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Los pronombres - Pronouns

LOS PRONOMBRES Pronombres de sujeto I You He She It yo t, usted l ella l, ella Ejemplo I am ill. You are hungry. He is handsome. She is pretty. It's cold today. Traduccin ejemplo Yo estoy enfermo. T ests hambriento. l es guapo. Ella es guapa Hoy hace fro. (este pronombre a menudo se omite) Nosotros estamos cansados. Vosotros estis enfadados. Ellos estn en el cine. Traduccin ejemplo Lo quiero para m. Te estoy ayudando. Le puedes ver? Ella es bonita. Me gusta ella. Dale una patada. l nos est ayudando. Les vi. Los estoy esperando. Traduccin ejemplo Esta es mi blusa. Esta es tu corbata. Este es su vestuario. Este es su vestido. Este es su collar. Estas son nuestras maletas. Estos son vuestros asientos. Aqu estn sus calcetines. Traduccin ejemplo Este abrigo es mo. Mi nombre es Toni. Cul es el tuyo? Esta computadora es suya. El bolso azul es suyo.

We You They

nosotros vosotros, ustedes ellos, ellas

We are tired. You are angry. They are at the cinema. Ejemplo I want it for me. I 'm helping you. Can you see him? She is pretty. I like her. Give it a kick. He is helping us. I saw you. I 'm waiting for them. Ejemplo This is my blouse. This is your tie.

Pronombres de objeto (directo / indirecto) Me me, m You Him Her It Us You Them te, tu, t, usted l, le, lo ella, le, la lo, la, ello, le nosotros, nos vosotros, les, ustedes, os ellos, les, los, las,

Adjetivos posesivos My Your His Her Its Our Your Their mi, mis tu, tus

su, sus (masculino) This is his wardrobe. su, sus (femenino) su, sus nuestro/a nuestros/as vuestro/a, vuestros/as su, sus (de ellos) This is her dress. This is its collar. These are our suitcases. These are your seats. Here are their socks. Ejemplo This coat is mine. My name is Tony. What's yours? This computer is his. The blue bag is hers.

Pronombres posesivos Mine Yours His Hers mo/s, ma/s tuyo/s, tuya/s suyo/s, suya/s (de l) suyo/s, suya/s (de ella) nuestro/s, nuestra/s vuestro/a, vuestros/as,

Ours Yours Theirs

The suitcases are ours. The handicap is yours. This is theirs. Ejemplo I saw it for myself. Don't burn yourself ! He hurt himself. She did it herself. The cat scratched itself. We are enjoying ourselves.

Las maletas son nuestras. La desventaja es vuestra. Esto es suyo. Traduccin ejemplo Yo mismo lo v. No te quemes! Se hizo dao. Lo hizo ella misma. El gato se ara. Estamos disfrutando nosotros mismos. Pintasteis la casa vosotros mismos? Ellos hablaban consigo mismos.

suyo/a, suyos/as (de ellos ) Pronombres reflexivos Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Each other yo mismo, me t mismo, te, se l mismo, se ella misma, se l mismo, se nosotros mismos, nos vosotros mismos, ustedes mismos, se ellos mismos, consigo mismos, se el uno del otro, se

Did you paint the house yourselves? They were speaking to themselves. They were speaking to each Ellos hablaban entre s. other.

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USO DE LOS PRONOMBRES Pronombres de sujeto

A diferencia del espaol, en ingls el pronombre sujeto debe figurar siempre:


You are hungry Pronombres de objeto

El pronombre de objeto directo se coloca detrs del verbo que complementa:


He saw her

El pronombre de objeto indirecto (sin to ni for) se coloca tambin detrs del verbo que complementa:
She told me something

Usamos las preposiciones to o for cuando hay juntos un pronombre de objeto directo y uno de indirecto:
I want it for me

Tambin podemos usar preposiciones antes de un pronombre de objeto:


They listen to her Adjetivos y pronombres posesivos

Los adjetivos posesivos varan segn "el que posee" y no segn "la cantidad poseida":
my book, your book, my books, your books

Los pronombres posesivos sustituyen la estructura adjetivo posesivo + nombre:


This is my bed, it is yours. Los pronombres reflexivos

Son usados cuando: 1) el sujeto y el complemento del verbo son el mismo: I saw it for myself. 2) cuando se quiere destacar quin hace la accin:
I have too much work, can you help me? - No, do it yourself

El artculo indeterminado Study english: The indeterminate article

A o an, corresponde a los siguientes artculos en espaol: un, una. A se usa con nombres que comienzan por consonante. ejemplos: a book = un libro a pen = un bolgrafo a chair = una silla An se usa con nombres que comienzan por vocal. ejemplos: an animal = un animal an answer = una contestacin an example = un ejemplo Usamos a antes de una palabra comenzada por la letra u cuando esta es pronunciada como el sonido figurado "yu". ejemplo: a university Usamos an antes de una palabra comenzada por una h que no pronunciamos. ejemplo: an hour Usos del artculo Usamos a / an delante de los nombres singulares. ejemplo: Have you got a bicycle? (tienes una bicicleta?) I've got an umbrella. (Yo tengo un paraguas) Usamos a / an cuando hablamos del oficio de alguin. ejemplo: Maria is a journalist. (Maria es una periodista) Tom Cruise is an actor (Tom Cruise es un actor) No usamos a / an delante de nombres plurales. ejemplo: Have you got two bicycles? (tienes dos bicicletas?)

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The prepositions

Preposiciones de tiempo y lugar ON Significado: sobre, encima de, de, al Usos: delante de: das, das concretos, das + meses, fechas, partes del da, fin de semana (ingls americano). Ejemplos: My room is on the first floor. (mi habitacin est en la primera planta) en ingls americano sera
on the second floor

You don't work on Sunday. (tu no trabajas el domingo) On the June 10th elections. (en las elecciones del 10 de junio) They go to church on Christmas day. (ellos van a la iglesia en el da de Navidad) I usually play tennis on weekends. (normalmente voy a jugar al tenis en los fines de semana)
(Ingls americano)

IN Significado: en, dentro, dentro de, hacia adentro. Usos: delante de: meses, aos, estaciones, partes del da. Ejemplos: I live in Brighton (vivo en Brighton) My birthday is in June (mi cumpleaos es en junio) I was born in 1970 (nac en 1970) We often go swimming in the summer (a menudo vamos a nadar en verano) We usually watch TV in the evening (normalmente vemos la televisin al anochecer) AT Significado: en, a, por, delante, cerca de Usos: delante de: horas, das festivos, weekend (fin de semana) ingls britnico , night (noche), home (cuando el significando es estar en casa). Ejemplos: I live at 42 Porltand Street. (vivo en el 42 de Portland Street) He is at home (l est en casa ) I usually get up at 7 o'clock. (normalmente me levanto a las 7 en punto) I always visit my parents at Christmas (siempre visito a mis padres en Navidades) I usually play tennis at weekends. (normalmente juego al tenis en los fines de semana) (ingls britnico). nota: at the end significa al final ejemplo: At the end of my holiday. (al final de mis vacaciones) a diferencia de in the end que se traduce como la expresin Preposiciones de lugar y movimiento Opposite Significado: contrario, en frente de Ejemplo: The hotel is opposite the station. (el hotel est en frente de la estacin) On the corner Significado: en la esquina Ejemplo: The bank is on the corner. (el banco est en la esquina) Between Significado: entre Ejemplo:
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(al fin y al cabo)

The shop is between the baker's and the station. (la tienda est entre la panaderia y la estacin) In front of Significado: enfrente de, delante de Ejemplo: There is a bus stop in front of the flower shop. (hay una parada de bus enfrente de la floristera) Near Significado: cerca de Ejemplo: The school is near the bank. (la escuela est cerca del banco) Behind Significado: detrs de Ejemplo: The church is behind the school. (la iglesia est detrs de la escuela) Next to Significado: a continuacin de, al lado de Ejemplo: It's next to the chemist's. (est junto a la farmacia.) Into Significado: dentro de, en Ejemplo: The woman is diving into the water (la mujer esta zambullndose dentro del agua) Out of Significado: fuera de Ejemplo: My mother is out of the room. (mi madre est fuera de la habitacin) Off Significado: distante de, alejado de Ejemplo: My house is off the main road. (mi casa est alejada de la carretera principal) Los colores Ingls black blue brown green grey navy orange pink purple red white yellow Espaol negro azul marrn verde gris azul marino naranja rosa violeta / morado rojo blanco amarillo

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El artculo determinado o definido Study english: The Determinate article

