECTROFUSION Electrofusion fittings are manufactured with an integral resistance wire.) Knowledge of the principles of solvent cementing is essential to a good job. (See each manufacturer's data for recommended joining techniques. and joining force as found with butt fusion. PVDF (Purad™) and other larger diameter materials. reduces pressure loss due to friction and improves system hydraulics. as well as systems joining dissimilar materials. Flanging offers the same general advantages as threading and consequently is often employed in piping systems that must frequently be dismantled. corrosive-service applications. The end result is a superior weld for high-purity applications. as the name implies. offers state-of-the-art technology for sanitary piping systems construction. The technique is limited to 150 psi working pressure. The system. SOCKET FUSION This technique is used to assemble PVDF and polypropylene pipe and fittings for high-temperature.I. It is quick and easy to install and can be disconnected just as easily. and PP can be threaded with special pipe dyes for mating with Schedule 80 fittings provided with threaded connections. molded in place using a proprietary manufacturing process. These are discussed in the Solvent Welding Instructions Section. SANITARY MECHANICAL JOINT The Sani-Tech Division of Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics offers a sanitary mechanical joint similar to the Ladish® triclamp sanitary joint systems found in the pharmaceutical. They can be joined to the piping either with solventcemented or threaded connections.I. Schedule 80 PVC and CPVC piping systems as described in ASTM D-2855. This system requires that rigid tubing (pipe) and fittings are formed with a sanitary flange and gasket be joined together with a special mechanical clamp. SMOOTH INNER BORE (S.B. and test. of the fitting are primed. NOTE: The single most significant cause of improperly or failed solvent cement joints is lack of solvent penetration or inadequate primer application. IR welding uses a noncontact method. The wire is electrically heated by means of a microprocessor controlled control unit. Materials cannot become entrapped. THREADING Schedule 80 PVC. S. it is often employed on temporary or take-down piping systems. providing a smooth internal surface. Butt fusion is an easy.

Figure 11 As the solvent dissipates. Penetration and softening should be achieved with a suitable primer such as P70. Avoid breathing the vapors. Experience shows that most field failures of plastic piping systems are due to improperly made solvent cemented joints. Do not pressure test with compressed air or gas! Severe damage or bodily injury can result. Solvent cementing is a preferred method of joining rigid PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) pipe and fittings providing a chemically fused joint. then softened and made semi-fluid. flow on a heavy layer of cement. In the tight part of the joint the surfaces will tend to fuse together. Assembly of pipe and fittings must be made while the surfaces are still wet and fluid.. www. then alongside it a thin brushed out layer. Joint strength develops as the cement dries. if the cement is wet the surface beneath them will be soft. cotton) Notched Boards Figure 12 More than sufficient cement to fill the loose part of the joint must be applied. A good joint will take the required pressure long before the joint is fully dry and final strength is obtained. Sufficient cement must be applied to fill the gap between pipe and fittings. use a fan to keep the work area clear of fumes. Scrape them with a knife. e. adequate cement layers will penetrate the surface and also remain wet until the joint is assembled.g. Prove this for yourself. in cold weather more time and additional applications of primer will be required. Now check for penetration a few minutes after applying these layers. however. Apply on the top surface of a piece of pipe two separate layers of cement. There are step-by-step procedures on just how to make solvent cemented joints shown on the following pages.com 61 1-800-877-4472 . strength will develop more quickly than in the loose (bonded) part of the joint. better quality installation can result with ease. It can mean the success or failure of the whole system. Do not use near heat.harringtonplastics. Accordingly. JOINING EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS • • • • • • • • • Cutting Tool (saw or wheel cutter) Deburring Tool (knife or file) Purple Primer Solvent Cement Cement and Primer Applicators Applicator Can or Bucket Tool Tray Rags (nonsynthetic. because he can know under various temperature conditions when he has achieved sufficient softening of the material surfaces. In the loose part the cement will bond to both surfaces. In the tight (fused) part of the joint. Solvent Cementing Figure 10 If the cement coating on the pipe and fittings are wet and fluid when assembly takes place. You will note that the thin layer becomes tacky and dries quickly (probably within 15 seconds). Primer will penetrate and soften the surfaces more quickly than cement alone. the following basics should be clearly understood by the installer. it requires the same professional care and attention that is given to the other components of the system. sparks. Test the layers every 15 seconds or so by a gentle tap with your finger. Avoid skin or eye contact. the heavy one much more penetration. If necessary. they will tend to flow together and become one cement layer. The solvent-cemented joint is the last vital link in the installation process. The joining surfaces must be clean. Besides filling the gap. the cement layer and the softened surfaces will harden with a corresponding increase in joint strength. For example. or open flame. The thin layer will have achieved little or no penetration.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLVENT CEMENTING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Cements contain highly volatile solvents which evaporate rapidly. Primer also provides a safety factor for the installer. Information about the development of the bond strength of solventcemented joints is available on request. we feel that if the basic principles involved are first explained and understood. To consistently make good joints. Also. and these softened surfaces in the tight part of the joint will tend to fuse together. The heavy layer will remain wet much longer. First.

Determine before proceeding with the job which type of vinyl plastic you are working with and which weight of fitting. light-bodied cement with PVC Schedule 40 fittings having an interference fit through 2" size. (c) Use #3020. usually one year for CPVC and two years for PVC. the applicator should be about half the pipe diameter.com 62 1-800-877-4472 . Obtain the correct primer and solvent cement for the product being installed. Cement should be free flowing. It is important that workers making joints be knowledgeable of these instructions and follow them carefully.harringtonplastics. KNOW YOUR MATERIAL There are two general types of rigid vinyl materials. the applicator should be about 1/2 the pipe diameter. CPVC (a) Use #P-70 purple primer for all sizes of CPVC pipe and fit tings except copper tube size CPVC (which requires #P-72 or 729). www. extra-heavy-bodied cement for Schedule 40. Date of manufacture is usually stamped on the bottom of the can. more care must be taken with the Schedule 80 fittings and the cure schedules are different.) Generally. PRIMERS AND APPLICATORS 1. (b) Use #710 clear. (a) Use #DP-75. Do not use on Schedule 80. as this may change the character of the cement and make it ineffective. Always keep solvent cements and primers out of the reach of children. (d) Use #711 gray. SELECTION OF CEMENTS. Weld-on 724 CPVC low VOC cement is a gray. Solvent cements are formulated to be used “as received” in the original containers. Do not use the cement beyond the period recommended by the manufacturer. (b) Use #714 orange or gray. (b) Use #DP-150. medium-bodied cement with PVC Schedule 40 fittings having an interference fit though 6" size. this entire section should be studied and thoroughly understood. Do not use on Schedule 80. PVC and CPVC. Avoid skin or eye contact. Low VOC 724 cement for hypochlorite service. heavy-bodied cement with PVC Schedule 80 fittings through 8" and Schedule 40 fittings 6" and 8" size (e) Use #719 gray. 2" diameter. use a fan to keep the work area clear of fumes. Do not take shortcuts or omit any of the detailed steps.) PVC (a) Use #P-70 purple primer for all sizes of PVC pipe and fittings. ¾" diameter. Generally. Solvent Cementing (a) Use #DP-75 3/4" diameter dauber or a natural bristle brush for pipe sizes 1/2" through 11/4". (See Harrington’s Catalog for applicators. medium bodied.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLVENT CEMENTING Before beginning. (b) Use #DP-150 11/2" diameter dauber for pipe sizes 3/4" through 3". 1½" diameter. and all class or schedule sizes over 8" size. Obtain the correct primer applicators.) for pipe sizes thru 11/4". Keep cans closed when not actually in use. “Roll-A-Weld” roller for 3" through 6" pipe sizes. fast setting solvent cement used for joining CPVC industrial piping through 12" diameter. Do not attempt to dilute it with thinner. Obtain the correct solvent cement applicators. heavy-bodied cement for all sizes of CPVC pipe and fittings. Caution: Solvent cement has limited shelf life. discard it. HANDLING CEMENTS AND PRIMERS Cements and primers contain highly volatile solvents that evaporate rapidly. (c) Use #4020 cotton string mop for pipe sizes 4" and larger. (c) Use #705 clear. (See Harrington’s catalog for detailed information on solvent cements and primers. 2. dauber for pipe sizes through 3". If the cement thickens much beyond its original consistency. (e) Use extra-large natural bristle paint brush to flow cement onto pipe larger than 12". Avoid breathing the vapors. Because of the difference in socket dimensions between the Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 fittings. and is specially formulated for services that include caustics and hypochlorites. (d) Use #7020 7" long roller or #4020 large cotton swab for 6" through 12" pipe sizes. If necessary. not jellylike. 80. dauber (Supplied with pint size cans of P-70 primer. Fitting are made of both materials and in both Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 weights. 3. (1" natural bristle brush may be used for pipe sizes up to 2").

the pipe bottoms in the fitting socket with no interference. See Harrington's products catalog for tools. Too tight of a fit is not desirable. If the pipe and fitting are not out of round.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC/CPVC PIPE & FITTINGS PREPARATION Solvent Cementing 1. but without slope. Use a clean. Large diameter pipe should be cut and chamfered with appropriate power tools. most produce a raised bead at the end of the pipe. Check pipe and fitting for fit (dry) before cementing. A diagonal cut reduces the bonding area in the most effective part of the joint. The assembler must be able to fully bottom the pipe into the socket after it has been softened with primer.com 63 1-800-877-4472 . however. moisture. Condition pipe and fittings to the same temperature. 4. A raised bead will wipe the cement away when the pipe is inserted into the fitting. or beveling tool. Clean and dry pipe and fitting socket of all dirt. 5. the pipe must go into the fitting 1/3 to 3/4 of the way to the stop. knife. For 3/8" to 8" pipe chamfer 1/16" to 3/32" For 10" to 30" pipe chamfer 1/4" to 5/8" 2. www. For proper interference fit. a satisfactory joint can be made if there is a “net” fit. Cut pipe square to desired length using a hand saw and miter box or mechanical cutoff saw.harringtonplastics. dry rag. All pipe and fitting must conform to ASTM or other standards. Chamfer end of the pipe as shown above. That is. 3. This must be removed with a file. Plastic tubing cutters may also be used for cutting plastic pipe. and grease.

10. The proper use of the primer and checking of its softening effect provides assurance that the surfaces are prepared for fusion in a wide variety of temperatures and working conditions. 8. while the surfaces are still wet. The effect of the primer on the surface will vary with both time and temperature. Apply a second application of primer to the fitting socket and immediately. we recommend checking the penetration and softening effect of the primer on a scrap piece of the material you will be working with. Be sure the entire surface is well dissolved or softened. CEMENTING 11. apply primer as indicated in step number 9. keeping the surface and applicator wet until the surface has been softened. Apply a liberal coat of solvent cement to the male end of the pipe. When the surface is primed.harringtonplastics. This should be done where the temperature and environmental conditions are the same as those where the actual installation will take place. apply primer freely with a scrubbing motion to the fitting socket.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC / CPVC PIPE & FITTINGS PRIMING 7. This usually requires 5-15 seconds. Solvent Cementing Before starting the installation. After applying primer. More time is needed for hard surfaces (found in belled-end pipe and fittings made from pipe stock) and in cold weather conditions. Using the correct applicator as previously mentioned. Application should be made in the same manner as was done to the fitting socket. apply the appropriate solvent cement. Do not allow cement or primer to dry or start forming film on the surface.com 64 1-800-877-4472 . Do not brush cement out to a thin paint-type layer that will dry in a few seconds. remove any puddles of primer from the socket. 9. The purpose of the primer is to penetrate and soften the surfaces so that they can fuse together. Time becomes important at this stage. To check for proper penetration and softening. Redip the applicator in the primer as required. Flow the cement on with the applicator. Puddles of primer can weaken the pipe and/ or joint itself. The amount should be more than sufficient to fill any gap between the pipe and fitting. www. Proper penetration has been made if the assembler can scratch or scrape a few thousandths of an inch of the primed surface away. use a knife or sharp scraper and draw the edge over the coated surface. Apply the primer to the end of the pipe equal to the depth of the fitting socket.

See the tool high humidity. less than 30 seconds on small diameter piping. See Table 50 for recommended cure times. This in14.for low temperatures. loose fits. Apply a medium layer of solvent cement to the fitting socket. This will 17. and relatively ommend using straps and come-alongs as shown. Allow the joint to cure for adequate time before pressure require more time. Handle newly assembled joints carefully until initial set has help drive any air bubbles out of the joint. force. Any gaps at this point may indicate a defective assembly job. use a rag and remove excess cement from the pipe at the end of the fitting socket. (Usually in Table 49 on the next page. larger sizes will 18. Give the ening of the pipe and additional cure times. While both the inside of the socket and the outside surface cludes the ring or bead noted earlier. On bell-end pipe do not coat beyond the socket depth or allow cement to run down in the pipe beyond the bell. and When solvent cementing large diameter (8 inch and above) interference-type fittings. small pipe sizes. The pipe must go taken place. There must be sufficient cement to fill any gap in the joint. Longer cure periods are necessary pipe and fittings proper equipment should be used.not straighten the joint and may actually cause needless softfully bottom the male end of the pipe into the socket. Without disturbing the joint.harringtonplastics. even coat of solvent cement to the male end of the pipe. Hold the joint dling or moving is related to temperature. large pipe sizes. due to insufficient cement or the use of light bodied cement on larger diameters where heavy bodied cement should have been used. 16. Joint strength development is very rapid within the are tapered and the pipe will try to push out of the fitting just first 48 hours.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC / CPVC PIPE & FITTINGS 12. male end of the pipe a one-quarter turn if possible. section of the Harrington catalog. We rec. bient temperatures with low humidity. After assembly.) Care must be used since the fitting sockets testing. See initial set times together until both soft surfaces are firmly gripped. The cement must be applied deliberately but without delay. 15. Solvent Cementing 13. avoid puddling cement in the socket. Short cure periods are satisfactory for high amafter assembly. Apply a second full. Recommended setting time allowed before haninto the bottom of the socket and stay there. It may be necessary for two men to work together when cementing 3" and larger pipe. This excess cement will of the male end of the pipe are soft and wet with cement. www.com 65 1-800-877-4472 . a properly made joint will normally show a ring or bead of cement completely around the juncture of the pipe and fitting.

Leaky joints will show a continuous or an almost continuous series of shiny spots or channels from the bottom to the outer lip of the fitting. www. after the suggested cure period under recommended test pressures. Joints that have been disturbed and the bond broken prior to the firm set or readjusted for alignment after bottoming. (Net-fit—in a dry fit the pipe bottoms snugly in the fitting socket without meeting interference. Shiny areas can be attributed to one or a combination of the following causes: 1.39° F 1 HR 2 HR 8 HR 6 HR 12 HR 48 HR CURE TIME FOR PIPE SIZES 11/2" . These cure schedules are based on laboratory test data obtained on net fit joints.72 HR 5 DAYS 10 -14 DAYS 370 PSI 12 HR 24 HR 96 HR 24 HR 48 HR 8 DAYS TROUBLESHOOTING AND TESTING SOLVENT CEMENT JOINTS DO NOT TEST WITH AIR OR COMPRESSED GAS. and the fitting can blow off at this point. Good solvent cemented joints exhibit a complete dull surface on both surfaces when cut in half and pried apart.59° F 0° . Cementing with pipe surfaces above 110°F has evaporated too much of the prime solvent. 8. 10. 3. No bond occurred at these shiny spots. 2. 2.Table 49 INITIAL SET TIMES TEMPERATURE RANGE DURING INITIAL SET TIME 60° TO 100° F 40° TO 59° F 0° TO 39° F INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC / CPVC PIPE & FITTINGS SET TIMES FOR PIPE SIZES 1/2" TO 11/4" 15 MIN 1 HR 3 HR SET TIMES FOR PIPE SIZES 11/2" TO 3" 30 MIN 2 HR 6 HR SET TIMES FOR PIPE SIZES 4" TO 8" 1 HR 4 HR 12 HR SET TIMES FOR PIPE SIZES 10" TO 14" 2 HR 8 HR 24 HRS SET TIMES FOR PIPE SIZES 16" TO 24" 4 HR 16 HR 48 HR Solvent Cementing The following cure schedules are suggested as guides. DO NOT TAKE SHORTCUTS.harringtonplastics. In many of these cases.14" UP TO 180 PSI 24 HR 72 HR 8 DAYS CURE TIME FOR PIPE SIZES 16" . The condition can increase to the point where the entire cemented area is shiny. Cementing with cement that has water added by one means or another.3" UP TO 180 PSI 2 HR 4 HR 16 HR ABOVE 180370 PSI CURE TIME FOR PIPE SIZES 4" .com 66 1-800-877-4472 . Excess gap that cannot be satisfactorily filled. Table 50 JOINT CURE SCHEDULE FOR PVC /CPVC PIPE & FITTINGS CURE TIME RELATIVE HUMIDITY FOR PIPE 60% OR LESS SIZES TEMPERATURE 1/2" .) If a gap joint is encountered in the system. 5. They are based on laboratory test data and should not be taken to be the recommendation of all cement manufacturers. Use of too small an applicator for primer or cement in comparison to pipe and fitting diameter. or excess humidity conditions coupled with low temperatures. Individual manufacturers' recommendations for their particular cement should be followed. 6. 9. Don’t take a chance.8" UP TO 180 PSI 6 HR 12 HR 48 HR ABOVE 180370 PSI CURE TIME FOR PIPE SIZES 10" . Excess time taken to make the joint after start of the cement application. 7.24" UP TO 100 PSI 48 . Insufficient cement or cement applied only to one surface. double the following cure times. Use of a cement that has partially or completely dried prior to bottoming the pipe into the fitting. Cementing surface not properly primed and dissolved prior to applying solvent cement. Use of jelled cement that will not bite into the pipe and fitting surface due to loss of the prime solvent. as well as condition No. Experience has shown that shortcuts from the instructions given above are the cause of most field failures.11/4" RANGE DURING ASSEMBLY UP TO ABOVE 180AND CURE TIME 180 PSI 60° ­­ 100° F 40° . examination will show that it was impossible to bottom the fitting because the lubrication effect of the cement had dissipated. Solvent cemented joints correctly assembled with good cement under reasonable field conditions should never blow apart when tested. 4.

Try to do the solvent cementing in the cooler morning hours.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC / CPVC PIPE & FITTINGS JOINING PLASTIC PIPE IN HOT WEATHER There are many occasions when solvent cementing plastic pipe in 95°F temperatures and over cannot be avoided. Be prepared for a greater expansion-contraction factor in hot weather. successful solvent cemented joints can be made even in the most extreme hot weather conditions. Also. especially inside the joint. Solvents attack these hot surfaces faster and deeper. Make sure that both surfaces to be joined are still wet with cement when putting them together. With large-size pipe. The cure schedule printed in Table 51 already allows a wide margin for safety. Be sure that surface is dry prior to applying solvent cement. Cool surfaces to be joined by wiping with a damp rag. successful solvent cemented joints can be made at temperatures even as low as -15°F.com 67 1-800-877-4472 . store fittings and pipe. Solvent Cementing TIPS TO FOLLOW WHEN SOLVENT CEMENTING IN HIGH TEMPERATURES Store solvent cements and primers in a cool or shaded area prior to use. If special precautions are taken. GOOD JOINTS CAN BE MADE AT SUB-ZERO TEMPERATURES. Therefore. it can be done. problems can be avoided. For colder weather. If the pipe is stored in direct sunlight.harringtonplastics. Solvent cements for plastic pipe contain high-strength solvents that evaporate faster at elevated temperatures. in a shady area before cementing. or at least the ends to be solvent cemented. If possible. Thus it is very important to avoid puddling inside the socket and to wipe off excess cement outside the joint. surface temperatures may be 20°F to 30°F above the air temperature. By following our standard instructions and using a little extra care as outlined below. Use one of our heavier bodied. simply allow more cure time. By following our standard instructions and using a little extra care and patience. If that unavoidable job includes solvent cementing of plastic pipe. solvents penetrate and soften the surfaces more slowly than in warm weather. the plastic is more resistant to solvent attack. more people on the crew may be necessary. 25 years in service and still performing well! www. it becomes more important to pre-soften the surfaces with primer. This is especially true when there is a hot wind blowing. In cold weather. JOINING PLASTIC PIPE IN COLD WEATHER Working in freezing temperatures is never easy. Because solvents evaporate slower in cold weather. but sometimes the job is necessary. a longer cure time will be required. high viscosity cements because they will provide a little more working time.

) 6°F Left 1.49 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H20=1) PERCENT VOLATILE BY VOLUME (%) EVAPORATION RATE (BUAC = 1) APPROX 0.com 68 1-800-877-4472 .C. Some manufacturers offer special cements for cold weather because their regular cements do not have that same stability For all practical purposes. Left 1. etheral odor THF @ 25 151°F 190 2.C. VOLATILE BY VOLUME (%) EVAPORATION RATE (BUAC = 1) APPROX 0. etheral odor FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS (T. Take special care to remove moisture. Regular cements are formulated to have well-balanced drying characteristics and to have good stability in sub-freezing temperatures. high volatility and heavy vapor. medium syrupy liquid.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC / CPVC PIPE & FITTINGS TIPS TO FOLLOW IN SOLVENT CEMENTING DURING COLD WEATHER: Prefabricate as much of the system as is possible in a heated working area.harringtonplastics. medium-bodied.920 ± 0. high volatility and heavy vapor.8.Gray color. etheral odor FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA FLASH POINT (method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS (T. high volatility and heavy vapor. UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS Fire hazard because of low flash point. PHYSICAL DATA Low VOC 724 CEMENT FOR HYPOCHLORITE SERVICE Weld-On 724 CPVC low VOC cement is a gray. Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES Close or confined quarters require self-contained breathing apparatus. precipates APPEARANCE AND ODOR .) 8°F Left 2. thin syrupy liquid.C.49 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H20=1) PERCENT VOLATILE BY VOLUME (%) EVAPORATION RATE (BUAC = 1) APPROX 0.49 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H20=1) PERCENT. Read and follow all of our directions carefully before installation. PHYSICAL DATA 714 GRAY CEMENT FOR CPVC BOILING POINT (°F) Based on first boiling Comp.010 100% 5.90% 8. Store cements and primers in a warmer area when not in use and make sure they remain fluid. VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg) VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX SOLUBILITY IN WATER resin precipates APPEARANCE AND ODOR .gray color. VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg) VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX THF @ 25 151°F 190 2.0 P-70 PRIMER FOR PVC AND CPVC BOILING POINT (°F) Based on first boiling Comp THF.0 . 705 CLEAR OR GRAY CEMENT FOR PVC BOILING POINT (°F) Based on first boiling Comp THF.870 ± 0. good solvent cemented joints can be made in very cold conditions with our existing products.5 .) 6°F EXTINGUISHING MEDIA Dry chemical. UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS Fire hazard because of low flash point. carbon dioxide. www.0 FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS (T. etheral odor THF @ 25 151°F 190 2.0 SOLUBILITY IN WATER solvent portion PVC resin & filler.008 Solvent Cementing 90% 5. high volatility and heavy vapor.purple color.C. foam. VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg.5 . FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS (T. Allow a longer initial set and cure period before the joint is moved or the system is tested.0 Used 11.8 UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS Fire hazard because of low flash point. carbon dioxide.) 6°F Left 1. Positive pressure hose mask or airline masks.0 SOLUBILITY IN WATER solvent portion PVC resin & filler.009 ± 0. Positive pressure hose masks or airline masks. including ice and snow. Carbon dioxide .49 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H20=1) PERCENT. foam. Positive pressure hose masks or airline masks.8 EXTINGUISHING MEDIA Dry chemical.8 EXTINGUISHING MEDIA Dry chemical. foam.8 Used 1.) VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX SOLUBILITY IN WATER 100% APPEARANCE AND ODOR . THF. Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES Close or confined quarters require self contained breathing apparatus. VOLATILE BY VOLUME (%) EVAPORATION RATE (BUAC = 1) APPROX 0.clear.004 85% . Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES Close or confined quarters require self-contained breathing apparatus.C.8.8.C.958 ± 0.Foam .Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES Close or confined quarters require self-contained breathing apparatus. fast-setting solvent cement used for joining CPVC industrial piping through 12" diameter and is specially formulated for services that include caustics and hypochlorites. Table 51 PHYSICAL DATA PHYSICAL DATA 711 GRAY CEMENT FOR PVC BOILING POINT (°F) Based on first boiling Comp THF. Positive pressure hose mask or airline masks.90% 5. precipates APPEARANCE AND ODOR .8 Used 11.8 Used 11. carbon dioxide. Use extra primer to soften the joining surfaces before applying cement. VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg) VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX THF @ 25 151°F 190 2. medium syrupy liquid. providing proper care and a little common sense are used. UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS Fire hazard because of low flash point.C.8 EXTINGUISHING MEDIA Dry chemical.C.02 85% .

) 0.0522 1.7565 1.375 2.420 .7815 0.660 1.23863 1.harringtonplastics.06957 .38713 .48989 0.CPVC .320 .900 2.82234 2.6828 0.98887 1.) 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 OUTSIDE DIAMETER “D” (IN.0085 1.76216 3.3000 TOTAL PITCH LENGTH: DIAMETER AT DEPTH OF END OF PIPE END OF INTER.10000 .1 and presented below.2000 1.THREADING INSTRUCTIONS PVC .) 0.400 .200 .420 .500 4.7337 0.7068 0.) 0.THREAD TO VANISHNAL THREAD MAX.10000 www.1375 1.844 THREADS LENGTH OF EFFECTIVE THREAD “A” (IN. The threads are National Pipe Threads (NPT) which are cut to the dimensions outlined in ANSI B2.7935 0.766 .5946 0.77843 .7235 0.6337 1.436 .04440 .4018 0.540 0.5712 1.5337 0.315 1.840 1.) .682 .) 18 14 14 111/2 111/2 111/2 111/2 8 8 8 NORMAL ENGAGEMENT BY HAND “C” (IN.58338 1.500 NUMBER OF THREADS (IN.06957 .) “B” (IN.PVDF SCOPE The procedure presented herein covers threading of all IPS Schedule 80 or heavier thermoplastic pipe.PP .38850 4.29627 2.875 3.050 1.06957 .339 .9845 1.10000 .5457 0.) ING POINT “E” (IN.com 69 1-800-877-4472 .05714 . (IN.05714 .06957 . NOTE: DO NOT THREAD SCHEDULE 40 PIPE Threading Instructions Figure 13 Table 52 THREADING DIMENSIONS PIPE NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (IN.0582 1.

CPVC . A circumferential speed of about 6000 ft. a miter box. www. is suitable for circular saws. or gouging and tearing of the pipe wall. Advance the die to the point where the thread dimensions are equal to those listed in Table 52. Smooth cuts are obtained by using fine-toothed cutting blades (16-18 teeth per inch). band saw speed should be approximately 3. THREADING AND JOINING 1. Do not overthread.000 ft/min. 4. Dies with a 5° negative front rake are recommended when using power threading equipment. smooth cuts. hold down. To ensure square end cuts. the cutting wheel should be specifically designed for plastic pipe. If a hold down vise is used when the pipe is cut.THREADING INSTRUCTIONS PVC . When cutting threads with power threading equipment. 3. circular saw or band saw. the dies should not be driven at high speeds or with heavy pressure. Push straight down on the handle avoiding side pressure that might distort the sides of the threads. A tapered plug must be inserted in the end of the pipe to be threaded.harringtonplastics. and dies with a 5° to 10° negative front rake are recommended when cutting threads by hand.PP . Apply an external lubricant liberally when cutting the threads. or jig must be used.PVDF THREADING EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Threading Instructions • Pipe dies • Pipe vise • Threading ratchet or power machine • Tapered plug • Cutting lubricant (soap and water. so the die will start and go on square to the pipe axis. 2. If power threading equipment is used. Use a die stock with a proper guide that is free of burrs or sharp edges. The pipe can be easily cut with a power or hand saw. Protect the pipe at the point of grip by inserting a rubber sheet or other material between the pipe and vise. Pipe or tubing cutters can also be used to produce square. sharp and in good condition and should not be used to cut materials other than plastics. Such a cutter is available from your local service center. THREADING DIES Thread-cutting dies should be clean. self-opening die heads and a slight chamfer to lead the dies will speed production. soluble machine oil and water) • Strap wrench • Teflon tape • Cutting tools • Deburring tool PIPE PREPARATION Cut pipe square and smooth and remove burrs or raised edges with a knife or file. Distortion of the pipe during the threading operation will result in eccentric threads./min.com 70 1-800-877-4472 . the jaws should be protected from scratching or gouging the pipe by inserting a rubber sheet between the vise jaws and the pipe. Hold pipe firmly in a pipe vise. non-uniform circumferential thread depth. This plug provides additional support and prevents distortion of the pipe in the threaded area. however.

