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Servo Motor Selection Flow Chart

START Selection

Explanation

References

Has the machine Been Selected?

NO

Determine the size, mass, coefficient of friction, and external forces of all the moving part of the Servo Motor the rotation of which affects.

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YES Determine the operating pattern (relationship between time and speed) of each part that must be controlled. Convert the operating pattern of each controlled element into the motor shaft operating pattern. The elements of the machine can be separated so that inertia can be calculated for each part that moves as the Servo Motor rotates. Calculate the inertia applied to each element to calculate the total load inertia of the motor shaft conversion value. Calculation of Friction Torque Calculates the frictional force for each element, where necessary, and converts it to friction torque for a motor shaft. Calculation of External Torque Calculates the external force for each element, where necessary, and converts it to external torque of a motor shaft. Calculates the total load torque for the motor shaft conversion value. Select a motor temporarily based upon the motor shaft converted load inertia, friction torque, external torque and r.p.m of a motor. Calculate the Acceleration/Deceleration Torque from the Load Inertia or Operating Pattern. Calculate the necessary torque for each part of the Operating Pattern from the Friction Torque, External Torque and Acceleration/ Deceleration Torque. Confirm that the maximum value for the Torque for each operating part (Maximum Momentary Torque) is less than the Maximum Momentary Torque of the motor. Calculate the Effective Torque from the Torque for each Operating part, and confirm that it is less than the Rated Torque for the motor. Operation Pattern Formula

Has the Operating Pattern Been Selected?

NO

YES Calculating the Load Inertia For Motor Shaft Conversion Value

Inertia Formulas

Calculating the Added Load Torque For Motor Shaft Conversion Value

Load Torque Formulas

Select a motor temporarily

Calculate Acceleration/ Deceleration Torque

-- Acceleration/Deceleration Torque Formulas

Confirm Maximum Momentary Torque and Calculate Effective Torque

Calculation of Maximum Momentary Torque, Effective Torque

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Explanation References

Calculate Regenerative Energy

Calculate Regenerative Energy from the Torque of all the moving parts.

Please see the user manual of each product for the details on calculation of the regenerative energy. Accuracy of Positioning

NO

Is the Resolution OK?

Check if the the number of encoder pulses meets the system specified resolution.

YES Check if the calculation meets the specifications of the temporarily selected motor. If not, change the temporarily selected motor and re-calculate it. The following table

NO

Are the Check Items on Characteristics All OK? YES

Specialized Check Items

Check Items

Load Inertia Effective Torque

Load Inertia Motor Rotor Inertia x Applicable Inertia Ratio Effective Torque < Motor Rated Torque Please allow a margin of about 20%. * Maximum Momentary Torque < Motor Maximum Momentary Torque Please allow a margin of about 20%. * For the motor Maximum Momentary Torque, use the value that is combined with a driver and the one of the motor itself. Maximum Rotation Speed Rated Rotation Speed of a motor Try to get as close to the motor's rated rotations as possible. It will increase the operating efficiency of a motor. For the formula, please see "Straight-line Speed and Motor Rotation Speed" on Page 11. Regenerative Energy Regenerative Energy Absorption of a motor When the Regenerative Energy is large, connect a Regenerative Energy Absorption Resistance to increase the Absorption capacity of the driver. Ensure that the Encoder Resolution meets the system specifications. Check if the Pulse Frequency does not exceed the Maximum Response Frequency or Maximum Command Frequency of a Positioner. Ensure that values of the ambient operating temperature/ humidity, operating atmosphere, shock and vibrations meet the product specifications.

Maximum Momentary Torque

Maximum Rotation Speed

Regenerative Energy

Encoder Resolution END Selection Characteristics of a Positioner Operating Conditions

* When handling vertical loads and a load affected by the external torque, allow for about 30% of capacity.

Formulas
Formulas for Operating Patterns

speed v0

Maximum Speed

v0 =

X0 tA

X0: Distance Moved in t0 Time (mm) v0: Maximum Speed (mm/s)

Triangular

Acceleration/Deceleration Time

tA =

X0 v0

t0: Positioning Time (s) tA: Acceleration/ Deceleration Time (s)

tA t0 X0

tA

time

Travel Distance

X0 = v0tA

speed v0

Maximum Speed

v0 =

X0 t0 tA v0

Acceleration/Deceleration Time tA = t0 X0

Total Travel Time

t0 = tA + X0 v0 v0 v0

Trapezoid

Constant-velocity travel time tB = t0 2 tA = 2 2 X0 t0 = X0 tA

time tA tB t0 XA XB X0 XA tA
Total Travel Distance X0 = v0 (t0 tA)