El artculo determinante o definido se traduce en ingls por The. Es invariable y corresponde a las formas espaolas el, la, los, las. Ejemplos: The boy (el nio) The boys (los nios) The girl (la nia) The girls (las nias) The book (el libro) The books (los libros) El artculo definido puede ir precedido de las preposiciones of, to. En ingls no hay contraccin de preposicin y artculo, del y al se traducen por: of the (del) to the (al). Ejemplos Of the village. (del pueblo) Of the house. (de la casa) To the garden (al jardn) To the door (a la puerta) Usos del artculo the: Cuando sabemos de quin o de qu estamos hablando. Cuando hablamos de algo que lo hemos mencionado en una frase anterior. Con los adjetivos en grado superlativo. Con los sustantivos cuando indican un tipo o clase en general. Con los nombres propios de ocanos, mares, montaas, naciones en plural... Con los adjetivos abstractos. Ejemplos Can I have the drink? (puedo tomar la bebida?) cuando sabemos de que bebida hablamos. Mr and Mrs Jones have a daughter and two sons. The daughter is a doctor. (El sr. y la sra. Jones tienen una hija y dos hijos. La hija es doctora) She is the best. (ella es la mejor) The ants are workers. (las hormigas son trabajadoras) The Alps. (los alpes) The fantastic (lo fantstico) Casos en los que no usamos el artculo the: Cuando hablamos de algo en general. Delante de trminos geogrficos o topnimos. Delante de nombres de personas aunque estos estn precedidos de ttulos. Delante de meses, estaciones y das festivos. Delante de las comidas generales como almuerzo, cena.. Cuando hablamos de partes del cuerpo usando el verbo to have (tener) Delante de next (prximo, siguiente) y last (ltimo, pasado)
Ejemplos:

Houses are expensive. (las casas son caras) Life isn't easy. (la vida no es fcil) Fifth Avenue. (la quinta avenida) Spain. (Espaa) King Charles (el rey Carlos) We'll see you in September. (te veremos en septiembre)
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Los nmeros cardinales Study english: The cardinal numbers

Del 1 al 12: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve. Del 13 al 19 tienen la terminacin -teen (la terminacin suena como <tin>): thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen. 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 tienen la terminacin -ty ( la terminacin suena como <ti>): twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety Para formar las decenas se aade un guin despus de la decenas y el nmero: twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three.... (veintiuno, veintids, veintitrs....) forty-one, fifty-two, ninety-eight.. (cuarenta y uno, cincuenta y dos, noventa y ocho...) Para las centenas sera: a / one hundred, two hundred .....(cien, doscientos...) Para unir las centenas con las decenas se le aadir and . two hundred and fifty-five... ( doscientos cincuenta y cinco) Para los millares sera: a / one thousand, two thousand... (mil, dos mil...) Para los millones sera: a / one million, two million... (un milln, dos millones...) Ejemplos a / one hundred and two (102) three hundred and twelve (312) five thousand and ten (5.010) two million five hundred thousand (2.500.000) six thousand two hundred and seventy - nine ( 6.279) two thousand two hundred and twenty -two (2.222) three thousand three hundred and thirty -three (3.333)
Nmeros cardinales 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 a/one hundred 101 a/one hundred and one 200 two hundred 1.000 a/one thousand 10.000 ten thousand a/one hundred 100.000 thousand 1.000.000 a/one million

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Los nmeros ordinales Study english: Ordinal Numbers

Primero, segundo y tercero son as:


1st 2nd 3rd first second third

La abreviatura de los nmeros ordinales se forma con el nmero en cifra seguido por las ltimas dos letras de la palabra completa: 1st (first), 2nd (second), 3rd (third), 20th (twentieth), 23rd (twentythird)...

Del cuarto al decimoavo tienen la terminacin -th:


4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth

Las decenas, millares y el milln tambin tienen la terminacin -th: Para los nmeros 20th,30th,40th,50th,60th,70th,80th y 90th (la terminacin suena como <tiez>)
20th 30th 40th 80th 100th 1000th 1.000.000th twentieth thirtieth fortieth eightieth hundredth thousandth millionth

Las decenas se unen con un guin al igual que los nmeros cardinales, pero las unidades tienen la terminacin -th, menos first que termina en -st, second que termina en -nd, y third que termina en -rd.
21st 22nd 23rd 24th twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth

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Nmeros ordinales 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 101st 200th 1.000th 10.000th 100.000th 1.000.000th first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth hundred and first two hundredth thousandth ten thousandth hundred thousandth millionth

Nombres: Singular y Plural Study english - Nouns: Singular and Plural

Reglas gramaticales A la mayoria de nombres se les agrega una s al final para formar el plural.
ejemplos camera / cameras pen / pens cup / cups car / cars

Reglas generales para formar el plural 1. Palabras que terminan en consonante + y: la Y cambia a I y aadimos ES
Ejemplo: party - parties city - citIES

2. Palabras que terminan en vocal + y: aadimos una S.


Ejemplo: boy - boyS toy - toyS

3. Palabras que terminan en SS, S, SH, CH, X, O: aadimos ES


Ejemplo: glass - glassES bus - busES brush - brushES watch - watchES box - boxES tomato - tomatoES

4. Palabras que terminan en F, FE: cambiamos la F o FE por VES


ejemplo: leaf - leaVES wife - wives

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Plurales irregulares Muchos sustantivos se pluralizan de un modo irregular, existen dos casos: caso 1 Cuando el singular y plural no cambian.
ejemplos fish (pez o pescado) singular fish (peces o pescados) plural sheep (oveja) singular sheep (ovejas) plural

El plural de fish puede ser fishes en el caso de que nos refiramos a disintas clases de pescado. Ejemplo: There are over 24,000 described species of fishes in the world. caso 2 Cuando el plural vara de modo irregular. Por lo tanto, no existe regla la cual se pueda seguir y hay que aprenderse las formas irregulares de cada uno.

SINGULAR

SIGNIFICADO

PLURAL

SIGNIFICADO

man woman child person tooth foot mouse

hombre mujer nio persona diente pie ratn

men women children people teeth feet mice

hombres mujeres nios personas dientes pies ratones

Saludos, despedidas y presentaciones Buenos das Good morning Buenas tardes Good afternoon Buenas noches Good evening Buenas noches Good night Adios! Bye, Good bye Hasta luego! See you later! Hasta pronto! See you (soon)! Hasta maana! See you tomorrow! Hola! Hi! Hello!
(tambin en ingls americano: howdy! hiya!)

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Cmo ests? How are you? Qu tal? How are things? Qu tal? How are you getting on? bien, gracias fine, thanks A qu te dedicas? What do you do? Cmo te llamas? What's your name? Puedo presentarme? May I introduce myself? Quisiera que conociese a... I'd like you to meet... Le presento a ... Let me introduce you to ... Encantado, Mucho gusto Nice / pleased to meet you. Mucho gusto! / Cmo les va? How do you do? Cmo est tu familia? How's your family? Tu familia est bien? Is your family well? Saldalos en mi nombre. Give them my kindest regards. buena suerte! All the best! Estoy a tu disposicin. I am at your disposal. Recuerdos a todos. Kind regards to everybody. Recuerdos! / Mis mejores deseos! Best wishes!

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Las personas Ingls adolescent adult baby boy chap child fellow gentleman girl grown-up individual lady man middle-aged old people person teenager toddler woman young youth Espaol adolescente adulto beb chico to nio/a colega seor, caballero chica adulto individuo seora hombre de mediana edad viejo gente persona adolescente nio que empieza a andar mujer joven adolecente

El adjetivo Study english: The adjective

Un adjetivo es una palabra que acompaa y modifica al nombre. Puede ampliar, complementar o cuantificar su tamao. the tall professor a seven-year-old child El ingls tiene ocho clases de adjetivos:
1. Calificativos: fat, red, nice... 2. Demostrativos: this, that, these, those 3. Distributivos: each, every, either, neither 4. Cuantitativos: some ,any, many... 5. Interrogativos: which?, what? ... 6. Posesivos: my, your... 7. Propios: English, Spanish 8. Numerales: one, four, first, second...

