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Spreading and Cutting of Apparel Products

Fabric Classification; Spreading and Cutting

Reference Material

Prabir Jana
Associate Professor Department of Fashion Technology National Institute of Fashion Technology

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New Delhi Kolkata Hyderabad Bangalore Chennai Mumbai Gandhinagar

Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products

Fabric Classification; Spreading and Cutting


Fabrics need to be spread and cut in multiple layers for mass manufacturing. Lay preparation and cutting depends on following five interrelated parameters like, fabric type, spreading mode, marker mode, garment type and pattern types.

Fabric Type:
Fabric classification is based on visual appearance. Theoretically it can be classified into two basic types; both faces similar (e.g. solid colour poplin) and both faces dissimilar (e.g. denim or pigment print). In first type of fabrics though both faces appear to be similar (e.g. solid colour poplin, discharge print with small motif, plain woven yarn dyed stripe or check etc.) practically always fabrics are treated as both faces dissimilar for garment manufacturing purposes. So we are going to consider the both faces are dissimilar for all fabric types available. Next stage of classification depends on direction or symmetry of printed or woven motifs or nap direction. Primarily the visual motifs that can be classified into eight different types. Nap direction in a fabric is basically the direction of protruded fibres in fabric surface. Examples are velvet, brushed cotton etc.

Warpwise Stripe Symmetric

Warpwise Stripe Asymmetric

Copyright Prabir Jana Reprinted from Pre-Sewing Technology & Systems with permission from Prabir Jana year 2005

Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products

Weftwise Stripe Symmetric

Weftwise Stripe Asymmetric

Warpwise Stripe Symmetric & Weftwise Stripe Asymmetric

Warpwise Stripe Asymmetric & Weftwise Stripe Symmetric

Warpwise Stripe Symmetric & Weftwise Stripe Symmetric

Warpwise Stripe Asymmetric & Weftwise Stripe Asymmetric


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Copyright Prabir Jana Reprinted from Pre-Sewing Technology & Systems with permission from Prabir Jana year 2005

Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products

Spreading Mode:
There are four different ways fabric can be spread. NOW FOW Nap One Way & face One Way spreading. Most common spreading method that can also be done manually. Generally fabric roll is kept on a roller stand (as shown in pic.) and fabric end is being pulled by two spreading operators (thus unwinding fabric from freely rotating roll) walking along both sides of cutting table. Here fabric roll remain stationery. While using machine, the lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process. Every layer has to start from same end thus spreading machine has to come back to starting position without spreading the fabric. This return movement of spreading machine is called as dead heading

NEW F/F Nap either way & face to face spreading. The quickest spreading method while using spreading machine. Difficult to achieve manually. The machine carry the fabric roll while the end is being held in place by catcher, at layer end fabric is not cut just folded and held by another catcher while the fabric is being laid by the machine during its return movement also.

NOW F/F Nap one-way F/F spreading. Most time consuming method of spreading. The lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process. At layer end the fabric is being cut, turntable rotate the fabric roll by 180 degree and return back to starting position without spreading (i.e. dead heading). Now from the starting end the second layer is being laid face to face.

Copyright Prabir Jana Reprinted from Pre-Sewing Technology & Systems with permission from Prabir Jana year 2005

Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products

NEW FOW Nap either way & face one way spreading. The lose end of fabric is being held by catcher and machine carries the rolls along table thus unwinding and spreading the fabric in the process. At layer end the fabric is being cut, turntable rotate the fabric roll by 180 degree and start spreading the second layer from the opposite end face one way. There is no dead heading by the machine in this spreading mode.

Garment Type:
Garments can be classified into two ways. 1. Mirror Image or One-Way garment: According to motif placements i.e. if the motifs (be it print or check) in right and left panel of garments are mirror image to each other (keeping mirror at center front) then it is called mirror image. If motifs (be it print or check) in right and left panel of garments are continuous type (i.e. similar to fabric) then it is called one-way. Majority of garments made commercially are oneway type. 2. Symmetric and Asymmetric garment: According to right and left pattern component size/shape. If the size or shape of right and left component differs from each other then garment is called asymmetric garments. For example in double-breasted jacket left and right front differ from each other in size and shape. Even a mens shirt may be asymmetric garment based on front placket type.

Pattern Type:
According to the symmetry of pattern components those can be classified into 4 types. Pattern type influences the pattern placement in a marker. 1. When we cut the pattern into lengthwise or widthwise both are symmetric, example are rectangular cuff, rectangular pocket etc. 2. When we cut the pattern lengthwise it is symmetric but if we cut widthwise it is asymmetric. Example is back of mens shirt. 3. When we cut the pattern lengthwise it is asymmetric but if we cut widthwise it is symmetric. Example is back yoke of mens shirt. 4. When we cut the pattern into lengthwise or widthwise both are asymmetric. Example is fronts of mens shirt.

Copyright Prabir Jana Reprinted from Pre-Sewing Technology & Systems with permission from Prabir Jana year 2005

Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products

Fabric classification, garment types and spreading modes Code Fabric Types Both faces dissimilar Warpwise Stripe Symmetric Warpwise Stripe Asymmetric Weftwise Stripe Symmetric Weftwise Stripe Asymmetric Garment Types Symmetric Asymmetric Symmetric Asymmetric Symmetric Asymmetric Symmetric Asymmetric NOW NEW FOW F/F Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No NOW F/F Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No NEW FOW Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No

Warpwise Stripe Symmetric + Symmetric Weftwise Stripe Symmetric Asymmetric Warpwise Stripe Asymmetric + Symmetric Weftwise Stripe Symmetric Asymmetric Warpwise Stripe Symmetric + Symmetric Weftwise Stripe Asymmetric Asymmetric Warpwise Stripe Asymmetric + Symmetric Weftwise Stripe Asymmetric Asymmetric

Marker Mode:
All pattern component has top and bottom portion, this is based on while the garment is worn which portion of the garment is at top and which portion at bottom. For example in a shirt front pattern shoulder line is top and hemline is bottom. Based on top and bottom every pattern has nap direction (widthwise symmetric pattern component effectively has no nap direction). While arranging pattern components in marker, depending on nap direction marker can be classified into three categories.

Copyright Prabir Jana Reprinted from Pre-Sewing Technology & Systems with permission from Prabir Jana year 2005

Spreading & Cutting of Apparel Products

1. Nap One Way marker: All pattern components are placed in one nap direction. 2. Nap Either Way marker: In a multi-size/multi-garment marker when pattern components within a single size are kept in opposite nap direction. 3. Nap Up & Down marker: In a multi-size/multi-garment marker when all pattern components of one size are kept one nap direction but all pattern components of a different size are kept in opposite nap direction.

Different Spreading Mode and Different Spreading Parameters


Spreading Parameters Manual Spreading Mechanised Spreading Dead-Heading Turn-table Cutting at lay end Spreading time NOW FOW Possible Possible Yes Not Required Required Second Slowest NEW F/F Difficult Possible No Not Required Not Required Fastest NOW F/F Impossible Possible Yes Required Required Slowest NEW FOW Impossible Possible No Required Required Second Fastest

Copyright Prabir Jana Reprinted from Pre-Sewing Technology & Systems with permission from Prabir Jana year 2005