PVDF 5.254 1. Periodically check the threads with a ring gauge to ensure that proper procedures are being followed.D. further tighten the connection an additional one to two threads past hand tightness. 7. PRESSURE TESTING Threaded piping systems can be pressure tested up to 50% of the pipe’s hydrostatic pressure rating as soon as the last connection is made. USE STRAP WRENCH ONLY www.) 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 PLUG O.289 2. dimensions may require alteration of the plug dimensions.THREADING INSTRUCTIONS PVC .864 3. a strap wrench only. Caution: Pressure ratings for threaded systems are reduced drastically.D. Variations in wall thickness and O.com 71 1-800-877-4472 .935 1.harringtonplastics. Thread dimensions are listed in Table 52 and the gauging tolerance is +11/2 turns.475 1. Then starting with the second full thread and continuing over the thread length.CPVC . Caution: Air or compressed gas is not recommended and should not be used as a media for pressure testing of plastic piping systems.722 0. Brush threads clean of chips and ribbons.913 2.PP . wrap TFE (Teflon®) thread tape in the direction of the threads.526 0. Avoid excessive torque as this may cause thread damage or fitting damage. 6.786 Threading Instructions *These dimensions are based on the median wall thickness and average outside diameter for the respective pipe sizes. Screw the fitting onto the pipe and tighten by hand. Overlap each wrap by one-half of the width of the tape. Check your application with your local service center prior to installation. 0. Using Table 53 REINFORCING PLUG DIMENSIONS* NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (IN.

metal flanges per ANSI B16. PRESSURE RATING Maximum pressure for any flanged system is 150 psi.1. For chemical environments too aggressive for neoprene. threading. Flanged Joints INSTALLATION TIPS Once a flange is joined to pipe. Make sure that the faces of the mating flanges are not separated by excessive distance prior to bolting down the flanges.1. the method for joining two flanges together is as follows: Make sure that all the bolt holes of the matching flanges match up. At elevated temperatures the pressure capability of a flanged system must be derated as follows: Table 54 MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE (PSI) OPERATING TEMPERATURE (°F) 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 250 280 PVC* 150 135 110 75 50 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR CPVC* 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 NR NR PP** 150 140 130 118 105 93 80 70 50 NR NR NR NR PVDF 150 150 150 150 150 140 133 125 115 106 97 50 25 Figure 14 If the flange is mated to a rigid and stationary flanged object. Note: Flange gaskets and low-torque gasket sets are available from Harrington Industrial Plastics.harringtonplastics. The socket dimensions conform to ASTMD 2467 which describes 1/2 ”through 8" sizes. or thermal fusion. Please consult your local service center for the availability of any flanged fitting not shown in this handbook. Threads are tapered iron pipe size threads per ANSI B2. The bolts on the plastic flanges should be tightened by pulling down the nuts diametrically opposite each other using a torque wrench. Uniform stress across the flange will eliminate leaky gaskets. www. Harrington Industrial Plastics can provide neoprene gaskets in the 1/2" through 24" range having a 1/8" thickness.)* 10-15 20-30 33-50 53-75 80-110 100 The following tightening pattern is suggested for the flange bolts. SEALING The faces of flanges are tapered back away from the orifice area at a 1/2 to 1 degree pitch so that when the bolts are tightened the faces will be pulled together generating a force in the waterway area to improve sealing. Insert all bolts. Flanges and flanged fittings are available in almost all materials and sizes to meet your requirements. or a metal flange. full. DIMENSIONS Bolt circle and number of bolt holes for the flanges are the same as 150 lb. particularly in a buried situation where settling could occur with the plastic pipe. Table 55 FLANGE SIZE (IN. ** Threaded PP flanges size 1/2 through 4" as well as the 6" back weld socket flange are not recommended for pressure applications (drainage only). flat-faced gasket with a hardness of 50 to 70 durometer. Flanges are normally assembled to pipe or fittings by solvent welding. *PVC and CPVC flanges sizes 21/2. 3 and 4-inch threaded must be back-welded for the above pressure capability to be applicable.com 72 1-800-877-4472 . RECOMMENDED TORQUE (FT/LB.) 1/2-11/2 2-4 6-8 10 12 14-24 *For a well-lubricated bolt.FLANGED JOINTS SCOPE Flanged joints are recommended extensively for plastic piping systems that require periodic dismantling. Gasket seals between the flange faces should be an elastomeric. Complete tightening should be accomplished in stages and the final torque values in the following table should be followed for the various sizes of flanges. NR-not recommended. It is not necessary to twist the flange and pipe to achieve this. other more resistant elastomers should be used. the plastic flange must be supported to eliminate potential stressing.

While 11/2" and 2" sizes can be welded with the handheld tool.FLANGED JOINTS Flanging and AV Gaskets When bolting a flange connection. but smooth. Additionally. The gaskets are available in the following materials: • EPDM • PVDF bonded over EPDM • Teflon™ over EPDM They are available in both standard and high-purity grade. the two components are forced together until they bottom-out. the torque rating is dependent on the gasket used. The disadvantage of socket fusion is that it provides the most uneven weld of all the methods. Detail of Gasket When tightening a flange.PVDF 174 174 174 191 217 217 304 304 304 348 435 435 522 EPDM 157 157 157 165 174 174 217 217 217 260 304 304 435 INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOCKET FUSION Socket fusion is the oldest and simplest method for assembling thermoplastic materials. Untrained personnel can be trained in a short period of time to make consistent and reliable joints. 3" and 4" socket welds should only be done with the bench type machines. consider using the bench-type socket fusion machine because much more force is required when attempting to bottom-out the pipe in the socket. it is required to tighten the bolts in a specified pattern as well as tighten them to a required specification. Table 56 Recommended Bolt Torque for AV Gaskets (IN/LBS. Mechanically the weld is reliable. material is in direct contact with the heat source. Do not tighten beyond the rating. A common mistake when tightening a flange is to squeeze it as tightly as possible. In addition. In socket fusion. Fittings are inserted over a mandrel and the interior becomes molten. tightening the flange uniformly. depending on the operator.) 1/2 3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 4 6 8 10 12 TEFLON™ . The use of the rubber backing provides greater elasticity for lower bonding torques.) Flanged Joints/Basic Principles of Socket Fusion SIZE (IN. Finish by doing a circular pass to check the torque values. Always use a torque wrench when tightening a flange. see Table 56 for the recommended tightness. Harrington offers a line of low torque AV gaskets in sizes 1/2" through 12" for single wall pipe connections. PTFE and PVDF bonded gaskets are produced in a proprietary laminating process for bonding to EPDM. on the previous page. polypropylene and PVDF in sizes 1/2" through 4"and the equivalent metric sizes. Conduct two or three passes. Socket fusion is ideal for smaller systems and is quite simple and practical for welding 1/2" through 1".com 73 1-800-877-4472 . For the AV gasket.harringtonplastics. After proper heat soak time has been accomplished. Larger sizes should be joined by IR or butt welding. Socket fusion is fairly tolerant to temperature conditions and is simple to do. Socket fusion used for welding Schedule 80. 1/2"–4" on right Figure 15 Hand-held socket fusion for 1/2"–2" show left. www. These gaskets offer a unique double-convex ring design that gives optimum sealing with one third the torque of a common flat gasket seal. when tightening follow the star pattern shown in Figure 14. The pipe is inserted into a heated mandrel and the pipe’s exterior becomes molten. weld inspection is limited as the weld area is not visible from the outside. This action will damage the gasket and eventually lead to reduced elasticity and leakage. clean welds are more difficult to achieve consistently. Beads are formed on the pipe and fitting and final stop position is random.

start both pipe and fitting insertion simultaneously. Once the mark on the pipe reaches the edge of the female bushing. Start the insertion of the second item once the first has reached the bushing half point. and the top of the fitting reaches the stop on the male bushing. STEP 2: CLEAN SURFACES Carefully clean the Teflon® coated contact surfaces. STEP 5: CHECK FIT Check pipe and fittings for dry fit before fusing together. Insert and secure the bushings to the heating paddle or mirror.Socket Fusion with Hand Held Tools INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOCKET FUSION STEP 7: CLEAN PIPE AND FITTING Clean the fitting and pipe of any traces of oil or grease on the weld surfaces with an approved cleaning agent such as isopropyl alcohol. If substantially more resistance is offered by either the pipe or the fitting.com 74 1-800-877-4472 . www. dry cloth STEP 3: HEATING TOOL Set the temperature of the heating tool. fittings or valves. Ensure the longitudinal reference marks are perfectly aligned. To form the joint correctly. NOTE: Overheating or underheating of the pipe and fittings may result in a poor joint. NOTE: Using other electrical devices on the same power source can cause amperage loss resulting in poor welds. the temperature should be set correctly and check with a Tempilstik®. STEP 8: CHECK BUSHINGS TEMPERATURE Check that the thermostat green light is on steady or. If the same resistance is observed. Do not turn the pipe in the socket. begin your insertion with just that one item. STEP 9: HEAT COMPONENTS Briefly and simultaneously engage both pipe and fitting with their respective bushing to determine interference. Chamfer length to manufacturer's recommendations. Basic Principles of Socket Fusion STEP 1: PREPARATION Select the heater bushing and the heating spigot of the required diameters. CAUTION: Do not use the stick on the parts of the bushings that will come in contact with pipe. Plug the heater into a grounded 110-volt outlet ensuring that the outlet is protected by circuit breakers or fuses. quickly remove the elements from the heater bushings and fit the pipe into the socket for the entire insertion length as determined and marked previously.harringtonplastics. Use only a clean. STEP 6: MAKE LONGITUDINAL REFERENCE Mark a longitudinal reference line on the outside of the pipe and the fitting to show a guideline to prevent the two parts from rotating while the joint is being made. use the correct Tempilstik® to check the bushings temperature. Damage to the Teflon coating on the heater bushings can result in irregular heating resulting in inferior joints. The method described here applies only to thermal welds using manual-type welding equipment. apply just enough pressure to prevent “kickback” and hold together STEP 10: ASSEMBLY Once the recommended heating time has elapsed. STEP 4: CUT PIPE Cut the pipe at right angles and chamfer the newly cut edge at an angle of 15°. CAUTION: Handle the heater bushings carefully. if external conditions require the use of a Tempilstik®. depth for type and brand of material used.

Allow for proper cooling before pressurizing and testing the system. Do not twist or move joint for prescribed time. This allows sufficient time for the components to fuse together. The bench type machines follow a similar procedure to that described above but provide more consistent joints than are possible by hand. Basic Principles of Socket Fusion Figure 17 Socket Fusion Process Figure 16 Bench type Socket Fusion Tool for 1/2" . resulting in different heat-soak times. Figure 18 Socket Fusion Sample Welds www. NOTE: Never dip the joint into water or expose it to a forced airstream in order to cool it quickly as this will result in weak joints.harringtonplastics.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOCKET FUSION STEP 11: ASSEMBLY Hold the joint together for the welding time established by the manufacturer. Step 12: JOINT SETTING Leave the joint to cool slowly at ambient temperature for the recommended cooling time established by the manufacturer.com 75 1-800-877-4472 . It is important to remember that each manufacturer's resins will vary slightly. pressures to make the joint and cooling times.4" The Bench Fusion machine is the natural choice when performing larger size socket welds or when completing a large number of welds requiring consistent and maximum accuracy.

com 76 1-800-877-4472 . A good weld will have two symmetrical beads on both the pipe or fittings almost equally sized and have a smooth surface.3 Code (Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping). It is the preferred method of joining larger diameter polypropylene (PP). recommended by most manufacturers. Nothing is added or changed chemically between the two components being joined. making sure full contact is made around surfaces. The procedure. This is recommended in ASTM D-2857. Typical butt fusion systems range in sizes from 1/2" through 24" and larger. a bead surrounding the whole circumference will have been created. and the recommended practices of the ASME B 31. Allow components to cool to the touch or until a fingernail cannot penetrate the bead. conforms to ASTM D-2857 for Joining Practices of Polyolefin Materials. welding proceeds as follows: Follow the welding parameters (temperature. Do not put components under stress or conduct a pressure test until complete cooling time has been achieved. After joining.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUTT FUSION Butt fusion is the second oldest heat fusion technique used for the assembly of thermoplastic pipe and fitting. Several practice welds should be conducted at the installation site to ensure welding can be performed as a test of conditions. Figure 20 Example of desired weld www. Please see the current catalog for complete details. Upon cooling. the joint area becomes as strong as or stronger than the pipe itself in both tensile and pressure properties. Visually inspect to ensure there are no gaps seen between material and the heater surface. Section 9. then make contact between the two surfaces and allow the two surfaces to fuse together by application of force. aligned and planed with the facing tool (planer). Halar (E-CTFE). Initially used for the joining of polyethylene. Butt fusion does not require solvents or glue to join material. The principle of butt fusion is to heat two surfaces at the melt temperature. This indicates proper melt flow has been accomplished and further guarantees two parallel surfaces. The heat soak time may need to be increased in cold or windy environments.harringtonplastics. Apply full welding pressure. When fused according to the proper procedures. Change over time is the maximum period of 1 Basic Principles of Butt Fusion time when either the pipes or fittings can be separated from the heating element. time. Figure 19 Butt fusion welding process Harrington offers a full range of butt fusion equipment for sale or for rent. It is important to gradually increase pressure to achieve welding pressure. Bead size and height will vary with materials and wall thicknesses. and force) provided by the manufacturer of the butt fusion system that has been selected. The force causes flow of the melted materials to join. Welding Process Once the pipes or fittings have been secured in the proper welding equipment1. The pipes or fittings may be removed from the welding equipment at the completion of the specified cooling time. Reduce the pressure to the recommended melt pressure and follow the recommended heat soak time for the material selected. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Butt fusion is recognized as the industry standard. A visual inspection must be performed as well. Each manufacture will provide specific instructions applicable to their specific resin formulation. then rejoin the materials applying the recommended weld pressure as prescribed by the manufacturer. yet still retain sufficient heat for fusion. in a quick smooth motion. butt fusion techniques have successfully been used on almost all thermoplastic materials. as recommended by the manufacturer or until a maximum 1/64" ridge of melted material is present around the outside circumference of both pipes or fittings. remove the heater. separate the pipe fitting from the heating element. the two parts are united. Insert heating element between secured pipes or fittings. and the heating element is warmed to the proper temperature. and HDPE piping systems. The weld must be performed within the allowable change over time specified. It does not require couplings or added material. At the end of the heat soak time. providing high integrity and reliability.

Prefabricated fittings greatly reduce the amount of hot air welding required in the field and.com 77 1-800-877-4472 . Simultaneous fusion allows for the quickest and easiest installation by conducting the inner and outer weld all at once. in-the-field assembly is necessary. an analysis based on operating conditions is required to determine the suitability of a restrained design. however. hot air or extrusion welding equipment is necessary to weld the support discs and spider clips to the pipes. especially with HDPE. Additionally. some thermoplastics develop a thin layer of oxidized molecules on the surface that require scraping or grounding of the material. material. In some systems. in turn. is the migration of unchained lower density molecules to the surface caused by internal pressure of the material. etc.harringtonplastics. Additionally some systems will require the use of hand-held hot air welding and/or extrusion welding. Wipe off any dust with a clean cloth. and layout will determine the required equipment. Simultaneous Butt Fusion Method The object of simultaneous fusion is to prepare both the carrier and containment pipe so that both pipes are fixed to each other and thus can be welded at the same time. Depending on system design. Proper spacing should be determined by the manufacturer's recommendations. For designs that consist of dissimilar materials or require the inner (carrier) piping to be loose for thermal expansion. The following procedure outlines the necessary steps for simultaneous fusion. Equipment For simultaneous welding. simultaneous fusion is only applicable for welding installations having the same carrier and containment material. Another effect. Do not use solvents or cleaners. simultaneous fusion can only be performed due to their design. Harrington and our suppliers offer all the necessary sizes and styles of equipment for any installation type. on the carrier pipe. Only personnel proficient in thermoplastic welding should be employed for the task of assembling systems that require custom fabrication on site. labor costs may be reduced by ordering prefabricated pipe spools in longer dimensions. Be sure to use the required amount of clips on the full lengths of the carrier pipe. and then hot gas (PP) or extrusion weld (HDPE) the clips into place as shown in Figure 21. Basic Principles of Butt Fusion Figure 21 Spider clip or centralizer attached to carrier pipe Insert carrier pipe into containment pipe. Prior to using the simultaneous method. Contact your local Harrington branch for assistance in this area. Grinding or scraping is required. when varying lengths are required. The net result of the simultaneous method is a substantial reduction of labor and equipment requirements. Staggered welding procedures discussed later in this section may be required in some situations. For some systems. special heating elements or procedures are provided to accommodate for pull ropes. use the staggered welding procedure discussed later in this handbook. Be sure the two pipes have been stored in the same environment for equal expansion or contraction to occur before welding end centralizers into place. simultaneous fusion is used for systems that are completely restrained. Most manufacturers have developed welding tables for the appropriate heating times and forces required for simultaneous fusion of their products. reduce labor time. The basic installation techniques for double containment piping systems follow the principles that apply to ordinary plastic piping applications. Double Wall Pipe Assembly Pipe and fittings in a simultaneous double wall system are generally prefabricated at the factory and supplied to a job site ready for butt fusion. If an installation is pipe intensive. they introduce chemicals with unknown and likely negative effects. the size. www. Place the molded or fabricated support spider clips or centralizers. The pipe should be free of any impurities such as dirt. As previously discussed.BUTT FUSION (FOR DOUBLE WALL PIPING SYSTEMS) Installation of several different double containment piping systems involves the use of thermal butt fusion for both the carrier and containment piping. Systems that are fully restrained and consist of the same carrier and containment materials can take advantage of the simultaneous butt-fusion method. with tops aligned. if a leak detection cable system is required. Fittings Fittings used for simultaneous fusion are either molded or prefabricated at the factory with the necessary support discs. This gives the usually “waxy” surface appearance of HDPE. No special heating elements are required. Hot air welding is not recommended or used for any pressure rated components. Staggered welding consists of welding the inner carrier pipe first and the containment piping second. Finally. INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUTT FUSION WELDING PROCEDURE Welding theory for double containment is the same as for the single wall pipe. standard butt-fusion equipment used for single wall systems is used. The following procedures are designed to prepare customer lengths and fittings for simultaneous butt fusion: A good weld requires proper preparation of the material. oil. In addition.

are hot air or extrusion welded to the carrier and contain. The procedure Figure 22 Carrier pipe and spider clips inserted into recommended by Harrington conforms to ASTM D-2857 for containment pipe For simultaneous welding. 9 and 12 o’clock prior to planing. thereby allowing any fluid to flow to the low point of the annular space in the event of a leak. Figure 23 Support disc attached to carrier and containment pipes. welding should proceed as follows: from the ends using a four milimeter welding rod. planing is complete. www. and the recommenddiscs. prior to the start of any new installation project. making sure full contact is made around surfaces. Remove all shavings and recheck alignment. 6.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUTT FUSION BUTT FUSION PROCEDURE FOR DOUBLE WALL PIPE WITHOUT LEAK DETECTION CABLE SYSTEMS The principle of butt fusion is to heat two surfaces at a fusion temperature. For Poly-Flo. during the butt-fusion process. Follow the welding parameters outlined by the manufacturer of the selected system.com 78 1-800-877-4472 . put 4 marks on the end of the carrier pipe at 3. With experience. To ensure the carrier pipe is planed and flush with the containment pipe. visual inspection can determine the planing process is complete. If the outer pipe is completely planed and the marks on the carrier have been removed. The pipe and fitting with support discs are now ready for simultaneous butt fusion using the recommended ASTM D-2857 joining practices. In fitting assemblies. end centralizers. the original interfaces are gone and the two parts are united. Insert heating element between secured pipes or fittings. Nothing is added or changed chemically between the two pieces being joined. Basic Principles of Butt Fusion Harrington highly recommends a complete review of the manufacturer's installation instructions by all installation crew members. All centralizers are installed approximately 1" warmed to the proper temperature. the pipes should be installed in the machines so that the ribs do not align.harringtonplastics. install end the tops and annular space aligned and the heating element centralizers only. This prevents any movement of the carrier pipe troleum Refinery Piping). then make contact between the two surfaces and allow the two surfaces to fuse together by application of force.ed practices of the ASME B 31. known as support Joining Practices of Polyolefin Materials. Figure 25 Insert heating element between pipe ends.3 Code (Chemical Plant and Pement pipes. Butt fusion is recognized in the industry as a cost effective joining method of very high integrity and reliability. The alignment must match The procedure is outlined as follows: Once the pipes or fittings that of the spider supports for the installation of leak detection have been secured in the proper welding equipment with cables as well as for leak flow. After cooling. Figure 24 Plane carrier pipe flush with containment pipe.

remove the heating element. As a test of environmental conditions. separate either the pipes or fittings. Bring the melted end together to its welding pressure. yet still retain sufficient heat for fusion. The pipes or fittings may be removed from the welding equipment at this time. It is important to gradually increase pressure to achieve welding pressure. Change-over time is the maximum period of time when either the pipes or fittings can be separated from the heating element. Figure 26 Apply welding pressure to the heating element. Low-Point LeakDetection Station Figure 27 Bring pipe ends together and apply welding pressure. This indicates proper melt flow has been accomplished and further guarantees two parallel surfaces Basic Principles of Butt Fusion Figure 28 Inspect test welds for uniform beads. The heat soak time should be increased if the environment is cold or windy or if either the pipes or fittings are cold. This is recommended in ASTM D-2857.com 79 1-800-877-4472 . a bead surrounding the whole circumference must have been created. several practice welds should be done at the installation site to ensure welding can be performed. Asahi/America's Shop 12 (for 11/2" – 12" Butt Fusion) www. in a quick smooth motion. The weld must be performed quickly and within the allowable change-over time.harringtonplastics. then apply weld pressure recommended by the manufacturer. Section 9. Reduce the pressure to the recommended melt pressure recommended by the manufacturer and begin timing for recommended heat soak time At the end of the heat soak time. Do not put pipe or fittings under any type of stress or conduct a pressure test until complete cooling time (as recommended by the manufacturer) has been achieved. A visual inspection must be performed as well. Allow components to cool to the touch or until a fingernail cannot penetrate the bead. After joining. A good weld will have a symmetrical bead on both pipes or fittings and will have a smooth surface.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUTT FUSION Apply full welding pressure until a maximum 1/64” ridge of melted material is noticed around the outside circumference of the components.

A short piece of wire is attached to the pull rope on both ends after planing. Other methods for welding with a solid heating element are available that will accommodate a leak detection cable system. The small hole centered at the bottom of the heater allows a pull wire to be in place during the fusion process. leaving the wire in place for the final pipe joining. A continuous pull rope. The installation of pull rope is at the six o’clock position. Asahi/America's Field Machine (for 3" – 12" Butt Fusion) www. Figure 31 Pull rope connected by wire through heating element Basic Principles of Butt Fusion Figure 29 Split heating elements for leak detection system. Figure 32 Pipe ends heated with pull rope installed Figure 30 Planing ends with pull rope installed Figure 33 Welding complete with pull rope installed Follow standard butt-fusion procedure for welding.harringtonplastics. the wire is pulled down to the next joint to be welded. the heating element is split apart and removed. The wire runs through the heater during welding in order to prevent damaging or melting the pull rope (see Figures 30 to 33). with a pull cable in place. free from knots and splices. should be pulled through as the system is assembled. is capable of splitting apart and wrapping around a wire. Once the pipe is heated. The mirror design. as shown in Figure 29.com 80 1-800-877-4472 .INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUTT FUSION BUTT FUSION PROCEDURE FOR DOUBLE WALL PIPE WITH LEAK DETECTION CABLE SYSTEMS Split-leak detection heating elements allow both the carrier and containment pipes to be welded simultaneously. After each section is complete.

com 81 1-800-877-4472 . this will not be possible. followed by the containment pipe. fitting clamps will be necessary to hold the carrier pipe. Once all pieces are locked in place. it may be easier to weld the carrier first and then slide the containment pipe over the carrier pipe. Use the outer clamps to hold containment pipe in place. because the pipe movement is limited to the amount of annular space between the carrier and containment fittings (see Figure 34). in some designs. Basic Principles of Butt Fusion Figure 34 Staggered Butt Fusion www. In systems that are fitting intense. the procedure becomes more difficult. It is important to ensure the mirror is properly centered so it does not rest on and melt the carrier pipe. In cases where movement is limited. Note: If containment piping has been roughly cut. switch all clamps to containment sizing. In the machine. Once the mirror is in place. Enough flexibility is required to move the inner pipe out from the outer pipe to perform a carrier weld. weld the carrier pipe using standard butt-fusion techniques (see Figures 34 A and 34 B). the welding procedure is the same as standard single wall butt fusion. Insert carrier pipe or fittings into the appropriate containment line. Welding Procedure Begin by attaching spider clips to the carrier pipe (follow steps previously shown in double wall pipe assemblies). two machines may be required to weld the two different diameter pipes. It offers the ability to install a double containment system with a flexible inner pipe or with different carrier and containment materials. In a staggered system there are no end support discs. a split annular mirror is required (see Figure 34 F). however. due to significant carrier pipe movement. At the start of a system. the containment pipe cannot be planed. Once the carrier weld is complete. remove the inner clamps and pull the containment pipe together for welding (see Figures 34 C and 34 D). In staggered welding.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUTT FUSION Staggered Butt-Fusion Method Using the staggered fusion procedure to assemble a system is more complicated and labor intensive than simultaneous fusion. It may be preferable to use two machines to eliminate the constant changing of clamps. It is important to plan which welds will be made and in what order. the carrier pipe is welded first. At this point. The mirror is hinged to let it wrap around the carrier pipe while welding the containment pipe. Also. make sure to plane it prior to welding the carrier pipe.harringtonplastics. In long straight runs the procedure is simple. This allows for movement of the carrier components. Once the carrier is welded. use the two innermost clamps to hold the carrier pipe for welding. as the installation moves along. To weld the containment pipe.

Basic Principles of IR Fusion

IR Fusion Improving upon conventional butt fusion, IR welding uses a noncontact method. IR welding uses the critical welding parameters of heat soak time, change over time, and joining force as found with butt fusion. By avoiding direct contact with the heating element, IR fusion produces a cleaner weld with more repeatable and smaller bead sizes. The end result is a superior weld for high-purity applications. The graph in Figure 36 outlines the forces applied during the non-contact joining process. Notice that the ramp up force to full joining pressure is a smooth curve where force is gradually ascending over time. Even force build-up is critical to join material without creating a cold joint. Welding Process Material is prepared for IR fusion by preparing smooth, clean surfaces on the ends to be joined. Butting the material against an internal planer acts as a centering and leveling device. The planer is then used to cut a clean and smooth surface. The material should then be checked for vertical and horizontal alignment. Welding machines should allow for minor adjustments to the vertical and horizontal orientation of the material. Once alignment has been verified, the material is heated by close proximity to the heating source. Through radiant heat and proper heat soak time, the material becomes molten to allow physical bonding between the two pieces. After the heating source has been removed, the material should be joined together in a steady manner, slowly ramping up the force until the desired joining force has been achieved

INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF IR (INFRARED) FUSION
Ramping up and monitoring the force is critical for repeatable and successful IR welding. This ensures the molten material has joined at the right force and prevents against cold welds, which are caused by the molten material being pushed to the inside and outside of the weld zone.

Figure 35 IR fusion welding process

Figure 36 IR fusion timing diagram

www.harringtonplastics.com 82 1-800-877-4472

INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HPF FUSION
HPF Fusion The HPF welding technology is an electric socket fusion system that joins Purad® PVDF piping components, providing a smooth internal surface. Welding Process Pipes and/or fittings are to be planed except standard 90s, which are planed at the factory. The HPF coupling is placed in the wide mounting clamp. Using the mechanical stop on the clamp, the pipe is centered in the coupling. The pipe or fitting ends should be tight against each other without a gap. Once the components are fixed in the clamp, the leads are connected and the proper welding times and voltage are scanned through a bar code reader. The entire welding process from this point is automatic and controlled by the HPF unit. HPF provides a weld without any internal obstruction or any outside contamination. Because the coupling is the heating element and is closed to the external environment, contamination is avoided during the fusion process. HPF uses most butt-fusion fittings. Extended leg fittings are not required. HPF welding is capable of being conducted with or without an internal balloon. With the balloon, the joint is completely smooth without any bead or seam. Without the balloon, the joint is still beadless. The advantage of HPF is that all joints within its size range can be conducted without the need of a union, flange, or alternative welding method. See the manufacturer's HPF operation manual for further details on weld procedures. Figure 39 HPF fusion heating process with balloon

Basic Principles of HPF Fusion

Figure 38 HPF fusion heating process without balloon

Figure 40 HPF fusion equipment

Figure 37 HPF fusion welding preparation

www.harringtonplastics.com 83 1-800-877-4472

INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SMOOTH INNER BORE (S.I.B.) WELDING
The Sani-Tech® Smooth Inner Bore 2 Welding System (SaniTech® S.I.B.® 2) is a semiautomatic system designed to provide heat and pressure in order to perform a localized smooth circumferential weld without welding beads, crevices, or other potential bacteria traps. When weld are made properly, the inside of the pipe joint remains as smooth or smother than the original pipe. However, this technique and tool only works with Sani-Pro® Kynar® PVDF and Sani-Pro® T, polypropylene tubing. The microprocessor based user interface consists of a power switch, vacuum/pressure switch, E-Stop and color LCD touch screen. This special user interface allows an operator to store and modify weld recipes (parameters) for Sani-Pro® Kynar® PVDF and Sani-Pro® Polypropylene tubing in four different sizes: Mini, Maxi, 1½ and 2 inch sizes. This system also includes an interchangeable welding head for each tubing size. Table 57 Sani-Pro® Kynar® PVDF Maximum Operating Pressure in psi @ 72º F 230 230 230 230 150 150 Table 58 Sani-Pro® T POLYPROPYLENE Maximum Operating Pressure in psi @ 72º F 150 150 150 125 75 75 Welding Procedure: Assemble machine and inspect all components (see checklist packaged with machine) a. Attach the appropriate bladder to the system’s control unit b. Attach the welder to the system’s control unit c. Attach the hose to the welding head Energize electric system and check machine for faults or alarms. Cut tubing square and clean with wheel cutter only. Do not use ratchet cutter. Place tubing in facing tool and prepare fresh, clean, smooth ends in accordance with manufacturers instructions. Tubing must be cleaned using isopropyl alcohol to remove any remaining oil, grease, or plastic shavings. Do not touch end of pipe or fitting to be joined after cleaning. Insert bladder through the length of tubing to be joined and let it extend halfway out of side to be welded. Push tubing together in welding head so the area to be joined is centered and aligned in the welding die. Tighten clamps per manufacturer’s instructions while making sure bladder does not slide. Press “Start” on the touchscreen or the remote start button (located on the welding tool handle) to begin welding cycle. During the welding cycle, do not move tubing or machine. Check microprocessor’s readout per manufacturer’s instructions. Weld cycle may be aborted at any time by pressing the “Abort” button and responding to the confirmation screen. Upon start of cooling cycle, the machine will beep once. When cooling cycle is complete the machine’s display will return to the “Start Program” and the RUN button will turn green. The material will still feel hot to the touch, but the clamps may be loosened, the bladder removed, and the joint removed from the welding tool. Print complete information on the completed weld.

Basic Principles of S.I.B. Welding

NOMINAL SIZE (IN.)

