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Summer School of Architecture as a Revitalization Model of Cultural and HistoricalHeritage

JelicaJovanovi,graduatedeng.ofArchitecture
Summary: On assumption that the projects for the protection and revitalization of cultural heritage due to their complexity and gradual implementation are difficulttofinance,theworkanalyzestheoptionsforalessexpensive,more dynamic and faster realization of these projects in Serbia. Short programs, such as the current projects of summer schools of architecture in the region, offer a type of longterm costeffective solutions; in addition to the potential work on the monument sanation and research as visible interventions, they communicate with a multiple public and users, and complement effectively the work of competent authorities. In using the objectives, ideas and experiences of the Summer School of Architecture in Ba, the paper discusses how the efficiency of these programs can be increased, as well as how to form effective partnerships through which longtermsustainabilitycanbeachievedintheprojectsforculturalheritage preservation. Key words: cultural heritage, building heritage, financing, intersector cooperation,nonformaleducation,sustainability

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Introduction In the difficult conditions of financing projects for cultural heritage preservation, which are realized in the Republic of Serbia mainly thanks to government funds (RS, Informator o radu ministarstva kulture, informisanja macionog drutva, 2011) (RS, Rezultati konkursa za sufinansiranje projekata iz oblasti kulturnog naslea za 2011, 2010) (RS, Zakon o Kulturi 2009) (RS, Zakon o kulturnim dobrima, 1994), it is necessary to design new models for revitalizing heritage, as well as new ways of popularizing projects for the revitalizationofheritage.Theframeworkofthisprocess,inaccordancewith contemporaryinternationalchartersthathavebeenratifiedbytheRepublic of Serbia, should be longterm sustainability of the realized projects. Such results are achieved by an active exchange of ideas, knowledge and experiences between the professional and local communities, as well as by theactiveparticipationofthelocalpopulationintherevitalizationproject. When the projects for building and cultural heritage protection are in question in the broadest sense, it can be noticed that, in the case of Serbia and other countries of the region, these projects very often imply the design of classic project documentation for specific phases: research, reconstruction,buildingconservationetc(Vuenovi,2004).Sincethereare not enough funds for the ancillary activities promotion, popularization, and education these activities are often absent and are not realized. The result of such decisions is that the public experiences the projects for cultural heritage protection as an usurpation by closed professional groups of public and/or private property; as an endless work and expenditure, and as nontransparent (even conspiratorial) feats for spending (wasting) budgetfunds.

