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Project Management (MB 0049


Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350


Providing adequate resources are key to productivity – Comment. Explain the relevance of Work Breakdown Structure in determining responsibility area. What do you understand by Resource Smoothing?

Ans : To encourage productivity, the researchers must be provided with adequate resources in terms of personnel, equipment, facilities and time. It is extremely frustrating to a professional to be given a challenging, interesting assignment, but not the necessary resources to complete it in an effective manner. Stable financial support is a major factor in sustaining the researcher’s commitment and enthusiasm for a project and in encouraging creativity. Resources should also be available to follow up on unplanned ideas as they evolve during a project. Creative workers must be provided with sufficient time for reading, discussion and thought and creative reflection. While pressure in the form of deadlines is thought to encourage creativity, the deadline should be set in consultation with the staff, otherwise it is counterproductive. More time can be made available for creative people to conduct their research by reducing their administrative burdens. The aim of this productivity management guide is to provide small business owners and managers with an overview of how company productivity can be improved. It covers what productivity is, how it is measured, and what a company can do to increase it. Why should productivity management growth be a national concern? It is because, if too low, the Nation can neither improve its standard of living at home nor compete successfully abroad. Productivity growth affects wage negotiations, inflation rates, business decisions, exchange rates, a host of other economic, political and social conditions, and, therefore, every small business owner and manager.


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inflation. capacity utilization. There are many productivity factors the firm can manage. hours worked. is the resource (human and capital) allocation maximizing established goals. A typical example of a WBS of a recruitment process is indicated in following diagram.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 The factors affecting both National and individual firm productivity are many and diverse. age and sex composition of the work force. Assignment-2 Page 2 of 17 . Nationally. all can affect. is it working at an economy-ofscale level. if management sees productivity as a problem. the educational. government regulations. is there a commitment to establish a company-wide Productivity Improvement Program? Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The entire process of a project may be considered to be made up on number of sub process placed in different stage called the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). How well does the firm utilize new knowledge. levels of capital investment and savings. productivity rates. what is the overall quality of the company's management? And. favorably or unfavorably. are the employees highly motivated and loyal or is there labor unrest and high worker turnover. changes in employment. and finally. among others.

which is then used to show the details at the lower levels of the project. For example. WBS is produced by identifying the key elements. In addition to its function in cost accounting. Resource Smoothing – Resource smoothing is part of the resource leveling process. they form a relatively stable set of categories in which the costs of the planned actions needed to achieve them can be collected. not withstanding any constraints imposed during the leveling process. Since the planned outcomes are the desired ends of the project. In itself. attempts to determine a resource requirement that is "smooth" and where peaks and troughs are eliminated. It is not time based – there is no timescale on the drawing. The WBS does not show dependencies other than a grouping under the key stages. Project key stages form the highest level of the WBS. the WBS also helps map requirements from one level of system specification to another. resource smoothing is the process that. breaking each element down into component parts and continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages have been identified. These can then be allocated to the appropriate person. A well-designed WBS makes it easy to assign each project activity to one and only one terminal element of the WBS.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 WBS is the technique to analyse the content of work and cost by breaking it down into its component parts. Each key stage comprises many tasks identified at the start of planning and later this list will have to be validated. The WBS is organized around the primary products of the project (or planned outcomes) instead of the work needed to produce the products (planned actions). for example a requirements cross reference matrix mapping functional requirements to high level or low level design documents. even if 7 units of a given Assignment-2 Page 3 of 17 .

activities should be ranked in order of total work content and total float or slack available for that activity. Given that the resource requirements of those activities on the critical path are fixed. In the serial method of resource allocation. then allocation of resources is based on Assignment-2 Page 4 of 17 . The two most commonly used heuristics are the serial and the parallel methods. A useful device for prioritizing is to consider the ratio of total work content/total float remaining and give priority to activities with the highest value of this ratio. utilizing 5 of these units each week is preferable to 4 one week. several heuristics are available to solve such problems. Solving the resource scheduling problem for optimal solutions is extremely complex. Beyond this consideration. If two or more activities compete for the same resources. activities are sorted into a list and resources are allocated to each of these activities one at a time until resources are allocated to all activities. 2 the next and so on. particularly for large project networks with many different resource types. resources are allocated on a period by period basis rather than each activity. a subjective judgment should be made about the type of resource (or resources) associated with each activity. However. In determining which activity should be given priority. 7 the next. it is still desirable that resource usage is as smooth as possible. Even if there is no limit to the amount of any one resource available.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 resource are available at any one time. however. priority should be given to the activities whose resources are considered to be most important. These heuristics allocate resources to activities to minimize project delay based on certain priority rules. some order or priority needs to be established for selecting which activity and which particular resource associated with this activity should be given priority in the smoothing process. In this method only those activities whose preceding activities have been completed will be considered. In the parallel method.