INNER DIAMETER

IN. 3/4 1 11/2 2 21/2 3 0.560 0.856 1.356 1.856 2.356 2.856

MM. 14.2 21.7 34.4 47.1 59.8 72.5

Temperature correction factors Multiply maximum operating pressures shown above times correction factors shown below. ºF 100 125 ºC 38 52 Sani-Pro® Kynar® PVDF 0.90 0.80 Sani-Pro® T POLYPROPYLENE 0.85 0.65 *NR

175 80 0.60 *NR = not recommended.

www.harringtonplastics.com 84 1-800-877-4472

Proper time and temperature is required to join most systems and microprocessor fusion control boxes are required for each system. If required.harringtonplastics. of the pipe. Electrofusion provides a simple and safe alternative to other fusion techniques and it lends itself well to field installations. and polyethylene. natural polypropylene is molded over the conductive wire protecting it from damage during shipment and installation. connect linking cable for multiple fusions. These manufacturers usually recommend avoiding emery cloth. each electrofusion system depends on an electrical wire being fit between the exterior pipe wall and a female socket-type fitting. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). This process may be done automatically by the machine. If the pipe does not bottom against the pipe stop it may create excessive purge or leak paths.5 times the fitting’s socket depth.D. Other manufacturers will recommend securing pipe in support clamps ensuring proper alignment. Do not chamfer. Figure 41 Enfield fusion coil shown with its adapter pin connector Figure 42 PowerGuard couplings. A tight clamp is essential to the quality of the fusion cycle in some systems. Completely inspect and ready the electrofusion machine for use following the manufacturers instructions. When using compressive clamps on fittings. Please see the complete catalog for details.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROFUSION FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Electrofusion is a method of joining several of the different thermoplastic materials including polypropylene (PP). rasp or sand paper during the cleaning operation. Other manufacturers will recommend external clamps to ensure proper pipe alignment. prepare the end of the pipe by removing dirt and oil (important to obtain a good bonding) and roughing up an area equal to 1. Welding Equipment Electrofusion welding equipment is available for rent or sale from Harrington Industrial Plastics. which generates sufficient heat to melt the adjoining materials. cut the pipe square making sure to remove all burrs and loose material. These controls are not interchangeable between manufacturers and their various systems. Clean the roughed up area with ethyl or isopropyl alcohol to ensure complete removal of grease and residue. Some manufacturers will recommend using a hand operated or mechanical scrapper to clean the O. Frequently the manufacturer will embed this wire into the female socket during the manufacturing process similar to those shown below: Basic Principles of Electrofusion Figure 43 Typical electrofusion joint with external pipe alignment clamps Typical Electrofusion Procedure: Using a pipe cutter with a wheel designed for plastic (saw and miter box can also be used as an alternative). Using a 60-grit emery cloth.com 85 1-800-877-4472 . It is important to set the proper pipe size in most machines. follow that manufacturer’s recommendations. Once the joint is heated. Insert the pipe all the way to the stop at the bottom of the socket. While each manufacturer offers a slightly different technique to the joining process. Following the manufacturers instructions. proper fusion times and temperatures are set. Once cleaned or treated do not handle this area of the pipe or allow it to get dirty. repairs and double containment system installations especially in tight quarters. molten material adheres to both the pipe and the fitting rendering a leak-free joint. Generally once the pipe size is determined within the machine. www. Some manufacturers will specify an external clamp be applied ensure a positive contact between the pipe and fitting. Joining is achieved by inserting the pipe into the socket and applying a controlled electrical current to the wire for a prescribed amount of time. connecting fusion coil to the machine output leads. the totally encapsulated fusion coils In the Enfield fitting shown above. Loosely fit supplied clamps only over the hubs of the socket to be fused if recommended by the manufacturers. If so. Some machines will allow for simultaneous welding of multiple joints. Turn the machine on and observe all the messages being displayed because most machines run a self-diagnostic test. tighten the clamp(s) until it is not possible to rotate the pipe inside the fitting. through external bar code readers or by internal resistance readings.

an audible alarm will usually sound and the machine may display a message indicating the fusion is complete. Ensure pipe ends are square and trimmed free of burrs. Cut the pipe to the desired length using a tubing cutter fitted with a wheel designed for plastic pipe. After one complete turn. Figure 44 Enfield Electrofusion Acid Waste System Basic Principles of Electrofusion The Procedure The procedure applies to both Labline and Plenumline mechanical joint piping systems. Slide it down the pipe and onto the groove. PROPER ASSEMBLY OF ENFIELD MECHANICAL JOINT ACID WASTE SYSTEM Figure 46 Properly grooved Labline piping Place the nut onto the pipe with the threaded side to the spigot end of the pipe. set the blade at the full-depth position and again rotate the tool one full turn counterclockwise. Insert the pipe into the grooving tool. Once on the groove “work it” a bit to make sure that the rib on the underside of the elastolive engages the full circumference of the groove.harringtonplastics. A shallow groove has now been formed around the pipe as in Figure 46.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROFUSION FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPE Once the correct size is selected.com 86 1-800-877-4472 . Usually a 30-second rest period or more should be observed to allow the joint(s) to cool before disconnecting the leads. Figure 45 Adjustment for grooving tool Set the grooving blade at the half-depth position and rotate the tool in a counter-clockwise direction. The pipe end should be clean and there should be no deep longitudinal grooves in it. Many machines include a count down timer automatically counting down to zero. A handsaw and miter box may also be used. Feathered or rounded edges may indicate a worn tool and possible leakage. Temperature and welding time may be displayed. Make sure the groove shoulders are sharp. Verify the grooving tool is sharp. Upon completion of the fusion cycle. Take the elastolive. Ensure each fitting is supplied with the correct number of Elastolive® (sealing rings) and nuts. YELLOW LABLINE AND BLUE PLENUMLINE ELASTOLIVES ARE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE. and pull it over the pipe with the thick edge first and the taper pointing to the spigot-end of the pipe. Fully retract the blade and remove the tool from the pipe. Care should be taken not to damage the square edge (shoulder) of the groove. particularly at the edge near the spigot end of the pipe as this is the primary sealing surface. Figure 47 www. Allow five additional minutes before removing the clamps so that the joint can sufficiently cool and properly cure. Any material left as a feather edge in the groove should be removed. Examine the grooving tool to ensure that the cutting blade is fully retracted. press the START button. stretch it.

www. Hand-tighten the nut. then push the pipe squarely into the fitting.com 87 1-800-877-4472 .INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS PROPER ASSEMBLY OF ENFIELD MECHANICAL JOINT ACID WASTE SYSTEM Proper Assembly of Enfield Mechanical Joints Figure 48 Apply a nonhydrocarbon base lubricant to both the thread and the elastolive.harringtonplastics. The lubrication permits easy take up of the nuts and allows the pipe with the elastolive to glide smoothly into position against the fitting sealing area. Figure 49 The joint is now ready for testing. then tighten 1/4 to 1/2 turn using a spanner wrench.

Maximum Pressures for Grooved 8 8. 4 4.720±0. Grooved Joint Dimensions.078 as shown in table 59.625 0.083 The working pressure and/or test pressure in a grooved joint PVC 6 6.) O.500 10. See below for recommended piping systems for above ground assemblies. The dimensions of the groove 21/2 2. 2 — — 100 170 c) Thermal expansion/contraction movement does not 21/2 — — 110 175 exceed .) B ±0.094 recommended operating temperature in grooved-jointed PVC 12 12.312 3.437 6.750 0.085 piping system should not exceed the recommended maximum pressures shown in Table 60. www.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS PROPER ASSEMBLY OF ROLL GROOVED OR RADIUS CUT GROOVED PVC PIPE PVC pipe can be roll or cut-grooved at each end for quick connection using mechanical couplings specifically designed for PVC pipe.com 88 1-800-877-4472 . The maximum 10 10.027 0. or dead ends by external supports or harnesses.500 12.334±0. The following piping materials are recommended grooved joints: PVC Sch 40 (2”–8”) Roll or radius cut PVC Sch 80 (2”– 2”) Roll or radius cut PVC SDR 26 (6”–12”) Roll or radius cut PVC SDR 21 (4”–12”) Roll or radius cut PVC 14” *May be cut grooved PVC 16” *May be cut grooved PVC 18” *May be cut grooved PVC 24” *May be cut grooved *Consult individual manufacturers for detailed design Proper Assembly of Roll Grooved or Radius Cut Grooved Pipe Table 59 Grooved Joint Dimensions Pipe Size (IN.750 0.109 pipe systems is 100°F (38ºC).250±0. using a suitable support system.344±0.031 (IN. (IN.025 0.D.020 0. at temperatures at or below 73°F (23ºC). Pipe Size SDR 26 SDR21 SCH 40 SCH 80 (IN.625 0.375 0.562±0. This method can be used in any application where PVC pipe is acceptable and where it is desirable to have a means for quick assembly under adverse conditions.) D* (IN.) C Average (IN.625 0. Installation Guidelines Always use a grooved coupling that is designed and recommended for use with PVC pipe.375 4.092 PVC Pipes.) b) Straight alignment of pipe is maintained at the joints.0625" per joint.750 0.018 0. dimension C governs The installation of grooved-jointed PVC pipe should ensure that: a) Thrust reaction is restrained at points of deflection Table 60 Maximum Pressure (psi) for cut grooved PVC pipe at 73°F.437 8.625 0.) 2 2.) A ±0.625 0. 3 — — 100 160 4 6 8 10 — 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 85 70 65 — 140 125 115 110 12 70 90 — 110 The maximum recommended operating temperature for grooved PVC piping systems is 100°F.750 0.875 0.022 0.750 0.015 0.018 0.312 2. Harrington recommends a radius groove to reduce any point of stress concentration on the piping. Because PVC is a notch sensitive material.312 2. *Dimension D is a convenient reference only.455±0.625 0.harringtonplastics. Thrust forces should not be transferred to the joints by design.500 0.078 will be as recommended by the grooved coupling manufacturer 3 3.500 0.441±0.531±0.625 0.031 (IN.030 0.062 The grooves are normally machined or rolled in the pipe end by the manufacturer before shipment.

CAUTION: Make sure that all liquid has been removed from the portion of the piping system where the weld is to be made. particularly those in oil. Increase this length enough to allow for handling the rod at the end of the pass.harringtonplastics. www. Because of its economy. gauge and hose • Filler rod • Emery cloth • Clean Cotton rags • Cutting pliers • Hand grinder (optional) • Compressed air supply or bottled nitrogen (see Caution) • Source of compressed air Weld Area Preparation Wipe all dirt. Welding temperatures vary for different thermoplastic materials 500°F–550°F (260°C–288°C) for PVC and CPVC. For welding guns which require compressed gas. unlike metals. resulting in loss of strength. is used to melt the rod and adjacent surfaces. (Presence of moisture in the gas stream causes premature failure in the heater element of the welding gun. and 2) heated gas.” Therefore the resulting weld is not as strong as the parent pipe and fitting material. CAUTION: For welding guns which require compressed gas. dirt and moisture.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS THERMOPLASTIC PIPE JOINT REPAIR & HOT GAS WELDING The most common method for repairing faulty and leaking thermoplastic pipe joints is hot gas welding at the fillet formed by the fitting socket entrance and the pipe.com 89 1-800-877-4472 . compressed air is normally the gas of choice for most plastic welding. The fundamental differences are: 1) that the plastic rod must always be the same basic material as the pieces to be joined. This being the case. a file can be used to remove threads in the weld area. rather than burning gas. When welding threaded joints. This will make it easier to initiate melting and will insure fusion of the rod and base material at the beginning of the weld. Thermoplastic Pipe Joint Repair Make about a 60° angular cut on the lead end of the filler rod. insert the electrical plug for the heating element into an appropriate electrical socket to facilitate heating of the gas and wait approximately 7 minutes for the welding gas to reach the proper temperature. A very mild solvent may be necessary to remove oil. must never be “puddled. Wipe the weld area clean of dust. nitrogen is preferred when the compressed plant air system does not contain adequate drying and filtrations. nitrogen is preferable when the compressed plant air system does not contain adequate drying and filtration. Welding Tools and Materials • Plastic welding gun with pressure regulator. may oxidize the plastic polymer. Fillet welding of thermoplastics is quite similar to the acetylene welding or brazing process used with metals. Polypropylene is known to be affected in this manner.) With air or inert gas flowing through the welding gun. It is not recommended as a primary joining technique for pressure-rated systems. Welding with plastics involves only surface melting because plastics. Remove residual solvent cement from the weld area using emery cloth. A welding gun which generates its own air supply is frequently desirable for field-made pipe joints where ultimate weld strength is not required. Impurities in the gas stream. Welding temperatures can be adjusted for the various thermoplastic materials as well as any desired welding rate by adjusting the pressure regulator (which controls the gas flow rate) between 3 and 8 psi. fillet welding as a repair technique is recommended for minor leaks only. oil and moisture from the joint area. Determine the correct filler rod size (see Table 61) and length necessary to make one complete pass around the joint by wrapping the rod around the pipe to be welded.

The only nozzle used in this process is a small jet pipe with an opening of 1/8" or 5/32" to concentrate the heat. Holding the weld tip at a 45° angle to the fitting. Each weld end should match perfectly with the starting point. www. Do not overlap on top or to the side of the start point.) 3/32 1/8 3/16 3/16 NUMBER OF PASSES 3 3 3 5 Welding Principles The procedures for making good thermoplastic welds can be summarized into four basic essentials: Correct Temperature — Excessive heating will char or burn the material.) 1/2-3/4 1-2 21/2-4 6-8 ROD SIZE (IN. Correct Speed — Excessive welding speed will stretch the weld bead and the finished weld will crack upon cooling. Properly applied plastic welds can be recognized by the presence of small flow lines or waves on both sides of the deposited bead. This indicates that sufficient heat was applied to the surfaces of the rod and base materials to affect adequate melting and that sufficient pressure was applied to the rod to force the rod melt to fuse with base-material melt. After reaching the correct amount of pressure and heat to the rod and base material. if bent forward. Insufficient heating will result in incomplete melting. If insufficient heat is used when welding PVC or CPVC. Freehand welding requires a highly skilled operator and should be avoided if a simpler method can be used.INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS THERMOPLASTIC PIPE JOINT REPAIR & HOT GAS WELDING CAUTION: The metal barrel of the welding gun houses the heating element so it can attain extremely high temperatures. Harrington offers a complete line of welding equipment for rent and/or sale. slowly move the weld tip across the area to be welded while applying a slight pressure by pushing the rod from the inlet side. Filler rod size and number of weld passes required to make a good plastic weld are dependent upon the size of the pipe to be welded as presented below: Table 61 PIPE SIZE (IN.harringtonplastics. Insufficient pressure will result in incomplete fusion of the rod material with the base material. The preceding instructions show the use of a high-speed welding tip. Correct Angle — Incorrect rod angle during welding will stretch the rod and the rod material with the base material. a small wave of molten material forms in front of the welding rod. Correct Pressure — Excessive pressure can result in stress cracking when the weld cools. When welding large-diameter pipe. Excessive heat will result in a brown or black discoloration of the weld. Harrington highly recommends several practice welds be attempted before trying to repair even minor leaks. The weld tip should be approximately 1/4" to 1/2" away from the material. but it must be used where very small parts are being welded. the filler rod will appear in its original form and can easily be pulled away from the base material. the welding rod will stretch and thin out. Free-Hand Thermoplastic Welding The oldest method of welding filler rod. Hand apply pressure vertically at 90° to begin. The welder performs a waving action of the nozzle at the base material and the welding rod with an up-and-down and side-to-side motion to bring the rod and material to melting form. If bent backward. Avoid contact with the barrel and do not allow it to contact any combustible materials. which provides better control of the filler rod and direction of the hot gases. End each pass by mating the rod end to the starting point. the starting points for each bead should be staggered and ample time must be allowed for each weld to cool before proceeding with additional welds. Most Harrington branches can also recommend local experienced professionals that are capable of making field welds on thermoplastic pipe. The first bead should be deposited at the bottom of the fillet and subsequent beads should be deposited on each side of the first bead. When making multiple pass welds. This process is not as easy as it may sound and requires a learned skill and knack for the job. or where the available space prohibits the use of high-speed welding tips.com 90 1-800-877-4472 . no wave will occur in front. more than three weld passes may be required. This process is much slower than high-speed welding. Thermoplastic Pipe Joint Repair 10-12 3/16 5 Place the leading end of the filler rod through the speed-tip opening and into the fillet formed by the junction of the pipe and fitting socket entrance. resulting in insufficient pressure.

Unlike thermoplastic resins. Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP) www. and almost every other industry you can think of. so longer bolts are needed. Vinylester is a coined word describing a polyester that has been modified by the addition of epoxide reactive sites. both small and larger diameter. as well as tanks. woven fabric.harringtonplastics. Glass fiber and resin are described as a composite or laminate. Isophalic polyester is the most economical of all the resin choices for FRP. The resin polymerizes usually by an exothermic reaction. Selecting a specific resin will dictate the performance characteristics of the final FRP product. Depending on the angle at which the glass is applied and the tension. The former is a noncorrosion-resistant resin used in boats. Curing of the glass resin combination forms a finished pipe. The choices are almost infinite. will produce a final product with broad chemical resistance and a temperature range of up to 300° F in certain services.com 91 1-800-877-4472 . Epoxy resins give exceptional mechanical strength and are very chemically resistant. Pipe. It is generally the choice for high-purity deionized water storage in an FRP vessel.FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP) FRP is a special segment of the corrosion-resistant plastics industry. which increases the glass to resin interface. the mechanical properties of the finished product can be affected. are manufactured by this process. Epoxies are used for caustics. stronger when the catalyzation is enhanced by heat. This process is continued until the desired wall thickness is achieved. hydrocarbons. When combining glass and resin. The different types of glass all have different rates of resin absorption. FRP pipe products are manufactured by several techniques. it is important to “wet the glass” and this is done by eliminating the trapped air. FRP flanges are always thicker than steel. Large diameter FRP pipe can be custom made in sizes even larger than 12 feet. Several catalysts can be used in curing the epoxy resin by a crosslinking of the long polymer chain. The vinylester resin has broad chemical resistance including most acids and weak bases. off-the-shelf product in diameters up to 16 inches. a wide range of performance characteristics can be achieved. continuous strands. an anhydride catalyst will give an epoxy product with limited chemical resistance and limited temperature capability. The resin that is in excess of that required to wet the glass forms a pure resin liner. temperature range and mechanical properties are determined by the choice of resin and the glass. Thus. Primary disadvantages of epoxies are they require long curing times and are best cured using heat to promote complete reaction for all the epoxy sites. mining. Piping and vessels are produced in this manner. Epoxies are. Filament winding is done using continuous lengths of fiberglass yarn or tape which are wound onto a polished steel mandrel. The latter is the chemically resistant resin that is appropriate for our use in handling corrosive fluids. For FRP piping larger than 16 inches in diameter. chemical processing. and most organic chemicals. therefore. An aromatic amines catalyst. the glass-versus-resin ratio becomes a key criteria in defining a product for a particular application. Applications for FRP have grown since the introduction almost forty years ago of thermoset resins. The two that are relevant to FRP are orthophalic and isophalic resins. FRP piping is available from a few major manufacturers as a standard catalog. For the most part. Chemical resistance. on the other hand. it is also made to order. By combining flexible strands of glass with various thermoset resins. The choice of catalyst will determine the properties of the finished FRP product. auto bodies. The glass used for FRP is treated with silane or other similar chemistry to enhance the resin’s affinity to the glass. Polyester resins are available in many forms. Face-to-face dimensions for fittings are based on steel and the requirements of American National Standards Institute ANSI B-16. The glass is saturated with a catalyzed resin as it is being wound onto the mandrel. There are many fabricators who specialize in made-to-order or custom vessels.3. As an example. yarns. every mechanical attribute is enhanced by increasing the volume of glass contained in the plastic thermoset resin. as well as special made-to-order piping. and structural forms. For example. Not all fittings meet ANSI requirements unless specified by agreement. thermoset resins do not return to a liquid state with heat. the glass can be chopped strands in a mat or felt type fabric. nuclear. unidirectional or bidirectional fabrics and so on. The glass can be prepared in a variety of forms which determine the final properties of the glass-resin combination. Centrifugal casting involves applying glass and catalyzed resin to the inside of a rotating polished cylindrical pipe. The following is a list of some of the general advantages of FRP: • Corrosion resistant • Lightweight • High strength-to-weight ratio • Low resistance to flow • Ease of installation • Low cost of installation • Very low electrical conductivity • Excellent thermal insulation • Long service life • Dimensional stability Industrial uses for FRP tanks and piping have developed in oil and gas. The forces of the centrifugal rotating cylinder forces the resin to wet the glass and gives an inherent resin rich and polished outside diameter to the final product.

Bell and spigot joints are used usually with a bonding adhesive or with a gasket.95 “Fiberglass” Pressure Pipe Fittings D 2996 . usually for salt water reinjection. Compression molding is a process normally used to manufacture FRP fittings.95 Contact-Molded Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic (RTP) Laminates for Corrosion Resistant Equipment D 3982 . Butt and wrap is used to join FRP pipe by simply butting two sections of pipe together and overwrapping the joint with multiple layers of fiberglass saturated with the appropriate resin. for Condensate Return Lines D 3517 . A mixture of glass and resin is placed inside a mold and with heat and other molding techniques a finished part is produced.93 Contact Molded “Fiberglass” Flanges D 5677 . performance requirements. Contact molding is a process of applying fiberglass and resin to the surface of a mold that may be a variety of shapes.94 Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (RTR) Flanges FIBERGLASS TANKS AND EQUIPMENT Specifications for: D 4097 .95 Filament-Wound”Fiberglass” Pipe D 4024 .harringtonplastics.95 Fiberglass” Pipe and Pipe Fittings. thus the broad range of industrial applications. design criteria testing and quality of workmanship. To take maximum advantage of the many advantages of FRP in your corrosive or high-purity application. The ASTMC-582-95 takes the place of PS1569. As with any piping material. Flanges are most often used to join FRP pipe to metal or other dissimilar piping materials. contact your nearest Harrington location using the number listed on the inside back cover.95a Contact-Molded Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset Resin Chemical-Resistant Tanks C 482 . and piping are produced by this method.95 Centrifugally Cast “Fiberglass” Pipe D 5421 . Custom Contact Molded Reinforced Polyester Chemical Resistant Equipment. construction method. Selecting the proper joining method is important for controlling installation costs and being compatible with the nature of the installation.S. good system design. Most manufacturers offer the services of a factory person to train or supervise fabrication and installation.com 92 1-800-877-4472 . FRP products are one of the most easily modified to meet specific needs. can be added to provide excellent fire resistant characteristics. The following is a partial listing of ASTM standards for FRP Industrial products. vessels. Adhesive Bonded Joint Type. There can be an O-ring gasket used to provide the sealing mechanism. Dept.95a Filament-Wound Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset Resin Chemical-Resistant Tanks There are many special tools used for making field joints. Threaded connections are often used for rapid and easy joining. designed FRP piping systems are produced for internal pressures up to 3000 psi.95 Fiberglass” Pipe and Pipe Fittings. for example. Other FRP piping is used for down hole in the oil field. Antimony trioxide or brominated compounds.92 Custom Contact-Pressure-Molded Glass Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Hoods D 3299 . Current standards outline the composition. proper fabrication. FRP fittings. FIBERGLASS PIPE AND FITTINGS Specification for: D 2997 . Specifically. The modern standards have their origin in the U. Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP) www. and correct installation techniques are necessary for long and reliable service life. for Aviation Jet Turbine Fuel Lines D 5686 . The best policy is to follow the FRP pipe manufacturer’s recommendations precisely. spraying.FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP) FRP piping is very amenable to the addition of specific additives to achieve certain properties. or with an automated system. of Commerce Voluntary Standard PS1549. This process can be done by hand.91 “Fiberglass” Pressure Pipe D 5685 . Adhesive Bonded Joint Type Epoxy Resin.

DENSITY and SPECIFIC GRAVITY have very similar. It will boil.. SPECIFIC GRAVITY of a fluid is the ratio of its density to the density of water. often expressed in pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeter. Units are in psig. the terms fluid and liquid are used interchangeably to mean pure liquids. usually exor degrees centigrade (°C). It is expressed either in VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is the absolute pressure (at a units of absolute pressure (psia) preferably.0. the atmospheric standard pressure is 14.100°F. solids. but not quite identical definitions. the mass density is 62.7 pounds per square inch.harringtonplastics. It is more convenient to discuss these in absolute terms (i. For the purpose of this Figure 50 www. gases. and mixtures of liquids. publication. or liquids mixed with gases or solids. it is a unit-less quantity. GAUGE PRESSURE Using atmospheric pressure as a zero reference. it will boil.e.4 pounds per cubic foot at 4oC and the specific gravity is 1.0 gcm-3. vacuum. The density of a fluid changes with temperature. For example: If 100°F water is exposed to the reduced VACUUM OR SUCTION are terms in common usage to indi. As a ratio. FLUID FUNDAMENTALS Fluids include liquids. pump inlet is usually of greatest concern. Each liquid has its own vapor pressure/temperature outlet pressure and the inlet pressure. Example: When a cubic foot of water weighs 62. or gauge pressure given temperature) at which a liquid will change to a vapor.com 93 1-800-877-4472 . Specific gravity is a ratio of the mass of a material to the mass of an equal volume of water at 4oC. (psig).absolute pressure of . Hydraulic Fundamentals ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE is the force exerted on a unit area by the weight of the atmosphere. inlet port of a pump during operation. ic pressure and are often measured as the difference between the measured pressure and atmospheric pressure in units of inches of mercury. Units are expressed in psia.282 SG by a fluid. Density. It is usually measured in units of degrees fahrenheit (°F) pressure at the outlet of a pump during operation. from a reference of absolute zero pressure in units of psia).4 lbs = 1. Gauge Pressure Absolute Pressure If the cubic foot of liquid weighs 80 pounds the specific gravity is 1.0 while its density is 1. sometimes called Pump Total Differential pressure. Vapor pressure is best expressed in units of psi absolute DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE is the difference between the (psia). TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal energy level in a OUTLET PRESSURE or discharge pressure is the average fluid. Differential pressure is relationship. even at cate pressures in a pumping system below normal atmospher. it is expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). gauge pressure is a measure of the force per unit area exerted by a fluid. Because specific gravity is a ratio. it has no units associated with it.4 pounds. It equals atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. See °F-°C conversion INLET PRESSURE is the average pressure measured near the chart on page 101. and gases. etc. For example. the specific gravity of water at 4oC is 1. or specifically mass density is a measure of the mass of a substance per unit volume. As commonly used in hydraulics and in this publication. At sea level. The temperature of a fluid at the pressed as gauge pressure (psig).282 weight of slution 80 lbs ABSOLUTE PRESSURE is the total force per unit area exerted SG = weight of water = 62. which act essentially as a liquid in a pumping application.95 psia.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS PRESSURE is the force per unit area.

EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY is a term describing the real effect of the viscosity of the ACTUAL fluid. at the SHEAR RATES which exist in the pump and pumping system at the design conditions. Consider positive displacement or semi-positive displacement pumps (gear.com 94 1-800-877-4472 . In a pumping system.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS VISCOSITY of a fluid is a measure of its tendency to resist a shearing force. RELATION OF PRESSURE TO ELEVATION In a static liquid (a body of liquid at rest) the pressure difference between any two points is in direct proportion only to the vertical distance between the points. The CENTIPOISE (cps) is the most convenient unit of absolute viscosity measurement. Viscosity unfortunately is not a constant. Other units of viscosity measurement such as the centistoke (cks) or Saybolt Second Universal (SSU) are measures of Kinematic viscosity where the specific gravity of the fluid influences the viscosity measured. This pressure difference is due to the weight of the liquid and can be calculated by multiplying the vertical distance by the specific gravity of the fluid. measured in units of centipoise (1/100 of a poise) is used throughout this catalog because it is a convenient and consistent unit for calculation. fixed property of a fluid. (up to 2.216 x Specific Gravity = Centipoise See page 111 for detailed conversion chart. Neutral solutions have a pH value of 7 at 25°C (i. lobe or diaphragm) designs when pumping viscose fluids. The resulting number is an expression of static head in feet of water. Centrifugal pumps are generally not suitable for pumping viscous liquids. Bases or alkaline solutions have a pH value greater than 7.e: pH of pure water = 7). the capacity and head of the pump will be reduced and the horsepower required will be increased as indicated in the following table. And the viscous behavior properties of the fluid in which the viscosity can change as shear rate or flow velocity changes. Other units of viscosity can easily be converted to centipoise: Kinematic Viscosity x Specific Gravity = Absolute Viscosity Centistokes x Specific Gravity = Centipoise SSU x . pH value for a fluid is used to define whether the aqueous solution is an acid or base (with values of pH usually between 0 and 14): Acids or acidic solutions have a pH value less than 7. the most important factors are the normal decrease in viscosity with temperature increase. Kinematic viscometers usually use the force of gravity to cause the fluid to flow down a calibrated tube while timing its flow. piston.000 SSU) instead of water. Table 62 VISCOSITY IN SSU Flow reduction in % of GPM Head Reduction in % of Feet Horsepower Increase % 100 3 250 8 500 14 750 19 1000 23 1500 30 2000 40 Hydraulic Fundamentals 2 5 11 14 18 23 30 10 20 30 50 65 85 100 The absolute viscosity. www. When pumping more viscous liquids Centrifugal pumps in “Series” can effectively double the discharge pressure while providing the same flow rate. High viscosity fluids require a greater force to shear at a given rate than low viscosity fluids. but is a property which varies with the conditions of the fluid and the system.harringtonplastics. Ask your local Harrington salesperson for more information.