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The most common order of events is that protected objects are repaired, conserved and returned to owner/local community for their use, without developing any programs or training the workforce that could manage and organize such programs. In Serbia, as in most countries in the region, no adequate plans or programs are designed for the maintenance of cultural monuments (CHwB & EXPEDITIO, 2008), which inexorably leads to new, often even faster degradation of a repaired monument of culture. Therefore, the argument about wasting funds is legitimate in a way, because there is no planning even for the shortterm sustainability of these projects. Great omissions are also made in the preservation of intangible heritage tradition of local population, customs, costumes, holidays, cuisines which results in the loss of precious knowledge and foundation forcreatingandrealizingsuccessfulactionsfortherevitalizationofmaterial heritage,i.e.,builtheritage.Itcaneasilybeconcludedthattheproblemlies in the insufficient inclusion of the community in the process of heritage revitalization. A number of European and UN conventions recommend that all the stakeholders on the field must be involved through different activities depending on the possibilities; otherwise all these projects are destinedlongtermforruin. Considering the abovementioned, this paper shall analyze the form of specialized summer schools (workshops and camps) as one of the possible ways of revitalizing cultural heritage, primarily built heritage. By demonstratingtheobjectivesandworkmethodologyoftheSummerSchool of Architecture in Ba, and comparing it to other similar programs in the countries of the region, the possibilities shall be analyzed for overcoming the visible weaknesses in the process of heritage protection and revitalization,aswellastheirfurtherimprovement.LocationFortressBa and its suburbium in which the school was organized is a cultural and historical spatial units of great importance with a preserved active
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community; thereby, it is a socalled living monument of culture. In the surroundings of the Fortress, there are numerous material remnants that are also under some form of protection, and natural resource that together with the Fortress make one cultural landscape recognized by UNESCO, which has placed the town Ba with its surroundings on a tentative list of world heritage in April 2010. On this site, the Summer School of Architecturewasheldin2010. Conceptual and legislative framework: Integrative valorization and protectionofculturalheritageprioritiesandrolesoftheprotagonists According to the charters prescribed by the European Union, the heritage on the EuroMediterranean territory should be treated in such a way that its EuroMediterranean dimension is highlighted, and one integral Euro Mediterranean identity is developed in addition to the local and national identities. This identity is considered as the main startingpoint for the development of the European Union and the candidatestates, by the objectives set in accordance with the European perspective of sustainable development (EXPEDITIO, 2005). Natural and cultural heritage, in that context, is considered as one of the potentials for developing states and local communities; it is approached as a factor of identity, human environment and economic factor that contributes to the development of communitiesandregions. In accordance with the idea of a EuroMediterranean identity that embodiesanumberofindividualidentities,theEuropeanCommissiongives a number of recommendations regarding heritage preservation. They can roughly be divided into three groups: the legal framework and sanctions, then participation and associations, and finally, informing and training (EU,
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2005). European policies on heritage preservation should be harmonized and integrated, in order to avoid dramatic differences among individual countries and regions of Europe. However, there must be no unification of identities; their varietyand diversity, in fact,isthe most precious feature of Europe as a zone. Speaking of Serbia, it is important to mention which of these recommendations it is possible to realize in a relatively short period, which would improve the situation with cultural heritage protection on the field. Education The key European documents and charters stress the necessity for education and training, meaning that they start from childhood and last throughout ones entire life (concept of lifelong learning). In the focus of educational programs is the quality of built environment and heritage preservation, for which the interest of the entire public should be increased, primarily the socalled unskilled public. Such an approach is considered a necessary base on which every further concept of heritage preservationisfoundedthecitizenspossessanawarenessandknowledge that heritage is a public good, and thereby accept and support (even carry out) projects for the revitalization of heritage. It is necessary to design and carry out creative workshops with children starting from their preschool age; to organize their visits to museums and exhibitions which is a practicethatnoonecansayisaregularoneinSerbianschools.Educational television programs that could familiarize the wider population with the (inaccessible) heritage are presented in a very outdated manner and at inadequate time slots, when they are not easily available to the public laterintheeveningoraftermidnight(accordingtotheprogramscheduleof

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the national television); and the programs are uncritically taken over from foreignproductions,whilelocalandregionalproductionismissing. Speaking of experts, apart from studies and specializations, it is necessary to maintain the option of certification and additional intersector and interdisciplinary qualifications through courses, schools, workshops and trainings. According to current laws and regular practices in Serbia, it is possibletogetformaleducationonlyinappropriateeducationalinstitutions elementary and secondary schools, craftsmanship, higher schools, faculties.Nonformalandinformallearningdoexistasoptionsandforyears have been part of the practice, mostly thanks to educational centers, workshops and programs organized by the civil sector. A practice has already been established that when writing a CV one should include all the programsofnonformallearning;alltheskillsandknowledgeonepossesses which could help with their professional and expert engagement. These programs cannot be evaluated adequately according to current regulations (winning credits from professional chambers and agencies, obtaining licenses etc.), because the Republic of Serbia recognizes only formal types of education and is lagging with the implementation of the Strategy for Adult Education, which temporarily covers this segment of vocational training (WAVE, 2009) (RS, Strategija razvoja obrazovanja odraslih u Republici Srbiji, 2006). In other words, this form of personal improvement, selfimprovement, is discouraged among experts and individuals must relyontheirownconscience,enthusiasmandorganizationalskillsregarding thetimeandmeansnecessaryforthiskindofprofessionaldevelopment. Multisector cooperation: financing, popularization, documenting, andimplementationofprojects