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El gnero y nmero El adjetivo en ingls es invariable, es decir, no cambia con el gnero ni con el nmero:
fast --> rpido, rpida, rpidos, rpidas

Los adjetivos demostrativos tienen diferentes formas para el singular y el plural: this pencil these pencils los adjetivos cuantitativos tienen diferentes formas para el singular y el plural: much milk (mucha leche) many books (muchos libros)
Los adjetivos cualificativos Study english: The descriptive adjectives

Los adjetivos son palabras que nombran o indican cualidades, rasgos y propiedades de los nombres o sustantivos a los que acompaan. It's a dark street It's getting old El adjetivo se situa antes del nombre o despus de un grupo de verbos (appear, be, become, feel, get, look, seem, smell, stay, taste) My sister is beautiful She looks tired It's getting dark Podemos usar dos o ms adjetivos juntos: a small black book El orden de los adjetivos Como norma general, seguimos el siguiente orden cuando nombramos a varios adjetivos:
1 opinin /valor 2 tamao y longitud 3 edad / temperatura 4 forma y superficie 5 color 6 origen 7 material 8 uso 9 nombre delicious, wonderful, nice... huge, short, large, small ... new, old, hot ... round, fat, thin ... red, black ... Spanish, American, Victorian ... silver, cotton, paper, iron ... electric, political bath (towel)

a a a a

large black paper small red table wonderful old city small old bath towel

Conjugacin verbo be (ser o estar) infinitivo: to be presente: am / is / are pasado: was / were participio: been

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Modo indicativo
Presente (present): yo soy, t eres, l es ... sintaxis: sujeto + presente

I am You are He is She is

It is We are You are They are

Pretrito imperfecto /pasado simple (past simple): yo era, t eras, l era... sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I was You were He was She was

It was We were You were They were

Pretrito perfecto compuesto (present perfect): yo he sido, t has sido, l ha sido... sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo

I have been You have been He has been She has been

It has been We have been You have been They have been

Pluscuamperfecto (past perfect): yo haba / hube sido, t habas /hubiste sido, l haba /hubo sido... sintaxis: sujeto + had + participio del verbo

I had been You had been He had been She had been

It had been We had been You had been They had been

Futuro (future): yo ser, t sers, l ser... sintaxis: sujeto + will + verbo en infinitivo

I will be You will be He will be She will be

It will be We will be You will be They will be

Futuro perfecto (future perfect): yo habr sido, t habras sido, l habr sido... sintaxis: sujeto + will have + participio del verbo

I will have been You will have been He will have been She will have been
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It will have been We will have been You will have been They will have been
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Condicional (conditional): yo sera, t seras, l sera... sintaxis: sujeto + would/should + modo infinitivo del verbo

I would be You would be He would be She would be

It would be We would be You would be They would be

Condicional perfecto (past conditional): yo habra o hubiera sido, t habras o hubieras sido... sintaxis: sujeto + would + have + participio del verbo

I would have been He would have been

It would have been You would have been

You would have been We would have been She would have been They would have been

Modo Subjuntivo
Presente subjuntivo: Yo sea, t seas, l sea... sintaxis: sujeto + infinitivo

I be You be He be She be

It be We be You be They be

Pretrito imperfecto: yo fuera, t fueras, l fuera...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I were You were He were She were

It were We were You were They were

Pluscuamperfecto: yo hubiera sido, t hubieras sido, l hubiera sido...

sintaxis: sujeto +had + participio del verbo

I had been You had been He had been She had been

It had been We had been You had been They had been

Conjugacin verbo have (tener o haber) infinitivo: to have presente: have / has pasado: had participio: had
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Modo indicativo
Presente (Present simple): yo tengo, t tienes, l tiene ... sintaxis: sujeto + presente

I have You have He has She has

It has We have You have They have

Pretrito imperfecto / pasado simple (past simple): yo tena, l tena, t tenas... sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I had You had He had She had

It had We had You had They had

Pretrito perfecto compuesto (present perfect): yo he tenido, t has tenido, l ha tenido... sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo

I have had You have had He has had She has had

It has had We have had You have had They have had

Pluscuamperfecto (past perfect): yo haba / hube tenido, t habas / hubiste tenido, l haba / hubo tenido... sintaxis: sujeto + had + participio del verbo

I had had You had had He had had She had had

It had had We had had You had had They had had

Futuro (future): yo tendr, t tendrs, l tendr... sintaxis: sujeto + will + verbo en infinitivo

I will have You will have He will have She will have

It will have We will have You will have They will have

Futuro perfecto (future perfect): yo habr tenido, t habras tenido, l habr tenido... sintaxis: sujeto + will have + participio del verbo

I will have had You will have had He will have had She will have had

It will have had We will have had You will have had They will have had

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Condicional (conditional): yo tendra, t tendras, l tendra... sintaxis: sujeto + would/should + modo infinitivo del verbo

I would have You would have He would have She would have

It would have We would have You would have They would have

Condicional perfecto (past conditional): yo habra o hubiera tenido, t habras o hubieras tenido... sintaxis: sujeto + would + have + participio del verbo

I would have had You would have had He would have had She would have had

It would have had We would have had You would have had They would have had

Modo Subjuntivo
Presente subjuntivo: Yo tenga, t tengas, l tenga... sintaxis: sujeto + infinitivo

I have You have He have She have

It have We have You have They have

Pretrito imperfecto: yo tuviera, t tuvieras, l tuviera...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I had You had He had She had

It had We had You had They had

Pluscuamperfecto: yo hubiera tenido, t hubieras tenido, l hubiera tenido...

sintaxis: sujeto +had + participio del verbo

I had had You had had He had had She had had

It had had We had had You had had They had had

Conjugacin verbo do (hacer) infinitivo: to do presente: do / does pasado: did participio: done Modo indicativo
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Presente (present simple): yo hago, t haces, l hace.. sintaxis: sujeto + presente

I do You do He does She does

It does We do You do They do

Pretrito imperfecto /pasado simple (past simple): yo haca, t hacas, l haca... sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I did You did He did She did

It did We did You did They did

Pretrito perfecto compuesto (present perfect): yo he hecho, t has hecho, l ha hecho... sintaxis: sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo

I have done You have done He has done She has done

It has done We have done You have done They have done

Pluscuamperfecto (past perfect): yo haba / hube hecho, t habas /hubiste hecho, l haba /hubo hecho... sintaxis: sujeto + had + participio del verbo

I had done You had done He had done She had done

It had done We had done You had done They had done

Futuro (future): yo har, t hars, l har... sintaxis: sujeto + will + verbo en infinitivo

I will do You will do He will do She will do

It will do We will do You will do They will do

Futuro perfecto (future perfect): yo habr hecho, t habras hecho, l habr hecho... sintaxis: sujeto + will have + participio del verbo

I will have done You will have done He will have done She will have done
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It will have done We will have done You will have done They will have done
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Condicional (conditional): yo hara, t haras, l hara... sintaxis: sujeto + would/should + modo infinitivo del verbo

I would do You would do He would do She would do

It would do We would do You would do They would do

Condicional perfecto (past conditional): yo habra o hubiera hecho, t habras o hubieras hecho... sintaxis: sujeto + would + have + participio del verbo

I would have done He would have done

It would have done You would have done

You would have done We would have done She would have done They would have done

Modo Subjuntivo
Presente subjuntivo: Yo haga, t hagas, l haga... sintaxis: sujeto + infinitivo

I do You do He do She do

It do We do You do They do

Pretrito imperfecto: yo hiciera, t hicieras, l hiciera...

sintaxis: sujeto + pasado del verbo

I did You did He did She did

It did We did You did They did

Pluscuamperfecto: yo hubiera hecho, t hubieras hecho, l hubiera hecho...

sintaxis: sujeto +had + participio del verbo

I had done You had done He had done She had done

It had done We had done You had done They had done

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CONJUGACIN DEL VERBO: TO FALL PRESENT / PRESENTE Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I You He She It We You They

fall fall falls falls falls fall fall fall

Do Do Does Does Does Do Do Do

I you he she it we you they

fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall?

I You He She It We You They

do not do not does not does not does not do not do not do not

fall fall fall fall fall fall fall fall

PAST / PASADO Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I You He She It We You They

fell fell fell fell fell fell fell fell

Did Did Did Did Did Did Did Did

I you he she it we you they

fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall?

I You He She It We You They

did not did not did not did not did not did not did not did not

fall fall fall fall fall fall fall fall

FUTURE / FUTURO Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I You He She It We You They

will will will will will will will will

fall fall fall fall fall fall fall fall

Will Will Will Will Will Will Will

I you he she it we you

fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall?

I You He She It We You They

will not will not will not will not will not will not will not will not

fall fall fall fall fall fall fall fall

Will they

PRESENT PERFECT / PRETRITO PERFECTO Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I You He She It We You

have fallen have fallen has has has fallen fallen fallen

Have Has Has Has Have

I he she it we

fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen?

I You He She It We You They

have not have not has not has not has not have not have not have not

fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen

Have you

have fallen have fallen

Have you

They have fallen

Have they fallen?

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PAST PERFECT / PLUSCUAMPERFECTO Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I You He She It We You They

had had had had had had had had

fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen

Had Had Had Had Had Had Had Had

I you he she it we you they

fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen? fallen?

I You He She It We You They

had not had not had not had not had not had not had not had not

fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen fallen

CONDITIONAL / CONDICIONAL Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I He It

would would would

fall fall fall fall fall fall fall fall

Would Would Would Would

I he it we

fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall? fall?

I You He She It We You They

would not would not would not would not would not would not would not would not

fall fall fall fall fall fall fall fall

You would She would We would You would They would

Would you Would she

Would you Would they

Tiempos Verbales - Presente simple Verb Tenses - Present simple Sintaxis: sujeto + Verbo

El presente simple se utiliza para hablar de cosas que suceden repetidamente. Se suele utilizar con los siguientes adverbios de tiempo:
every day - usually - often - sometimes... I eat every day at school./ Yo como cada da en la escuela.