Generally expressed in feet. expressed as a head unit. IMPORTANT PUMP TERMS: The term HEAD is expresses the difference in depth of a liquid at two given points. Total Dynamic is the total pressure difference head between the inlet and outlet of a pump in operation. Friction Head is the loss in pressure or energy due to frictional losses in flow. It indicates the amount of useful pressure energy available to fill the pump head. NPSH Fluid will only flow into the pump head by atmospheric pressure or atmospheric pressure plus a positive suction head. Pressure Head is a pressure measured in equivalent head units. head can best be defined by the following equation: Pounds per square inch x 2. Pressure-head relation of pumps delivering same pressure handling liquids of differing specific gravity. If this happens. This is determined by testing of the pump for what pressure energy (in psia) is needed to fill the pump inlet. the fluid may flash into a vapor. Discharge Head is the output pressure of a pump in operation. Suction Lift is the inlet pressure of a pump when below atmospheric. The average pressure (in psia) is measured at the port during operation. REQUIRED (NPSHR) is based on the pump design. minus the vapor pressure of the fluid at operating temperature. A centrifugal pump cannot pump vapor only.harringtonplastics. AVAILABLE (NPSHA) is based on the design of the system around the pump inlet. NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD.31 = Head in feet Specific Gravity The following expressions of HEAD terms are generally accepted as standards throughout the industry. The measure of pressure at the lower point expressed in terms of this difference. Velocity Head is the energy in a fluid due to its velocity. If suction pressure at the suction pipe is below the vapor pressure of the fluid. is independent of the specific gravity of the liquid. Hydraulic Fundamentals Pressure-head relation of identical pumps handling liquids of differing specific gravities.com 95 1-800-877-4472 . It is a characteristic which varies primarily with the pump speed and the viscosity of the fluid. fluid flow to the pump head will drop off and cavitation may result. www. The pressure head developed (in psi) will be directly proportional to the specific gravity.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS PUMP HEAD-PRESSURE-SPECIFIC GRAVITY in a centrifugal pump the head developed (in feet) is dependent on the velocity of the liquid as it enters the impeller eye and as it leaves the impeller periphery and therefore. Static Head is the hydraulic pressure at a point in a fluid when the liquid is at rest. NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD. Suction Head is the inlet pressure of a pump when above atmospheric.

use two 45° elbows instead of one 90° elbow to reduce turbulence. Beware of excessive discharge velocities when using check valves. Allow fluids to flow freely into pump with minimum restrictions. Similarly. Normal pump life expectancy may be obtained by following the manufacturer’s installation instructions which frequently get discarded with the pumps shipping container and packaging. usually have data available for friction losses. Consider using Unions or Flanges on both sides of pump to facilitate easy removal. Hydraulic Fundamentals When in doubt about proper pump selection or application engineering.) shown in the carrying capacity charts on pages 28-35. Remember any two wires of threephase installation can be switched to reverse rotation. manufacturer’s of processing equipment. Pipe friction tables have been established by the Hydraulic Institute and many other sources which can be used to compute the friction loss in a system for given flow rates. Install priming tee or air-bleed valve (Valve “C” in drawing) in discharge line. and pipe sizes. Fill both inlet and discharge pipelines completely with fluid prior to startup when possible or throttle discharge line to avoid fluid surges during startup.. heat exchangers. Allow sufficient air flow around motor. Use eccentric or concentric reducer on inlet of pump to reduce turbulence and avoid trapping air in inlet piping. if and when removal for normal maintenance is required. Use check valve (Valve “D”) in vertical discharge lines. Install isolation shut-off valve (Valve “B” in drawing) on discharge side of pump. compressed air in lines. Avoid using couplings with reducing bushings having square corners in the flow path. Trapped air bubbles. Briefly “Bump” three-phase. Avoid “water hammer” on startup. Ensure all electrical motors are grounded using true earth ground. Do not throttle flow on inlet to the pump. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS Most centrifugal pump failures occur within the first 90 days of operation due to improper installation. contact your local Harrington Representative. and/or changes in direction. Therefore. viscosities. Friction loss charts for plastic pipe appear in this catalog on pages 28-35. etc. Mount pump to solid surface. Always increase inlet piping by at least one pipe size keeping friction losses to a minimum. Remember to properly support valves. Tables of equivalent lengths for fittings and valves are on page 36. Check motor for proper rotation prior to filling piping system and pump. Support valve in such a way as to avoid operating torque being applied to the pump or piping. use resilient mounting pad to reduce normal operating noise.: Properly support and align all piping leading to and coming out of the pump. www. Immediately increase discharge piping by at least one pipe size using a reducing coupling. and rapid surges can destroy both piping and pump seals. Provide inlet isolation valve (Valve “A” in drawing below) on suction side of the pump. static mixers.HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS Frictional losses due to flow in pipes are directly proportional to the: • Length of pipe • Flow rate • Pipe diameter • Viscosity of the fluid FRICTIONAL LOSSES The nature of frictional losses in a pumping system can be very complex. See volume (gpm) and velocities (ft/sec.harringtonplastics. Harrington offer the following simple guidelines and “rules of thumb” applicable to most centrifugal pump installations. If changes in direction are required on inlet side of pump. turbulence. Keep inlet lines as short as possible. Centrifugal pumps normally discharge at velocities several times greater than the 5 feet per second recommendation for plastic piping. Note: ball check valves must be installed at least 10 pipe diameters down stream from pump discharge. See Water Hammer and Hydraulic Shock calculations on page 39. Support valve and piping properly. consider installing two pumps in parallel (with insolation valve) with lead-lag startup and run sequencer. In critical applications. Avoid applying any undue stresses or forces to the pump. Losses in the pump itself are determined by an actual test and are allowed for in the manufacturers’ curves and data.com 96 1-800-877-4472 . This valve can be used to drain a portion of discharge line should pump need to be removed for servicing. electrical motors prior to startup to ensure proper rotation.

www.PIPING SYSTEM SELECTION CRITERIA Most of the following information will be required for anyone selecting or designing a corrosion-resistant piping system.harringtonplastics.) ) What is to be Measured ___ or Monitored ___ or Recorded _____ Transmitted or Controlled ______ (please check one or more) Desire Display: Digital or ________ Analog _________ Local __________ Remote _________ Both _____________________ Temperature ____ Pressure _____ ph ________ ORP __________ Conductivity _________ Resistivity ________ Turbidity _____ Density_________ Flow Rate ________ Flow Accumulation ___________ Continuous _________ or Batch Treatment ________ Liquid Level __________________ Dissolved Oxygen ________________ Plastic-Lined Steel Piping Required ______ Yes ________ No Piping System Selection Criteria Please ask your local Harrington Representative for more detailed design assistance and application engineering guides. The system will handle (please check one) Fluid __________ Gas _________ Note: Dry Materials (Not recommended in Plastics) The system be (check all that apply) Indoors _________ Outdoors _______ Buried __________ Suspended ___________ Chemical ___________________________________________ Concentration __________________ Specific Gravity_________ Solution temperature ______________ Minimum _______________ Maximum Abrasive? ________ Yes _________No Ambient temperature at point of installation _________ Minimum _______________ Maximum Viscosity (at temperature provided) __________________ in Centipoise (cP) or Seconds Saybolt Universal (SSU) Does the Solution Crystallize ________ Yes __________ No Shear Sensitive ______ Yes _________ No Additional Contaminants (such as oil in Airline) ____________________ Type ___________________ Flash Point ____________ Pipe and Fittings Requirements: Flow Rate _____________ in gpm Working Pressure Required _________________ psi Safety Factor _______ Vacuum _______ Connection Requirements (please check one or more) Flange __________ NPT ________ Other ___________ Sizes ____________ Double Containment Required ______ Yes ________ No Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop ______ Valve Requirements: Type of Service (please check one or more) On/Off _______ Throttling _______ Automated ______ No _______ Yes Pneumatically Operated ___________ Electric Actuated ___________ Voltage _______________ Duty Cycle______________ Response time _______ Precision Flow Control ______ No _______ Yes ___________ Accuracy Self-Regulating ____ Check Valves ___ Pressure Regulators ______ Pressure Relief ______ Vacuum Breakers ________ Pressure by-pass _________ Fixed Flow Control _______ Diverter _______ Air Release _________ Self-draining ______ Sanitary Configuration ______ Slurry or Abrasive Handling _______ Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop ______ Filtration Requirements: (Please complete as much information as possible while noting not all applications require everything) New Installation ___________ or Replacement of ________ Cartridges _________ Bags ______ Screens or _______ Membranes Goals of filtration: To Save Solids ________ to Save Fluid ________ Neither ______ Both _______ Flow Rate ___________ gpm Continuous ________ or Batch _________ (please check one) Batch Size _____________ Gallons Processing Time ____________ Size of Particle to be Removed __________ in Microns or _____ Sieve Size or Molecular Weight ______ Percentage of Solids by Volume ________ or by Weight ____________ Particle Size Distribution ________________ if available Efficiency Required ____________ % Nominal ______ or Absolute _________ Particle Characteristics: gelatinous or soft _____ yes _____no Do particles agglomerate after separation _____ yes _____no Stringy __________ yes ___________no Will solids settle out or sink when not in motion? _____ yes _____no Turbidity __________ NTU Silt Density Index _________ Rejection Rate ___________________________________________ Instrumentation: (Requirements for each type of instrument will vary greatly.com 97 1-800-877-4472 .

There are three major decisions to make when choosing the right pump. Gallons per minute (gpm) __________ U. Gallons per day (gpd) _________ Cubic Centimeters per day (ccpd) _________ www.PUMP SIZING GUIDELINES The following worksheet is designed to take you step-by-step through the process of selecting the proper pump for most common applications. Pump Sizing Guidelines I.com 98 1-800-877-4472 . II. Gallon per hour (gph) _______ U. Trying to pick a pump without a sketch of the system is like a miner trying to work without his lamp.S. Temperature: Min ______Max _______ Degrees C or F Viscosity at Temperature(s) given above ______________in Centipoise or _____________Seconds Saybolt Universal Is the Material Abrasive _____yes ______no.S. This is a combination of many manufacturers’ specification requests. so it may be photocopied and used by any applications engineer. Each factor must be weighed carefully and a final selection refined through the process of elimination. All of the following criteria will affect the pump selection in terms of materials of construction and basic design. Determine and study what is to be pumped. show the piping. You are in the dark from start to finish. They are size. what is the percentage of solid in solution ______________ and the size range_________________ Min _________________________ Max ________________________ Capacity required (constant or variable) ____________________________U. Specific Gravity _________ or Pounds Per Gallon ___________. The following worksheet will help eliminate many common oversights in design selection. valves and/or other equipment that may affect the system. When drawing the system.S.harringtonplastics. type and best buy for the particular application. Include all elevation changes. What is the material to be pumped and its concentration?_________________________________________________ Is it Corrosive? __________ Yes ___________ No _____________pH value. If so. Mark the lengths of pipe runs. fittings. Sketch the layout of the proposed installation.

Friction loss per 100 foot of pipe (See pages 28-35) = ______________ 11. PUMP SIZING GUIDELINES The Inlet Side of the Pump 1. Total inlet head = ( 4 + 5 . in feet?_____________________ (b) Fitting Type & Quantity = Equivalent length of straight pipe (See page 36) ________________ x __________ = ___________ ________________ x __________ = ___________ ________________ x __________ = ___________ 2. Voltage____________________ Cycle (Hz) ____________ Phase ________________ Motor enclosure design ________ Open ________ Totally Enclosed _________ Explosion Proof ___________Sanitary Pneumatic (Air Motor) ________ Plant air pressure available__________ psig. page 93) _____________ 6. Suction Strainer_____________________ Check Valves ________________ Isolation Valves______________ Pressure Relief Valve_______________________ Pressure Gauges___________ Flow indicators_________________ Filter/Lubricator/Regulator__________________ Pump Sizing Guidelines www. and flushed? _______ yes _______no Does this application and environment require a chemically resistant epoxy coating? ____________ yes ____________no VI. Calculating the total pressure requirements. Total discharge friction loss (Use answer from #9 above multiplied by answer in #10 above then divide the product by 100) _______________________________________________________________ 12. available) has been calculated to be _____________________. What accessories will be required? Foot Valve____________________. The Discharge Side of the Pump 8.com 99 1-800-877-4472 . Construction Features Is a sanitary pump design required? ___________ yes ________no Will the pump be required to work against a closed discharge? ________ yes ________no Is it possible for this pumping system to run dry? __________ yes ________ no Is a water-jacketed seal required to prevent crystallization on the seal faces? _______yes _______no Can the pump be totally isolated. Total System Head = (7 + 12 + 13) _____________ in feet 16. Static discharge head (See page 93) and (See sketch on previous page) Total elevation difference between centerline of the pumps inlet and the point of discharge. Total Discharge Head = (11 + 12 + 13)____________ 15. Friction loss per 100 foot of pipe (See pages 28-35) ________________ 4.. What is the material of the inlet piping _______________________________________ and size _________________? (a) What is the total length of the inlet piping. Total Static Head = (5 . Volume of air available __________SCFM VII. What is the material of the discharge piping ________________________________and the size__________________? (c) What is the total length of the discharge piping.g. Static suction lift (See important terms under Hydraulic Fundamentals. Total length (a+b above) for calculating friction loss ___________ 3. Service Cycle How many hours per day will this pump operate? ____________ How many days per week will it be used?___________ V.6 + 12 +13) ____________ in feet 17. Total length (c+d above) for calculating friction loss ________________ 10. Total Friction Loss = (4 + 11) __________________in feet IV. Add any additional pressure requirements on the system (e. Static suction head _____________ 7._____________________________________________________ 13.harringtonplastics. drained.III. valves filters. in feet? ____________________ (d) Fitting Type & Quantity = Equivalent length of straight pipe (See page 36) ________________ x __________ = ___________ ________________ x __________ = ___________ ________________ x __________ = ___________ 9.6 from above) ____________________ NPSHA (Net Positive Suction Head. Drive Requirements AC______ or DC ______ Motor. nozzles or equipment) psig converted to feet of head) ______________________________________ 14. Total inlet friction loss (use answer from #2 above multiplied by answer in #3 above. then divide the product by 100) _______________________________________________________________ = friction loss on inlet 5.

0197 .500 5.0 120 140 www. 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 ACTUAL OPENING INCHES .0026 .750 2.RELATIVE SIZE OF PARTICLES Conversion Data US AND ASTM STD SIEVE NO.000099 .0020 .0661 .00142 .000197 .0000394 MICRON 88 74 65 62 53 50 44 40 36 30 25 20 15 10 8 5 2.00118 .250 1.00099 .00079 .5 1.0017 .0555 .0041 MICRON 2000 1680 1410 1190 1000 840 710 590 500 420 350 297 250 210 177 149 125 105 US AND ASTM STD SIEVE NO.0117 . 170 200 — 230 270 — 325 — 400 — 550 625 — 1.0083 .0059 .0024 .0280 .0469 .00059 .0070 .harringtonplastics.0331 .0035 .0029 .0165 .000394 .0016 .com 100 1-800-877-4472 .0049 .0394 .0021 .0098 .0138 .000315 .0232 .000 12.0787 .000 ACTUAL OPENING INCHES .

55 259.4 93.6 73.8 26.4 48.2 °C +5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 °F +41.4 21.0 60.48 1385.90 4.93 151.2 113.78 577.0 15.25 346.00 NOTE: One foot of water at 60°F equals 0.0 248.0 275.72 69.0 284.4 120. To find the pressure per square inch for any feet head not given in the table above.0 320.2 77.6 109.6 82.2 86.0 176.2 23.6 19.0 114.0 149.0 338.8 116.0 87.43 .30 60.2 32.0 69.2 °C +40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 °F +104.0 257.07 300.39 1616.87 1.31 47.8 -29.63 184.20 2078.0 131.8 107.6 28. multiply the pressure pounds per square inch by 2.0 158.32 21.99 17.0 24.4 111.8 98.0 33.8 71.433.0 140.97 56.4 +1.83 12.6 10.66 10.31 feet of water at 60°F.16 323.64 51.com 101 1-800-877-4472 .43 392.6 -4.0 105.99 30.62 108.8 89.2 -0.0 329.46 3.0 221.63 64.0 302.0 203.0 266.0 6. FEET HEAD OF WATER TO PSI Pounds per Square Inch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Feet Head .13 922.4 12.CONVERSION DATA CONVERSION OF THE THERMOMETER READINGS Degrees centigrade to degrees fahrenheit °C -40 -38 -36 -34 -32 -30 -28 -26 -24 -22 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 °F -40.16 18.2 59.2 -25.4 102.16 346.8 8.65 38.0 230.6 64.24 11.65 25.24 216.73 2.85 16.98 Pounds per Square Inch 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Feet Head 43.0 239.0 -36.8 62.8 80.2 122.2 -7.6 91.31 4. multiply the feet head by 0.34 369.78 23.4 39.09 34.433 pounds pressure per square inch.61 461.30 1.0 51.0 212.2 68.30 1847.96 69.4 84.6 -22.18 57.17 2.72 207.8 44.85 303.8 -11.0 °C +175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 305 310 315 320 325 330 335 340 345 °F +347 356 365 374 383 392 401 410 419 428 437 446 455 464 473 482 491 500 509 518 527 536 545 554 563 572 581 590 599 608 617 626 635 644 653 WATER PRESSURE TO FEET HEAD Pounds per Square Inch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Feet Head 2.0 311. To find the feet head of water for any pressure not given in the table above.00 NOTE: One pound of pressure per square inch of water equals 2.45 138.6 37.8 53.69 808.10 2309.47 389.4 66.33 6.24 692.8 35.32 34.0 78.50 8.47 20.58 173.4 30.60 3.4 57.63 46.4 -32.90 253.36 115.52 415.93 9.0 185.31.2 14.62 6.0 96.4 3.harringtonplastics.27 129.6 118.2 5.6 46.29 73.0 -18.78 433.0 293.96 86.58 1154.03 3.4 -14.27 92.81 Pounds per Square Inch 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Feet Head 230.54 13.0 42.4 75.8 17.0 194. www.2 50.54 161.63 77.6 55.6 100.2 95.0 167.98 Conversion Data 277.0 -2.

10 1 Conversion Data lb/in2 lb/ft2 Atmospheres kg/cm2 kg/m2 in.001 1 1000 metric tonne 0.com 102 1-800-877-4472 .2 10.29839 0.9072 0.002454 0.4 304.484 0.005 1 1.44 0.559 1.88115 1 0.3 0.55 20885.0328 3.2233 0.03602 0.98067 0. Water* in.35 453.033421 0.204768 5. under the set of units desired.275 0.4 1 10 1000 centimeter 2.98692 9.1349 0.274 pound 0.03043 304.0033864 0.6185 402.54 30.070 in.0001 0.59509 0.3048 0.130 in.8650 0.001 0.1926 394.062 7500.073556 0.205 2205 ton 0.094 1094 mile 1 0. Water (68°F) 27.0625 1 2000 2.001 MILLIMETERS) SQUARE/CUBIC MEASURE EQUIVALENTS Measurement 144 9 30.3106 0.01605 33.300 mm Mercury (32°F)** 51.0278 0.432781 0.0332 10332.0283 0.1972 62.155 0.1023 gram 0.921 28.0000098 0.01 1 1000 kilometer 1.0833 1 3 5280 0.3937 39.002896 0.9144 1609.8692 kg/cm3 .harringtonplastics.56 ft.08333 1 1.88241 1 0.000 0.609 0.27 35. and multiply the numerical value by the factor shown horizontally to the right.43 ounce 1 16 32.7150 0.0033 0.2 0. Water* ft.53616 * WATER AT 68°F (20°C) **MERCURY AT 32°F (0°C) ***1 MPa (MEGAPASCAL) = 10 BAR = 1.000488 4.35913 760 735.000098 0.29449 0. Mercury (32°F)** 2.316 1.001 1 LENGTH CONVERSION Units of Length inch foot yard mile millimeter centimeter meter kilometer inch 1 12 36 0.0029839 0.033864 mm Mercury** 0.62 Bar *** 0.0648 28.000249 0.5 7000 15.0000968 0.6 1 1000 kilogram 0.491154 14. Mercury** Bar*** MPa*** 0.3813 1 750.1972 101972 25.7276 0.5038 145.5130 335.156 4021.0001333 .000479 1.4536 907.5 Atmospheres .0069445 14. locate the given unit in the left-hand column.014139 29.78450 0.375 1.8 914.044680 33.27 407.0394 0.96784 0.098067 0.22 2048.01972 10197.25 160 640 1728 27 Area Square Inches Square Feet Square Yards Square Rods Acres Cubic Inches Cubic Feet Measures 1 Square Foot 1 Square Yard 1 Square Rod 1 Acre 1 Square Mile 1 Cubic Foot 1 Cubic Yard www.0254 0.100 1 100 meter 0.01325 0.00253 10000 1 25.40005 0.48 91.038 lb/ft3 144 1 2116.073430 0.0013158 0.036092 0.101325 0.CONVERSION DATA EQUIVALENTS OF PRESSURE AND HEAD TO OBTAIN MULTIPLY BY lb/in3 1 0.03453 345.03944 1 12 13.06895 0.7262 2088.000479 0.3333 1 1760 0.000 N/m2 To convert from one set of units to another.068046 0.001333 1 10 Mega pascal (MPa)*** 0.000473 1 0.0353 35.003287 0.006895 0.070307 kg/m3 703.3205 70.03937 29.38 0.00249 0.8651 22.281 3281 yard 0.001 1 (1 MICRON = 0.9570 32.696 14. WEIGHT CONVERSION Units of Weight grain ounce pound ton gram kilogram metric tonne grain 1 437.013595 13. Water (68°F) 2.959 0.0193368 2.0109 1.6214 millimeter 25.001422 0.5300 295.37 foot 0.

97 0.0 0.430 1.0624 lb/gal 231.000 m2 0.481 201. 0.0043 7.42 ft3 0.43 0.0361 lb/ft3 1728 1 7.785 4.7456 hp hr 1.680 16.210.028 0.0 e+6 sq hectare 0.076 e+5 1.0610 61. Gallon Imp.0059 cm3 16.387 28.0001 1 100 km2 0.000 2.2°F in3 1 1728 46.3556 1054.00 BTU 0.68 0.546 U.9 4.001 10.00058 1 27 35.308 0.79 e+6 0.harringtonplastics.17 0.0 0.229 168.01 1 DENSITY CONVERSION Units of Density pound/cubic in.908 8 0.114 1 0.343 Conversion Data 765.8 2544.0013 0.32 764.00433 0.0038 0.386 cm2 6.0002 220.5 1 AREA CONVERSION Units of Area sq inch sq foot acre sq mile sq cm sq meter hectare sq kilometer in2 1 144 0.0 0.001285 1 0.55 0. pound/gal.210 8.000.5 g cal 0.001 g/l 27.617 Joule 1.610 0.563 641.1 m3 0.125 4 0.004 0.063 0.25 0.0283 0.3412 1 www.59 e+6 0.000948 3412.2642 1 12. pound/cubic ft.267 0.551 1. 0.317.101 peck 13.350 10.2390 860.2 3.com 103 1-800-877-4472 .560 2.685.81 0.001 1. Joule Int.02 231 277.549 - VOLUME-DRY CONVERSION Units of Volume Dry barrel bushel liter peck pint (pt) quart barrel 1 0.01 Imp.656 1.43 kg.8 1 1000 3785.3240 252.0016 1 0.59 0.0160 0.345 0.41 62.791 4.125 pint (pt) 209.1337 0.004 2.001 0.0003 264.1833 1 kw hr 1 0.003 3.000 1.0045 liter 0.0069 1 43.076 0.005 0.7 61.0 1 ENERGY CONVERSION Units of Energy foot-pound British Thermal Unit gram calorie Int. Gallon 1 cubic ft of water @ 50°F 1 cubic ft of water @ 39.0929 4047 2.22 0.627 35.471 247 sq mile 0.S. Gal.1605 yd3 0.0370 1 1.239 1 8.009 0.031 liter 115.00835 g/cm3 27.4 4546.0860 0. gram/cubic cm gram/liter lb/in3 1 0.76 1.481 62.0164 28.281 1 0. kilowatt-hour horsepower-hour ft lb 1 778.0 1 10.7646 1 0.0050 0.0353 0.003966 0.01 bushel 3.0036 6.8327 1 lb.023.31 0.1198 1 0. Gal.CONVERSION DATA VOLUME CONVERSION Units of Volume cubic inch cubic foot cubic yard cubic cm cubic meter liter U.019 119.980.076 e+7 acre 1 640 2.656 0.S.655. 0.000 1.452 929.816 16 1 2 quart 104.8 0.998 64 1.0001 1 10.7377 2.001 1000 1 3.155 1550 ft2 0.1337 1 8.305 0.020 62.4047 259.002 2. 0.83 1000.16 1 0.016 28.036 62.999 32 0.016 0.

2 0.02 1.13 3.109 Imp gpd 0.32 1.694 42.000 60.440 0.930 646.630 271.001 0.400 0.6 0.79 m3/sec 264.8 0.182 0.53 0.028 1.85 0.21 0.017 1 24 m3/day 0.171 28.22 13.134 8.001 0.19 71.005 0.471 35.119 127.871 0.159 3.776 0.28 376.408 3.403 264.833 49.000 3.12 5.033 0.55 109.001 0.77 6.467 Acre in/ day 0.017 1 24 0.229 0.8 22.002 0.001 0.48 448.227 e+06 1 60 1.259 6.278 16.89 19.848 0.014 0.633 577.104 6.229 373.02 840.001 0.96 13.703 6.400 0.003 0.154 1.60 71.005 1 60 3.640 e+07 1.48 448.001 0.2 316.67 1.82 0.440 0.273 16.22 0.001 0.824 0.2 72.01 0.131 27.96 1.32 1.001 Conversion Data US gal/hr (gph) US gal/day (gpd) Imperial gal/sec Imperial gal/min Imperial gal/hr Imperial gal/day Liters/sec Liters/min Liters/hr Liters/day Cubic ft/sec (cfs) Cubic ft/min (cfm) Cubic ft/hr (cfh) Cubic ft/day (cfd) Acre in/min Acre in/hr Acre in/day Cubic m/sec Cubic m/min Cubic m/hr Cubic m/day Units of Flow Rate US gal/sec (gps) US gal/min (gpm) US gal/hr (gph) US gal/day (gpd) Imperial gal/sec Imperial gal/min Imperial gal/hr Imperial gal/day Liters/sec Liters/min Liters/hr Liters/day Cubic ft/sec (cfs) Cubic ft/min (cfm) Cubic ft/hr (cfh) Cubic ft/day (cfd) Acre in/min Acre in/hr Acre in/day Cubic m/sec Cubic m/min Cubic m/hr Cubic m/day ft3/sec 7.283 102.06 1.317 6.017 1 24 0.611 1.161 9.001 0.77 16.943 3.32 679.279 0.051.17 0.584 14.134 3.061 3.035 0.187 m3/min 4.029 1.000 60.004 0.004 0.06 US gpm 0.546 0.2 15.003 0.008 0.125 7.970 0.853 0.600 86.83 10.014 0.785 90.2 72.550 0.52 151.821 0.992 23.6 0.78 Imp gpm 0.7 942.611 1.11 0.98 0.003 0.005 liters/ sec 0.229 149.25 11.001 0.833 49.053 0.028 1.199 0.713 102.004 0.96 2.41 0.67 1.279 0.017 1 60 1.833 0.400 www.22 5.850 380.104 6.6 86.042 1 0.32 0.31 18.5 3.012 0.54 452.55 1 60 3.7 101.699 101.451 US gph 0.628 327.003 0.025 1.790 2.79 227.73 8.446.630 87.011 0.035 2.153 9.02 481.589 35.000 0.001 0.120 0.901 e+07 1.001 0.575 ft3/min 0.167 148.06 4.161 3.006 0.2 1.256 e+07 1.997.01 0.5 0.001 0.063 3.003 0.8 26.67 1.02 1.2 28.772 0.4 liters/ min 0.31 847.02 22.harringtonplastics.02 192.600 86.001 0.229 373.63 231.481 0.38 4.1 22.366 392.666 220 5.729.002 0.833 19.480 e+08 60.005 0.78 ft3/hr 0.8 6.85 0.154 651.73 22.424 538.400 0.481 179.035 0.941 2.6 27.158 3.600 e+06 35.006 0.167 e+06 1.133 3.063 3.85 951.017 1 60 1.282 e+07 220 13.06 1.005 0.051.017 0.042 1 0.227 5.001 0.67 220 13.400 0.910 e+07 376.440 e+06 1 60 3.000 0.31 2.627 327.017 1 60 14.55 272.713 102.001 0.06 3.003 0.007 264.785 0.71 102.656 2.003 0.000 0.004 0.018 Acre in/hr 7.001 0.119 50.2 15.019 2.467 e+06 1.017 1 24 0.002 0.400 m3/hr 0.001 0.472 28.86 1.629 e+06 3.017 1 60 1.133 3.22 13.630 0.85 380.004 Imp gps 1.76 0.889 1.035 0.028 Acre in/ min 452.189 4.035 2.002 0.44 liters/ hr 0.042 1 8.001 0.20 0.49 0.071 4.017 1 60 1.785 227.024 liters/ day 0.073 4.198 791.440 1.com 104 1-800-877-4472 .40 0.312 7.233 0.119 127.076 4.59 35.CONVERSION DATA FLOW CONVERSION Units of Flow Rate US gal/sec (gps) US gal/min (gpm) US gps 1 60 3.7 40.042 2.028 0.790 0.161 0.8 22.042 1 0.283 102.004 0.17 6.669 40.600 86.451 0.94 2446.001 0.042 1 0.227 13.25 3.55 272.611 542.134 0.6 27.8 2.600 86.790 6.264 15.125 7.060 0.002 0.366 392.004 0.001 0.198 316.440 0.001 0.4 264.042 1 0.183 11.26 15.2 791.017 1 24 0.546 Imp gph 0.017 1 24 0.31 2.86 1.18 28.009 0.001 0.005 0.064 0.119 50.000 24.05 1.154 0.584 35.357 e+06 3.008 60.841 0.600 86.31 0.264 15.001 0.134 8.5 3.68 ft3/ day 0.34 0.002 0.71 102.004 0.850 951.161 9.091 US gpd 0.01 0.782 0.55 0.003 0.340 0.18 0.007 0.762 1 60 3.076 4.323 103.001 0.400 4.002 0.472 28.853 0.264 0.800 5.12 13.165 220 0.55 0.004 0.264 6.756 16.273 6.