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... Recognizing that a cultural environment, like the natural one, is an ideal area for public participation, we INVITEthegovernment: a. to involve the citizens and communities, together with professionals, in the process of recognizing and protectingculturalheritage; b. to establish legal, financial and professional frameworks necessary for a harmonized action of experts,owners,investors,contractorsandcivilsociety; c. to develop the concept of common responsibility, including the dimension of heritage in economic, social and educational strategies, for easier sustainable managementoftheenvironment. d.togivesupporttothe: market to finance heritage and to invest in its less profitableaspects, civil society so it takes over an important role in the extended field of heritage as people today experience it..., by using adequate measures and incentives, given thatthestatefundsarelimited,,(EU,2001). Theparticipationofthenongovernmental(civil)sector(RS,ZakonoKulturi, 2009), as well as the private sector is not entirely defined by the current Law on Cultural Property of the Republic of Serbia, which assumes the absolute advantage of the state and government institutions over these sectors in every way. The stated Resolution No. 1 on the Role of Cultural Heritage and the Challenges of Globalization has not been ratified by the Assembly of the Republic of Serbia according to available information from
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the website of the competent Ministry of Culture, Information and Information Society. Moreover, the civil, i.e., nongovernmental sector and associations are entirely omitted from the regulations and laws referring to culture and cultural property (they are nowhere to be mentioned), and there are loopholes that allow a looser understanding of certain statutory provisions, as well as indirect implementation of other legal acts on this field of activity. The participation of the nongovernmental sector in the revitalization projects of cultural heritage is nominally secured, so there is nolegalobstacleforcreatinginterdisciplinaryprojects. Still,thefieldofactivityincultureisindirectlyregulated,bytheLawonCivic Associations, which by their statutes can define the field and domain of their action, as well as their main activity thereby, they can deal with the protection of cultural property (the Law on Associations covers a wide range of associations, which are founded for targeted action, e.g., professional associations, civic associations gathered around the target of preserving certain ecosystems etc.). Indirectly, through the international charters that the Republic of Serbia has signed and ratified, freedom of participation of the nongovernmental (civil) sector is recommended/guaranteed in the projects of valorization, protection and revitalization of cultural heritage. Still, in practice, their activities are still very modest and often the successful projects of the nongovernmental sector are examples of good communication with the projectdevelopers of heritage protection projects from the public sector that are open for cooperation. Initiatives that primarily originate from the nongovernmental sector are not very welcomed by the competent authorities, and their success is strictly linked to the capacities of the organization itself. Unfortunately,

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these initiatives, even though they are quality and productive, are often shortlived and interrupted due to difficulties in financing and implementation, as well as lack of work force. The participation of the private sector is discouraged by bad fiscal policy and the complete absence of tax relieves for socially responsible companies who make donations and gifts. The taxes on donations to the nongovernmental sector have only been lifted at the beginning of 2011, after many years of appealing to the governmentbodies. Communityparticipation ... Civic participation is not only important for culture andheritage,italsoreflectsthedevelopmentofpractical civil law, which is crucial for achieving the objective of the European Council for advancing democratic practices(EU,2001) The participation of the local community can be considered to a certain extent as an activity of the nongovernmental sector, if the community is organized in such a way (either through formal or informal groups of citizens).However,itisnecessarytostresstheroleofthelocalcommunities in the context of the role and significance given to them by the European Union,asthepillarofsustainabledevelopmentinEurope.Inthelasttwenty years, increasing importance is being given to the socalled cultural participation(PascualyRuiz,J.,Dragojevi,S.,2007),whichincludesawide field of activities: from nongovernmental organizations, the number of visitstocertainculturallocalevents,toeverydaypopularculturefollowed by the local population. Civil interaction and civic participation has become
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stronger in all the segments of European societies and entered into mainstream decisionmaking, even in countries with a short and undevelopedtraditionofparticipation,suchasSerbia.However,inaddition to the crucial role that associations of local communities have had in the realization and formation of cultural services, they have always had very little input in the adoption and reforms of cultural policies, because these activities kept being performed by rigid and outdated structures of the competentculturaladministrations(Ibid). Practice:relevantexamplesfromtheregion

In the neighboring countries, educational programs for students, professional public and citizens have been realized for many years now, with the aim of maintaining community interest in the projects that are carried out on the monuments of culture. These programs have been launched after noticing similar problems, which also exist in Serbia: difficulties in financing, the implementation of laws, absence of support from citizens and their passiveness, and lack of skilled workforce on all levels. What these programs are advocating is that through a number of smaller interventions, it is possible to carry out projects for the revitalization of cultural heritage; however, many other activities are performed in the process, such as: training future experts, interaction with local population, maintaining continuity of activities on the field etc. Every program is also the result of specific partnerships formed with the aim of realizing project activities, and they can serve as a model for other projects intheregion.