Tambin se utiliza para hablar de hechos que son en general verdad:


Elephants live in Africa and India./ Los elefantes viven en frica y en India.

Al conjugar el presente simple se tiene que aadir una s final al verbo pero solo en las terceras personas. Ejemplo conjugacin verbo to like. I like You like She likes He likes It likes We like You like They like Los verbos to be, to have y to do tienen una conjugacin diferente a la de los dems verbos.

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Tiempos Verbales - Presente continuo Study english: Verb Tenses - Present continuos

sujeto + TO BE + Verbo + ING El presente continuo se utiliza para hablar sobre algo que est pasando en el momento en el que hablamos.
sintaxis: ejemplo:

I'm writing a letter. Estoy escribiendo una carta.

ejemplo:

He is doing some photocopying l est haciendo alguna fotocopia.

Tambin lo usamos para hablar de algo que est sucediendo por el momento pero no necesariamente cuando hablamos.
ejemplo:

I'm looking for a job at the moment En estos momentos estoy buscando un trabajo.
Formas Cortas Study english: Short Forms

Algunas conjugaciones pueden tener formas cortas cuando van detrs de pronombres como I, you, he... Ejemplo: I am --> I'm Tambin las podemos usar detrs de nombres. Ejemplo: Susan's had a baby. (Susan has had a baby). Las formas cortas se utilizan en el lenguage coloquial y en cartas informales. Verbo am (presente verbo to be) are (presente verbo to be) is (presente verbo to be) has (presente verbo to have) have (presente verbo to have) had (pasado verbo to have) would (condicional) will (futuro) shall (futuro) Forma corta I'm you're, we're, you're, they're he's, she's, it's he's, she's, it's I've, you've, we've, they've I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd I'll, you'll, he'll, she'll, it'll, we'll, you'll, they'll I'll, we'll

Hacemos formas cortas con pronombres interrogativos. Verbo is (presente verbo to be) had (pasado verbo to have) would (condicional) will (futuro) Forma corta what's, who's, when's, how's... who'd who'd what'll, who'll

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Podemos hacer formas cortas con here, there y that. Forma larga here is there is / there will that is / that will Forma corta here's there's / there'll that's / that'll

Tambin podemos hacer la forma corta de algunos verbos en negativo. Verbo is (presente verbo to be) Forma larga negativa is not Forma corta negativa isn't aren't don't doesn't didn't hasn't haven't hadn't

are (presente verbo to be) are not do (presente verbo to do) do not does (presente verbo to do) did (pasado verbo to do) has (presente verbo to have) have (presente verbo to have) had (pasado verbo to have) would, can, must, need, should... will (futuro) shall (futuro) La famlia Ingls adopted aunt brother cousin dad daughter daughter-in-law elder family father father-in-law foster parents godfather
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does not did not has not have not had not

would not, can not, must wouldn't, can't, mustn't, not... needn't, shouldn't... will not shall not won't shan't

Espaol adoptado ta hermano primo/a pap hija nuera el/la mayor familia padre suegro familia de acogida padrino
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godmother grandchild grandchildren granddad granddaughter grandfather grandma grandmother grandpa grandparents grandson great-grandfather

madrina nieto/a nietos abuelito nieta abuelo abuelita abuela abuelito abuelos nieto bisabuelo

great-grandmother bisabuela husband mother mother-in-law mum nephew niece older only child orphan parents single parent sister son son-in-law stepdaughter stepfather stepmother stepson twins uncle wife
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marido madre suegra mam sobrino sobrina mayor hijo/a nico/a hurfano padres padre/madre soltero hermana hijo yerno hijastra padrastro madrastra hijastro gemelos to esposa
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Ejercicio de vocabulario oral: Calendario Posicinate con el ratn encima de la palabra que quieras escuchar. Das de la semana Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Estaciones del ao Spring Summer Autumn Winter
(brit)

Meses del ao January February March April May June July August September October

En relacin a tiempo Month Monthly Today Tomorrow Tonight Yesterday Week Weekend Weekly Year Century Decade

Das festivos Easter Halloween Thanksgiving Independence day Christmas Christmas eve New year's day New year's eve

Fall

(amer)

November December

La hora en ingls Una manera fcil de decir la hora es la de decir los nmeros tal cual: 10.20 ten twenty 2.15 two fifteen 5.45 five forty-five Para decir las horas en punto podemos decir: nine o nine o'clock (nueve en punto) Pero no podemos decir: six-thirty o'clock Podemos dar la exactitud de la hora diciendo: 11:00 eleven a.m eleven in the morning eleven p.m eleven at night Otra manera de decir la hora es la siguiente: 1:00 one o'clock 3:10 ten past three 4:15 a quarter past four 5:30 half past five 8:35 twenty-five to nine 9:45 a quarter to ten Diferencias entre ingls britnico e ingls americano * a quarter past (UK) y cuarto // a quarter after (US) y cuarto * a half past (UK) y media // thirty (US) y media Preguntar y decir por la hora What time is it? What's the time? (Qu hora es?) It's ... (Es la... Son las...) (At) What time ... ? (A qu hora ... ?) It's about ... (Son aproximadamente las ... ) En el ingls americano no se suele utilizar la expresin half past (y media). En su lugar tratan a la hora como si fuese digital. En cambio s utilizan a quarter past (y cuarto) y a quarter to (menos cuarto). No se utiliza oralmente el reloj de 24 horas excepto para el caso de horarios de aviones o trenes. Entonces para decir que son las 4:00 podemos decir four o'clock in the morning. Para decir 16:30 se dira half past four in the afternoon.
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Para diferenciar las horas de la maana y las de la tarde se emplea am y pm. eleven a.m eleven in the morning (por la maana) eleven p.m eleven at night (por la noche)
Pon en orden las siguientes frases como en el siguiente ejemplo:
I / married / when / young / was / I

I married when I was young

1.

beautiful / red / was / long / wearing / she / dress / a

2.

face / he /expression / has / angry / an / his / on

3.

3. strange / this / tastes / bit / a / tea

4.

4. with / are / the cats / veterinary / and / regularly / care / provided / food

5.

5. large / there / table / is / wooden / beautiful / round / a

6.

6. Texas / they / little / in / house / grew / in / up / a / comfortable

7.

7. dry / will / the / weather / cool / be /and

8.

8. sweet / my / is / father / a / man / old

9.

9. the / drink / juice / a / healthy / apple / is

10. 10. quickly / worker / he / does / a / everything / is / fast / he

Soluciones 1. She was wearing a beautiful long red dress 2. He has an angry expression on his face 3. This tea tastes a bit strange 4. The cats are regularly provided with food and veterinary care. 5. There is a beautiful large round wooden table 6. They grew up in a comfortable little house in Texas 7. The weather will be cool and dry 8. My father is a sweet old man 9. The apple juice is a healthy drink. 10. He is a fast worker. He does everything quickly.

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Las preposiciones A continuacin tienes una serie de oraciones a las cuales les falta alguna preposicin, compltalas escogiendo la/s palabra/s correctas. Al final del ejercicio pulsa el botn "resultado" para obtener la correccin del ejercicio, se sealizarn en color las respuestas correctas del ejercicio.

1.

There were many people ___ his funeral. in at inside

2. I'm busy ____ the moment. I'm working ___ the computer. at / on in / on in / in

3. I met him ____ the South ___ Spain. by / in on / of in / of

4. My flat is ___ the first floor. in on at 5. Your boss suggests a meeting __ Sunday afternoon. in on at 6. We can meet __ the weekend. (american english) in on at

7. I'm busy ___ this weekend. __ in on


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8. We often go swimming ___ the summer. on in at

9. My brithday is ___ the 10th of June. on in at

10. I'll visit my parents ___ Christmas. in at on 11. Peter and Susan always go to church ___ Christmas day. in at on 12. I have seen your advertisement ___ the News. in at inside

13. We've decided getting married __ the spring. to in on

14. John lives somewhere near ___ Bournemouth. in ___ from

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15. What time do you eat ___ the evening?. in at on

16. He goes every evening ____ night clubs. to at ___

17. Yesterday I went with Mary ___ party. to a a at

18. Peter can't have been away. The lights were on __ his apartment. at of in

19. When I arrived Mike was talking ___ Susan. ___ to a

20. I went with my friends ___ last night. ___ the at

21. My father hopes to be retired ____ year because he wants to have more free time. next the next in next

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22. We are going to travel __ train. with in by

23. We went __ Ireland ___ our holidays last year. to / in to / for in / for

24. ___ this time tomorrow we'll be flying over the Atlantic. in at for

25. Our friends are going to meet us ___ the airport tonight. in to at

26. This present is ___ you. to by for

27. We are watching a film __ TV. in on at

28. Turn __ the second left and you will find the bank. ___ in on

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29. Peter is studying ___ a chemist. for to as

30. He suggested going __ a walk. for to to go

Pon en orden las siguientes frases como en el siguiente ejemplo:


I / married / when / young / was / I

I married when I was young


Escribe en las cajas de texto, al final del ejercicio encontrars las respuestas.