277 lb/in2 lb/ft2 kg/cm2 kg/m2 inch H2O inch Hg inch air ft H2O 0.001 N/m2 0.07 2.412 0.324 0.303 1.3 13.36 0.2 238.01 101.600 e+06 3.005 1 0.19 251.001 1.921 inch of air (15°C) 332.002 0.2 1 0.048 0.006 1.001 1 Units of Pressure atm atmosphere (atm) 1 CONVERSION DATA bar 1.004 0.007 14.089 1.03 0.074 1 0.35 1.05 3.373 0.9 252 4.58 81.686 calories per hour 641.2 0.89 0.003 25.8 2.035 345.678 0.5 2.09 738 778 12.968 0.019 2.07 4.083 0.25 0.07 0.102 kilopascal 0.13 0.6 0.09 0.88 10.68 0.29 1.373 0.045 36.71 0.600 60 1 4.000 foot pound force per hour 1.335 273.868 25.273 mm Hg 0.com 105 1-800-877-4472 Newton per square meter - .018 0.2 0.35 1.017 1 0.004 0.004 144 1 2.106 0.4 1 0.005 foot of water (4°C) 33.491 70.001 0.102 0.033 kilogram per square meter 10.017 1.412 0.239 14.332 inch of water (H2O) (4°C) 406.69 778 3.2 22.017 3.021 0.001 0.017 1 kw BTU/sec BTU/ min BTU/hr cal/sec cal/min cal/hr j/sec j/min j/hr ft lb/ sec ft lb/ min ft lb/ hr Units of Power hp horsepower international 1 watt 745.41 0.004 0.006 0.738 0.03 304.324 3.001 13.003 2.133 924.048 0.324 0.36 60.3 3.033 0.239 14.069 0.017 0.001 0.386 0.013 pound per square inch (psi) 14.412 3.738 44.005 60 1 60 0.948 1 0.33 0.016 22.072 859.332 kilopascal (kP) 101.001 3.7 25.6 1 11.81 26.07 1 0.4 345.685 e+06 PRESSURE CONVERSION bar 0.34 1.06 0.328 32.678 0.004 0.28 0.8 12 0.003 2.6 10.07 4.24 0.01 0.205 5.006 0.023 4.074 1 0.33 860 1 60 3600 56.186 joules per second 746 joules per minute 44.001 14.4 1 13.017 0.015 0.1 7.238 0.8 0.004 0.801 e+06 46.039 436.01 0.307 0.42 304.43 0.096 1.000 98.116 kilogram per square centimeter 1.074 816.88 0.655 0.29 0.738 44.7 kilowatt 0.102 703 4.017 2.07 2.600 3.083 0.057 0.034 0.001 0.055 4.004 3.216 1 0.798 e+06 63.238 0.13 0.58 0.003 32.harringtonplastics.41 BTU per hour 2.008 0.97 1 0.039 0.102 0.001 1 0.277 0.POWER CONVERSION watt 0.055 17.239 0.58 0.057 0.46 29.192 393.001 0.001 12 1 0.197 401.077 0.008 mm H2O 0.017 185.535 0.120 252 1.690 778 12.197 100 6.7 pound per square foot (psf) 2.001 1 0.295 3.36 0.73 0.239 14.000 1.43 0.33 859.97 4.97 0.25 2.794 1 816.987 1 14.303 1.023 4.22 0.19 44.97 60 1 0.031 0.707 BTU per minute 42.434 62.85 1 60 3.600 14.001 0.19 251.004 0.99 ft air 0.036 0.001 0.057 3.544 foot pound force per second 550 foot pound force per minute 33.001 0.655 e+06 2.029 0.784 0.166 19.5 101.001 0.145 20.981 0.36 0.076 0.001 0.273 0.077 0.001 1 0.01 0.7 0.36 4.7 321.331 15.3 3.001 0.120 252 4.96 27.63 0.05 0.742 joules per hour 2.014 28.2 15.845 907.254 46.77 735.25 2.027 0.4 0.3 Conversion Data www.87 60 1 0.001 0.012 0.055 17.980 e+06 calories per second 178 calories per minute 10.002 0.117 185.068 0.001 0.600 60 1 11.883 9.89 703 51.592 148.738 44.002 0.000 1.031 3.664 33.29 1.249 0.002 0.055 17.2 19.883 13.9 foot of air (15°C) 27.02 10.021 1.305 750 10.003 32.133 0.004 3.001 0.205 1 0.655 0.07 0.746 BTU per second 0.09 0.036 0.185 15.43 0.000 1 0.015 0.46 27.53 327.023 1.017 1 60 1 1.6 0.78 inch of mercury (Hg) (0°C) 29.01 0.000 63.039 0.881 81.012 0.19 0.677 milimeter of mercury (°C) 760 millimeter of water (4°C) 10.

127 1.3333 0.4805 0.P.com 106 1-800-877-4472 .43 100 16 0.2949 0.004329 16.37 0.785.00277778 0.CONVERSION DATA TO CHANGE Amps Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Barrels (US) Barrels of Oil B.000 550 0.31 61.3048 0.735 0.0015499 9 2.0328 0.5 42 0.0625 1.0353 15.0328 0.3048006 12 0. Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters/Sec. Centipoise Centistokes Cubic Centimeters Cubic Centimeters Cubic Centimeters Cubic Feet Cubic Feet Cubic Feet Cubic Feet/Min Cubic Inches Cubic Inches Cubic Inches Cubic Meters Cubic Meters/Hr Cubic Yards Degrees Drams Drams Dynes Dynes/SqCm Fathom Feet Feet Feet Feet Feet of Water Feet of Water Feet of Water Feet of Water Feet/Hr Feet/Min Feet/Min Feet/Sec Fluid Ounces Fluid Ounces Gallons Gallons TO Watts PSI (Lbs/Sq In.083333 0.40005 1000 0.0003929 0.06804 0.31 2.78 0.0002642 7.03703 7.033327 1.13368 231 8.48006 0.72 2.45359 27.733 15.2808 39.696 33.3937 1.387 35.57 0.13368 0.00018939 0.) Feet of Water Inches of Mercury Gallons (US) Gallons (US) H.06102 0.5 0.1309 0.33 0.0254 25.489 0.2046 14.01136 0.264178 2240 3.92 31.4805 0.248009 x10 1.43 33.74 4.01 0.163 10.403 27 0.T.023. Grams Grams Horsepower Horsepower Horsepower Inches Inches Inches Inches Inches of Mercury Inches of Mercury Inches of Mercury Inches of Water Inches of Water Kilograms Kilograms/Sq cm Kilograms/Sq mm Liters Long Tons Meters Meters Milliliters Ounces Ounces per Sq In Ounces per Sq In Ounces Poise Pounds Pounds Pounds per Sq In Pounds per Sq In Pounds per Sq In Pounds per Sq In Pounds of Water Square Feet Square Feet Square Inches Square Inches Square Inches Square Meters Square Millimeters Square Yards Tons Molasses/Hr Watts TO Cubic Feet Cubic inches Pound of Water Cubic Feet/Min Ounces Grains Ft Lbs/Min Ft Lbs/Sec Kilowatts Feet Meters Millimeters Mils Atmosphere Feet of Water PSI Inches of Mercury Pounds per Sq In Pounds (avdp) PSI PSI Gallons Pounds Feet Inches Fluid Ounces Pounds Inches of Mercury Inches of Water Grams Centipoise Ounces Kilograms Inches of Water Feet of Water Inches of Mercury Atmospheres Gallon Square Inches Square Yards Square Centimeters Square Feet Square Millimeters Square Feet Square Inches Square Feet GPM Horsepower MULTIPLY BY 0.625 0.83268 -6 -5 -5 TO CHANGE Gallons Gallons Gallons Gallons/Min.U.361 2.433 0.7457 0.01 3.04179 0. Centimeters/Sec.88265 62.9684 0.harringtonplastics.681818 29.Lr Feet Inches Feet/Min Feet/Sec Poises Stokes Cubic Feet Cubic Inches Gallons Gallons Cubic Inches Cubic Yards GPM Gallons Cubic Centimeters Cubic Feet Cubic Inches GPM Cubic Feet Revolution Ounces Grams Pounds PSI Feet Centimeters Meters Inches Yards Atmosphere PSI Inches of Mercury Pounds per SqFt Miles/Hour Meters/Min.5314x10 0.03382 0.43 0.33 0.45038 x 10 6 30.12004 144 0.9 29.2233 1422.006944 645.001341 Conversion Data www.2957 3.4516 0.06102 0. Miles/Hour Miles/Hour Millimeters Liters Cubic Centimeters Gallons (lmp) MULTIPLY BY Volts 14.11111 6.76 0.7718 2.

8125 0.319 10.953 6.15625 0.421875 0.015625 0.203125 0.416 23.140625 0.1875 0.350 6.081 15.671875 0.747 7.812 24.6556 108.com 107 1-800-877-4472 .859 18.638 21.731 9.078125 0.525 9.844 20.1250 0.7500 0.922 10.828125 0.953125 0.191 1.669 17.53125 0.447 19.097 CONVERSION DATA Conversion Data 13.0 Millimeters 13.921875 0.71875 0.303 12.4 9/32” EXAMPLE: Convert 15’ .875 16.546875 0.794 1.431 21.46875 0.234375 0.1984 0.5625 0.484375 0.3125 0.019375 0.328125 0.397 0.1906 1.938 8.019 23.890625 0.334 8.684 15.828 22.578125 0.EQUIVALENT OF COMMON FRACTIONS OF AN INCH Inches Fractions 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 11/32 23/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 Decimals 0.96875 0.67/16” = 4.625 0.8750 0.225 22.640625 0.harringtonplastics.462 17.50 Millimeters 0.265625 0.4375 0.70 mm 107.272 16.34375 0.5720 meters 67/16” = .6875 0.3750 0.572 3.556 5.703125 0.7643 meters to feet.84375 0.906 12.28125 0.765625 0.453125 0.3969 0.381 2.6 7/16” to meters 15’ = 4.09375 0. inches and fractions 3.622 23.95 .515625 0.400 Inches 0 1/128 1/64 3/128 1/32 5/128 3/64 7/128 Millimeters 0.241 20.003 25.859375 0.588 1.494 13.509 11.163513 meters 15’.40625 0.171875 0.653 19.984 2.046875 0.159 5.0000 0.296875 0.716 11.700 Inches Fractions 33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 39/64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64 3/4 49/64 25/32 51/64 13/16 53/64 27/32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 59/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/63 1 Decimals 0.9375 0.366 4.762 5.144 7.778 3.034 21.734375 0.59375 0.796875 0.5953 0.75 3.78125 0.256 18.606 25.891 14.969 4.735513 meters www.066 17.3890 EXAMPLE: Convert 3.0625 0.541 7.65625 0.390625 0.03125 0.175 3.609375 0.209 24.9921 1.7937 0.112 11.050 19.984375 1.21875 0.7643 meters 3.288 14.90625 0.25 0.128 9.7643 meters = 12' = 4 1/4" = 1/32” = 12’ .478 15.359375 0.

com 108 1-800-877-4472 year 0.002 0.000 e-6 1000 1000 0.001 0.740 e-6 86400000 1440 5256000 876000 .001 0.001 1 1 1.2096 e+15 3600000000000 3.661 e-27 1.142 e-4 1.1 8760 168 2.667 e-11 0.022137 e+26 6.082 3.038 1.022137 e+23 1 µmol/ dm3 µmol/L mmol/L mmol/m3 mmol/mL mol/dm3 mol/L mol/m3 mmol/ cm3 mmol/ dm3 one elem entity meter3 CONCENTRATION CONVERSION Units of Concentration kmol/m3 kilomole/meter3 1 micromole/centimeter3 0.903 e-6 0.033 121.001 1 1 1000 0.171 e-10 1.653 e-6 1 52.001 1 1 0.661 e-27 1.001 1 1 1.000 e-6 1000 604800000 31536000000 8784 0.142 e-5 0.001 0.01 366 millennium 10 365000 31536000000000 525600000 millisecond 30 3.858 e-16 3.171 e-19 1.219 e-5 3.836 e-4 hour 1.661 e-21 1.01 3153600000000 52560000 hour millennium millisecond minute month (30 day) 1216.000 e-6 0.017 1.667 0.001 0.1536 e+16 second 3153600000 86400 315360000 1209600 3600 31622400 31536000000 0.171 e-8 0.000 e-6 1.1536 e+19 1000000 60000000000 2.171 e-11 1.001 1000000 1000000 1 1000 1000 1000000 1 1 1000000 1000000 1 1000 1000 1000000 1 1 1 1 1 0.171 e-9 0.022137 e+26 6.Conversion Data µmol/cm3 1.661 e-27 1.001 0.000 e-10 1 604800 31536000 week 5214.918 e-4 www.000 e-6 1.667 3.857 1.000 e-6 1.022137 e+26 6.000.000 e-6 1.778 e-4 2.740 e-4 1 0.157 e-5 week 1.01 3650 fortnight 3.022137 e+23 6.1536 e+18 86400000000000 3.001 1000 1000 0.001 0.858 e-7 0.000 e-6 0.171 e-13 1.778 e-7 3.000 e-6 0.000.903 e-8 0.001 1000 1000 0.001 millimole/liter 0.000 e-6 1.903 e-9 2.661 e-24 1.171 e-12 1.286 52142.001 1000 1 1 0.233 12.001 12.000 e-6 micromole/liter 1.harringtonplastics.000 1 1000 1000 1000000 1 1 1 1000 6.001 1 1.001 1000 1000 1000 1 1000000 1000000 1 1000 1000 1000000 1 1 1 1000 1 1 1.017 10080 525600 24 2.661 e-27 1.171 e-11 1.001 0.022137 e+23 6.001 month (30 day) 0.143 year 100 0.661 e-21 1.001 micromole/decimeter 3 1.16224 e+16 3.171 e-17 3.653 e-15 1.022137 e+20 6.003 1000 3.143 521.001 1 1 1000 0.022137 e+26 6.000 e-6 1.171 e-20 3.022137 e+23 6.001 0.001 1 1 1000 0.858 e-10 2.667 e-5 1 43200 1.286 0.001 1 1.000 e-6 millimole/milliter 1 mole/decimeter3 1 mole/liter 1 mole/meter3 0.157 e-8 minute 1.918 e-5 0.167 nanosecond 3.315 e-5 1 3.903 e-7 0.429 2 0.1536 e+17 1.000 e-6 0.592 e+15 1 1000000000 604800000000000 3.1 100 3.001 1 1.661 e-24 TIME CONVERSION decade 10 2.2 12166.001 0.004 1.001 0.667 0.019 1 1 14 Units of Time century day century 1 36500 CONVERSION DATA day 2.661 e-24 1.001 1 1.022137 e+20 6.661 e-24 1.157 e-14 second 3.000 e-6 0.171 e-14 8760000 1 1 60000 2592000000 1.171 e-18 3.001 31622400000 1 1.006 52.022137 e+20 6.001 1000000 1000000 1 1000 1000 1000000 1 1 0.286 1.001 millimole/meter3 1.008 3.000 1 0.001 0.001 1000 1000 1000 1 1000 1000 0.921 e-50 4.661 e-27 1.142 e-7 3600000 336 3.467 0.001 60 2592000 10.000 e-6 millimole/centimeter 3 1 millimole/decimeter3 0.001 nanosecond 7 3.01 365 .142 e-6 0.836 e-5 1209600000 87600 0.003 10 0.778 e-13 720 8.740 e-5 decade .001 one elementary entity/ meter3 1.01 31536000000 20160 60 527040 1.661 e-21 1.653 e-9 9.000 1.022137 e+26 6.042 leap-year 0.001 1 1 1000 0.

39 444822.55 1355820 112984.9 70615.807 e-6 0.13 1019762129.020 e-4 0.06 12 1 www.12 N-m 1.85 e-7 8.01 1388.75 0.81 1000 1000000 1.62 1.00 e-4 0.02 e-7 1.79 7061.85 e-6 0.780 e-4 0.74 0.00 e-3 1 0.47 e-8 7.force inch pound-force foot pound-force inch dyn-cm 1 980.06 0.004 millinewton 0.74 7.972 1.01 11.01 10.20 e-4 0.02 e-3 1 100000 10197162.33 kN-m 1.18 e-6 1.028 0.81 e-8 0.56 737561.807 9806.001 1 0.01 1 0.08 0.11 kgf-m 1.001 1 1000 101971.75 8850748.03 7.01 7.2 gram force 0.36 e-6 1.222 newton 1.01 MN-m 10.02 e-4 0.205 224.07 1000 0.08 µN-m 0.62 1.02 e-8 1.597 1 16 pound-force (lbf) 2.278 4.38 e-4 0.00 e-6 1.00 e-9 1.02 e-4 0.42 e-4 0.665 1000000 1000000000 1.38 e-7 7.592 kilogram force 1.38 e-8 7.00 e-6 8.448 ounce-force (ozf) 3.96 1.82 112.665 980665 100000000 100 100000 27801.01 98.00 e-13 1.01 9.04 1.809 2.063 1 Conversion Data TORQUE CONVERSION Units of Torque dyne centimeter gram-force centimeter kilogram-force meter kilopond meter meganewton meter micronewton meter millinewton meter newton meter ounce-force foot ounce.01 13825.1 0.00 e-3 8.06 e-9 1.07 9806650 1000000000 1000000000000 1 1000 1000000 84738.35 453.97 101971.00 e-14 9.13 e-4 ozf-in 1.000 e-5 0.81 e-5 9.20 e-4 0.00 e-3 1 10.02 e-8 1.2 10197.01 1 1000 1.248 e-6 0.36 0.01 7.020 e-6 0.98 gf-cm 1.force inch pound-force foot pound-force inch Units of Torque dyne centimeter gram-force centimeter kilogram-force meter kilopond meter meganewton meter micronewton meter millinewton meter newton meter ounce-force foot ounce.1 9806.001 2.002 2.8 8850.274 3596.248 e-4 0.42 e-5 0.01 1 1.23 737.14 0.01 ozf-ft 1.102 101.73 11800.621 0.597 e-5 0.972 28.001 1 101.harringtonplastics.004 3.com 109 1-800-877-4472 .81 e-11 9.00 e-5 1 101.942 0.06 1355.454 kilonewton 1.13 e-7 lbf-ft 7.61 12 1 192 16 kP-m 1.08 16 1.8 lbf-in 8.74 141611.97 141611969.18 e-5 0.16 864.36 e-3 1.8 1 0.65 1000000 1 1000 278.1 0.14 141.14 0.47 e-5 7.00 e-7 9.97 11800970.00 e-6 1.97 101971.035 35.01 8.07 8.00 e-9 1.68 e-4 86.1 72.16 e-3 115.014 4448.23 e-5 7.00 e-5 1 101.52 1152.78 .06 e-6 1.000 e-8 9.81 e-6 1.00 e-10 9.67 98066500 10000000000 10000000000000 10 10000 10000000 847387.000 e-6 0.5 13558200 1129848 mN-m 1.00 e-3 1 1000 84.102 0.02 e-7 1.225 0.1 98.85 0.CONVERSION DATA FORCE CONVERSION Units of Force dyne gram force kilogram force kilonewton millinewton newton ounce-force (ozf) pound-force (lbf) dyne 1 980.01 1.

45 0.07 0.7 e-7 4.91 1000000 1000000000 1000000000000 1 1000 28349520 3103470 1555174 453592400 373241700 6350293000 1016047000000 907184700000 1000000000000 ton (long) 1.22 2430.57 e-4 0.47 15555.1 1.10 e-9 3.01 2722.00 e-7 6.87 gram (g) 0.48 e-5 1.20 e-7 7.32 583333.97 e-7 6.43 e-4 2.59 373.03 1.84 e-13 9.17 453592.75 3.22 1 17.04 35.38 e-8 9.2 0.17 32666.52 7.56 e-3 0.52 31103.01 1 0.15 e-5 1.02 1 1.58 12 204.01 2.64 643.29 e-3 0.1 0.07 3.00 e-4 4.68 e-3 2.06 1 1000 1000000 1.54 e-4 3.78 2267.00 e-7 6.4 373241.1 1.20 e-3 2.53 e-5 1 1.00 e-6 1.03 .7 1000000 pound (avdp) 4.53 e-8 3.04 0.84 e-4 0.10 e-12 1.21 31751.20 e-6 0.97 tonne (metric) 2.67 32150.08 4.24 6350.06 0.2 2204.10 e-6 1.02 0.53 e-6 4.harringtonplastics.62 2.10 e-3 1.75 155.16 157.90 e-3 2.46 e-3 4.87 6.57 e-10 15.22 e-5 0.1 ounce (avdp) 0.56 453.32 5 5000 5000000 5.86 157.35 pennyweight 0.23 20 1 291.41 13999999.43 15432.02 0.00 e-3 1 28349.02 e-5 1.05 14.74 e-4 2.79 e-5 3.00 e-13 1.11 e-5 1.75 grain (gr) 3.01 2.91 1 Conversion Data gram (g) kilogram (kg) megagram (Mg) microgram (µg) milligram (mg) ounce (avdp) ounce (troy) pennyweight pound (avdp) pound (troy) stone ton (long) ton (short) tonne(metric) Units of Mass carat grain (gr) gram (g) kilogram (kg) megagram (Mg) microgram (µg) milligram (mg) ounce (avdp) ounce (troy) pennyweight pound (avdp) pound (troy) stone ton (long) ton (short) tonne (metric) www.43 e-4 18.83 e-5 3.com 110 1-800-877-4472 .96 1866.06 e-5 1.CONVERSION DATA MASS CONVERSION Units of Mass carat grain (gr) carat 1 0.08 e-3 0.23 megagram (Mg) 2.91 1 0.00 e-3 1 1000 1.43 e-3 1 0.41 e-4 1.05 16 13.01 643014.35 1016.11 e-4 0.36 15432358.00 e-9 2.5 480 24 7000 5760 98000 15680001.68 e-6 0.00 e-9 1.00 e-6 0.22 e-8 3.01 1.43 e-5 1.00 e-3 28.27 35273.67 240 4083.54 e-5 0.00 e-6 1.13 0.15 32150.00 e-6 1.54 e-4 3.33 653333.84 e-7 9.01 1.73 e-4 0.5 5000000 ounce (troy) 0.68 2679.56 2679.38 15432358.89 0.46 e-4 3.00 e-3 1 10.56 e-6 4.48 e-8 1.01 32000 35273.45 e-4 0.14 e-8 1.11 e-5 1.09 1 15.20 e-9 2.62 kilogram (kg) 2.47 microgram (µg) 200000 64798.73 e-4 0.67 e-4 0.84 e-10 2.98 9.05 907.91 1 stone 3.43 e-7 6.47 1.08 0.8 1000 1000000 1000000000 1.01 141.68 29166.48 e-8 1.36 e-4 1.06 1 160 142.25 643014.00 e-4 6.18 1000 pound (troy) 5.82 14 2240 2000 2204.17 224 35840.56 e-6 4.35 31.03 32.29 1016047 907184.02 437.00 e-3 1 10.00 e-9 2.97 3.01 1.47 5080235 4535923.00 e-6 0.68 e-9 2.12 e-5 3.00 e-13 1.17 e-3 1.98 milligram (mg) 200 64.83 e-5 3.71 e-6 5.35 1.37 6.7 6350293 1016047000 907184700 1000000000 ton (short) 2.23 2.

500 15. UNIT OF ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY STOKE = C. where Q is in GPM.432 0.157 0.000 5.010 0. VISCOSITY SSU Flow Reduction GPM % Head Reduction Feet % Horsepower Increase % 30 100 3 2 10 250 500 750 1.074 0.080 2.2 43.000 7.800 21.8 21.2 65.000 50.4 110 220 440 1.10 2.73 3.126 0.harringtonplastics.52 8.88 1. divided by the absolute viscosity in lb sec.000 REDWOOD NO. either laminar or turbulent.000 Kinematic Viscosity (in centistokes) STOKES 0.000 100. Computation using this assumption gives the greatest value of friction loss and hence the result is on the safe side.000 10. and V is kinematic viscosity in ft2/sec.500 2. The volume and pressure of the pump will be reduced according to the following table.300 ENGLER SECONDS 54 59 80 125 150 295 470 760 1.1 SECONDS 29 32. Reynolds Number is of great significance because it determines the type of flow.460 43.56 7.6 170 254 423 896 1.162 0.S.000 SSU can be handled with Centrifugal Pumps.020 0.500.6 108 216 CENTISTOKES 1.160 10.40 10.660 88. which will occur in any pipeline. www.346 0.2 34.059 0.522 0. R Reynolds Number R is a dimensionless number or ration of velocity in ft/sec.8 173 352 880 1.000 to 3.690 4.4 FUEL OIL TRANSFORMER OIL HYDRAULIC OIL SAE 10W OIL SAE 10 OIL SAE 20 OIL SAE 30 OIL SAE 50 OIL SAE 60-70 OIL MOLASSES B MOLASSES C Conversion Data = Absolute Viscosity (in centipoise) Density POISE = C.000 150.202 0. per sq ft.000 2.000 1. d is inside diameter of pipe in inches.0 88 173 CENTIPOISES* 0.000 75.00 2.92 12.1 44.3 69.160 TYPICAL LIQUIDS AT 70°F WATER KEROSENE NO.230 8.654 1.800 17.6 16. Reynolds Number for a pipeline may also be computed from the following formula: R = Q/29.com 111 1-800-877-4472 .01 STOKE CENTIPOSES = CENTISTOKES X DENSITY (AT TEMPERATURE UNDER CONSIDERATION REYN (1LB SEC/SQ IN.600 POISES* 0.80 17.6 52.7 20.2 FUEL OIL NO. Within this zone it is recommended that problems be solved by assuming that turbulent flow is likely to occur.CONVERSION DATA VISCOSITY CONVERSION SAYBOLT UNIVERSAL SSU 31 35 50 80 100 200 300 500 1. the only exception being a critical zone roughly between an R of 2.500 3.S UNIT OF KINEMATIC VISCOSITY CENTIPOISE = 0. however.000 8 5 20 14 11 30 19 14 50 23 18 65 30 23 85 40 30 100 REYNOLDS NUMBER.G.G.8 2. times the internal diameter of the pipe in feet times the density in slugs per cu ft.025 0.2 88.01 POISE CENTISTOKE = 0. Percent reduction in flow and head and percentage increase in power when pumping viscous liquid instead of water are shown in the table below.05 5.16 4.) = 69 x 105 CENTIPOISES PUMPING VISCOUS LIQUIDS WITH CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Centrifugal pumps are generally not suitable for pumping viscous liquids.40 15. This is equivalent to R = VD/v (VD divided by the kinematic viscosity).4dv.008 0. For those who prefer the greater precision of an algebraic equation. liquids with viscosities up to 2.760 8.2 85.

74866 0.42157 1.60° 1.75269 0.79012 1.09023 1.07143 2.14173 1.89744 0.65421 0.25000 1.33028 1.62921 1.26087 1.71066 0.60° 1.82840 0.90909 0.76503 0.23932 1.74468 0.73298 0.93333 0.69652 0.70352 145 145 .68966 0.72917 0.00000 0.60° 0.16935 1.79096 0.29464 1.34500 1.67308 0.63927 SP GR 60°.83832 0.84848 0.36792 BAUME DEGREES 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 SP GR 60°.UNITED STATES STANDARD BAUME SCALES RELATION BETWEEN BAUME DEGREES AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY CONVERSION DATA BAUME LIQUIDS HEAVIER THAN WATER FORMULA: SP GR = SP GR 60°.81395 0.98592 0.69307 0.13281 1.01399 1.90789 1.39423 1.52632 1.com 112 1-800-877-4472 .72619 1.88608 0.88050 BAUME DEGREES 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 www.89172 0.76829 1.40777 1.74074 0.22881 1.64220 0.16418 2.15079 BAUME DEGREES 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 LIQUIDS LIGHTER THAN WATER BAUME DEGREES 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 SP GR 60°.60° 0.11538 1.86957 0.72539 0.80925 0.60° 1.97222 0.73684 0.95946 1.64773 1.° BAUME BAUME DEGREES 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 140 130 + ° BAUME BAUME DEGREES 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 SP GR 60°.66351 0.84337 0.05839 1.54255 1.78212 BAUME DEGREES 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 SP GR 60°.83333 0.66038 0.16000 1.64516 0.02837 1.08209 1.21849 1.19835 1.13235 2.49485 1.66667 1.harringtonplastics.87500 0.90323 0.81250 1.96552 0.35514 1.77348 0.68605 FORMULA: SP GR = SP GR 60°.02113 1.70707 0.10687 1.72165 0.67633 0.86420 0.01389 2.76923 0.99291 0.19697 Conversion Data Baume BAUME DEGREES 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 SP GR 60°.68627 0.79545 0.82353 0.00000 1.94595 0.66986 0.20833 1.04317 1.80460 0.88312 1.97902 0.60° 1.78652 0.07407 1.64815 0.85366 0.71795 0.05072 1.06618 1.98630 2.09848 1.43564 1.76087 0.71428 0.95890 0.93333 1.92105 0.55914 1.47959 1.91503 0.61111 1.17886 1.12403 1.74699 1.57609 1.65117 0.80000 0.31818 1.04225 2.59341 1.30631 1.77778 0.85897 1.68293 0.51042 1.60° 1.70000 0.83544 1.66667 0.85890 0.93960 0.75676 0.81871 0.67961 0.28319 1.34259 1.70588 1.03571 1.18852 1.95238 0.65728 0.92715 0.00694 1.46465 1.27193 1.10145 2.60° 0.38095 1.