Acceleration/Deceleration Travel Distance XA = v0 tA = v0 t0 X0

Constant-velocity travel distance XB = v0 tB = 2X0 v0 t0

speed
Ascending Time

tA = v0 v1

v0 v1
Speed and Slope When Ascending Ascending Time (tA) including distance moved

vg time tg tA

XA =

1 tA2 + v1 tA 2 1 (v0 v1) + v1 tA 2


2

XA =

Speed after Ascending v0 = v1 + tA

Speed Gradient

vg tg

Conditions for Trapezoidal Operating Pattern

speed v0 X0 < t02 4 X0: Positioning Distance (mm)


Maximum Speed Speed and Slope Trapezoid pattern

t0: Positioning Time (s) tA: Acceleration/Deceleration Time (s) v0: Maximum Speed (mm/s) : Speed Gradient

v0 = tA t0 tA = tA time

t0 4X0 ) (1 1 t0 2

Ascending Time

t 4X0 v0 ) = 0 (1 1 2 t0

speed v0

Conditions for Triangular Operating Pattern

X0

t02 4

Maximum Speed Speed and Slope Triangular Pattern

v0 = time

X0

tA t0 X0

tA

Ascending Time

tA =

X0

v [mm/s]

Linear Movement
Perform the following unitary conversions

X [mm]

Linear Movement X: Distance (mm)

Rotating Movement : Angle (rad) : Angular Velocity (rad/s)

Rotating Part

v: Speed (mm/s) [rad] = 2N 60

N: Rotating Speed (r/min)

[rad/s] N [r/min]

Inertia Formulas

D2: Cylinder Inner Diameter (mm) D1: Cylinder Outer Diameter (mm)
Cylindrical Inertia
2 2 JW = M (D1 + D2 ) 10 6 (kgm2) 8

M: Cylinder Mass (kg)

JW: Cylinder Inertia (kgm2)

M: Cylinder Mass (kg) M


Eccentric Disc Inertia (Cylinder which rotates off the center axis)

C JC: Inertia around the center axis of Cylinder

JW: Inertia (kgm2) re: Rotational Radius (mm)

JW = JC + Mre2 106 (kgm2)

Center of rotation

M: Square Cylinder Mass (kg)

M
Inertia of Rotating Square Cylinder

b: Height (mm) JW: Inertia (kgm2)


2 2 JW = M (a + b ) 106 (kgm2) 12

L: Length (mm)

a: Width (mm)

M: Load Mass (kg)

Inertia of Linear Movement

JB: Ball Screw Inertia (kgm2) P: Ball Screw Pitch (mm) JW: Inertia (kgm2)

JW = M

10 ( 2P )

+ JB (kgm2)

D: Diameter (mm) JW
Inertia of Lifting Object by Pulley

M1: Mass of Cylinder (kg) J1: Cylinder Inertia (kgm2) J2: Inertia due to the Object (kgm )
2

JW = J1 + J2 D2 M2 D2 = M1 106 (kgm2) + 8 4

M2: Mass of Object (kg) JW: Inertia (kgm2)

M Rack
Inertia of Rack and Pinion Movement

JW = JW: Inertia (kgm2) M: Mass (kg) D: Pinion Diameter (mm) D JW

MD2 106 (kg m2) 4

D (mm) JW JW = JW: Inertia (kgm2) M2 M1 M1: Mass (kg) M2: Mass (kg) D2 (M1 + M2) 106 (kgm2) 4

Inertia of Suspended Counterbalance

M3 : Mass of Object (kg) M4 : Mass of Belt (kg)

D1 : Cylinder 1 Diameter (mm) JW: Inertia (kgm2) M1 : Mass of Cylinder 1 (kg) JW = J1 + J2 + J3 + J4


2 D 2 D 2 JW = M1 1 + M2 2 D12 + 8 8 D2 M3D12 + M4D12 106 4 4 (kgm2)

Inertia when Carrying Object via Conveyor Belt

JW : Inertia (kgm ) J1 : Cylinder 1 Inertia (kgm2) J2 : Inertia due to Cylinder 2 (kgm ) J3 : Inertia due to the Object (kgm2) J4 : Inertia due to the Belt (kgm2)
2

D2 : Cylinder 2 Diameter (mm) M2 : Mass of Cylinder 2 (kg)

JW : System Inertia (kgm2) J1 : Roller 1 Inertia (kgm2) J2 : Roller 2 Inertia (kgm2) D1 : Roller 1 Diameter (mm) D2 : Roller 2 Diameter (mm)
Inertia where Work is Placed between Rollers

M : Equivalent Mass of Work (kg)