1) is / having / he / breakfast

2) every / basketball / play / I / Tuesday

3) 7:30 / gets up / my father / at

4) do / what / every / day / do / you / ?

5) holiday / going / I'm / on / thinking / of

6) I do / read / do / you / books / a lot of / Yes,

7) and / sometimes / the cinema / my friend / I / to / go

8) brother / doesn't / Canada / live / my / in

9) to / How / go / do / your / you / school

10) the summer / really / important / sun cream / wear / it's / to / in

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11) days / these / Peter /what / doing / is / ?

12) looking / I'm / for / at / a job / the moment

13) visit / at / I / Christmas / my parents / will

Solucin ejercicio:

1. He is having breakfast. .2. I play basketball every tuesday. 3. My father gets up at 7:30 4. What do you do every day? 5. I'm thinking of going on holiday. 6. Do you read a lot of books? Yes, I do. 7. My friend and I sometimes go to the cinema. 8. My brother doesn't live in Canada. 9. How do you go to your school? 10. It's really important to wear sun cream in the summer. 12.What is Peter doing these days? 13 I'm looking for a job at the moment.. 14. I will visit my parents at Christmas.

Formar plurales Selecciona la opcin correcta de cada cuestin. Al final del ejercicio pulsa el botn "resultado" para obtener la correccin del ejercicio. Corresponde a la leccin: Singular y plural de los sustantivos

1. El plural de baby es... babis babyes babies

2. El plural de cake es... cakes cakees caks

3. El plural de church es... churches churchs churchees


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4. El plural de glass es... glass glasses glases

5. El plural de wife es... wifes wifees wives

6. El plural de fish es... fishes fishs fish

7. El plural de box es ... boxs boxes boxees

8. El plural de party es... partys partis parties

9. El plural de month es ... month months monthies 10. El plural de toy es ... toys tois toies

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11. El plural de child es ... children childs childes

12. El plural de brush es ... brushs brushes brushies

13. El plural de hobby es ... hobbies hobbys hobbis

14. El plural de sheep es ... sheep sheepes sheeps

15. El plural de dress es ... dreses dresses dressies

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Pronombres Interrogativos Study english - Question words

What...? Where...? When...? Who...? Whose...? How...? Why...? Which...?


Ejemplos:

Qu...? Dnde...? Cundo...? Quin...? De quin...? Cmo...? Por qu...? Cul...?

What kind of music do you like? ( Que tipo de msica te gusta?) What is the weather like? (Qu tiempo hace?) What's he like? (Cmo es l?) What does he like? (Qu le gusta a l?) What does he look like? (Cmo es l de aspecto?) Which do you prefer jazz or pop? (Cul msica prefieres jazz o pop?) Who's that man? ( Quin es ese hombre ?) Who's got my bag? ( Quin tiene mi bolso ?) Whose bag is this? (De quin es este bolso?) Where is Santa Monica? (Dnde est Santa Mnica?) When is your birthday ? (Cundo es tu cumpleaos?) Why are you in a hurry? (Por qu tienes prisa?) How is your mother? (Cmo est tu madre?) How do you spell your name? (Cmo se deletrea tu nombre?) How old are you? (Cuntos aos tienes?) How tall are you? (Cmo eres de alto?) How much money do you have got? (Cunto dinero tienes?) How many tickets do you want? (Cuntas entradas quieres?) How long have you lived in this town? (Cunto tiempo has vivido en esta ciudad?) Objeto y sujeto Who y what pueden actuar como objeto o como sujeto en una oracin interrogativa. Si actan como sujeto no utilizarn auxiliar (do,will,be...) para preguntar. En cambio, si actan como objeto debern preguntar con el auxiliar.
Sintaxis de la pregunta cuando who y what actan como objeto Question word + Auxilar + Sujeto + verbo en infinitivo Who did you ring? (a quin llamaste?) Sintaxis de la pregunta cuando who y what actan como sujeto Question word +verbo + objeto Who rang you? (quin te llam?)

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ejemplo1:

Fred
sujeto

saw
verbo

Julia
objeto

Who saw Julia? Fred --> pregunta de sujeto (Quin vi a Julia?) Who did Fred see? Julia --> pregunta de objeto (A quin vi Fred?) ejemplo2: Oracion principal Dany asked the instructor. (Dani pregunt al instructor) 1) Preguntamos por el sujeto Who asked the instructor? Dany (quin pregunt al instructor?) 2) Preguntamos por el objeto Who did Dany ask? the instructor (a quin pregunt Dani?) ejemplo3: He saw a woman being murdered 1) Who saw a woman? him 2) Who did he see? a woman being murdered ejemplo4: I went to the party with Emely 1) Who went with me? Emely 2) Who did Emely go with? me Adems, generalmente ponemos las preposiciones al final de las frases interrogativas. ejemplo: What are you talking about? correcto About what are you talking? incorrecto
Sintaxis de las oraciones interrogativas

Question Word +

Aux +

Sbj +

Vb+ Object + objeto

Manner Place verb + Adv. +

Time Adv.?

Pronombre auxiliar sujeto verbo interrogativo Do How many What How long ago do did Did Who Who Why do will Did Have How much money
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modo adverbio adverbio del lugar tiempo verbo very the city often? every year?

you

travel abroad

tourist visit they you you say? leave go hates you she you you you hate? visit take got have? him many photos any luggage? soon? when your last work? to the cinema you ?

this weekend?

you went abroad?

do

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Question Tags

En ingls es frecuente que terminemos las frases con una frase corta, de signo contrario, la cual tiene la intencin de pedir la opinin o buscar la aprobacin del interlocutor, son las llamadas question tags. Equivalen a: verdad?, no es verdad?, no?, no es as? en serio?
Ejemplo:

Your brother is older than you, isn't he? (Tu hermano es mayor que t, verdad?) You can help me, can't you? (Puedes ayudarme, verdad?) Para formar esta pregunta corta utilizaremos el auxiliar de la frase principal y su sujeto pero de signo contrario. Si no tuviera auxiliar entonces utilizaramos el auxiliar to do.
Ejemplos:

He doesn't like Susan, does he? He likes Susan, doesn't he? He is getting married, isn't he? He isn't getting married, is he? You worked yesterday, didn't you? El interlocutor puede contestar retomando las question tags. - He likes Susan. (Le gusta Susan) - Doesn't he? (de verdad?) Las partes del cuerpo Ingls ankle arm back bone bottom breast calf chest elbow figure finger fist flesh foot feet
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Espaol tobillo brazo espalda hueso trasero pecho (de mujer) pantorrilla pecho codo tipo / figura dedo (de la mano) puo carne pie pies
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genitals hand heel hip joint knee knuckle leg limb muscle nail nerve nipple rib shoulder side skin spine thigh thumb toe vein waist wrist

genitales mano taln cadera articulacin rodilla nudillo pierna extremidad msculo ua nervio pezn costilla hombro costado piel columna vertebral muslo dedo pulgar dedo (del pie) vena cintura mueca

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Los cuantificacdores Study english: The quantifiers Lots of / A lot of, much /many, few y little

Utilizamos los cuantificadores para expresar la idea de cantidad o nmero. En el siguiente resumen podrs estudiar cmo y cundo usar estos cuantificadores.

Lots of / A lot of

(expresan idea de gran cantidad)

ejemplo:

Lots of + nombre singular o plural He's got lots of books (Tiene muchos libros) A lot of + nombre singular o plural I've got a lot of experience (Tengo mucha experiencia)

ejemplo:

Many / Much

(expresan idean de gran cantidad)

El many y el much se utilizan sobretodo en frases negativas e interrogativas. Many + nombre plural contable There aren't many tourists

ejemplo:

( No hay muchos turistas)

ejemplo:

Much + nombre singular no contable You haven't got much money (No tienes mucho dinero)

El many y el much tambin se combinan con too y so. Too se utilizar para expresar cantidad excesiva. So se utlizar tambin para expresar cantidad excesiva pero sobretodo en exclamaciones. Too many + nombre plural contable There are too many changes for me.

ejemplo:

(Hay demasiados cambios para mi)

ejemplo:

Too much + nombre singular incontable There is too much work . (Hay demasiado trabajo) So many + nombre plural contable There are so many things I want to do! So much + nombre singular incontable We've got so much work to do! (Tenemos tanto trabajo que hacer!)

ejemplo:

(Hay tantas cosas que deseo hacer!)

ejemplo:

Little / Few

Little / few expresan un nmero reducido A little / A few expresan la idea de una cantidad media Little / a little Little / a little + nombre singular no contable ejemplo: You have little to offer. (Tienes poco que ofrecer.) ejemplo: Can we have a little more information? (Podemos tener un poco ms de informacin?) Few / a few Few / a few + nombre plural contable ejemplo: Very few people eat enough proteins (Muy poca gente come las proteinas suficentes.) ejemplo: I'm going to buy a few books today. (Hoy voy a comprar unos cuantos libros.)
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Gerundio (Usos) Study english: Gerund (Uses)

CASOS EN LOS QUE USAMOS EL GERUNDIO

Caso 1: Cuando la accin acta como sujeto.