However. Note: The ratings shown for carbon and ceramic pump seals are approximate. Polyethylene tanks that are manufactured with HDLPE (high density linear polyethylene) can handle applications to 130°F. To the extent that any hazards have been mentioned in this publication. HOW TO SELECT THE CORRECT MATERIAL: 1. and whether there is any infringement of patents. In listing the maximum use temperature for each plastic type in a given chemical. Note that PVDF is rated for higher temperature use. is the sole responsibility of the user. To the best of our knowledge.2 All tank hoop stress shall be derated for service above 23 degrees C/73. processing technique. in general. 3. in general. Rust is a chemical reaction that forms iron oxide on iron and steel. need to be designed based upon the specific chemical application. www. A material determined suitable for a specific chemical application does not mean that the compounds of that plastic from all manufacturers can be considered suitable. In all cases. Final determination of suitability of any information or product for the use contemplated by any user. Stainless steel is frequently treated with dilute nitric acid to produce an oxide layer on the surface which makes the material more resistant to chemical attack. or material mentioned in this publication verify that all applicable safety and health standards are met. you must use 724 CPVC cement for this and caustic applications. we neither suggest nor guarantee that such hazards are the only ones that exist. Sodium hypochlorite.harringtonplastics. (100°F for Snyder tanks). When designing tanks for applications above 100°F. such as plastics. Harrington has provided a single resource of non-metallic and high-purity steel products based on manufacturers' recommendations and our own extensive experience. engineers’ jobs take on a new emphasis. For nitric acid. Moreover. The Harrington philosophy has always been to suggest the least costly material that will do the job.4°F. Locate the specific chemical in the guide. it must be remembered that mechanical stresses will limit the useful life of a piping system. there is no rate of corrosion. However. piping. built Harrington into the largest distributor of industrial plastic piping in the United States. We strongly recommend the users seek and adhere to manufacturers’ or suppliers’ current instructions for handling each material they use. its concentration. In most cases. minor effect C = Fair. As per ASTM D 1998.1. Consult your local Harrington Office for recommendations. This premise. and that would be our choice unless there was another reason to justify the higher cost of PVDF. Now the field is greatly expanded. Harrington Industrial Plastics has been dedicated to the simple premise of providing our customers with a better way of handling corrosive liquids. This is an accurate definition when dealing with metals. These tables do not address this issue. pumps and elastomer seals. Please contact your local Harrington service center for a recommendation on your specific application. Further descriptions include trivial and common names as trade names.4°F). 15% at 100°F: PVC is good to 100°F and is the least expensive of the materials available. Harrington welcomes your specific inquiries. With non-metallic materials. or PTFE are the only materials suitable. COMPRESSED AIR AND GAS Plastic Piping Systems designed for corrosive and/or high purity liquid service are not recommended for Compressed Air or Gas applications. or Halar. The aggressive agents are classified alphabetically according to their most common designation. choices were limited to various grades of metal and alloys. Over the years. Snyder Industries exceeds ASTM D 1998 by designing its tanks based upon 100°F (ambient conditions). temperatures shown are the maximum that can be used for the specified plastic in the particular chemical application. needs further test X = Unsuitable USE OF THE CHEMICAL REFERENCE TABLES EXAMPLES: 1. Carbon steel works well for chlorinated hydrocarbons of this sort. Select the material with a maximum use temperature that matches or exceeds the need. tanks. We recommend that anyone intending to rely on any recommendation. Designing a system for a specific application usually involves referring to several sources on piping. Plastics also have low temperature limitations at which they may be used successfully. be assumed that the resistance will be no worse at lower temperature. A dash means we lack sufficient data. the physical data. It is important to note that these tables should be used only as a guide. CPVC will be the economical choice. the failure of the piping system is hastened by mechanical stress. together with our commitment to redefine customer service. A B-rating means that the rate is <20 mils per year and with a C-rating. metals still exhibit a penetration rate of the aggressive chemical. we have constantly sought to provide new and better products as they become available and are consistent with our goal of selling the best at the most economical cost. PTFE. While this surface layer slows the corrosive degradation. however. and temperature. With a relatively recent awareness of environmental issues. Where a material or elastomer appears to be marginal compared to the requirements.Chemical Resistance Guide For fifty years. Chemical Resistance Guide INTRODUCTION Engineers must carefully select materials for vessels. pumps and gaskets when designing systems for handling corrosive chemicals. Metals tend to form a passive film on the surface to resist corrosion.com 113 1-800-877-4472 . Halar. the affects of UV and mechanical stresses.4°F. a physical test of the material under actual operating conditions is the only way to ensure the success of a particular material for the application. In this Chemical Resistance guide. they are either resistant or they deteriorate completely from a chemical compatibility stand point. An A-rating for metals means that the rate of penetration is <2 mils per year. In the case of poor chemical resistance. relates to the pure product that is 100% concentration. applications that will exceed 73. Corrosion is defined as a gradual wearing away. the information contained in this publication is accurate. 3. it can. There are many variables that contribute to the successful use of a particular material. the manufacturer needs to take into consideration the chemical. there is a need to reduce human exposure to many materials to the lowest physical limits in view of possible long-term adverse effects. There are a few specially designed thermoplastics piping systems that are suitable for selected Compress Air or Gas applications. 2. Metals are listed as: A = Excellent B = Good. such as plastics. Engineers must take into account changes in internal and external temperatures and pressures. There are many different plastic compounds and formulations. Until the advent of synthetics. In the tables provided here. If several concentrations are given for a particular material. Polyethylene tanks manufactured with XLPE (crosslinked polyethylene) can handle applications to 140°F. 2. the manner of that use. place a call to our technical staff for additional recommendations. Methylene chloride: in the table PVDF. It is important to note that tanks designed according to ASTM D 1998 are designed based upon 73. Higher temperatures generally hasten the corrosion reaction that results in material failure. (per ASTM D 1998-97 section 6. whether it is metal or plastic. or use of any equipment. the rate can be estimated at <50 mils per year. we do not assume any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of such information. 40% at ambient temperature: the tables recommend either CPVC or polypropylene at 73°F.

A A A . suspect with certain stress levels.8 * Caution: Further testing needed.A A A A A A A A B A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A C A A A A A A A A A A A .A .com 114 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE X X X X 140 140 140 140 100 70 X X X X X X X X X X X 70 X 100 70 X 100 140 X 100 X 100 X 140 140 100 140 140 PVC X X X X 180 180 140 140 100 70 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 180 X X 180 140 X 140 X 180 X X 70 X X 140 180 70 70 X 180 180 140 140 140 140 100 100 X X 100 X 70 X X X 140 180 X 140 100 100 180 140 180 70 100 70 140 140 140 X X 70 X 210 210 140 210 100 100 X X X X X X X X 70 180 140 180 250 250 70 250 180 210 250 180 250 70 180 180 210 280 250 100 70 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 X 100 X 70 100 70 100 100 100 70 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 100 100 X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 70 70 X X X X X X X X X X X 70 X X X X X X X X X X X X 100 180 100 100 250 250 250 250 250 250 210 210 180 180 100 210 100 140 180 100 140 250 210 140 250 100 250 250 250 100 250 70 250 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 210 350 350 350 140 250 210 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 250 350 350 250 350 350 350 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 70 70 X 140 70 X 70 100 X X 250 180 70 X 140 180 180 140 140 180 X X 70 X X 210 210 210 210 210 140 70 X X X X X X X X X X 70 100 100 X 140 70 140 210 X 100 140 70 100 100 - X X X X X 140 140 140 210 210 70 70 70 X X X X X X X X 180 X 180 70 100 - X 100 140 X X 70 100 100 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 180 140 180 180 X 180 180 140 180 140 100 X 180 210 70 180 70 140 140 100 140 140 140 100 70 70 X X X 100 70 140 100 X X 70 X X 70 X 140 180 70 180 100 180 70 180 140 70 140 180 X X 70 X X 100 70 X X X X X X 70 X X 70 X X X X X X 70 X X X 70 140 70 140 X 140 X 140 70 70 100 140 X X 100 X X 70 70 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14 X X 140 X 140 140 70 140 X 140 X 140 104 70 70 70 A A A A .Acetyl Benzene C6H5COCH3 . Glacial CH3COOH 100 1.Alcohol. Ether .Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Acetaldehyde CH3CHO . Methyl .Acetyl Propane .g.A .Acetone CH3COCH3 .Alcohol.Alcohol.Alcohol. Butyl .Adipic Acid Aqueous .Acetol (Hydroxy 2 Proponone) . Hexyl . Isobutyl (CH3)2CHCH2OH . Air and gas applications have special considerations.Alcohol.Acetic Ether (Ethyl Acetate) . Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval. Ethyl C2H5OH .A .Acetylene Dichloride ClHC:CHlC . Diacetone .Acetic Acid 5% CH3COOH 5 Acetic Acid 10% CH3COOH 10 Acetic Acid 20% CH3COOH 20 Acetic Acid 30% CH3COOH 30 Acetic Acid 50% CH3COOH 50 Acetic Acid 60% CH3COOH 60 Acetic Acid 80% CH3COOH 80 Acetic Acid 100%.03 Acetyl Bromide CH3COBr .A A .Acrylonitrile H2CCHCN .A A A A A A A A A A A A A . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC. Amyl C5H11OH . Benzyl C6H5CH2OH .8 Acetophenone C6H5COCH3 ..A .A A A NR A A .Alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol) .A . Crude .Acrylic Emulsions* .A .Alcohol.Acetonitrile (Methyl Cyanide) CH3CN .Acetyl Chloride..82 Alcohol..harringtonplastics.0.05 Acetic Anhydride (CH3CO)2O .0. Aqueous 40% 40 Acetamide CH3CONH2 . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.Acetaldehyde.A . Isopropyl CH3OH . e..Acetate Solvents.Acetate Solvents. Pure .Acetylene Tetrachloride (CHCl2)2 . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.A A .Alcohol.Alcohol.A A .Acetylene .A A A A A A .1. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.05 Alcohol.1. dry CH3COCl3 .Acetyl Oxide .Acrylic Acid CH2CHCOOH .A A A A A A .Acid Mine Water .Acetyl Acetone . Allyl .82 Alcohol.0.0.A . 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks.

X X 100 .. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F. Propargyl Alkanes Alkazene Allyl Aldehyde Allyl Bromide Allyl Chloride Alum (Aluminum Sulfate) Alum.. Chrome Alum. suspect with certain stress levels. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.X .140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 .210 . Octyl Alcohol.210 .70 X X 210 100 .210 .140 180 140 210 100 . Potassium Aluminum Acetate Aluminum Bromide Aluminum Chloride Aluminum Citrate Aluminum Fluoride Aluminum Formate Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum Nitrate Aluminum Phosphate Aluminum Potassium Sulfate (Potash Alum) Aluminum Sulfate 10% Amines 15% Ammonia 25% Ammonia 99% Ammonia Gas Ammonia.harringtonplastics.g.X X . Air and gas applications have special considerations.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Alcohol. e. Polyvinyl Alcohol. Anhydrous Ammonium Acetate Ammonium Alum (Aluminum Ammonium Sulfate) Ammonium Bichromate Ammonium Bifluoride Ammonium Bisulfide Ammonium Carbonate Ammonium Casenite Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Dichromate Ammonium Fluoride 10% Ammonium Fluoride 20% Ammonium Fluoride 25% Ammonium Hydroxide 19% Ammonium Metaphosphate Ammonium Nitrate Formula C3H5Br C3H5Cl Al2(SO4)3 AlK(SO4)2 AlBr3 AlCl3 AlF3 Al(HCOO)3 Al(0H)3 Al(NO3)3 AlPO4 Al2(SO4)3 NH3 NH3 NH3 (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4HF2 NH4HS NH4HCO3 NH4Cl (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4F NH4F NH4F NH4OH NH4NO3 10 15 25 99 10 20 25 20 - - 70 140 70 X 140 140 140 140 100 140 100 140 140 140 - 70 X 180 180 180 100 180 180 180 180 180 - 180 100 100 180 180 180 180 100 180 180 180 180 180 - 210 250 140 250 70 250 250 250 250 210 250 210 250 250 250 - 100 100 70 100 70 100 100 70 100 100 - 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 - 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 - 70 210 300 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 250 250 250 250 350 350 350 250 250 250 350 350 350 300 250 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 X 140 250 250 250 180 210 140 140 210 180 250 70 70 140 X 250 180 210 250 140 140 140 210 210 X 250 210 210 250 250 210 180 180 250 250 70 140 180 70 210 140 140 210 210 210 210 140 140 210 70 70 180 180 180 70 70 180 70 100 180 180 180 180 70 140 210 70 70 100 140 180 210 210 X 180 210 210 X 180 210 70 180 140 X 70 X X X 140 210 140 210 210 140 140 140 70 180 180 140 100 X X 140 180 140 180 180 140 180 180 140 180 180 140 140 104 140 180 70 140 180 180 70 140 140 140 180 180 180 70 70 X X X 140 140 70 70 100 100 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 X 70 210 70 70 70 70 140 140 70 100 100 100 140 180 180 100 100 X X 70 140 140 140 140 100 140 100 180 X 140 140 70 140 140 X 70 70 100 70 140 140 70 140 140 140 70 100 100 100 X 140 180 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B A X X A A X A A A A X A A A A A A A A X C A A A A A A A A A A A X A A X X X A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A .. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www..210 ..X ..com 115 1-800-877-4472 ..X X . Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.250 . Ammonium Alum. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.140 140 70 140 100 140 140 73 73 X 73 73 140 140 180 140 180 180 180 180 180 X 180 180 180 140 140 180 180 70 180 180 70 180 180 180 250 250 210 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 250 250 70 100 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 140 140 140 140 140 104 70 180 70 70 70 180 170 250 250 250 250 250 70 250 250 250 250 250 250 * Caution: Further testing needed.X X 100 100 100 140 X 250 .140 180 180 250 70 .70 250 .

.2 140 180 180 250 250 250 250 100 100 100 100 100 100 * Caution: Further testing needed....70 70 X X 70 ...73 X 180 140 100 20 .Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Oxalate Ammonium Persulfate Ammonium Phosphate Ammonium Phosphate Dibasic Ammonium Phosphate Monobasic Ammonium Phosphate Tribasic Ammonium Salts Ammonium Sulfate 5% Ammonium Sulfide Ammonium Thiocyanate Ammonium Thiosulfate Amyl Acetate Amyl Alcohol (Alcohol Amyl) Amyl Bromate Amyl Chloride Aniline Aniline Chlorohydrate Aniline Hydrochloride 20% Anisole Anthraquinone Sulfonic Acid Antichlor Anti-Freeze (Ethylene Glycol) Antimony Chloride (Antimony Trichloride) Antimony Pentachloride Antimony Trichloride Aqua Ammonia Aqua Regia 20% Aroclor 1248 Aromatic Hydrocarbons Arsenic Acid 80% Aryl Sulfonic Acid Asphalt Aviation Fuel Aviation Turbine Fuel Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) Barium Acetate Barium Carbonate Barium Chloride Barium Cyanide Barium Hydrate Barium Hydroxide 10% Formula NH4NO3 (NH4)2C204 (NH4)2S2O8 NH4H2PO4 (NH4)2HPO4 - 1.. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks..100 140 ..X X X 140 X 80 .8 1.3.X 73 X 100 X .3 140 180 180 .8 1.180 ..140 180 100 X 100 .250 .X X .70 .140 180 140 280 100 ...180 140 350 70 180 180 .180 250 350 140 210 70 180 180 X X X X X 70 100 180 X X 100 X X 100 180 180 180 250 250 140 250 250 140 250 250 70 X 140 180 70 70 250 200 180 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 199 350 350 200 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 70 350 350 180 350 180 70 300 140 180 250 70 70 70 70 X 210 140 210 X 180 210 180 210 210 210 210 210 200 210 180 140 140 100 210 100 X 210 140 70 210 70 210 140 X X 180 180 100 210 180 210 250 70 100 70 180 180 100 180 140 140 X 180 X X 180 X 180 X X 180 180 180 140 180 180 180 100 140 180 140 140 140 200 185 70 70 X 180 70 140 140 70 250 70 180 70 100 210 150 140 180 70 180 250 250 140 70 250 250 210 100 180 140 140 140 70 200 140 70 70 70 180 X 70 70 210 140 70 180 X 100 X 180 X X X 180 180 180 140 70 180 160 70 X 140 140 140 70 160 160 X 70 100 X 140 X X X 70 160 140 140 140 X X X 170 X 70 X 140 140 140 140 70 140 180 X 180 100 140 140 140 180 180 X 70 140 X 140 X X X 70 180 140 140 X X X 160 70 100 180 140 140 140 70 140 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A X X X B A A A B A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A X B A A A A A B B A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A - A B A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A X A A A A A A B A A A B NH4H2PO4 (NH4)2SO4 5 (NH4)2S NH4SCN (NH4)2S2O3 CH3COOC5H11 C6H5NH2 C6H5NH2HCl 20 C2H5OCH3 SbCl3 HNO3/HCl H3AsO4 BaCO3 BaCl2 Ba(CN)2 Ba(OH)2 .140 140 180 .X X . Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide..harringtonplastics.1 140 180 180 73 100 .86 0. e.g.. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.02 1.02 1 - 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 100 100 100 100 X X X 75 100 140 185 73 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 X 140 X X X 180 X 180 150 100 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 X 180 X 100 X 70 180 280 100 210 250 250 250 250 280 250 250 250 250 100 250 210 70 100 210 250 100 70 70 70 70 100 70 100 100 100 X 70 X X 100 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 X 70 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 - 400 .com 116 1-800-877-4472 .86 0...3 0. Air and gas applications have special considerations..10 2.1 140 180 180 .X X 140 250 70 . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www....4.3 1.250 X .70 ..100 100 .X .3. suspect with certain stress levels.

1 6. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.4 0.9 - 140 140 140 140 140 100 X X X X 100 X X NR140 100 140 140 X 140 140 X X 70 X X X 100 100 100 100 70 70 X X x 180 180 180 180 180 140 X X X X 100 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 X X X X X 100 100 140 180 70 X X - 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 X X 100 X 140 70 140 180 180 180 180 X X X X X X X X X 180 X X X 250 250 250 250 250 250 100 100 100 210 100 180 70 180 250 250 250 250 250 210 210 210 210 140 250 180 180 250 180 70 100 210 100 100 100 100 100 70 X 100 100 100 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 X X X X 100 100 100 70 - 140 140 140 140 X X X 70 140 X 140 140 140 140 X X X X X 140 140 140 70 - 70 180 100 70 70 X X 70 X X X 180 180 X 180 100 X X X 180 X 70 X - 70 140 250 250 250 140 10 100 250 250 100 70 250 250 250 70 250 250 140 250 250 70 70 250 250 140 250 250 70 - 350 180 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 140 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 250 350 250 350 180 140 140 250 180 210 250 180 X 180 210 180 X 100 180 210 210 140 140 X X X X 140 70 140 180 X - 210 210 70 180 180 X X 210 210 70 X X X 210 210 210 X X 210 140 100 X 180 100 180 100 X 100 180 180 180 X X X X X X 210 180 X X 180 X 180 X X X X 180 X - 250 70 250 250 180 180 X 140 180 140 180 140 140 70 X 180 210 180 180 X 250 70 100 140 70 210 180 70 100 140 140 X X 70 - 180 70 180 140 140 140 X X X X X 100 70 X 140 180 140 180 210 140 X X X X X X X 180 140 70 X X 70 - 140 70 140 70 140 140 X X 70 X 70 X X X X 70 140 140 140 140 X X X X X 70 140 140 X X X - 140 70 140 140 140 140 X X X X X X X X X 70 140 100 140 X 180 X X X X X X X 70 70 140 180 180 X X X X X X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR NR A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A B A A A A A A A A B A A X X X X A A A A A B - B A A A A A B A A X B A A A A A A A A X X X X X A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A - A A A A A B B A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - . 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. Benzyl) Benzyl Benzoate Benzyl Chloride Bismuth Carbonate Black Liquor Borax (Sodium Borate) Boric Acid Brake Fluid Brewery Slop Brine Bromic Acid 3..com 117 1-800-877-4472 . Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Barium Nitrate Barium Salts Barium Sulfate Barium Sulfide Beer Beet Sugar Liquors Benzaldehyde Benzalkonium Chloride Benzene Benzene Sulfonic Acid Benzene Sulfonic Acid 80% Benzoic Acid 10% Benzol (Benzene) Benzyl Alcohol (Alcohol..70 - * Caution: Further testing needed. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F. e. Gas. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.8 1..3 1. Air and gas applications have special considerations.1 - 4. suspect with certain stress levels.3 1.9 1.harringtonplastics. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide..3 1.8 0.g..4 4. Butyl) Butter Buttermilk Butyl Acetate Butyl Acrylate Saturated Butyl Benzoate Butyl Bromide Butyl Butyrate (Butyl Butanoate) Butyl Carbitol Formula Ba(NO3)2 BaSO4 BaS C6H5CHO C6H6 C6H5SO3H4 C6H5SO3H4 C6H5COOH C6H5CH2Cl (BiO)2CO3 Na2B4O7 H3BO3 HBrO3 Br2 C6H5Br C6H5CH2Br C4H10 C4H9Br - 80 10 3.1% Bromine Dry Bromine Liquid Bromine Water Bromine.140 100 100 - 70 70 X .05 0. Wet Bromobenzene Bromotoluene Butadiene Gas Butane Butanediol (Butylene glycol) Butanol (Alcohol.70 70 70 .

Chemical Resistance Guide

Chemical Resistance Guide

Plastics
Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP)

Elastomers

Seals

Metals

Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration

304 Stainless Steel

316 Stainless Steel

% Concentration

Buna-N (Nitrile)

Polysulfone

Hastelloy C

Vinylester

Neoprene

Titanium

Ceramic

Carbon

Epoxy

EPDM

Halar

Viton

CPVC

PTFE

PVC

Chemicals Formula Butyl Cellosolve (Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether) Butyl Chloride (Chlorobutane) Butyl Ether C4H9OC4H9 Butyl Formate HCOOC4H9 Butyl Mercaptan C4H9SH Butyl Phenol Butyl Phthalate Butyl Stearate Butylamine C4H9NH2 Butylbenzene C6H5C(CH3)3 Butylene (Liquified Petroleum Gas) Butyraldehyde Butyric Acid Cadmium Cyanide Cd(CN)2 Cadmium Salts Caffeine Citrate Calamine Calcium Acetate Calcium Bisulfide Ca(HS)2 Calcium Bisulfite Ca(HSO3)2 Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 Calcium Chlorate Ca(ClO3)2 Calcium Chloride CaCl2 Calcium Cyanide CaCN2 Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2 Calcium Hypochlorite Ca(ClO)2 Calcium Nitrate Ca(NO3)2 Calcium Oxide CaO Calcium Phosphate CaH4(PO4)2 Calcium Sulfate CaSO4 Calcium Sulfide CaS Calcium Thiosulfate CaS203 Calgon (Sodium Hexametaphosphate) Cane Sugar Liquors Caprylic Acid (Octanic Acid) CH3(CH2)6COOH Carbinol (Alcohol, Methyl) Carbolic Acid (Phenol) Carbon Dioxide (wet or dry) CO2 Carbon Disulfide CS2 Carbon Monoxide CO Carbon Tetrachloride CCl4 Carbonic Acid H2CO2

-

3.5 2.7 2.7 2.1 2.3 2.3 1.82 2.3 2.9 1.87

X X X X X X X X 100 140 140 100 140 140 140 100 140 100 140 70 70 140 140 -

X 70 100 X - X X 250 X - X X 100 70 - X - - - - - - - 180 70 - X X 140 - - X 140 70 - 70 X - - 250 70 - X X X - - - - - - - X 180 140 140 140 180 180 180 180 100 180 180 180 180 140 180 140 140 140 180 X 180 X 180 X 180 70 70 180 100 180 180 180 180 180 100 180 180 70 180 180 70 140 140 100 180 X 180 X 140 250 140 250 250 140 210 250 210 250 250 250 250 210 250 250 250 250 180 140 210 140 250 100 250 70 250 140 250 210 X 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 100 X 100 X 100 X 100 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 X 140 X 140 70 X 70 180 180 180 70 180 180 X X 180 X 180 X -

180 100 180 250 210 210 70 X 250 180 140 140 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 210 210 250 180 250 100 140 250 250

180 250 140 180 250 100 250 140 250 350 350 250 70 210 350 210 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 180 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350

140 100 210 X 70 180 140 180 180 180 300 140 140 210 180 210 X 180 X 180 X 180 140

210 100 X 180 X 100 180 210 70 210 210 140 210 210 210 140 70 140 140 210 X 70 X 70 70 210

70 X 180 180 X X 180 180 70 180 180 180 250 X X 70 180

X 70 X 70 X 100 140 X 70 140 X 100 70 70 X 140 180 250 140 140 70 210 180 210 140 70 140 210 70 70 210 70 70 210 100 210 70 180

140 X X 70 X X X 70 180 70 X 140 104 180 70 180 100 180 140 70 180 180 70 70 180 180 X 180 X 180 X 180

X X - X A X X X X A - - A X X A X X A X 100 A X X A - X X X 70 100 140 70 140 70 140 70 140 140 140 100 X 70 70 140 100 140 X 140 X 180 X 180 180 X X 180 140 70 100 100 X 100 70 140 X 180 140 180 140 140 180 140 70 X 140 X 140 X 180

A A A A A A A -

A A A A A A A A B B A B A A A B A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A A A A A A A X A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A - A A - - - - A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

- - 140 - - 140 - - 70 - - 140 - - x - - 140 - - X - - x - 1.6 X - - 140

* Caution: Further testing needed, suspect with certain stress levels. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide, e.g. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval. Air and gas applications have special considerations. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations

www.harringtonplastics.com 118 1-800-877-4472

Chemical Resistance Guide

Chemical Resistance Guide

Plastics
Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP)

Elastomers

Seals

Metals

Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration

304 Stainless Steel

316 Stainless Steel

% Concentration

Buna-N (Nitrile)

Polysulfone

Hastelloy C

Vinylester

Neoprene

Titanium

Ceramic

Carbon

Epoxy

EPDM

Halar

Viton

CPVC

PTFE

PVC

Chemicals Casein Castor Oil Caustic Lime (Calcium Hydroxide) Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide) Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide) 50% Cellosolve (Butyl Cellosolve) Cetyl Alcohol Chloral Hydrate (knockout drops) Chloric Acid 20% Chlorinated Glue Chlorine Dioxide 15% Chlorine Gas Dry Chlorine Gas Wet Chlorine Liquid Chlorine Water Chloroacetic Acid Chlorosulfonic Acid 50% Chlorox Bleach 5.5% Chocolate Syrup Chrome Alum (Chr. Potass. Sulf.) Chromic Acid 5% Chromic Acid 10% Chromic Acid 20% Chromic Acid 30% Chromic Acid 50% Chromium Alum. Citric Acid Citric Oils Cobalt Chloride Coconut Oil Cod Liver Oil Coffee Coke Oven Gas Cola Concentrates Copper Acetate Copper Carbonate Copper Chloride Copper Cyanide Copper Fluoride Copper Nitrate

Formula Ca(OH)2 NaOH C16H33OH CCl3CH(OH)2 HCIO3 ClO2 Cl2 ClCH2COOH ClSO2OH NaOCl:H2O CrK(SO4)2 H2CrO4 H2CrO4 H2CrO4 H2CrO4 H2CrO4 CoCl2 Cu(C2H3O2)2 Cu2(OH)2CO3 CuCl3 Cu(CN)2 CuF2 Cu(NO3)2

- - 140 180 140 250 100 X - 0.95 140 140 140 250 100 70 -

100 350 - - - 180 180 180 180 A 250 350 210 210 - 180 140 140 180 -

A A A

A A A X X X B A B A A A A A A A A X A X A

A A X X A X X B B A A B B B B B A A A A A A A X B A A

A A X A X A A A B A A A A A A A

A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A B A A A A A A A A A A

- 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 140 210 - 210 180 140 140 A - 140 180 180 100 100 70 180 - 210 - 140 -

70 180 140 140 A NR

50 2.13 140 140 180 100 100 `40 180 250 350 - 210 210 X 180 140 70 NR NR - - X X 70 100 X - - 180 180 140 210 70 X 140 X X A A - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A A 20 15 50 5.5 5 10 20 30 50 1.9 1.77 1.54 3.35 3.4 2.9 2.3 140 140 X 100 X X X 140 100 X 100 100 140 140 140 100 70 X 140 140 140 70 100 140 70 140 140 180 100 X 100 X 140 70 X 140 180 180 180 180 180 70 180 X X 70 180 70 100 180 70 140 140 X X X X X X 100 100 X 100 180 180 70 180 X 70 70 70 70 180 180 100 180 70 180 140 X 210 140 250 180 X 210 210 210 210 210 210 140 140 210 250 250 250 250 250 180 250 250 100 X X 70 X X X 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 100 100 100 100 X X X 70 X X 140 140 70 70 70 70 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X X X 70 X X X X X X 70 180 180 180 140 250 180 180 210 210 140 70 210 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 70 250 140 250 250 250 250 180 180 70 350 250 250 250 350 250 180 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 305 140 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 140 X X 100 X 140 250 140 140 70 X X 210 210 250 250 250 210 100 180 70 210 X 210 100 X 180 210 180 180 140 X X 210 280 180 210 210 210 X X X X X X X X X X X 70 X 70 180 180 180 70 X 100 X 140 X 70 X 210 70 210 70 140 140 140 140 210 70 140 70 140 210 X 70 210 70 100 210 100 X X X X 70 X 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 180 70 100 70 70 X 140 70 180 70 100 180 X X X X X X X 70 140 70 X X X X X 180 70 100 140 X 70 70 180 70 100 140 X X X X X X X X 70 140 140 X X X X X 180 70 100 70 140 X 70 X 180 70 100 140 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

* Caution: Further testing needed, suspect with certain stress levels. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide, e.g. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval. Air and gas applications have special considerations. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations

www.harringtonplastics.com 119 1-800-877-4472

Chemical Resistance Guide

Chemical Resistance Guide

Plastics
Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP)

Elastomers

Seals

Metals

Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration

304 Stainless Steel

316 Stainless Steel

% Concentration

Buna-N (Nitrile)

Polysulfone

Hastelloy C

Vinylester

Neoprene

Titanium

Ceramic

Carbon

Epoxy

EPDM

Halar

Viton

CPVC

PTFE

PVC

Chemicals Formula Copper Salts Copper Sulfate CuSO4 Corn Oil Corn Syrup Cottonseed Oil Cream Creosol CH3C6H4OH Creosote Cresols Cresylic Acid Croton Aldehyde CH3CH=CHCHO Crude Oil Cryolite Na3AlF6 Cupric Cyanide (Copper Cyanide) Cu(CN)2 Cupric Fluoride CuF2 Cupric Nitrate Cu(NO3)2 Cupric Salts Cupric Sulfate (Copper Sulfate) CuSO4 Cutting Oil Cyanic Acid (Isocyanic Acid) HN=C=0 Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol C6H12 Cyclohexanone C6H11OH Decalin C6H10O Decanal Decane CH3(CH2)8CH3 Detergents Detergents, Heavy Duty Developers (Photo) Dextrin, Starch Gum Dextrose (Glucose) Diacetone Alcohol Diallyl Phthalate Diazo Salts Dibenzyl Ether Dibutyl Ether Dibutyl Phthalate C6H4(COOC4H9)2 Dibutyl Sebacate Dibutylamine (C4H9)2NH Dicalcium Phosphate CaHPO Dichlorobenzene C6H4Cl2 Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) CICH2CH2Cl Dichloroethylene ClHC:CHCl