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Fortified

churches

Of

Transylvania:

Dealu

Frumos

(Schoenberg),Romania, region Mergeln collaboration between institutionsofhighereducationandregionalandstaterepresentatives


In the region of south and southeast Transylvania, there are around 150 remaining fortified churches (originally, there were around 300) in the villages colonizedbytheSaxonartisansduringtheXIIIcentury.Today,sevenTransylvanian villages with fortified churches are on the list of world heritage (UNESCO, 1946). These cathedrals, churches and basilicas were built in villages belonging to the princedoms of the time. Being under constant security threats, they were built after the Ottomans have penetrated into the areas north of the Sava and Danube rivers. The systematic fortification of these buildings began throughout the region intheXVcentury. Dealu Frumos (in eng. Nice hill) is a village with one of the best preserved fortifiedchurches,anditislocatedinthepresentdaycountyofSibiu.Thevillageis located in the region which has been facing drastic depopulation in the past two decades,andthenumberofbelieversusingthesereligiousobjectshasmanytimes decreased during the period of the last century: in the parochial books, it was noted that the Lutheran community in this village had 1204 believers in 1910; while in 1995, there were only 15 (FORTIFIEDCHURCHES, 2011). In 2003, the University of Architecture and Urban Planning Ion Mincu in Bucharest won the concessiontotherightofuseofthisfortifiedchurchfortheperiodof25years.The University organizes here workshops, camps and study travels for students and professionals, with the aim of obtaining ideas for regenerating this settlement and protected urban ambient, i.e., gradually repairing some of the problems, while educating interested students through working on the monument of culture itself. Theannexbuildingswithinthecomplexhavebeenadaptedandmadeintomodest accommodationcapacities,aswellasaworkspace;andinadditiontoarchitecture

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and restoration workshops, inside, are also held workshops for acting, folklore, ethnologyetc.
Figure 1: Romanian Spanish restoration workshop in 2006 (source: Ion Mincu; University of Architecture and Urbanism,2011)

Figure 2: Study visit of the IAESTE practitioners students of Architecture 2006 (source: private photo archive, August2006)

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Regional restoration camp in Gjirokastra, Albania collaboration of expert nongovernmental organizations with the representatives of localgovernmentsandlocalcommunities Gjirokastra is one of the rare wellpreserved Ottoman merchant towns remaining on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula. The Stone town, as it is often called, is located in southern Albania, and it has been on the list of world heritage since 2005. Although it has been on the list of cultural monuments since 1965, the town had been deteriorating until the 90s of the XX century, when first serious measures of technical reconstruction wereundertaken,togetherwithverycomprehensiveresearchanddesignof technicaldocumentation. Considering the fact that the town has around 500 objects that comprise the protected town nucleus, the facilities in this part of town are being abandoned due to poor living and working conditions and high costs of maintenance, and the protection service capacities are limited, The Gjirokastra Conservation and Development Organization was established in 2001. This nongovernmental organization closely collaborates with competent institutions. In collaboration with the fund Cultural Heritage without Borders, for seven consecutive years, a number of volunteer camps and workshops have been organized intended for different target groups: students and professionals in the field of architecture and the protection of cultural monuments; then volunteer camps for the wider public; training for maintenance of stone buildings intended for the local population.Theobjectiveoftheseprogramsistorevitalizeonebuildingata time in the town, within the conditions of the strictest protection regime, and the Organization has a role of a coordinating body that controls and manages the entire process. For example, the topics of the two camps that

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will be organized in 2012 are Saving a world heritage site one tower house at a time Skenduli house, Gjirokastra, Albania and Preservation Skills Training For Locals. Workshops accept 50 participants, and regarding studentsandyoungprofessionals,attentionisalwayspaidsothatmembers from the regional countries are present, since their work experiences are similar. So far, in this way, the following cultural monuments have been reconstructed: Bazaar, Zekate Tower, Park of Seven Fountains; roads and parts of the artisan quarts have been repaired (The Gjirokastra Conservation and Development Organization, 2001); and training for the localpopulationorganized,sotheycouldmaintaintheirbuildingsaccording totheprinciplesofculturalmonumentprotection.
Figure 3: Works on Skendulitower, source: (GlobalGiving,2011)