Ejemplo:

Driving is getting dangerous. - Conducir es peligroso


Caso 2: Despus de verbos como like (gustar), hate (odiar), prefer (preferir) cuando hablas de gustos.

Ejemplo:

I hate studying history - Odio estudiar historia


Caso 3: Despus de be used to.

Ejemplo:

He's not used to wearing a hat - l no suele llevar sombrero.


Caso 4: Despus del verbo mind.

Ejemplo:

Do you mind waiting in the car? - Te importa esperar en el coche?


Caso 5: Despus de los verbos como start, keep on, stop, para expresar el principio y el fin de una accin.

Ejemplo:

I'm trying to keep on working - Intento seguir trabajando Please, stop laughing at me - Por favor, para de reirte de mi What do I need to start studying at University? - Qu necesito para empezar a estudiar en la universidad?
Caso 6: Despus del verbo need (necesitar).

Ejemplo:

Young people need caring adults. - Los jvenes necesitan los cuidados de los adultos.

Caso 7: Despus de la expresin: look forward to

Ejemplo:

I'm looking forward to seeing you. - Tengo muchas ganas de verte.


Caso 8: Despus de la expresin: what about o how about, para sugerir cualquier cosa.

Ejemplo:

What about going to the beach? - Qu tal si vamos a la playa?


Caso 9: Despus de la expresin: be worth.

Ejemplo:

This game is not worth buying. - No vale la pena comprar este juego.
Caso 10: Despus de la expresin: can't help.

Ejemplo:

I can't help falling in love. - No puedo evitar enamorarme.

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Los Adverbios Study english: The adverbs

Un adverbio es la palabra que normalmente acompaa al verbo para modificar su significado. Un adverbio tambin puede modificar a los adjetivos o a otros adverbios.
Ejemplo:

They write the letter. (Escriben la carta.) They write the letter quickly. (Escriben la carta deprisa). En este ejemplo quickly es un adverbio de modo que modifica al verbo to write para expresar que escriben deprisa. Tipos de adverbios adverbios de tiempo: last week, soon, now... Estos responden a la pregunta de: cundo? adverbios de lugar: at home, abroad, everywhere... Estos responden a la pregunta de: dnde? adverbios de grado: less, much, more... Estos responden a la pregunta de: cunto? adverbios de modo: aloud, fast, hard, low... Estos responden a la pregunta de: cmo? adverbios de frecuencia: sometimes, usually... Estos responden a la pregunta de: con qu frecuencia?cuntas veces? adverbios de afirmacin o razn: certainly, likely, neither, moreover...Estos dicen algo sobre la situacin descrita en la oracin. El orden de los adverbios en una oracin Hay cuatro posiciones en una oracin donde puede ir un adverbio: Al principio de la oracin. Ejemplo: Every day we go to our place of business. En el medio (al lado del verbo y despus del objeto si lo hay). Ejemplo: We never said it would be easy. Al final. Ejemplo: You must drive carefully. Entre el auxiliar y participio. Ejemplo: We have always followed the rules. Los adverbios de lugar y de tiempo normalmente van al final de la oracin. This web page will be down this weekend.

ejemplo:

ejemplo:

Los adverbios de frecuencia normalmente van en el medio de la oracin. I've always wanted a smoking jacket! Los adverbios: normally, usually, often, sometimes, every day, once a week ... adems pueden ir al principio o al final de la oracin.

Los adverbios de modo normalmente van al final de la oracin, aunque los adverbios con terminacin -ly pueden ir tambin en el medio.
ejemplos:

He drives perfectly. He perfectly recognized her. Los adverbios de afirmacin o razn pueden ir a principio, en medio o a final de la oracin. A excepcin de also que suele ir en medio de la oracin y too/as well que van al final.
ejemplos:

Maybe she will laugh again. We also accept payment by check. We accept payment by check, too / as well.

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Formar adverbios con la terminacin -ly Muchos adverbios son formados a partir de adjetivos aadindoles la terminacin ly que equivale a la terminacin en castellano de -mente: ejemplo: honest --> honestly (honrado - honradamente) Aunque para ciertos adjetivos existen unas reglas a seguir: 1. La regla general es aadir la terminacin -ly al adjetivo. slow - slowly 2. Los adjetivos terminados en consonante -y, cambian la terminacin -y por la de ily easy - easily 3. Adjetivos terminados en ic: se cambia la terminacin -ic por -ically automatic - automatically 4. Adjetivos terminados en -le, se cambia la terminacin -le por -ly. terrible - terribly
Conjunciones Study english: Conjunctions

Las conjunciones son empleadas para enlazar entre s las palabras y/o oraciones. Segn constan de una o ms palabras las llamamos simples o compuestas: Conjunciones Simples After Although And As Because Before But Except For Furthermore However If Lest Moreover Namely Nevertheless Notwithstanding
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despus (de) que aunque, si bien y, e cuando, mientras, a medida que, como, pues porque antes que pero, sino excepto, salvo ya que, pues adems sin embargo si para que no, por temor de que adems, por otra parte a saber sin embargo, no obstante no obstante, con todo
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Or Otherwhise Provided Since Still Therefore Though Till Unless Until Whenever Whereas Whether While Why Yet Conjunciones Compuestas According to As if As long as As often as As soon as As though As well as As..as Because of Both...and Even if Even when In case In case of In consequence In order that In order to In proportion as In such a way as Neither... nor Not only ... but Of course
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o, u de otra manera, si no a condicin de que, con tal de que puesto que, ya que, desde que sin embargo, no obstante por lo tanto, por eso aunque mientras no, hasta que a menos que hasta que cada vez que, siempre que visto que, mientras que si mientras, mientras que, aunque por qu sin embargo, no obstante

de acuerdo a, segn como si siempre que, con tal de que cada vez que, siempre que en cuanto, tan pronto como como si tan... como, tanto... como tan ... como debido a tanto...como aun si, aunque aun cuando en caso en caso de por consiguiente para que, a fin de que para a medida que de modo que ni... ni no slo... sino por supuesto
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Or else Seeing that So as not to So as to So that So then Whether... or

o bien, sino puesto que, en vista de que para no para para que as pues si... o

Partes de la cabeza Ingls cheek chin ear eye eyebrow eyelash eyelid face forehead gums hair jaw lip mouth neck nose skull teeth tongue throat tooth Espaol mejilla barbilla oreja ojo ceja pestaa prpado cara frente encas pelo mandbula labio boca cuello nariz crneo dientes lengua garganta diente

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Los comparativos y superlativos Study english: Adjectives: Comparatives and Superlatives

Grados del ajetivo Al igual que en en espaol, cuando queremos hacer comparaciones contrastamos cualidades o atributos por medio de adjetivos en sus diversos grados: 1. El grado positivo: es la cualidad en el grado ms simple: fast 2. El grado comparativo: - comparativo de superioridad: faster than ... ms rpido que .... - comparativo de inferioridad: less fast than ... menos rpido que .... - comparativo de igualdad: as fast as .... tan oscuro como ... 3. El grado superlativo: the fastest ... el ms rpido Formacin del comparativo y del superlativo: Para adjetivos cortos o de una slaba: - La comparacin: Para formar el comparativo aadimos al adjetivo la terminacin -er: Por ejemplo, al adjetivo fast (rpido) le aadimos -er: faster (ms rpido) ejemplo: A train is faster than a bicycle.(Un tren es ms rpido que una bicicleta.) The sea is larger than a lake. (El mar es ms grande que un lago) - El superlativo: Para formar el superlativo aadiremos al adjetivo -est, adems el adjetivo ir precedido del artculo The. Por ejemplo, al adjetivo old (viejo) le aadimos -est: the oldest (el ms viejo/mayor)
ejemplo: (rpido)

My father is the oldest. (Mi padre es el ms mayor) My house is the largest. (Mi casa es la ms grande) Para los adjetivos acabados en "y", "er", "le", "ow" de dos slabas: - La comparacin: Para formar comparaciones se aade la terminacin -er. Para los acabados en y final, esta se sustituir por la i latina. Por ejemplo, el adjetivo easy (fcil) acabar con -ier: easier (ms fcil)
ejemplo:

This work is easier than yours(Este trabajo es ms facil que el tuyo) I'm cleverer than her (Soy ms inteligente que ella) My car is slower than yours (Mi coche es ms lento que el tuyo) - El superlativo: Para formar el superlativo aadiremos -est. La y final se sustituir por la i latina. Siempre ir precedido por el artculo The. Por ejemplo el adjetivo ugly (feo) acabar con -iest: the ugliest (el ms feo)
ejemplo:

This man is the ugliest.