- - 140 180 180 250 100 - 2.3 140 180 180 250 100 - - 140 73 140 250 100 - - 140 180 180 250 100 - - 140 140 140 250 100 - - 70 70 70 - 70 - 1.05 X X X 140 X - - X X X X X - - X X X 140 X - - X X X 140 X - - X X X 140 X - - 70 X 70 250 - - 70 70 180 250 -

140 140 140 140 70 70 -

180 70 70 X X X X X 180 X X X 180 180 X X X

140 250 70 150 140 180 70 250 140 70 180 250 250 250 140 100 250 250 250 250 180 210 180 70

210 350 350 350 350 70 350 350 350 350 210 350 250 350 250 70 350 350 180 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350

70 250 210 140 100 X X 210 250 250 210 100 210 140 210 210 210 100

180 210 180 180 180 X 140 X 70 210 210 210 180 100 70 140 180 210 X X 210 180 X X X

180 70 70 180 X X X X 140 180 180 180 180 X 140 180 70 180 180 X

70 210 140 210 250 70 70 100 X 250 70 70 140 70 210 70 X 100 100 X 70 X 70 210 140 210 210 X X X 70 70 X 70 180

70 180 X 180 70 70 X X X X 70 X X 70 140 180 180 X 70 X X X X X X 180 100 180 180 140 X X 70 70 X X

70 140 100 100 140 X X X X X X 100 70 70 70 140 X X 70 X X 180 140 70 140 X X X X X X X X X

70 140 140 140 180 X 70 X X 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 210 70 70 X X X X X 180 70 140 180 X X X X X X 70 X X X

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X

A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A -

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

- - 70 70 180 180 100 140 - - 140 140 100 250 70 - - 100 140 140 250 70 - - 100 140 180 250 - - - 140 180 180 250 100 140 - - - - - - 70 - - - X - - - - - X X X 210 - 140 - 0.94 X X 70 70 70 - 0.95 X X X 70 X - - - - - - - X - - - - - - - - - - - - 180 - - - 140 - 180 250 100 140 - - - - - - - 140 - - 140 140 180 250 100 140 - - 140 140 180 250 100 140 - - 140 180 180 250 100 140 - - X X 70 70 100 - - - - - - - - - 140 180 180 250 100 140 - - X X X 70 - - - X X X 100 70 - - X X 70 70 70 70 - - - - - 100 - - - - - - 70 - - - - - - - - - - X X X 140 - X - - X - 1.25 X X X X 140 X - 140 X -

X 100 350 X X 100 350 70

X 180 X - 140 X

* Caution: Further testing needed, suspect with certain stress levels. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide, e.g. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval. Air and gas applications have special considerations. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations

www.harringtonplastics.com 120 1-800-877-4472

cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC..1...07 X X Diphenyl (Dowtherm) ...X X X * Caution: Further testing needed.X 70 X Ethanol (Alcohol.X X 70 Diethylether (Ether) (C2H5)2O .X X 100 Dimethylbenzene C6H4(CH3)2 .Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Dichloroisopropyl (Ether) ....X X X Dimethylamine (CH3)2NH ..Diethyl Ketone C2H5COC2H5 ...140 Diisobutyl Ketone ..X X X Dimethylformamide 10% HCON(CH3)2 10 0.. suspect with certain stress levels..X X Diethyl Oxide (Ether) (C2H5)2O ...X X X Diglycolic Acid O(CH2COOH)2 .X X 70 Diethylbenzene C6H4(C2H5)2 ...140 180 180 Distilled Water HOH .....34 X X X Diesel Fuel ..66 X X Dimethyl Ketone (Acetone) CH3COCH3 .X X Diphenyl Ether (Diphenyl Oxide) .X X Dipropylene Glycol . Ethyl) C2H5OH .. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.com 121 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC 70 70 180 210 X 70 140 100 70 70 140 140 X 70 X X X 180 X 70 X X 70 70 250 250 250 X 70 140 X 250 100 210 180 X 100 X 70 70 70 100 70 X 100 70 X X 100 X 100 X X X 100 100 100 X X 100 X X 100 70 X X 70 140 X X X 140 X 140 140 - X 180 X X X X X X X X X X 180 X 180 X X X X 70 250 250 70 70 100 70 70 100 250 70 100 210 100 140 100 180 140 180 100 250 250 70 180 180 180 70 250 X 120 70 350 350 350 350 100 350 350 100 350 350 350 350 350 350 70 250 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 70 350 350 350 180 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 70 250 X X X X X 70 210 X 140 X 140 250 140 100 70 180 180 - X 140 100 70 X X 70 180 X X 70 X 140 70 X 210 X 140 100 100 180 210 100 140 100 X 210 140 70 70 X X 180 70 X X 70 X X X X X 70 X 70 X X X 180 X X 180 X 120 X X X X 180 140 X X 70 X 140 X X X 70 X 140 X 70 X X 70 70 70 70 70 140 250 70 70 70 X 180 140 180 X X X 140 X 70 X 100 180 X 70 100 X 70 X 100 70 X X 70 70 X X X X 70 140 X X X 70 180 X 180 180 - X X X X X 100 X 140 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 140 X 70 X X 140 140 X X X X X X X X 180 X X 70 X 70 X X 70 X X X X X X X X X X X 70 70 140 X 70 X 70 X 180 140 140 70 X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A C A A X B A B A A A A A A A . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.Diisopropyl Ketone .X X Diisooctyl Phthalate .02 X X Ethers ..X X 100 Dimethyl Phthalate C6H4(COOCH3)2 ..... The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.1 X X Diethyl Cellosolve .0..X X X Dioxane ..70 180 Diethylenetriamine .X X 70 Dioxolane .X X X Epichlorohydrin .X X X Ethane C2H6 . Air and gas applications have special considerations.X X Dimethyl Ether CH3OCH3 ..Dowtherm (Diphenyl) .X X X Dichloromethane CH2Cl2 .. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks... Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.1..1....X X X Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 ..1.X X X Dry Cleaning Solvents .X X X Diethylene Glycol .140 140 100 Ethanolamine .Disodium Phosphate .X X X Epsom Salts MgSO4 .140 180 180 Divinylbenzene .95 X X 100 Dioctyl Phthalate ..140 70 Disodium Methylarsonate ..25 .70 100 70 Diethanolamine .g.X X 70 Diisobutylene C8H16 ... e.harringtonplastics.X X Diphenyl Oxide (C6H5)2O .100 ..140 180 180 Esters (General) .1...Diethylamine (C2H5)2NH ..

0.3.22 70 X . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F....X .1......X ..12 140 180 180 .100 X 25 .1.X .140 120 140 X X X 100 70 140 70 180 70 70 X 180 . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.X ..11 140 100 37 . 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks.9 X X .X .X .X X H2SiF6 HCHO HCHO HCOOH CCl3F Cl3CCF3 C2Cl2F4 Cl2CF2 Cl2CF2 HCCIF2 25 1.X X X X 140 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 100 X X 70 X X X X X X 70 100 100 180 180 100 250 100 X 140 210 70 X 140 250 70 250 70 100 X X 70 X X 70 X X 70 X X X X X - X X X X X X X X X X 100 140 100 250 180 180 180 100 70 140 70 70 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 70 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 140 140 180 X 100 250 140 100 70 X X X 210 X 210 210 210 210 210 210 250 210 70 210 140 100 140 140 - X X 70 X 210 X X 70 100 100 X X 70 X 210 180 210 210 210 210 180 70 140 X X 140 140 140 100 - X X 70 X X X X X 180 250 70 210 180 180 180 250 180 X X 180 70 70 70 X 70 X X - X X X 180 70 X 140 X X X 70 X X X X 70 210 X 70 X 180 180 210 180 180 210 180 180 100 140 180 70 70 140 140 100 100 100 X 100 70 180 X X 70 100 X 70 180 X 70 70 X 180 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 100 X 140 180 70 180 X X X 70 140 X X X 140 X X X X X 70 X X 70 70 X 140 X X 140 100 100 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 X 100 180 180 180 X X X 140 X 70 70 X X X X X X 70 X 210 X 70 X 140 140 104 140 140 140 140 140 X X 70 140 100 X 180 210 210 210 X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A X A A B A A A A A X A A X A A X X A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A X X A B A A A A A A A B A A A B B A A A A A A A A X X B B A A A A B A A A A B A A A A A A A B A A A A A B B B B A A A A .100 140 FeCl3 ..180 180 180 70 140 180 70 X X X X X X X 70 X 250 250 250 250 250 250 70 70 180 180 250 140 140 140 140 140 140 Fe(C2H3O2)2OH .25 X X X .140 180 180 250 100 140 HBF4 . wet Fluorine. suspect with certain stress levels..140 180 180 250 100 FeNO3 50 1.9 140 180 180 250 100 140 .X X X .1.140 180 180 250 100 140 FeSO4 ..X ...2.100 100 ..7 140 180 140 250 100 140 Fe(SO4)3 . e.X X 140 140 140 70 X 70 250 100 100 210 210 100 180 210 210 100 70 70 100 X X 70 70 140 70 70 140 70 - A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A * Caution: Further testing needed.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Acetoacetate Ethyl Acrylate Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Bromide Ethyl Butyrate Ethyl Cellosolve Ethyl Chloride (Chloromethane) Ethyl Ether Ethyl Formate Ethyl Sulfate Ethylbenzene Ethylcellulose Ethylene Bromide Ethylene Chlorohydrin Ethylene Diamine Ethylene Dichloride (Dichloroethane) Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Oxide Fatty Acids Ferric Acetate (Iron Acetate....X .harringtonplastics.1.8 140 ...X ..140 ...92 X .70 70 X 140 X X F2 ...X . Air and gas applications have special considerations. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.2 140 180 180 250 100 140 ..9 140 180 180 250 100 70 Fe(OH)3 .1..com 122 1-800-877-4472 .0.X .... Liquid Fluosilicic Acid (Hydro Fluosilic Acid) 25% Formaldehyde 37% Formaldehyde 50% Formic Acid 25% Freon 11 (MF) Freon 113 (TF) Freon 114 Freon 12 Freon 12 (Wet) Freon 22 Formula CH3COOC2H5 C2H5OH C2H5BR C3H7CO2C2H5 C2H5CL (C2H5)2O HCOOC2H5 (C2H5)2SO4 C6H5C2H5 (CH2)2Br2 (CH2)2ClOH (CH2)2(NH2)2 ClCH2CH2Cl CH2OHCH2OH (CH2)2O - . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.1 140 180 180 250 100 140 FeCl2 ..8 140 180 140 250 100 140 F2 . Basic) Ferric Chloride Ferric Hydroxide Ferric Nitrate 50% Ferric Sulfate Ferrous Chloride Ferrous Nitrate Ferrous Sulfate Fish Solubles Fluoboric Acid Fluorine Gas.g..100 X 50 .X .3...X .0... Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.X .

Furfural (Ant Oil) Bran Oil . e. Natural CH4 . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.Glucose C6H12O6 .140 Grape Sugar .26 Gold (Auric Cyanide) Au(CN)4 .140 Hydrochloric Acid (Dry Gas) HCl .100 Gluconic Acid 50% 50 . Air and gas applications have special considerations..70 Gelatin ....100 Hexane CH3(CH2)4CH3 ... suspect with certain stress levels.1..0..140 Honey .. Leaded .140 Fruit Pulp .140 Hydrobromic Acid 48% HBr 48 .140 Gin . Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.140 Glycols .140 Glycerine (Glycerol) C3H5(OH)3 .140 Gasoline.0.140 Glycerol (Glycyl Alcohol) C3H5(OH)3 ...70 Hydraulic Oil (synthetic) .140 Glyoxal 30% OHCCHO 30 1...Hydrazine H2NNH2 . Unleaded .3 140 Glycolic Acid (Hydroxyacetic Acid) ...g.harringtonplastics. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks.. Sour . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.140 Grease .100 Gasoline.140 Helium He ..140 Heptane CH3(CH2)5CH3 ...19 140 Hydrochloric Acid 20% HCl 20 1...Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Freon TF .140 Fuel Oil .2 X Gallic Acid ..140 Hydrobromic Acid 20% HBr 20 .67 X Hexyl Alcohol (Hexanol) C6H11OH ..94 X Furfuryl Alcohol .com 123 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC 140 180 140 140 X X 120 100 180 100 180 180 180 180 140 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 120 X 70 140 X X X 140 140 140 180 180 X 180 180 180 70 X X X 140 100 X X X 180 100 180 100 180 180 140 180 180 140 180 140 X 70 70 70 X X 180 180 140 180 180 100 250 250 250 180 100 X 70 70 70 210 210 210 210 250 210 250 250 250 250 100 250 250 250 140 250 250 250 250 180 250 X 250 250 250 250 250 X 100 100 X X 100 X X X 14X 100 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 X X 100 100 X X 70 100 100 100 100 100 140 140 70 X 70 70 70 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 180 100 X X X X X X X 180 180 70 180 70 70 70 70 X X 70 X X 180 180 140 250 140 140 250 70 100 140 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 250 140 140 140 70 250 250 70 140 100 100 250 250 250 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 250 250 140 210 X 100 210 250 250 250 250 210 100 100 180 140 210 140 180 210 210 210 210 70 210 180 180 X 70 180 210 180 140 180 210 210 70 70 210 210 70 70 180 X 180 180 140 300 210 180 70 70 180 X 70 X 180 70 180 180 70 70 250 70 70 180 70 X 250 250 70 180 180 140 210 140 180 70 X X X 70 70 140 70 140 210 210 210 210 180 180 X 70 140 210 140 70 70 140 70 70 250 140 70 X 140 140 140 100 210 210 X 180 180 X X 180 X 70 X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 70 210 280 X 70 70 X X X 100 140 X 70 180 180 100 70 140 140 100 70 140 X X 100 70 70 X X 70 140 140 70 140 140 X 70 140 70 X 70 70 X 70 70 140 X X X X 100 140 140 210 140 140 210 70 X X X 70 70 140 70 140 140 180 180 140 100 100 X 70 140 140 100 70 180 70 70 100 140 210 X 70 X X 140 70 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A A NR NR NR A A A A A A A A A A A A NR A A A A A A - A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X - A A A B A A A B A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X X X X X B A A A A B A A A A A A A A A X - A A A A B A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B .140 Hydraulic Oil ..1.140 Glue .Fructose .Furan .70 Green Liquor (Alkaline pulp) ...66 70 Hexene ..Grape Juice ..0.1 X Hydrobromic Acid 10% HBr 10 .140 Fruit Juice .140 Fumaric Acid (Boletic Acid) ..Hydrochloric Acid 10% HCl 10 1.. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval..140 Gas.70 Gasoline. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.19 140 * Caution: Further testing needed.

27 .140 140 140 250 Hydrofluoric Acid 5% HF 5 .harringtonplastics..70 X X Hydrogen Phosphide (Phosphine) PH3 .. Isobutyl) .140 180 140 180 X 180 140 140 100 X X X X X X X X 70 70 140 350 ..X .140 140 70 250 Iodine Solution I2 .81 140 180 70 250 * Caution: Further testing needed.140 140 140 250 Hydrogen H .140 180 180 210 Hydroxyacetic Acid (Glycolic Acid) .0.. Gas.7 70 70 70 250 Isophorone .70 100 140 210 Hydrofluoric Acid 50% HF 50 .100 140 70 140 Hydrogen Sulfide H2S ..72 X X X 100 Jet Fuel JP-3 .210 Hydrogen Cyanide HCN .70 X 140 250 Hydrofluosilicic Acid 25% H2SiF6 25 .210 Isopropyl Alcohol (Alcohol.70 Isopropanol (Alcohol..100 70 70 210 Hydrogen Peroxide 50% H2O2 50 .140 Hypochlorous Acid HClO .140 180 70 210 Jet Fuel JP-5 .70 140 140 210 Hydrofluoric Acid 30% HF 30 .0.19 140 180 180 250 Hydrogen Sulfide (dry) H2S .19 140 180 180 250 Hydrochloric Acid 37% HCl 37 1..– 100 ..140 Isobutyl Alcohol (Alcohol.- .70 X X 180 Hydrogen Peroxide 90% H2O2 90 .0. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval..Isopropyl Ether CH2CHClCH3 .X . suspect with certain stress levels..350 100 70 . Isopropyl) CH3COOCH(CH3)2 ..250 350 210 140 X 250 350 X 100 .250 350 140 100 70 70 70 70 70 A X 100 250 70 100 70 70 X 70 210 A .X X .27 140 180 140 100 Hydroxylamine Sulfate .140 180 180 250 Hydroquinone C6H4(OH)2 .0.250 .0.X X X X A 100 140 ..1.g.140 140 Hydrogen Sulfide (Aq Sol) H2S . e.140 210 Isooctane .70 140 140 210 Hydrofluoric Acid 20% HF 20 ..78 140 140 140 140 Isopropyl Chloride (Chlorpropene) (CH3)2CHOH ... 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F..92 X X .140 180 180 180 Hydrogen Chloride.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Hydrochloric Acid 25% HCl 25 1. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.19 140 180 140 210 Hydrocyanic Acid (Prussic Acid) HCN . Isopropyl) .100 140 140 210 Hydrofluoric Acid 10% HF 10 .140 140 140 140 Isopropyl Acetate (CH3)2CHOH .140 140 70 210 Hydrogen Peroxide 30% H2O2 30 ..180 140 X 140 X 100 ..140 180 140 250 Hydrogen Peroxide 5% H2O2 5 ...0.1. Dry HCl ..70 100 140 210 Hydrofluoric Acid 40% HF 40 ....X 70 .70 .140 180 70 210 Kerosene ..140 X X 140 X X A 100 140 X X X X X 70 250 350 140 100 100 180 140 70 70 A 70 250 250 250 250 210 35 350 350 350 350 100 210 210 210 250 70 180 180 100 180 X 140 140 140 180 70 X 140 250 250 140 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 70 70 70 70 70 A A A A A .350 ...140 180 . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.com 124 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 140 100 100 X 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 140 100 100 100 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 X X 180 X 70 70 X 70 - 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 140 140 140 250 250 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 210 210 180 70 70 70 X X X 210 70 210 180 140 140 140 X X 250 250 250 - 140 140 180 140 140 140 140 140 X 210 180 180 140 140 140 70 180 210 - 180 180 70 180 180 70 X X 180 180 70 70 100 100 100 100 100 70 - 140 100 70 180 210 180 180 180 180 140 180 70 140 180 180 100 70 100 140 70 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 140 180 100 100 100 100 70 X - 140 X 100 100 100 100 100 100 140 70 100 X X X X X X 70 X X X X 140 140 X 70 X X X X NR NR A NR NR NR NR NR NR NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A X A A A A A A A A A A A X X A A A A X X X X A A A A B B C A A A A A X B A A C A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A B A A A A A A A A A A B B A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A B A A A A A A .1.92 X X .140 140 140 210 Hydrogen Peroxide 10% H2O2 10 ..140 .250 350 140 100 100 180 140 70 70 A 70 .. Air and gas applications have special considerations. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.140 180 X 210 Jet Fuel JP-4 ..

...100 250 70 ....X X X X 70 .1.harringtonplastics..140 180 70 250 70 X Latex ..70 .53 140 180 180 210 100 .11 140 180 180 250 70 .70 100 . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Ketchup/Catsup ..A NR A A .0..A .X 100 X 70 Malic Acid (Apple Acid) .39 140 180 180 250 100 .. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.210 .Lead Sulfate PbSO4 ..4.36 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 Magnesium Nitrate Mg(NO3)2 .70 .140 140 100 210 X .59 140 180 180 250 100 70 Maleic Anhydride .A A .X X 70 210 .250 70 X 70 Lubricants ..70 180 180 250 100 140 Lime-Sulfur Solution .70 70 140 140 250 250 70 350 350 350 350 350 70 210 210 210 100 210 180 180 180 140 140 210 180 140 X X 180 180 X X 140 140 180 X X 140 140 A A A A A .A A A NR NR .3....140 .A A A A A A A A A .Levulinic Acid ..91 140 ..140 180 180 250 100 140 Magnesium Hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia) Mg(OH)2 .93 .0.Manganese Sulfate MnSO4 .70 250 X 70 Linseed Oil (Flaxseed Oil) . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www..6 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 Maleic Acid .3..A A A A A A A A . Air and gas applications have special considerations.Lemon Oil .Magnesium Acetate (MgOOCCH3)2 .6. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks...42 .X X X 100 100 .2.140 180 100 250 70 70 Lard Oil ..X X X 100 ....0...1.3 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 Magnesium Chloride MgCL2 ..A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A 250 350 250 210 180 210 180 140 140 A 250 350 250 180 180 210 180 140 140 ..2.Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salts) MgSO4 .X Lye Solution (Sodium Hydroxide & Potassium Hydroxide) .X 250 . suspect with certain stress levels..100 Lacquer .LPG ...140 180 100 140 100 140 Linoleic Acid (Linolic Acid) ..Ligroin (Benzene) .2 100 100 180 140 70 100 X Lard .X X Kraft Liquor .70 .Lithium Bromide LiBr . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.X X Lime (Calcium Oxide) CaO .Lauryl Chloride C12H25Cl .A .140 180 180 250 100 140 180 Lead Chloride PbCl2 ..70 Ketones .1.1.com 125 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC 180 100 100 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 250 250 250 250 250 - 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 250 140 70 X 70 70 70 180 70 250 180 70 70 210 210 250 - 210 X 140 180 180 180 100 180 180 210 210 210 210 X 140 210 250 250 180 140 180 210 - 70 X X 180 70 70 X 180 X X 70 X 180 70 180 - 140 X X 140 140 140 X 70 140 210 210 210 70 140 140 70 70 250 210 180 180 180 X 140 X 210 180 210 X X 70 140 140 70 180 180 180 180 X X 140 X 70 70 100 X X 180 X 100 180 180 180 X X X X 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 180 70 X 140 70 X 70 X 70 70 70 X X 140 140 140 140 X X X 70 140 140 180 X 140 140 140 140 70 X 140 140 70 70 140 140 210 210 100 100 X 140 180 140 A A ..2.Lead Acetate (Sugar of Lead) Pb(C2H3O2)2 .2..70 .6 140 ..140 180 100 70 100 .70 * Caution: Further testing needed..140 180 X 250 ..03 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 Magnesium Oxide MgO .100 140 70 210 70 .g.70 .140 140 140 250 100 ..Lithium Chloride LiCl .6 140 180 180 250 100 ..83 100 180 140 250 100 ..88 140 140 140 250 70 .3 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 Magnesium Citrate MgHC6H507 .X Lactic Acid (Milk Acid) ..46 140 180 140 250 100 .140 X 140 250 X .Lacquer Thinner .Magnesium Carbonate MgCO3 ..A A A A A A ..Lauric Acid CH3(CH2)10COOH .Lubricating Oil . e.210 70 .5.140 140 100 100 100 140 70 Machine Oil .2.Lead Nitrate Pb(NO2)2 ...

70 X X 70 X X ...47 140 Mercurous Chloride Hg2Cl2 . Amyl) .70 ..Methyl Salicylate (Wintergreen Oil) .. Methyl) .X Methyl Bromide CH3Br .X Methyl Acetate CH3CO2CH3 .6..4.94 X Methyl Propanol ..1.X Methyl Acrylate ..X Methyl Ether (Dimethyl Ether) .X X 70 X X X X X X X .6 140 Methacrylic Acid Glacial .2..- % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals 100 140 180 180 180 180 180 X 140 140 140 X X 140 X X 180 180 140 180 70 180 100 100 140 70 70 X 140 X X 70 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 180 250 140 100 100 250 140 250 70 70 100 100 100 100 100 X 100 100 X 100 X 70 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 X X 70 180 70 X X X X X X X 70 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 250 250 70 250 180 250 350 350 350 350 70 250 70 350 350 350 350 350 100 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 70 70 X 210 180 100 180 140 - 210 140 210 140 210 210 70 X 100 - 70 100 70 X X X 70 X 180 140 140 140 140 180 210 70 140 180 70 X X X X 70 70 140 X 100 140 70 140 180 70 140 X 180 70 70 70 140 X X 140 70 X 140 70 70 70 70 140 70 140 X X X 14X X 140 180 100 140 70 70 180 70 140 140 100 X X X 100 X X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A A X X A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A A A A A A - A A X X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A B A - 140 180 250 70 140 X 250 350 70 210 180 180 180 140 140 X X 100 ..34 X Methylene Iodine CH2I2 .1...1. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks..100 Methyl Butyl Ketone CH3COC4H9 .Methyl Isobutyl Ketone .82 X Methyl Methacrylate .70 X 70 70 * Caution: Further testing needed..3 140 Mercuric Sulfate HgSO4 .02 X Methane (Methyl Hydride) CH4 . Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.140 Methoxyethyl Oleate .33 X Methylhexane .6.X Methyl Chloroform (Trichloroethane) CH3CCl3 .X X X X .47 X Methylene Chloride CH2Cl2 ...0.0..X Methylene Bromide CH2Br2 .82 X Methyl Formate HCOOCH3 .0..48 70 Methanol (Alcohol.350 .73 X Methyl Butanol (Alcohol.140 Methanesulfonic Acid CH3SO3H ..0.g.70 350 X 70 350 70 .Mayonnaise ...83 X Methyl Chloride (Chloromethane) CH3Cl .18 140 Methyl Sulfate .8 X Methyl Isopropyl Ketone CH3COCH(CH3)2 ..X 70 350 X X .X .0...X X 100 350 140 X ..harringtonplastics.Methylamine CH3NH2 .70 70 X 70 X X X .Methyl Alcohol CH3OH .350 210 .4 140 Mercuric Nitrate Hg(NO2)2 ..3. Air and gas applications have special considerations.4.79 140 Mercury (Quicksilver) Hg ...X 70 70 X X 70 X X X X X X X 60 .140 Melamine (Trizane) .com 126 1-800-877-4472 .140 Methyl Benzene (Toluene) .X 70 70 X ..X X .X Mercuric Chloride HgCl2 .. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.100 350 ..140 350 .99 Mercurous Nitrate HgNO3 ..X X 70 X X X X X X X X X X 100 X X X X X 250 X X 70 X X 70 X X X X X 100 70 X 70 X X 100 70 250 X 140 70 100 X 70 X 70 70 70 100 70 X X X X X 250 350 X X 0 X X A A A A A A A A A A - X 140 350 100 100 .1.98 Methyl Isobutyl Alcohol .13..92 X Methyl Acetone ..5.9 X Methyl “Cellosolve” ... e.0...4 140 Mercuric Cyanide Hg(CN)2 . Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.250 ..Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Formula Mash .X X - X 70 X X X .250 350 X 70 350 . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.350 .X Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) CH3COC2H5 . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www...0.0. suspect with certain stress levels.350 ..1.

..0.Ocenol (Oleyl Alcohol) .1 ...140 180 100 Nitric Acid 30% HNO3 30 ..X X X Monoethanolamine HOCH2CH2NH2 .140 180 100 Neon Ne . e.2..1.13 X .35 100 100 100 Milk .70 Nitrogen Solutions .6 X X X Nitromethane CH3NO2 .X Motor Oil .com 127 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC 140 100 250 250 250 70 100 100 100 70 140 70 140 X X 70 70 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 70 X X X X 70 - X 140 250 250 140 350 350 350 350 350 100 140 210 140 X 210 210 210 250 180 - X .70 70 180 N-Methyl Pyrrolidone .X X 70 Nitrous Oxide N2O ..7 140 180 180 Nicotine Acid . Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.Nitroglycerine ...X X 70 Octanoic (Caprylic Acid) CH3(CH2)6COOH ..2 X X 70 Nitroethane CH3CH2NO2 .1 140 180 180 Nickel Sulfate NiSO4 . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.Nitrogen N .X X X Nitrobenzene (Oil of Mirbane) C6H5NO2 ..- * Caution: Further testing needed.47 ...100 140 100 Nitric Acid 50% HNO3 50 .140 180 100 Molasses ...70 70 ..15 X X Natural Gas . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.100 140 100 Nitric Acid 40% HNO3 40 .3.100 100 70 Nitric Acid 70% HNO3 70 ..Nitric Acid 10% HNO3 10 .100 X 70 X X X X X 70 180 180 180 70 X X X X X X 100 X 180 250 70 250 250 250 70 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 140 140 180 140 250 180 100 210 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 70 350 350 X 180 180 140 140 210 210 180 210 X X X X X X X X X 70 X 100 70 X 210 180 180 180 180 70 180 180 180 140 100 X X X X X 320 X 210 X 180 X 180 70 140 70 180 X 70 70 70 70 X X X X 70 X X 70 X 70 70 140 140 180 70 70 70 X 210 250 180 180 140 140 140 140 X X 70 X 70 70 X 180 70 X .140 180 100 Naphthalene (Tar Camphor) C10H8 . Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.1. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.91 70 140 Octylamine CH3(CH2)7NH2 .1...harringtonplastics.Nickel Acetate .Octane C8H18 ..140 70 70 Nitrogen Dioxide NO2 .74 140 180 180 Nickel Chloride NiCl2 .100 70 100 Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene) C6H5CL .5 X X X Nitric Acid Fuming (Red) HNO3 ...... suspect with certain stress levels.140 180 140 Nitric Acid 20% HNO3 20 .1.210 180 140 140 70 X 140 210 140 70 140 180 X X X X X 70 X X X 70 70 70 180 180 180 100 X X X X X 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 X X X X 70 70 X X 70 70 70 180 140 140 70 X X X X X X X X X 70 70 X 70 X X X X 70 140 140 X 70 70 70 70 180 140 180 X X X X X X X X X X 70 X 70 70 - A A A A A A A A A A A A A NR NR A A A A A A A A A NR A NR A - A A A A A A A A A A A A NR NR A A A A A A A A A A NR A A NR A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A X A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B A A A A A X C C X A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A B B A A A A A - 180 X 100 X 70 250 250 250 210 180 210 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 210 140 140 100 70 X 100 70 210 180 100 100 210 X 250 140 70 X 70 X 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 X X X 70 70 70 70 - X 140 250 ..3....70 180 140 Naphtha .100 Methylsulfuric Acid CH3HSO4 ..g.70 180 70 Mustard . Air and gas applications have special considerations...70 ....140 180 Nickel Ni .70 ...Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Methylisobutyl Carbinol .X X 70 Morpholine C17H19NO3 ..5 140 180 180 Nickel Cyanide Ni(CN)2 .X 70 X Nitric Acid Concentrate 85% HNO3 85 1.140 180 180 Mineral Oil .140 180 180 Monochloroacetic Acid (Chloracetic Acid) .1.Nickel Nitrate Ni(NO3)2 .1..1.