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Figure 4: Cleaning the walls, source: (PVN,2007)

Godinje 2004 architecture workshop, Godinje, Montenegro collaboration between local citizen associations and expert non governmentalorganizations Godinje 2004 Architectural Workshop is one of the pioneer projects of village architecture valorization in Montenegro, realized on the initiative of thelocalpopulationandincooperationwiththecivilsector.VillageGodinje is located in the southeastern part of Montenegro, on the coast of the Skadar Lake in the region of the Crmniki vineyard area. The buildings were built in stone, and in addition to an exceptionally preserved building environment, this village has a unique natural surrounding with a rich flora and fauna and rare species the inhabitants of the National park Skadar Lake.
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Figure 5: Work on the field in Godinje,source:(EXPEDITIO,2005)

The architectural workshop is one in a number of tested sitespecific workshops organized by the NGO Expeditio from Kotor (like the workshop in Perast, Kotor, Zagora); and it has a target to design adequate architecturalurbandocumentationofruralsettlements.Thisworkshophas also researched the possibilities for the valorization to be carried out through the research and documentary type of architectural workshops. The special value of this project is reflected in the fact that the initiative originated from the local community, from the locals who recognized the value of the objects in which they live and wanted to organize their settlement adequately. For the needs of the local community, but also for the competent institutions, terrain recording was carried out together with the making of the photo documentation, technical documentation about the settlement, GIS database, valorization project and guidelines for the revitalization of settlements used by the locals during the reconstruction of theirbuildings.
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SummerSchoolofArchitectureinMotovun,Croatiacollaboration between higher educational institutions and the representatives of the localgovernmentandeconomy Summer School of Architecture in Motovun is one of the five summer schoolsorganizedwithinthegraduatestudiesontheFacultyofArchitecture atZagrebUniversity(inadditiontotheschoolinMotovun,thereisaschool of architectural recording and schools in Bola, Unija and Orebii; as well as great number of schools that are organized by the civil sector and other public institutions). The school has existed since 1981, and its objective is research, valorization and creative interpretation of building experiences in the region of Istria. According to the school program, the summer schools were organized as an elective course within IX semester of the undergraduatestudiesontheFacultyofArchitectureinZagreb. Every year, students receive a task dealing with the towns in Istria, in accordance with the needs of their local governments and communities. The topics launched in the summer months during terrain work are completed through study work during the winter semester on the faculty. Theaccomplishedschoolshavedealtwithseveralproblemsontheterritory of Motovun, Pore, Rovinj and Mali Brioni, and thanks to their partnership withlocalartisanworkshopsandenterprises,demonstrationexampleshave been designed, i.e., through partnerships with related faculties for digital simulation, study and research regarding the projects of town restoration. All the results obtained by these summer schools have been presented in regularexhibitionsinMotovunandZagreb. During the several decades of their work, these summer schools have equipped the Study center Motovun and made it operational, thanks to the donation from the Pazin municipality. The municipality has donated the
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building of the former municipal prison to the Architectural faculty in Zagreb,whosestafftogetherwiththestudentshasbeenparticipatinginthe youth work actions of restoring Istria and Motovun since the 60s of the XX century. The school has gained international status in the mideighties of the XX century, so it received three more buildings for its use which were made operational through regular school activities. Among the most significant achievements of the school which should be mentioned are certainly the research works regarding the church complex in St. Peters in the forest and the restoration of the church tower. Then, there were the collection of comprehensive documentationon Istria, research works on the town sewage, project studies regarding the restoration of Motovun the town tower (research of the state and stability of the town tower and town walls), the town communal palace, castellum, upper and lower square,studentaccommodation,childrensworkshopsetc.
Figure 6: Poster of the Motovun Summer School, source: (daisai, 2011)

Figure 7: Childrens workshops in Motovun,source:(daisai,2011)

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Casestudy:ProjectofSummerSchoolofArchitectureinBa