(Este hombre es el ms feo)

Para adjetivos largos de dos o ms slabas - La comparacin: Para formar comparaciones, el adjetivo ir precedido de la palabra more. Por ejemplo, el adjetivo modern (moderno) ser more modern (ms moderno)
ejemplo:

This house is more modern.

(Esta casa es ms moderna)

- Superlativo: Para formar el superlativo, el adjetivo ir precedido por : The + most El adjetivo beautiful (hermoso) ser: The most beautiful (el ms hermoso). ejemplo: This woman is the most beautiful. (esta mujer es la ms hermosa). Los adjetivos irregulares: Son los adjetivos que tienen una sintaxis particular para comparaciones y superlativos:

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adjetivo

comparacin

superlativo

good bad far old many/much little

better worse further-farther older / eldest more less

The best The worst The furthet-farthest oldest / eldest most least

Otros ejemplos: I'm stronger. (Soy ms fuerte) I'm stronger than you. (Soy ms fuerte que t) This car is more comfortable than yours. (Este coche es ms cmodo que el tuyo) She's got the same dress than yours. (Tiene el mismo vestido que t) You're as fast as him. ( Eres tan rpido como l) You're not as good as him! (No eres tan bueno como l!) He's the richest man in the town. (Es el hombre ms rico de la ciudad) She's the most beautiful actress I know. (Ella es la actriz ms hermosa que conozco)

Pasado simple y Pasado Continuo Verb Tenses - Past Simple and Past Continuos

Pasado simple / Past simple sujeto + verbo en pasado Se utiliza para hablar de una accin concreta que comenz y acab en el pasado. Lo usamos con expresiones como: last year, yesterday, last night,...
sintaxis: ejemplo:Tomy

stayed at home last night. (Tom estuvo en casa la pasada noche.)

Tambin podemos expresar una duracin hablando del pasado: for all day, for years, for thirty minutes...
ejemplo:Tomy

talked with me for two hours. (Tom habl conmigo durante dos horas.) Pasado continuo / Past continuous sintaxis: sujeto + was/were + verbo + ing
nota: was/were es el pasado del verbo to be

Lo utilizamos para hablar de una accin concreta que comenz y acab en el pasado dando la idea de una duracin continuada.
ejemplo:

I was driving along East street when I saw a fire Conduca por la Calle del Este cuando v fuego. I was running when I met her. Iba corriendo cuando me encontr con ella.

ejemplo:

Personalidad Ingls absent-minded ambitious amusing anxious


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Espaol distrado ambicioso divertido preocupado / inquieto


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arrogant bad bad-tempered brave calm character charming cheerful clever conceited crazy cruel decisive enthusiastic friendly funny generous gentle good-natured intelligent kind lazy mean modest nasty naughty nervous nice optimistic pessimistic polite quiet rude self-confident
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arrogante malo de mal genio valiente tranquilo carcter encantador alegre listo engredo / credo / vanidoso loco cruel decisivo entusiasta amable divertido generoso tierno / dulce afable / bonachn inteligente amable perezoso mezquino / agarrado modesto sucio / obsceno travieso / pcaro nervioso simptico optimista pesimista educado tranquilo maleducado / grosero seguro de s mismo
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sensible sensitive serious shy silly stupid sweet well-behaved wicked

sensato sensible serio tmido tonto estpido amable / dulce de buen comportamiento malvado / malo
There be

Utilizamos there + be para hablar sobre la existencia de algo. El sujeto real se sita despus del verbo. Ejemplo: There is a pencil. (Hay un lpiz.) There + be se puede expresar en todos los tiempos verbales. Fjate que algunos tiempos tienen diferente conjugacin para el singular y el plural. Ejemplo: present --> there is (singular) there are (plural)

Tabla de los tiempos verbales con there + be:

Tiempos verbales 1. present 2. past 3. present perfect 4. past perfect 5. future

Singular There is There was There has been had been will be will have

Plural There are There were There have been

Significado hay haba, hubo ha habido haba o hubo habido habr habr habido va a haber iba a haber habra habra habido puede haber podra / pudo haber puede haber podra haber debera haber debe haber tiene que haber
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There There There 6. future perfect been There 7. Going to be There 8. Going to II be 9. conditional I There There 10. conditional II been 11. Modal Can There 12. Modal Could There 13. Modal May There 14. Modal Might There 15. Modal Should There 16. Modal Must There 17. Modal Have to There
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There had been There will be There will have been is going to There are going to be was going to There were going to be would be there would be would have There would have been can be There can be could be There could be may be There may be might be There might be should be There should be must There must has to be There have to be

Modal Had to There had to be Modal Could There could have II been 20. Modal Might There might have II been 21. Modal Should There should have II been There must have 22. Modal Must II been There has to have 23. Modal Have II been There had to have 24. Modal Had II been
18. 19.

There had to be There could have been There might have been There should have been There must have been There have to have been There had to have been

tuvo / tena que haber Podra / pudo haber habido Podra haber habido Debera haber habido Debe haber habido Tiene que haber habido Tena/tuvo que haber habido

Ejemplos con todos los tiempos verbales: Tiempos verbales 1. present 2. past 3. present perfect 4. past perfect 5. future 6. future perfect 7. Going to 8. Going to II 9. conditional I 10. conditional II 11. Modal Can 12. Modal Could 13. Modal May 14. Modal Might 15. Modal Should 16. Modal Must 17. Modal Have to 18. Modal Had to 19. Modal Could II 20. Modal Might II 21. Modal Should II 22. Modal Must II 23. Modal Have II 24. Modal Had II Ejemplo con there There is a party. (Hay una fiesta) There was a party (Haba una fiesta) There has been a party. (Ha habido una fiesta) There had been a party. (Haba habido una fiesta) There will be a party. (Habr una fiesta) There will have been a party. (Habr habido una fiesta) There is going to be a party. (Va a haber una fiesta) There was going to be a party. (Iba a haber una fiesta) There would be a party. (Habra una fiesta) There would have been a party. (Habra habido una fiesta) There can be a party. (Puede haber una fiesta) There could be a party. (Podra haber una fiesta) There may be a party. (Puede haber una fiesta) There might be a party. (Podra haber una fiesta) There should be a party. (Debera haber una fieista) There must be a party. (Debe haber una fiesta) There has to be a party. (Tiene que haber una fiesta) There had to be a party. (Tena que haber una fiesta) There could have been a party. (Pudo haber habido una fiesta) There might have been a party. (Podra haber habido una fiesta) There should have been a party.
(Debera haber habido una fiesta)

There must have been a party. (Debe haber habido una fiesta) There has to have been a party. (Tiene que haber habido una fiesta) There had to have been a party. (Tena que haber habido una fiesta)
Contables e Incontables Study english: Express quantities: Countables and Uncountables

Es necesario entender correctamente la diferencia entre incontable y contable para poder expresar correctamente las cantidades. Podemos separar los nombres en dos grupos: los incontables y los contables. Los contables son aquellos nombres de cosas, gente, etc que nosotros podemos contar. Por ejemplo nosotros podemos decir: one pencil, two pencils, three pencils... Entonces decimos que pencil es contable.
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chair, book, cat, pen, box, letter ... Incontable es todo aquello que nosotros no podemos contar. Por ejemplo nosotros no podemos decir: one rice, two rices, three rices... Entonces decimos que rice es incontable. salt, momey, wood, tea, wine, sugar, oxygen, advice, bread, furniture, hair, information, money, news, spaghetti, weather, rice Adems muchos nombres pueden ser contables e incontables a la vez dependiendo de la funcin que desempeen:
Por ejemplo:

There are two lambs. (Hay dos corderos) We like lamb. (Nos gusta la carne de cordero) Podemos contar cantidades de cosas incontables usando por ejemplo: glass, bottle, litre, etc...
ejemplos:

a glass of water three cartons of milk a loaf of bread En esta tabla puedes ver las principales difirencias entre contables e incontables: contables tienen plural: egg- eggs incontables no tienen plural: rice no puede ser rices no podemos usar a o an : no podemos decir a milk. Deben ir precedidos, si quieren individualizarse, de alguna palabra con valor partitivo como a carton of milk. no podemos usar nmeros delante de un incontable: no podemos decir two rices much se usa para nombres singulares no contables How much milk is in the fridge? There is too much information. Usamos little o a little para expresar una idea de cantidad reducida o media: little milk o a little milk (poca leche o un poco de leche)

delante de singular contable podemos usar a o an : an apple podemos usar nmeros delante de un contable: two eggs many se usa para nombres plurales contables How many students were there? There are too many people. Usamos few o a few para expresar una idea de cantidad reducida o media: few biscuits o a few biscuits (pocas galletas o unas cuantas galletas)

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Tema: Question words / Pronombres interrogativos

Traduce las siguientes frases al ingls:


Escribe en las cajas de texto, al final del ejercicio encontrars las respuestas.