140 ...100 210 70 Perchloric Acid 70% HClO4 70 .350 - ..1...harringtonplastics.140 X 100 250 100 Oils.70 .Oils..350 . Diesel Fuel . Olive .Palmitic Acid 10% 10 .... Bone ...140 350 250 250 250 ..350 180 350 210 180 350 210 180 350 100 140 350 250 350 70 250 350 210 180 350 X ..0.140 X 180 250 100 Oils. Aniline ..39 X X X X X * Caution: Further testing needed. Silicone .... Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval....X X X X X Phosgene Liquid ....180 70 100 70 Oils.140 160 100 250 70 Petroleum (Sour) ..140 X 140 250 X Oils.250 3350 210 250 350 210 140 350 140 350 70 ..70 .X X .70 .X X X X X Orange Extract ... Fuel .1 70 140 100 100 X Phenyl Acetate C6H5OOCCH3 .140 160 180 250 70 Oils. Anise ..140 160 180 250 100 Oils..140 180 100 250 Oils.140 – 100 250 70 Petroleum Oils ..140 140 70 180 70 Ozonized Water O3 .1 X ..250 X Peracetic Acid 40% CH3COOOH 40 . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F..6 X X X 180 X Petrolatum (Petroleum Jelly) ..140 250 70 Palmitic Acid 70% 70 ..350 70 . Cotton Seed .140 X 140 250 70 Oleic Acid (Red Oil) .70 X Perchloric Acid 10% HClO4 10 ..Oils.70 140 X 280 70 Perchloroethylene Cl2CCCl2 . Clove .Oils.. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.70 .X 140 X Phosgene Gas COCl2 .140 X 140 250 100 Oils.Oxalic Acid . Pine ...100 Oils..140 180 70 180 70 Oils.. Mineral .. Bay .100 250 70 Paraffin .100 ..100 180 140 250 100 Oils.. Cod Liver ....Oils.X X .70 X 70 180 Oils.. suspect with certain stress levels...140 140 140 250 X Pentane (Amyl Hydride) CH3(CH2)3CH3 ..1.1. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.07 ..g.9 140 140 140 250 Oleum (Fuming Sulfuric Acid) 100% H2SO4 100+ .Oils..Oils..1...Phenylhydrazine C6H5NHNH2 ...Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Oils.140 70 140 250 100 Oils.70 . 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. Castor .. Vegetable . Coconut ... Corn .140 – 70 250 Phenols 90% C6H5OH 90 1.. Creosote . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC. Air and gas applications have special considerations..com 128 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC 70 140 140 140 140 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 X 140 X 70 70 140 140 70 70 X - 70 X X X X 70 70 X X 180 180 70 X X 70 X X - 250 250 70 140 70 70 140 70 250 250 250 250 250 70 100 250 250 350 100 350 300 350 350 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 350 350 250 210 210 100 250 250 250 250 210 210 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 180 210 210 210 140 180 80 X 140 180 70 210 210 70 140 70 100 180 180 X - X 70 180 X 180 180 70 180 70 180 70 X 70 210 70 X X X 180 X - 140 70 70 20 140 70 140 210 70 210 180 180 100 70 180 70 210 180 210 X 70 180 70 70 140 140 140 140 140 70 70 140 X X X X 100 100 70 X 70 X X X 70 X 70 X 140 100 70 X 140 180 70 70 X X 70 70 X X X X X X 70 X 140 100 70 100 140 X X 70 70 70 X 140 X 70 X 100 180 70 70 X 140 70 X 70 X X X X - X 70 210 100 70 140 180 70 210 70 70 180 180 180 140 180 210 X 70 70 140 70 140 180 X X X 70 70 X X X X - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A C A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C X B A A A - A A A A A A B X A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A B A A A - 70 300 X .. Cinnamon .70 70 70 Oils. e.7 140 180 140 240 100 Oxygen Gas O2 ... Crude Sour .... Linseed ..210 70 Oils.... Citric .1.

140 180 180 250 ..140 180 140 250 100 140 . Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide...140 140 140 250 70 ..1. e.140 180 180 200 180 140 ..X .140 ..140 180 140 250 100 140 85 .19 70 ... Zinc Polyethylene Glycol Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsion Polyvinyl Alcohol Potash (Potassium Carbonate) Potassium Acetate Potassium Alum (Aluminum Potassium Sulfate) Potassium Bicarbonate Potassium Bichromate (Potassium Dichromate) Potassium Bisulfate Formula H3PO4 H3PO4 H3PO4 H3PO4 H3PO4 H3PO4 H3PO4 POCl3 PCl3 - .140 180 180 250 100 140 50 .C6H4(CO)2O .140 180 180 250 100 140 70 40 .140 180 180 250 100 140 . Gold Plating Solutions. Indium Plating Solutions.57 X X X 210 100 .com 129 1-800-877-4472 ..2..140 180 180 200 100 140 ..140 180 180 250 180 140 . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www. Nickel Plating Solutions.70 250 100 ..70 70 70 250 100 . dry Phosphorus Yellow Photographic Solutions Phthalic Acid (Terephthalic Acid) Phthalic Anhydride Pickle Brine Pickling Solutions Picric Acid 10% Pine Oil Plating Soltuions..10 ..140 180 180 250 100 140 180 KC2H3O2 . Brass Plating Solutions.48 .140 180 180 250 100 140 ..140 180 140 200 100 140 .140 180 180 200 100 140 .140 180 180 250 100 140 70 20 . Tin Plating Solutions.6 70 70 70 250 70 70 KHCO3 K2Cr2O7 KHSO4 .harringtonplastics.140 180 180 240 180 140 .. Bronze Plating Solutions.100 180 140 200 100 140 . Copper Plating Solutions.83 ..X .140 180 140 X ...70 250 70 70 (CH2CHOH)2 ..1.140 140 180 250 100 70 180 250 350 . Arsenic Plating Solutions. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks..250 350 180 250 70 210 180 140 140 A .. Lead Plating Solutions.140 180 140 240 100 140 .140 180 180 210 180 140 .140 180 140 250 100 140 80 . Cadmium Plating Solutions.140 140 100 250 . Silver Plating Solutions...g.140 180 180 200 180 140 .140 180 140 240 . Air and gas applications have special considerations.53 X X X .250 350 210 210 180 210 180 100 180 A . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.2 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 70 350 210 180 70 210 180 140 180 A . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Phosphoric Acid (Crude) Phosphoric Acid 10% Phosphoric Acid 20% Phosphoric Acid 40% Phosphoric Acid 50% Phosphoric Acid 80% Phosphoric Acid (Ortho) 85% Phosphorus Oxychloride Phosphorus Trichloride..180 70 100 70 .140 180 180 250 100 140 .140 180 100 200 180 140 . Antimony Plating Solutions..70 210 180 140 140 A * Caution: Further testing needed.1.1..K2CO3 .68 70 100 X 70 .140 180 180 250 100 140 - 180 250 250 250 250 250 250 70 250 250 70 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 250 250 70 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 250 250 350 350 250 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 180 180 180 180 100 100 X 100 140 180 70 X 180 140 140 210 140 210 210 210 210 210 210 X X 100 180 180 180 210 140 140 180 210 140 140 180 0 180 180 180 180 180 140 180 100 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 180 X 180 - 140 210 210 210 210 180 180 70 140 70 70 70 140 70 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 210 X 140 210 X 70 180 180 180 180 180 180 X 100 70 70 180 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 100 100 100 70 180 180 140 180 70 140 140 140 140 100 100 X X 70 70 70 70 X 70 X 70 140 140 100 140 X 140 70 70 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 100 70 70 140 70 X 100 100 100 100 X X X X 70 70 X X 70 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 70 70 100 140 70 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X B A X A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A B A A - A A A A A X X A A A A X B A A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A X A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - C6H4(COOH)2 ..140 180 180 250 180 140 .. Chrome Plating Solutions..140 180 180 250 180 140 .77 X 140 140 210 70 140 X . Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval..1...57 X X 70 180 100 ..100 140 180 250 180 140 70 C6H2(NO2)3OH 10 1.70 180 .1.. suspect with certain stress levels. Rhodium Plating Solutions.1. Iron Plating Solutions.1.

5 2. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks.7 1. suspect with certain stress levels.g.NR A A A A A A .7 140 180 180 250 100 70 180 250 350 210 210 180 210 180 140 180 A .harringtonplastics..7 1.2.350 .1 2..4 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 210 100 180 210 180 140 180 A 30 10 10 25 20 7 2.8 0.3 140 140 180 250 100 70 180 .1 2.8 0.6 1 1 1. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.9 2.NR . Propyl) Propargyl Alcohol 7% Propyl Acetate Propyl Alcohol Propylene Propylene Dichloride Propylene Glycol Pyridine Pyrogallic Acid (Pyrogallol) Quaternary Ammonium Salts Rayon Coagulating Bath Rhodan Salts (Thiocyanates) Rosins Rum Rust Inhibitors Salad Dressings Salicylaldehyde Formula KBrO3 KBr K2CO3 KClO3 KCI K2CrO4 KCuCN KCN K2Cr2O7 K3Fe(CN)6 K4Fe(CN)6 KF KOH KOH KClO KI KNO3 KClO4 KMNO4 K2S2O8 K2HPO4 K2SO4 K2S K2S2O3 C3H8 HC:CCH2OH C3H7OOCCH3 CH3CH2CH2OH CH3CH:CH2 CH3CHClCH2Cl CH2CHOHCH2OH N(CH)4CH C6H3(OH)3 C6H4OHCHO .com 130 1-800-877-4472 ..89 0. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Potassium Bromate Potassium Bromide 30% Potassium Carbonate (Potash) Potassium Chlorate Aqueous 30% Potassium Chloride Potassium Chromate Potassium Copper Cyanide Potassium Cyanide Potassium Dichromate 10% Potassium Ferricyanide Potassium Ferrocyanide Potassium Fluoride Potassium Hydroxide 10% Potassium Hydroxide 25% Potassium Hypochlorite Potassium Iodide Potassium Nitrate (Salt Peter) Potassium Perborate Potassium Perchlorate Potassium Permanganate 20% Potassium Persulfate Potassium Phosphate Potassium Salts Potassium Sulfate Potassium Sulfide Potassium Thiosulfate Propane Propanol (Alcohol.A A A A A A A A A A A A .A A .A A A A A A .51 1.5 2.- * Caution: Further testing needed.5 2. e..45 1.3..70 140 140 140 140 30 2. Air and gas applications have special considerations.A A A A A A A .7 2.. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.7 1.3 2 2.17 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 140 70 140 70 140 X X X 140 140 140 100 140 X 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 100 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 180 180 140 70 140 70 140 X X X 70 70 140 100 140 X 140 180 140 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 180 180 180 140 180 140 140 140 180 180 70 100 140 100 140 X 70 70 180 140 100 100 140 70 250 250 210 200 250 250 250 250 180 100 140 250 250 250 250 250 250 210 250 250 250 250 250 140 140 100 140 70 100 X 100 70 250 210 250 140 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 100 100 70 180 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 70 X 100 70 70 70 100 70 140 140 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 140 70 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 70 140 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 180 180 180 180 X 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 70 250 140 250 250 250 250 140 100 140 70 X 140 70 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 210 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 180 350 350 350 350 350 70 180 180 350 70 350 350 210 140 210 140 210 210 100 210 210 250 X 210 180 250 140 X X 100 100 180 100 180 180 180 140 140 140 180 180 180 180 70 180 180 100 70 70 70 X X 140 140 70 180 180 70 180 70 70 180 70 250 70 70 180 70 70 180 180 70 70 180 X 180 X 140 210 210 210 180 210 140 140 210 140 70 X 210 180 70 70 140 140 180 70 210 180 70 70 210 210 X 210 70 70 140 X 140 70 180 140 140 100 100 180 180 140 140 140 140 180 180 180 140 180 180 140 140 180 70 180 180 X 180 70 180 X X 70 140 140 X 70 70 140 140 140 140 100 140 140 180 140 140 140 140 140 70 70 140 70 70 140 70 70 70 140 X 140 X X 70 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 X 180 140 140 180 140 X 70 140 140 140 70 140 140 70 70 X X 70 70 140 70 70 70 100 X 100 X X 70 X X 70 180 140 140 70 A A A A C B A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A - A B A A A B A B B A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A B A - A A B A A A B B C A B A A B A A A A A A B A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A .5 2 2 3.A NR A A .

70 180 X 70 A A Shellac Orange .140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 250 250 140 .3. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide..44 100 180 140 210 100 140 70 250 350 140 140 100 180 140 X 70 A Saline Solutions (Brine) .180 ...140 180 180 250 100 140 .140 250 70 140 .350 .350 . The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.47 ...95 140 180 180 250 100 140 .4.210 180 .. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC...140 . 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.70 ...70 .70 .Sodium Acetate NaC2H3O2 .. e..2.1..harringtonplastics.. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.140 140 140 100 100 140 70 250 350 210 180 180 X 180 140 180 NR NR Sodium Hydroxide 30% NaOH 30 .X 70 .140 140 140 140 A A Sodium Benzoate C6H5COONa .250 ...140 140 140 140 A A Sodium Carbonate (Soda Ash) Na2CO3 .2..140 180 180 250 100 140 70 250 350 140 180 180 250 140 70 180 A A Sea Water .140 180 .180 180 210 210 140 180 A A Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) Na2CO3 .140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 250 180 180 210 180 140 140 A A Selenic Acid H2SeO4 .X ... suspect with certain stress levels..X .1.140 ..250 350 70 180 ..140 180 100 250 100 140 18 140 350 180 180 70 210 180 140 140 A A Sodium Bisulfate NaHSO4 .3.Sodium Aluminate Na2Al2O4 .210 180 140 140 A Sodium Na .6 140 140 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 250 140 70 140 140 140 70 A Sodium Hydrosulfide NaSH .32 140 180 180 250 70 140 70 250 350 210 180 180 180 180 140 140 A A Silver Sulfate Ag2SO4 .350 .Silver Bromide AgBr .350 ..140 180 180 250 ..70 180 X 70 A A Silicone Oil ....250 350 .3.140 140 100 200 70 140 180 140 350 X 180 180 140 ..280 140 140 180 A A Shellac Bleached ..5...250 350 .2.140 140 140 140 100 140 180 250 350 210 180 180 X 180 140 180 NR NR Sodium Hydroxide 20% NaOH 20 ..70 70 70 70 X A A Sodium Hydroxide 15% NaOH 15 .140 140 140 140 A A Silver Nitrate AgNO3 .2 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 250 180 ..140 180 180 210 100 140 180 180 350 ..180 .6.140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 210 70 70 180 180 140 140 A A Sodium Dichromate Na2Cr2O7 .70 .5 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 140 350 300 70 70 140 140 70 70 A A Sodium Fluoride NaF .140 180 70 250 100 .2.1...2....2.140 70 X 180 70 .350 ...140 140 180 250 70 140 70 250 350 250 180 70 70 70 70 70 A A Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3 .4 70 180 70 200 100 140 180 140 350 100 180 70 140 140 X X A A Sodium Bromide NaBr .140 140 140 140 100 140 70 250 350 210 180 210 X 180 140 180 NR NR Sodium Hydroxide 50% NaOH 50 .A A Sewage .Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Chemicals Formula Salicylic Acid C6H4(OH)(COOH) ...6 140 180 70 140 100 70 .70 .2 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 300 180 180 210 180 140 140 A A Sodium Chlorite 25% NaClO2 25 ..140 ...210 180 140 140 A A Soap Solutions ..210 180 70 70 A A Sodium Ferricyanide Na3Fe(CN)6 .com 131 1-800-877-4472 % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC B A A A A A A A X A A A A A B A A A X A A A A A A A A A X A A - A A A A A A A A X A B A A A A A B A A A A A B A A A B A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A .5 140 180 .140 .210 350 X 180 70 X X X X A A Sodium Chromate Na2CrO4 ..5 140 180 140 250 100 140 X 250 350 250 210 180 140 140 70 X A A Sodium Chloride (Salt) NaCl . Air and gas applications have special considerations..210 180 140 140 A A Sodium Chlorate NaClO3 .140 350 250 70 70 140 140 100 70 A A Sodium Ferrocyanide Na4Fe(CN)6 .1..100 350 .70 .4 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 250 70 180 210 180 140 180 A A Sodium Bisulfite NaHSO3 .22.100 180 140 140 140 .1..55 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 250 250 140 .2 140 140 180 250 100 140 100 250 350 180 210 180 180 180 140 140 A A Sodium Bichromate (Sodium Dichromate) Na2Cr2O7 .210 180 140 140 .100 .1...70 ..X X 70 100 100 140 ..A A Silver Chloride AgCl .1.140 180 140 250 70 140 .100 180 140 250 100 70 .140 140 A A Sodium Cyanide NaCN .250 .5 140 180 180 250 100 140 ..350 ..140 140 180 70 100 140 70 250 350 210 180 210 X 180 140 X NR NR * Caution: Further testing needed..70 .350 300 100 .70 .A A Sodium Hydrosulfite Na2S2O6 .140 140 140 250 X .180 .A A Silver Cyanide AgCN .140 180 180 250 100 140 70 250 350 140 180 180 70 180 140 .5 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 250 180 70 210 180 140 180 A A Sodium Borate (Borax) NaB4O7 .5 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 210 180 180 X 180 140 70 A A Sodium Alum ..45 140 180 140 250 100 140 70 .7 140 180 180 250 100 140 180 250 350 210 210 180 180 140 140 100 A A Sodium Bromate NaBrO3 ....g.A A Salt Brine .

harringtonplastics.140 140 100 X 100 140 70 140 350 - - . suspect with certain stress levels. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.210 X 140 X - * Caution: Further testing needed.51 0.A A A A A A A A .7 1..140 100 X 100 100 140 180 250 350 X 140 259 140 70 X 15 5 10 50 50 40 2.7 2..1.0..1 100 100 140 180 100 .com 132 1-800-877-4472 . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.350 210 180 .3 2.55 140 140 140 180 100 70 . 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks.3.9 X X X 180 70 X 250 350 250 180 180 140 X ..180 140 140 140 .2 2 2..4 2.3 1.62 ..6 1..70 X .350 .25 .. Air and gas applications have special considerations..25% NaOCl Sodium Hypochlorite Conc 15% NaOCl Sodium Hyposulfate Na2S2O3 Sodium Iodide NaI Sodium Metaphosphate (NaPO3)n Sodium Metasilicate Na2SiO3 Sodium Nitrate NaNO3 Sodium Nitrite NaNO2 Sodium Palmitate 5% Sodium Perborate NaBO3 Sodium Perchlorate NaClO4 Sodium Peroxide 10% Na2O2 Sodium Phosphate Acid Na2HPO4 Sodium Phosphate Alkaline (Mono Basic) NaH2PO4 Sodium Phosphate Neutral (Tri Basic) Na3PO4 Sodium Polyphosphate Sodium Silicate (Water Glass) Na2OSiO2 Sodium Sulfate Na2SO4 Sodium Sulfide 50% Na2S Sodium Sulfite Na2SO3 Sodium Tetraborate 50% Na2B4O7 Sodium Thiocyanate NaSCN Sodium Thiosulfate (HypO) 40% Na2S2O3 Sorghum Soy Sauce Soybean Oil Stannic Chloride (Tin Chloride) SnCl4 Stannic Salts Stannous Chloride (Tin Salts) SnCL2 Starch (Amylum) Stearic Acid Stoddard Solvent (Dry Cleaning Solvent) Strontium Carbonate SrCO3 Styrene C6H5CH:CH2 Succinic Acid (Butanedioic Acid) Sugar Solutions Sulfamic Acid 25% HSO3NH2 70 .180 .g.140 140 100 250 X ..Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Formula Sodium Hydroxide 70% NaOH Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach) 5. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.250 350 140 210 .8 1.84 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 140 140 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 140 180 70 140 140 180 180 180 100 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 205 250 250 250 250 250 250 100 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 100 100 100 100 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 180 180 180 70 180 180 70 180 180 180 250 350 X 180 70 210 180 140 140 A 250 140 250 250 250 250 140 250 70 250 250 250 140 250 350 350 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 180 180 300 250 250 210 140 210 140 140 180 210 180 180 180 180 180 140 100 180 180 180 100 180 70 70 180 180 180 70 180 70 180 180 70 210 70 210 210 180 140 140 180 140 140 180 180 70 70 210 140 180 70 180 180 180 140 70 140 X 140 70 100 180 70 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 70 X 140 70 70 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 100 140 140 140 140 70 70 140 100 A A ..180 A . e.. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.140 180 180 250 100 ...7 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 100 140 140 140 140 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 180 180 X 100 140 180 180 180 70 180 140 180 140 100 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 100 100 70 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 180 180 180 X 250 140 250 140 250 250 140 140 70 250 250 350 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 X 140 250 250 70 100 140 180 180 70 180 0 250 70 70 250 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 140 140 210 210 210 180 180 180 210 X 140 180 180 180 180 140 70 140 180 X 140 100 100 140 140 140 70 70 70 140 2 140 180 180 250 70 140 1.70 250 350 140 210 70 140 210 100 140 A 25 2.70 70 70 X NR NR X X 100 140 180 140 140 70 70 70 140 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A X C A A A A A A - A A X A A A A A B A A A A A A B A A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - A A A A A C A C C A A B A B A A X A B 5....A X X A .A A NR A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A - .6 2.

X X 70 140 X .- .X X 70 .70 70 100 .64 X X X .0.. Air and gas applications have special considerations. cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.9 X X X .X 70 X 180 X X X .100 X X 70 X X X X X X X 70 180 180 X X X 70 70 70 140 70 140 X X X X 70 X X X X 140 70 X X X X 140 70 . Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide..6 X 70 140 100 70 .70 .69 1.X ..X X X ..140 180 .86 140 140 X 140 100 X 140 140 140 140 140 70 70 70 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 70 180 180 180 100 X 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 70 X X 180 X 180 X 180 140 180 X 180 140 X 140 140 X 180 180 140 140 100 100 70 X X X 180 X 180 140 180 100 140 140 70 70 70 X 250 200 100 250 250 X 180 250 250 250 210 210 210 210 180 X 210 100 250 250 250 250 250 210 250 180 200 250 X 180 X 200 140 140 210 210 70 X 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 X X X 100 X 70 100 70 100 X 100 X X X 70 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 X X X X X X X X 70 70 140 140 X X X 180 180 70 X X X X 210 X X 70 X X 180 X X 250 350 180 180 210 180 180 140 140 A 70 70 250 100 70 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 350 210 100 210 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 250 X 180 140 250 180 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 X 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 250 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 X 210 140 X 100 210 210 70 X X X X X X 140 140 140 210 250 100 140 X X 100 140 180 X 140 140 210 210 210 210 70 180 X X X X X 180 X 180 180 180 180 70 70 70 250 250 180 180 210 180 100 X X 180 70 70 180 70 70 140 140 X 250 250 210 180 180 140 140 X X X 140 70 70 140 180 70 70 X 140 140 X 180 140 140 140 100 100 100 X X X 140 X X 140 70 70 X 70 X X 100 X 140 100 140 100 X X X X X X X X X 70 140 70 X X X X 140 140 70 140 140 100 X X X X X 70 140 180 70 140 X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B A B A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X B B B A A A X C X X X B A A A B A A A A A A A A A A X A B A A A A A X X A A X A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A B A B A A A B B A A A B A A A A B A A A A A A A A A .140 180 180 .X X X X X X X ..100 180 70 200 X 70 X 250 350 ... The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F..100 180 140 140 100 1.X X X X A * Caution: Further testing needed..X 100 350 ..1.67 0. e.g.65 70 70 .. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval.harringtonplastics. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Sulfate Liquors (Paper Pulp) Sulfite Liquor (Sulfite Paper Process) Sulfonated Detergents Sulfur Chloride Sulfur Dioxide Dry Sulfur Dioxide Wet Sulfur Slurries Sulfur Trioxide Dry Sulfuric Acid 10% Sulfuric Acid 30% Sulfuric Acid 50% Sulfuric Acid 60% Sulfuric Acid 70% Sulfuric Acid 80% Sulfuric Acid 90% Sulfuric Acid 95% Sulfuric Acid 98% Sulfuric Acid 100% Sulfurous Acid Sulfuryl Chloride Syrup (Sucrose in water) Tall Oil Tallow (Animal Fat) Tannic Acid Tanning Liquors Tar Tartaric Acid (Dihydroxy Succinic Acid) Tertiary Butyl Alcohol Tetrachloroethane Tetraethyl Lead Tetrahydrofuran Tetralin (Tetrahydro-Naphthalene) Thionyl Chloride Thread Cutting Oils Titanium Tetrachloride Toluene Tomato Juice Toxaphene-Xylene Transformer Oil (Liquid Insulators-Mineral Oil Type) Tributyl Phosphate Trichloroacetic Acid Formula S2Cl2 SO2 SO2 S03 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO3 SO2Cl2 C76H52O46 CHCl2CHCl2 Pb(C2H5)4 C10H12 SOCl2 TiCl4 CH3C6H5 (C4H9)3PO4 CCl3COOH 10 30 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 100 - . Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.com 133 1-800-877-4472 ..1.100 350 X 180 .1.X X 70 180 180 . suspect with certain stress levels.250 X 100 140 .1.03 1.70 .X X X ...140 X X 70 X X A ...8 140 180 .70 70 .

39 1.9 4. Consult your local Harrington office for recommendations www.9 0.Chemical Resistance Guide Chemical Resistance Guide Plastics Duraplus ABS Polyethylene-Cross Linked (XLPE) HD Linear Polyethylene (PE) Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polypropylene (PP) Elastomers Seals Metals Approximate sp Gravity @ 100% Concentration 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel % Concentration Buna-N (Nitrile) Polysulfone Hastelloy C Vinylester Neoprene Titanium Ceramic Carbon Epoxy EPDM Halar Viton CPVC PTFE PVC Chemicals Trichloroethane (Methyl Chloroform) Trichloroethylene Trichloropropane Tricresyl Phosphate (TCP) Triethanolamine Triethyl Phosphate Triethylamine Trimethylpropane Trisodium Phosphate Turbine Oil Turpentine Urea Urine Vanilla Extract (Vanillin) Varnish Vaseline Vegetable Oil Vinegar (4-8% Acetic Acid) Vinyl Acetate Vinyl Chloride Vinyl Ether Water Acid Mine Water Deionized Water Demineralized Water Distilled Water Potable Water Salt Water Sewage Whey Whiskey White Acid White Liquor Wines Xenon Xylene Yeast Zeolite Zinc Acetate Zinc Carbonate Zinc Chloride 40% Zinc Chromate Zinc Nitrate Zinc Phosphate Zinc Salts Zinc Sulfate Formula CH2CCl3 CHCl:CCl2 (CH3C6H4O)3PO (HOCH2CH2)3N (C2H5)3PO4 (C2H5)3N (CH2OH)3C3H5 Na3PO4 C10H16 CO(NH2)2 CH2:CHCl CH2:CHOCH:CH2 H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O NH4HF2HF Xe C6H4(CH3)2 Zn(CH3COO)2 ZnCO3 ZnCL2 ZnCrO4 Zn(NO3)2 Zn3(PO4)2 ZnSO4 40 - 1.4 4 2 X X X 70 X 70 140 140 70 140 140 160 X 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 X 70 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 70 X 180 180 70 70 180 180 180 140 180 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 180 180 X 70 180 70 180 180 180 180 180 X X 70 70 70 X 180 70 X 180 180 180 70 140 140 180 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 140 180 X 140 180 180 180 180 180 180 100 180 210 X 70 X 210 250 250 250 250 250 250 210 210 250 200 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 180 140 250 250 250 250 250 X X X 70 70 100 100 100 100 70 70 70 100 70 X 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 70 X 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 X 140 140 X 140 140 140 70 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 70 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X X 70 70 X 180 180 70 X X 180 180 18 180 100 100 X 70 180 70 180 180 180 140 100 21 70 210 100 250 250 250 140 70 140 250 250 250 140 250 250 250 250 250 205 250 250 250 250 140 250 250 250 350 350 70 350 350 350 350 180 350 70 350 350 350 70 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 70 70 350 180 350 350 350 350 350 350 100 180 100 140 70 180 140 140 180 180 X 180 250 250 180 140 140 140 140 250 X 70 210 100 X 140 140 180 140 210 180 140 100 140 180 180 X X 100 180 180 180 180 180 180 70 140 180 70 180 70 180 180 70 70 X X X 70 X 70 180 180 X 180 180 210 180 70 X 250 180 70 180 140 70 X X 70 140 180 140 140 70 70 180 140 X X 180 70 140 180 180 180 140 180 70 70 70 70 X 70 210 210 70 210 X X 70 70 70 70 X X 140 140 X X 180 140 70 70 70 140 180 180 180 180 180 70 X 70 70 180 70 180 180 70 180 X X 140 70 X 70 70 X 140 X 70 X 70 X 140 X 140 70 140 180 140 140 140 140 70 X 70 X 140 70 140 70 140 X X X X 70 X 140 70 70 70 140 140 70 70 70 180 X X X 140 70 140 180 140 180 140 180 70 X 70 X 140 70 70 140 70 140 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B A A * Caution: Further testing needed.3 0.93 0. Note: Recent studies have shown that surfactants and detergents even in trace quantities can adversely affect the performance of certain thermoplastics in applications like sodium hydroxide.12 0.com 134 1-800-877-4472 . cross-linked polyethylene and CPVC.77 0.g.73 0. Air and gas applications have special considerations.9 3.9 1.harringtonplastics. 1Polyethylene (PE) resins are used for storage tanks. Higher temperatures can be achieved with manufacturers approval. The normal upper temperature rating for tanks is 100°F.16 1. suspect with certain stress levels.45 2. e.1 1.

Notes Notes www.com 135 1-800-877-4472 .harringtonplastics.

harringtonplastics.Notes Notes www.com 136 1-800-877-4472 .