J1

Roller 1 D1 JW

JW = J1 + D1 D2

( ) J + MD 4
2

106 (kgm2)

M Roller 2 J2

D2

Load Gears Z2: Number of Gear Teeth on Load Side J2: Gear Inertia on Load Side (kgm2) Motor

Inertia of a Load Value Converted to Motor Shaft

JW: Load Inertia (kgm2)

JL = J1 + G2 (J2 + JW) (kgm2)

Z1: Number of Gear Teeth on Motor Side J1: Gear Inertia on Motor Side (kgm2) JL: Motor Shaft Conversion Load Inertia Gear Ratio G = Z1/Z2 (kgm2)

Load Torque Formulas

Torque against external force

F: External Force (N) TW: Torque due to External Forces (Nm)

TW = FP 10 3 (Nm) 2

P: Ball Screw Pitch (mm)

M: Load Mass (kg)

Torque against frictional force

: Ball Screw Friction Coefficient P: Ball Screw Pitch (mm) g: Acceleration due to Gravity (9.8m/s )
2

TW = Mg P 10 3 (Nm) 2

TW: Frictional Forces Torque (Nm)

D: Diameter (mm)
Torque when external force is applied to a rotating object

F: External Force (N) TW: Torque due to External Forces (Nm)

TW = F D 10 3 (Nm) 2

D: Diameter (mm)
Torque of an object on the conveyer belt to which the external force is applied

F: External Force (N) TW: Torque due to External Forces (Nm)

TW = F D 10 3 (Nm) 2

Torque of an object to which the external force is applied by Rack and Pinion

F: External Force (N)

D: Diameter (mm) TW: Torque due to External Forces (Nm)

TW = F

D 10 3 (Nm) 2

Rack TW: External Torque (Nm) M

Plumb Line M: Mass (kg)

Torque when work is lifted at an angle.

TW = Mgcos D 10 3 (Nm) 2

Pinion g: Acceleration due to Gravity (9.8m/s2)

D: Diameter (mm)

Torque of a Load Value Converted to Motor Shaft

TW: Load Torque (Nm) Z1: Number of Gear Teeth on Motor Side Gear (Deceleration) Ratio G = Z1/Z2

Z2: Number of Gear Teeth on Load Side : Gear Transmission Efficiency TL = TW G (Nm)

TL: Motor Shaft Conversion Load Torque (Nm)

Acceleration/Deceleration Torque Formula


Acceleration/Deceleration Torque (TA)

TA = 2 N JM + JL (Nm) 60tA

: Gear Transmission Efficiency M N: Motor Rotation Speed (r/min) JM: Motor Inertia (kgm2)

JL: Motor Shaft Conversion Load Inertia (kgm2)

Speed (Rotation Speed) N: Rotation Speed (r/min) N TA: Acceleration/Deceleration Torque (Nm)

tA

time

Acceleration Time (s)

Calculation of Maximum Momentary Torque, Effective Torque


Maximum Momentary Torque (T1)

Rotation Speed (rpm)

N (r/min)

T1 = TA + TL (N m)
Effective Torque (Trms)

0 tA Torque T1 Acceleration Time (s)

time

T12 t1 + T22 t2 + T32 t3 t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 (Nm) T2 = TL (Nm) Trms = T3 = TL TA (Nm) t1 = tA (Nm)

TA T2 TL 0 T3 t1 t2 t3 t4 time

Single Cycle TA: Acceleration/Deceleration Torque (Nm) TL: Servomotor Shaft Converted Load Torque (Nm) T1: Maximum Momentary Torque (Nm) Trms: Effective Torque (Nm)

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Positioning Accuracy
G = Z1/Z2 Gear (Deceleration) Ratio P: Ball Screw Pitch (mm) Z2: Number of Gear Teeth on Load Side S: Positioner Multiplier M R: Encoder Resolution (Pulses/Rotation) Ap: Positioning Accuracy (mm)
Positioning Accuracy (AP)

Ap = P G (mm) RS

Z1: Number of Gear Teeth on Motor Side

Straight Line Speed and Motor Rotation Speed


V: Velocity (mm/s)
Motor Rotations

P: Ball Screw Pitch (mm)

Z2: Number of Gear Teeth on Load Side G = Z1/Z2 Gear (Deceleration) Ratio

N = 60V (r/min) P G

M Z1: Number of Gear Teeth on Motor Side N: Motor Rotation Speed (r/min)

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Sample Calculations
1Machinery Selection
Load Mass M = 5 (kg) Ball Screw Pitch P = 10 (mm) Ball Screw Diameter D = 20 (mm) Ball Screw Mass MB = 3 (kg) Ball Screw Friction Coefficient = 0.1 Since there is no decelerator, G = 1, = 1