The idea for organizing a Summer School of Architecture in Ba originated duringastudytravelofagroupofstudentsfromtheFacultyofArchitecture atBelgradeUniversitytotheprojectCenturiesofBa,whichissingledout as one of the examples of good practice in Serbia regarding preservation of cultural heritage. The project Summer School of Architecture in Ba, in 2010 began as a partnership between the independent project Legatio of the NGO Club of Young Architects and the Fund for Preserving Cultural Historical Heritage Centuries of Ba, as the main projectdevelopers; and the support of partners from the public, civil and private sector on the republic and province level (Legatio, 2010). Therefore, professional civil society organizations were the main project developers. For effective realization,thefollowingwereincluded: 1. public sector: The Faculty of Architecture at Belgrade University, Institute for Architecture and Urban Planning in Serbia, The Provincial Bureau for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, The Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, The Faculty of Technology at Novi Sad University, Agency for Energy Efficiency of the Republic of Serbia, Youth Home in Belgrade.; 2. 3. 4. civilsector:NGOKuauvarkua,KCRex; companies:PotisjeKanjiaandKnaufInsulation; EmbassyoftheRepublicofHungaryandtheAustrianCulturalForum inSerbia.

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Fieldworkdatacollection,interviews,analyses As the location for the first school, the Ba Fortress suburbium seemed to be a logical choice. A spatial culturalhistorical ambient that is protected as aculturalpropertyofgreatsignificancethereby,ithasthehighestlevelof protectionaccordingtocurrentlaw.Thelocationwaschoseninaccordance with the initial ideas and beliefs of the team of authors: the school should deal with realistic problems in real space and time; the problems on site should be approached in a participative way, with complete appreciation of ideasandinstructionsofthecompetentbureausteamfortheprotectionof cultural monuments; and finally, to consider the possibility of future implementation of solutions found during the workshops. The participants of the school were asked for solutions that are feasible and demand low end investments; so they had a task to analyze each problem on all levels: macro micro location, strategy planning implementation, users experts management. Lecturers and leaders of the workshops had to design project tasks based on their experiences so that they could be realized, and to manage the workshops in such a way that the participants would not get a false image of the implementation of a project into reality. The idea is that the participants gain basic knowledge about how one should react in certain situations in the field; how to approach these situations and resolve problems, so that the longterm sustainability is
achieved.

After taking into consideration the format of the Summer school, and the fact that each topic can be dealt with on average in one day, the team of authors began with the preparations for the school: collecting documentation, visiting the terrain in order to detect all the stakeholders and poll them, realizing the program of peer education in cooperation with

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the Faculty of Architecture at Belgrade University. Simultaneously, with the preparations ran the activities of project promotion, through the action titled Warming up, which consisted of lectures, workshops and exhibitions in which the problems of preserving cultural heritage were discussedfromdifferentaspects. Project task formulation, work course, realization, possibilities of implementation Astheresultofpreparationwork,basedontheanalysesofthesituationon the terrain, the schools work program was formulated, with individual project tasks targeting the problems observed on the terrain. To approach the process as efficiently as possible, the participants had a number of lecturesonBaandtheambienttreatedintheschool,aswellasthespecific location characteristics: typology of housing, history of colonization in Vojvodina, presentation of the project Centuries of Ba which now incorporates all the activities regarding the Ba heritage revitalization from archeological excavations, sanitation works and reconstruction to events organized by the local associations and educational publishing. Theselectureshavegiveninformationonthehistoricalcontextinwhichthe revitalizationprojectisbeingcarriedoutinBa.

Figure 8: Participants in the workshop inside the The keep of the Ba fortress (project photo archive, August 2010. (Legatio,2010))

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The social context is the other most important component detected as an inevitable factor in relation to which further steps should be decided, as wellasthedynamicofrealizingtheprojectrevitalizationontheterrain.The municipality Ba belongs to the category of frontier regions, which everywhere in Serbia is faced with poverty, undeveloped industry and economy, and a worrying trend of depopulation. In addition to this, the population is passive and untrusting because of previous failed attempts of revitalization.
Figure 9: Surveying the inhabitants of the Suburbium (project photo archive, April2010.(Legatio,2010)

Speaking of the inhabitants of the Suburbium, they have very specific problems because the majority of houses are in a very poor state, and the owners can neither afford to have them repaired in accordance with the protection principles, nor can they afford to apply old building techniques and already forgotten crafts. In compliance with the existing problems, a new base for the school program was created in each segment, it was analyzed, how certain activities envisaged by the project can influence community life, and to which extent is the community involved in the decisionmakingprocessandwhetheritcancarryout(maintain)theproject
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activities.Aparticularlyimportantsegmentistheworkshopforparticipative planning, designed and realized according to UN Habitat methodology, which offered suggestions for organizing the public space of the Ba FortressanditsSuburbium.