1. Quin vino ayer noche?

2. De qu querian hablar Mary y Peter?

3. Qu estaban haciendo?

4. Qu tipo de msica te gusta?

5. Cmo est tu padre?

6. Quin la pint? (la puerta)

7. Por qu est el gato tan asustado?

8. Cundo vas a volver?

9. Con quin estabas?

10. Cunto pagasteis?

Traduccin:
1. Who came last night? 2. What did Mary and Peter want to speak about? 3. What were they doing? 4. What kind of music do you like? 5. How is your father? 6. Who painted it? 7. Why is the cat so frightened? 8. When are you coming back? 9. Whom were you with? 10.How much did you pay?

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Ejemplos orales de los temas: Question words Who came last night? What did Mary and Peter want to speak about? What were they doing? What kind of music do you like? How is your father? Who painted her? Why is the cat so frightened? When are you coming back? Whom were you with? How much did you pay? What is the weather like? What does he look like? Which do you prefer jazz or pop? How tall are you? How many tickets do you want? How do you spell your name? Why are you in a hurry? How often do you go swimming?

Sintaxis de la frase interrogativa

Adjetivos relacionados con la personalidad Completa las oraciones de abajo con los ajetivos de personalidad que te indicamos a continuacin: outgoing, careful, calm, relaxed, sympathetic, vain, stubborn, rebellious, sensitive, sensible, caring, lazy, positive, selfish, easygoing, laid-back, selfassured, arrogant, hard-working, egotistical, ambitious, generous, sociable, unselfish, confident, superstitious, shy

Escribe en las cajas de texto y pulsa el botn solucin.

A person who loves talking to new people and going to parties is....

...

is sociable and outgoing

He never gets stressed. He doesn't take life too seriously. He is ...

He

is relaxed, calm and positive

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Sad films make him cry. He hates arguments and shouting. He is ...

He is sensitive

I don't like talking with other people when I don't know them. I'm ...

I'm shy

He worries about taking risks and thinks everything is dangerous. He is ...

He is careful.

If I say: "Here are the key of my car. Use it whenever you want" I'm ...

I'm unselfish.

My mother always say: "Don't look black cats. It's unlucky". She is ...

She is superstitious.

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When he makes a decision it's impossible to make him change his mind. He is...

He

is stubborn

He never buys anyone a present. He is ...

Ejercicio: Las conjunciones A continuacin tienes una serie de oraciones a las cuales les falta alguna conjuncin, completalas escogiendo la/s palabra/s correctas. Al final del ejercicio pulsa el botn "resultado" para obtener la correccin del ejercicio, se sealizarn en color negro las respuestas correctas del ejercicio. Corresponde a la leccin: Las Conjunciones 1. ___ you give it to her, I'll be satisfied.

If Whether Even if

2. I went there ___ I couldn't see him.

but unless lest

3. He speaks ___ softly and clearly.

both whereas yet

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4. I turned the heating on ___ it was cold.

provided because in spite of

5. I must go to the shop ___ it closes.

provided then before

6. See ___ they are out or not.

even if unless whether

7. ___ you were in his place, you would do nothing at all.

Whether if Wether

8. You should study more vocabulary ___ you can speak better.

as long as acording to so that

9. I didn't have time to study for the exam ___ I couldn't pass it.

in order that and therefore whether

10. ___ I liked the sweater, I decided not to buy it.

Although Even though Even

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11. I'm not feel better ___ the pills.

in spite of although even though

12. My brother studies encyclopedias ___ he can answer quiz question.

provided so that in spite of

13. I'm going to study more ___ to be more successful.

in order therefore why

14. ___ I had left my house, it started to rain.

As soon as When Whenever

15. My leg hurts ___ I run.

as when since

Ejercicio: El gerundio Completa las siguiente oraciones seleccionando la opcin correcta para cada cuestin. Al final del ejercicio pulsa el botn "resultado" para obtener la correccin del ejercicio. Corresponde a la leccin: El gerundio 1. He ___ too much money on ___ famous marks. spends / buying spends / buy spending / buying

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2. We were ___ outside the house when I saw it. waiting to wait waited

3. Now it's ____ to rain. starting to start start

4. I hate ____ ! to wait waiting wait

5. He likes ____. driving drive to drive

6. I can't help ____ when I see him! laughing to laugh laugh

7. ___ is getting dangerous To drive Drive Driving

8. Do you mind ____ a minute?

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to wait wait waiting

9. We ___ for the delay. apologising apologize apologisinng 10. Would you mind ___ me a coffe? to buy buying buy

11. Someone always ____ this door open. leaving leaves leave

12. What about ___ out? to eat eat eating

13. I ___ a much better now, thank you. feeling feel felling

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14. It really ___ you. suiting suit suits

15. It ___ warm in here. feels feeling feel

Tema: expresar cantidades con many, much, little, few


Traducir: 1. Hace solo dos semanas que est aqu, pero ya ha hecho unos cuantos amigos.

2. Lo siento por ella, tiene pocos amigos.

3. Estoy muy contenta, he podido ahorrar algo de dinero.

4. Conoces a mucha gente? No, solo a unas cuantas personas.

5. Nos hemos de dar prisa, tenemos poco tiempo.

6. Tiene suerte, tiene pocos problemas y no tiene muchos hijos.

7. Hiciste muchas fotos cuando fuiste al extranjero?

8. No deberas fumar tanto.

9. Tengo un montn de dinero pero poco tiempo para gastarlo.

10. Jack no tiene muchos deberes. El tiene que hacer pocos ejercicios.

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Traduccin: 1. He has just been here for only two weeks, but he has already made a few friends. 2. I'm sorry for her, she has got few friends. 3. I'm very happy, I have been able to save a little money. 4. Do you know many people? No, I don't. I only know a few people. 5. We must hurry up, we have little time. 6. He is lucky, he has few problems and he has few children 7. Did you take many photos when you went abroad? 8. You shouldn't smoke so much. 9. I have a lot of money but little time to spend it. 10. Jack doesn't have much homework. He has to do few exercises.

Ejercicios: Traducir frases al ingls Tema:

There

Traduce las siguientes frases al ingls:


Escribe en las cajas de texto, al final del ejercicio encontrars las respuestas.

1. En la casa hay cuatro habitaciones aunque yo pensaba que haba solo una.

2. Hay alguin en esa habitacin?

3. Haba algo encima de mi cama?

4. Haban patatas en la cocina?

5. Tiene que haber habido una razn.

6. Hay alguin aqu? 7. Habr un pastel esperndonos.

8. Hay algn restaurante aqu?

9. Va a haber mucha gente

10. Pudo haber un accidente.

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Traduccin:
1. There are four rooms in the house although I thought that there was only one. 2. Is there anybody in that room? 3. Was there anything on my bed? 4. Were there potatoes in the kitchen? 5. There has to have been a reason. 6. Is there anyone here? 7. There'll be a cake waiting for us. 8. Is there any restaurant here? 9. There are going to be many people. 10. There could be an accident.

Ejercicios: Clasifica los siguientes nombres segn sean nombres incontables o contables.
Pulsa aqu para ver la solucin del ejercicio Ir a leccin relacionada

(se abrir en una nueva pgina para que puedas comparar con la actual)

Clasifica los siguientes nombres segn sean incontables o contables: apple, gold, butter, lemon, oil, wine, water, pencil, bread, tomato, news, cat, work, oxygen, egg, book, hamburguer, mushrooms, peace, onion Nombres contables Nombres incontables

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There be

Were there many people at school? No, There was only one person. What is there on your table? There is a book. There was going to be a party. There were going to be some parties. There are a few potatoes in the fridge. Would there have been enough milk for the children? Will there be enough money? There were three men in the room. There isn't any wine in the kitchen. There will be a final examination in February. There was going to be a celebration yesterday. There should be a party. Is there a post office near here? There have been more people than I expected. Is there a chair in the garden? No, there isn't a chair. There are four rooms in the house although I thought that there was only one.

Las conjunciones If you give it to her, I'll be satisfied. I went there but I couldn't see him. He speaks both softly and clearly. I turned the heating on because it was cold. I must go to the shop before it closes. See whether they are out or not. Whether you were in his place, you would do nothing at all. You should study more vocabulary so that you can speak better I didn't have time to study for the exam and therefore I couldn't pass it Although I liked the sweater, I decided not to buy it. I'm not feel better in spite of the pills. My brother studies encyclopedias so that he can answer quiz question. I'm going to study more in order to be more successful. As soon as I had left my house, it started to rain. My leg hurts when I run.
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