but with a strong base of R and D of our own. What are the main utilities of an ERP package? What is the significance of reviewing ROI ? Ans: Concurrency in High Technology Development . Assignment-2 Page 5 of 17 . • • • Minimum slack Smallest duration Lowest activity identification number Regardless of the scheduling heuristic used. No doubt. So the strategy would be utilize the services of external resource to the extent they are suitable for our purpose. have been found to be the most effective in minimizing project delay. Furthermore. the parallel method has been the most widely used heuristic. The following priority rules. there are many specialized Research and Development firms which offer their expertise to their clients’ problems.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 certain prescribed priority rules.2) Explain the concept of concurrency in High Technology Development. the primary impact of resource constrained scheduling is the loss of flexibility due to the reduction in slack.As the application of technology has become critical for the survival of organization it has become imperative for organizations to initiate measures for the development of high technology to be ahead of competition. This will really differentiate the best companies from other ordinary ones. Compared to the serial method. their services are available to the competitors and many technologies developed by the company’s own research personnel cannot be shared with outsiders. However. in the order presented. the reduction in slack also increases the number of critical or near-critical activities Q.

The distributed design allows a business to assemble modules from different vendors without the need for the placement of multiple copies of complex. An ERP system can either reside on a centralized server or be distributed across modular hardware and software units that provide "services" and communicate on a local area network. and human resources. Concurrency can be accomplished in many ways both for product development as well as technology transfer. Built on a centralized database and normally utilizing a common computing platform. expensive computer systems in areas which will not use their full capacity Assignment-2 Page 6 of 17 .Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 The following give some guidelines in the form of rules which would help organization to be strong in this area. The practices of the concurrent engineering where the design of the product and all its associated processes are carried out simultaneously based on team work and participation. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an integrated computer-based system used to manage internal and external resources including tangible assets. but also improves the product functionality with regard to requirements. financial resources. It is a software architecture whose purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. materials. Many of the tasks that are normally done in a serial fashion can be done in parallel by synchronizing the flow of information. user evaluation and production. Building concurrency into every activity is essential to reduce the development cycle time and to counter the technology obsolescence. ERP systems consolidate all business operations into a uniform and enterprise wide system environment. Would not only help in reducing the development cycle time.

fixed assets Project management – Costing. and commission calculation Financials – General ledger. capacity. manufacturing projects. supply chain planning. time and expense. cash management. activity management Assignment-2 Page 7 of 17 . purchasing. workflow management. manufacturing process. performance units. claim processing. inventory. product configurator. billing. and manufacturing flow Supply chain management – Order to cash. order entry. and inspection of goods. bills of material. supplier scheduling. accounts receivable.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 The main Utilities of ERP Components are i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Financials Distribution Human Resources Product lifecycle management Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Supply chain management • Purchasing • Manufacturing • Distribution vii) Warehouse Management System viii) Management Portal/Dashboard ix) Decision Support System All the above modules can exist in a complete system or utilized in an ad-hoc fashion. quality control. accounts payable. Commercial Applications Manufacturing – Engineering. scheduling. cost management.

service. from invoice through cash receipt Managing inter-dependencies of complex processes bill of materials • Tracking the three-way match between purchase orders (what was ordered). training. a large manufacturer may find itself with many software applications that cannot communicate or interface effectively with one another. Integration among different functional areas to ensure proper communication. and costing (what the vendor invoiced) Assignment-2 Page 8 of 17 . productivity and efficiency • • • • • Design engineering (how to best make the product) Order tracking. customer contact and call center support Data services – Various "self-service" interfaces for customers. benefits Customer relationship management – Sales and marketing. commissions. suppliers. and/or employees Access control – Management of user privileges for various processes In the absence of an ERP system. roistering.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 Human resources – payroll. Tasks that need to interface with one another may involve: • ERP systems connect the necessary software in order for accurate forecasting to be done. time and attendance. inventory receipts (what arrived). from acceptance through fulfillment The revenue cycle. This allows inventory levels to be kept at maximum efficiency and the company to be more profitable.