MB Direct Connection

2Determining Operating Pattern


One Speed Change Velocity for a Load Travel V = 300 (mm/s) Strokes L = 360 (mm) Stroke Travel Time tS = 1.4 (s) Acceleration/Deceleration Time tA = 0.2 (s) Positioning Accuracy AP = 0.01 (mm)

(mm/s) speed 300

0 0.2 1.0 0.2 0.2

Time (s)

3Calculation of Motor Shaft Conversion Load Inertia


Ball screw Inertia JB Load Inertia JW Motor Shaft Conversion Load Inertia JL
2 JB = MBD 10 6 8

JB =
6

3 202 10 6 = 1.5 10 4 (kgm2) 8 10 ( 2 10 3.14 )


2
6

JW = M

10 ( 2P )

+ JB

JW = 5

+ 1.5 10 4 = 1.63 10 4 (kgm2)

JL = G2 (JW + J2) + J1

JL = JW = 1.63 10 4 (kgm2)

4Load Torque Calculation


Torque against Friction Torque TW Motor Shaft Conversion Load Torque TL

TW = Mg P 10 3 2 TL = G TW

TW = 0.1 5 9.8

10 10 3 = 7.8 10 3 (Nm) 2 3.14

TL = TW = 7.8 103 (Nm)

5Calculation of Rotation Speed


Rotations N

N = 60V PG

N=

60 300 = 1800 (r/min) 10 1

6Motor Temporary Selection [In case OMNUC U Series Servo Motor is temporarily selected]
The Rotor/Inertia of the selected servo motor is JM JL 30 more than 1/30* of a load 80% of the Rated Torque of the selected servo motor is more than the load torque of the servomotor shaft conversion value

JL 1.63 104 = = 5.43 106 (kgm2) 30 30 Temporarily selected Model R88M-U20030 (JM = 1.23 105).

TM 0.8 > TL

Rated Torque for R88M U20030 Model from TM = 0.637 (Nm) TM = 0.637 (Nm) 0.8 > TL = 7.8 10-3 (Nm)

* Note that this value changes according to the Series.

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7Calculation of Acceleration/Deceleration Torque


Acceleration/ Deceleration Torque TA

TA = 2 N JM + JL 60tA

TA =

2 1800 1.63 10 4 1.23 10 5 + = 0.165 (Nm) 60 0.2 1.0

8Calculation of Maximum Momentary Torque, Effective Torque


Required Max. Momentary Torque is

T1 = TA + TL = 0.165 + 0.0078
= 0.173

(Nm) speed

(mm/s) 300

T2 = TL = 0.0078 (Nm) T3 = TL TA = 0.0078 0.165


=

0.157 (Nm)

Effective Torque Trms is

0 t1 0.2 (Nm) 0.165 TA 0 Acceleration/ Decceleration Torque t2 1.0 Single Cycle t3 0.2 t4 0.2

Time (s) 0.2

Trms =

T12t1 + T22t2 + T32t3 t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 0.1732 0.2 + 0.00782 1.0 + 0.1572 0.2 0.2 + 1.0 + 0.2 + 0.2

Trms =

Trms = 0.0828 (Nm)

Time (s)

-0.165 Load Torque of Servomotor Shaft Conversion Total Torque (Nm) TL 0.0078 Time (s)

0.173 T1 0.0078 T3 -0.157 Time (s) T2

9Result of Examination
Load Inertia Effective Torque Maximum Momentary Torque Maximum Rotation Speed [Load Inertia JL = 1.63 104 (kgm2)] [Motor Rotor Inertia JM = 1.23 105] [Applied Inertia = 30] [Effective Torque Trms = 0.0828 (Nm)] < [Servomotor Rated Torque 0.637 (Nm) 0.8] [Maximum Momentary Torque T1 = 0.173 Nm < [Servomotor Maximum Momentary Torque 1.91 (Nm) 0.8] [Maximum Rotations Required N = 1800 (r/min)] [Servomotor Rated Rotation Speed 3000 (r/min)] The encoder resolution when the positioner multiplication factor is set to 1 is Encoder Resolution Conditions Satisfied Conditions Satisfied Conditions Satisfied Conditions Satisfied

R=

PG = 10 1 = 1000 (Pulses/Rotations) ApS 0.01 1

Conditions Satisfied

The encoder specification of U Series 2048 (pulses/rotation) should be set 1000 with the Encoder Dividing Rate Setting. Note.This example omits calculations for the regenerative energy, operating conditions, or positioner characteristics.

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