Figure 10: Workshop Participative approach to shaping the public space of the Ba Fortress and its suburbium,projectleaderTatjanaMrenovi(projectphotoarchive,August2010.(Legatio,2010))

The abovementioned problems of the rundown building fund of the Suburbiumhave been analyzed in severalworkshops, together with smaller projecttaskstargetingindividualproblemsnoticedintheSuburbium:lossof the technology for earth building in Serbia, shortage of historic building materials, housing typology and the sanitation of buildings according to the principlesofbioclimaticdesign.

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Figure 11: Making adobe, plot number 12 in the Ba Fortress Suburbium, projectleader Dragana Marjanovi(projectphotoarchive,August2010.(Legatio,2010))

Figure12:Testingmudmortar,wallofhousenumber10intheBaFortressSuburbiumprojectleader DraganaMarjanovi(projectphotoarchive,August2010.(Legatio,2010))

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The workshop for earth architecture tested the available types of soil and suitable surfaces for the reconstruction of houses in the Suburbium and in the wider area as well, which were built of earth materials but have not been repaired yet. On the Fortress, the practice of diagnosing brick used in the its construction was performed; it is a rare historic material that has to be obtained from recycled material found on junkyards and building sites, which get this material after old buildings are demolished. The participants were especially warned about the microorganisms, with which the monument can be contaminated if the recycled material is not properly checked,aswellasthestepsandprocedurestobetakeninsuchsituations. During the reconstruction of the Fortress walls, the participants also had the opportunity to work with the craftsmen in preparing the mortar based onoldrecipes.

Figure13:Diagnosingthehistoricmaterialsworkonthereconstructionofthewalls,projectleaders Prof.DrJonjauaRanogajecandSlavicaVujovi(projectphotoarchive,August2010.(Legatio,2010))
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Figure 14: Diagnosing historic materials sampling and testing under the microscope, projectleader Prof.DrJonjauaRanogajec(projectphotoarchive,August2010.(Legatio,2010))

Finally, the school introduced a completely new field of activity when speaking of Serbia. Through work on increasing energy efficiency of buildings in the Suburbium with respect to the protection principles (projectleader PhD Mila Pucar), the issue of energy management in protected buildings and urban ambients has been introduced for the first time in Serbia. When built heritage in Serbia is concerned, in its widest sense,thisisanespeciallyimportantissuesincethecorpusofperformances of protected buildings, which are increasing in number, should also be considered in the context of sustainability. Indeed, the inefficiency of protected buildings is one of the main arguments and justifications used in the devastation of certain buildings and urban ambient that are protected or were under prior protection, thereby placing residential architecture particularly under threat. The participants have developed projects for four

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households, by applying the systems and principles of bioclimatic architecture in the conditions of the strictest protection of buildings and urban ambients. This concept was also improved by precise calculations in TAS 3D Modeller software, which showed accurate gains in energy consumptionandthedifferencesbetweenthebeforeandafterminimal plannedinterventionsonthebuilding(Petrovi,Pucar,&Jovanovi,2011).

Figure15:Posterofthebestproject,housenumber17intheBaFortressSuburbium,D.Dizdarevic,A. Savic,B.Vukobrat(projectarchive,September2010.(Legatio,2010))

Conclusion

The project of the Summer School of Architecture in Ba was envisioned to provide, apart from nonformal education of the human resources in architecture, planning and culture in general, assistance to the local community in articulating its needs and realizing ideas, as well as offering additional ideas and assistance to the competent protection services present on the terrain. By defining the topics in
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compliance with the existing state and priorities, the project received its realistic dimension that contributes to its functional value. None of the schools ideas have been realized so far; neither have they exceeded being just a project idea, sketch and simulation. However, for now it is certain that the result of each organized school, at the very least, will be a collection of relevant and applicable recommendations, which further could be developed and used in other environments asa sustainable and costeffective model for testing ideas and plans for preserving cultural heritage. With small amendments and harmonization of legal regulations and a minimal improvement of established procedures, it is possible to greatly improve working on heritage on terrain, educationpractice for professionalsandinclusionoflocalcommunity.

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