real time information is available to management anywhere. empowering. such as embezzlement. and insider crime.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 • The accounting for all of these tasks: tracking the revenue. and building common visions Some security features are included within an ERP system to protect against both outsider crime. human resource. anytime to make proper decisions. A data-tampering scenario. such as industrial espionage. marketing and sales. ERP systems typically provide functionality for implementing internal controls to prevent actions of this kind. • • Shorten production lead-time and delivery time Facilitating business learning. cost and profit at a granular level.consolidation of finance. for example. • Reduces the risk of loss of sensitive data by consolidating multiple permissions and security models into a single structure. Benefits of this include: • Eliminates the problem of synchronizing changes between multiple systems . ERP Systems centralize the data in one place. and manufacturing applications Permits control of business processes that cross functional boundaries • • Provides top-down view of the enterprise (no "islands of information"). ERP vendors are also moving toward better integration with other kinds of information security tools Assignment-2 Page 9 of 17 . might involve a disgruntled employee intentionally modifying prices to below-the-breakeven point in order to attempt to interfere with the company's profit or other sabotage.

ROI should be quantified in terms of dollars and should include a calculation of the breakeven point (BEP). reduced cost. ROI may include the benefits associated with improved mission performance. speed.e. If the project is ahead of schedule or under budget the BEP may occur earlier. In either case.. which is the date when the investment begins to generate a positive return. Assignment-2 Page 10 of 17 . stage exit) or at least yearly. the BEP may move out in time. ROI should reflect such risk factors as the project’s technical complexity. Where appropriate. based on project spending and accomplishments to date.Return on Investment (ROI) is the calculated benefit that an organization is projected to receive in return for investing money (resources) in a project. Any project that has developed a business case is expected to refresh the ROI at each key project decision point (i. ROI should reflect actual returns observed through pilot projects and prototypes. ROI information is used to assess the status of the business viability of the project at key checkpoints throughout the project’s lifecycle. or flexibility. If the project is behind schedule or over budget. increased quality. and the consequences of under or nonperformance. the agency’s management capacity. the likelihood of cost overruns. the investment would be in an information system development or enhancement project.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 ROI . Within the context of the Review Process. the information is important for decision making based on the value of the investment throughout the project lifecycle. and increased customer and employee satisfaction. ROI should be recalculated at every major checkpoint of a project to see if the BEP is still on schedule.

then it may not be realistic or practical to require the retrofit calculation of ROI once the project is added to the Review portfolio. and a summary of the process used to identify and select system enhancements. The memorandum should provide a brief history of the program. a description of the major benefits realized to date with as much quantitative data as possible. it is recommended that the project leader replace the text on the ROI document through – Assignment-2 Page 11 of 17 . and labour involved in determining the cited benefit. For the Project Management Review. identify the specific site. it is recommended that a memorandum of record be developed as a substitute for ROI. calculation of benefits and costs.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 Exclusions – If the detailed data collection. In each case above. and capitalization data from which Return on Investment (ROI) is derived was not required for a particular project. Some of the major benefits experienced by sites that installed the information system that would be important to include in the memorandum are: • • • • Decommissioning of mainframe computers Reduction/redirection of labour Elimination of redundant systems Ability to more cost effectively upgrade all sites with one standard upgrade package. The memorandum will be used as tool for responding to any future audit inquiries on project ROI. systems. Identify any costs or dollar savings that are known or have been estimated. In such a case.

Q. and A copy of the memorandum of record for the Review repository. It requires all agencies to capitalize items acquired or developed for internal use if the expected service life is two or more years and its cost meets or exceeds the agency’s threshold for internal use software. Program managers are considered to be the source of cost information for internal use software projects. A bulleted list of the most important points from the memorandum of record. It is possible today to establish a monitoring system aligned with an organisation’s supply Assignment-2 Page 12 of 17 . Ans: Supply Chain Monitoring (SCMo) is a multi-level SCM concept supporting the fulfilment/execution process. including employee salaries and benefits for both Federal and Contractor employees who materially participate in the Software project.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 1) 2) 3) A note stating which stage of its cycle the project is in. There is one notable exception to this guidance.3) Explain three levels of SCMo documentation. Explain in detail GDM and its key features. The standard requires capitalization of direct and indirect costs. Any internal use software project in the maintenance phase of its lifecycle that adds a new site or undertakes an enhancementor technology refresh that reaches the cost threshold established by Standard will need to satisfy capitalization requirements. If capitalization data is collected for the project in the future. Explain PILIN. the project would be expected to calculate and track its ROI. the ROI slide can be eliminated from the package. In subsequent Reviews of the information system.

Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 chain. Optimized allocation in bottleneck situations due to network-wide inventory and demand transparency. up-to-date process documentation. where users can look up the current process whenever necessary. Offer a central location of all process and system related information – from customizing documentation to working guidelines. The documentation is valid for the SCM-group of Odette. 1. Supply Chain Monitoring (SCMo) can be an add-on to existing ERP systems. The main objectives of SCMo are as follows. Present the standard process in the intranet. 2. The Documentation system is internet based to provide immediate access to current. The intent of this document is to define the structure of the documentation system. i) ii) iii) Prevention of stock-out and over supply. and the method generation and to attain common documentation of all standard process of Odette. Allow flexible and quick adaptation in case of process changes or enhancement and provide the update information immediately. The system allows users to manage through graphical structures to relevant documentation and process which were created with the ARIS – Toolset. Early warnings. 3. elimination of bull-whip effect. its content. The process pro-document action system serves the following objectives: Present standard process to be adhered to across the industry and in so doing secure their correct application. Assignment-2 Page 13 of 17 .

accuracy. Support adoption and use of persistent identifiers and shared persistent identifier management services by the project stakeholders 2. Deploy a Worldwide Site Consolidation Solution for Exchange Server 2003 at Microsoft 4. The broad objectives are to: 1. shared identifier management infrastructure that enables persistence of identifiers and associated services over archival lengths of time 3. design and deliver products and services to any customer worldwide with speed. Plan for a sustainable. Add Picture 5. PILIN is a particular challenge for e-research communities where massive amounts of data are being generated without any means of managing this data over any length of time. economy and reliability.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 PILIN – Persistent Identifiers and Linking Infrastructure There has been a growing realisation that sustainable identifier infrastructure is required to deal with the vast amount of digital assets being produced and stored within universities. GDM enables its customer to leverage varied locations across the globe Assignment-2 Page 14 of 17 . Use Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 to consolidate more than 70 messaging sites worldwide into seven physical locations GLOBAL DELIVERY MODEL (GDM) is enables an industry or business to plan.

Standardisation – It includes ingenious design and development of components and features which are like to be accepted by 90% of worldwide customers.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 that provides optimised value for every component of delivery. is the use of flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output. Those systems combine the low unit costs of mass production Assignment-2 Page 15 of 17 . c. It adopts plug-and-socket concepts with minimum adaptable joints or connections. b. Modularisation – GDM requires product or solution to be split up into smallest possible individual identifiable entities. GDM heavily depends on Global Standards of Design focusing on highly standardised methods and processes of manufacture or development. manufacturing. a. The key features of GDM are shown in below figure. call centers and management. These entities will have limited individual functioning capability but they can become powerful and robust in combination with other modules. Customization. Minimum Customisation – GDM mandates only minimum changes or modifications to suit individual customers. in marketing. Let us discuss each key feature of GDM.

This degree of mass customization has only seen limited adoption. If an enterprise's marketing department offers individual products (atomic market fragmentation) it doesn't often mean that a product is produced individually. These Microbial Entities are standardised even across Multiple Modules. some of the special features of GDM are:  A global presence with a knowledge of the local language and culture (it helps in better understanding of customer requirements)  A global access implying that the organisation has access to resources of varying costs (it helps in delivering services to its customers at an optimal cost. Application of these Microbial Entities rest within multiple Projects or Products or even as add-on to suit customer needs later. Maximum Micro Structuring – GDM encourages splitting of the Product Modules further into much smaller entity identifiable more through characteristics rather than application features. however.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350 processes with the flexibility of individual customization. but rather that similar variants of the same mass-produced item are available. such as software-based product configurations which make it possible to add and/or change functionalities of a core product or to build fully custom enclosures from scratch. d. Many implementations of mass customization are operational today. Special Features of GDM In addition to the features discussed above. typically a mix of costlier ‘on-site’ resources combined with cheaper ‘offshore’ resources) Assignment-2 Page 16 of 17 .

a firm can work round the clock for its customer. handing off work from one location to another at the end of the ‘day shift’  Unimaginable speed of response and introduction  Common pool of Microbial Components  Largely independent of skill sets required at delivery stages  Highly automated processes  Quality Assurance as a concurrent rather than a controlled Process  Near-Shore development.Project Management (MB 0049) Manasa Ranjan Patnaik 511021350  A global delivery model implying that potentially. manufacture and delivery for better logistics  Mapping of economical zones rather than geographic zones  Continuous floating of virtual inventory to save time and efforts Assignment-2 Page 17 of 17 .