Está en la página 1de 142

TRNG I HC S PHM K THUT TP.

HCM
KHOA IN - IN T
B MN IN T VIN THNG








N TT NGHIP
ti:

QUY HOCH MNG 4G LTE




GVHD: TS. L Quang Tun
SVTH: Nguyn Th Thy Dng
MSSV: 06117013





TP.H Ch Minh - Thng 1/ 2011





PHN A
GII THIU

n tt nghip Trang i





LI CM N

Sau khong thi gian hc tp ti trng, y l khong thi gian
kh qun i vi chng em. Thy c ch bo tn tnh gip cho
chng em trang b kin thc vng vng bc vo i.
c nh ngy hm nay, em xin gi li cm n n cc thy
c trong b mn in T Vin Thng cng nh cc thy c trong khoa
in-in t hng dn, truyn t kin thc cho chng em. Em xin
gi li cm n c bit n thy TS. L Quang Tun, cng ty Vin
Thng Quc ni (VTN), ngi trc tip tn tnh hng dn em c
th hon thnh ti ny.
Xin gi li cm n n ba m ng vin gip c v vt cht
v tinh thn cho con bao nhiu nm qua, ng cm n n bn b
lun lun bn cnh mnh .
Xin by t lng bit n su sc
Ngi thc hin


Nguyn Th Thy Dng


n tt nghip Trang ii





QUYT NH GIAO TI
Sinh vin thc hin: Nguyn Th Thy Dng
MSSV: 06117013
Ngnh: Cng ngh in t - Vin thng
Tn ti: QUY HOCH MNG 4G LTE V P DNG CHO TP.HCM
1) C s ban u:
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
2) Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton:
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
3) Cc bn v:
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
4) Gio vin hng dn: TS. L Quang Tun
5) Ngy giao nhim v:
6) Ngy hon thnh nhim v:

B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC S PHM K THUT
TP. H CH MINH
CNG HA X HICH NGHA VIT NAM
c lp T do Hnh phc
Gio vin hng dn




TS. L Quang Tun
Ngy .. thng .. nm 2011
Ch nhim b mn
n tt nghip Trang iii


NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
Ngy .. thng .. nm 2011
Gio vin hng dn


TS. L Quang Tun
n tt nghip Trang iv


NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
Ngy .. thng .. nm 2011
Gio vin phn bin 2



Ngy .. thng .. nm 2011
Gio vin phn bin 1



n tt nghip Trang v


LI NI U
Ngnh cng ngh vin thng chng kin nhng pht trin ngon mc
trong nhng nm gn y. Khi m cng ngh mng thng tin di ng th h th ba
3G cha c thi gian khng nh v th ca mnh trn ton cu, ngi ta
bt u ni v cng ngh 4G (Fourth Generation) t nhiu nm gn y. Th nhng,
ni mt cch chnh xc th 4G l g? Liu c mt nh ngha thng nht cho th h
mng thng tin di ng tng lai 4G?
Ngc dng thi gian...
Trong hn mt thp k qua, th gii chng kin s thnh cng to ln ca
mng thng tin di ng th h th hai 2G. Mng 2G c th phn ra 2 loi: mng 2G
da trn nn TDMA v mng 2G da trn nn CDMA. nh du im mc bt u
ca mng 2G l s ra i ca mng D-AMPS (hay IS-136) dng TDMA ph bin
M. Tip theo l mng CdmaOne (hay IS-95) dng CDMA ph bin chu M v
mt phn ca chu , ri mng GSM dng TDMA, ra i u tin Chu u v
hin c trin khai rng khp th gii. S thnh cng ca mng 2G l do dch v
v tin ch m n mng li cho ngi dng, tiu biu l cht lng thoi v kh
nng di ng.

Hnh : S tm lc qu trnh pht trin ca mng thng tin di ng t bo
Tip ni th h th 2, mng thng tin di ng th h th ba 3G v ang
c trin khai nhiu ni trn th gii. Ci tin ni bt nht ca mng 3G so vi
mng 2G l kh nng cung ng truyn thng gi tc cao nhm trin khai cc
dch v truyn thng a phng tin. Mng 3G bao gm mng UMTS s dng k
n tt nghip Trang vi


thut WCDMA, mng CDMA2000 s dng k thut CDMA v mng TD-SCDMA
c pht trin bi Trung Quc. Gn y cng ngh WiMAX cng c thu nhn
vo h hng 3G bn cnh cc cng ngh ni trn. Tuy nhin, cu chuyn thnh cng
ca mng 2G rt kh lp li vi mng 3G. Mt trong nhng l do chnh l dch v
m 3G mang li khng c mt bc nhy r rt so vi mng 2G. Mi gn y ngi
ta mi quan tm ti vic tch hp MBMS (Multimedia broadcast and multicast
service) v IMS (IP multimedia subsystem) cung ng cc dch v a phng tin.
Khi nim 4G bt ngun t u?
C nhiu nh ngha khc nhau v 4G, c nh ngha theo hng cng ngh,
c nh ngha theo hng dch v. n gin nht, 4G l th h tip theo ca mng
thng tin di ng khng dy. 4G l mt gii php vt ln nhng gii hn v
nhng im yu ca mng 3G. Thc t, vo gia nm 2002, 4G l mt khung nhn
thc tho lun nhng yu cu ca mt mng bng rng tc siu cao trong
tng lai m cho php hi t vi mng hu tuyn c nh. 4G cn l hin th ca
tng, hy vng ca nhng nh nghin cu cc trng i hc, cc vin, cc cng
ty nh Motorola, Qualcomm, Nokia, Ericsson, Sun, HP, NTT DoCoMo v nhiu
cng ty vin thng khc vi mong mun p ng cc dch v a phng tin m
mng 3G khng th p ng c.
Theo dng pht trin
Nht, nh cung cp mng NTT DoCoMo nh ngha 4G bng khi nim a
phng tin di ng (mobile multimedia) vi kh nng kt ni mi lc, mi ni,
kh nng di ng ton cu v dch v c th cho tng khch hng. NTT DoCoMo
xem 4G nh l mt m rng ca mng thng tin di ng t bo 3G. Quan im ny
c xem nh l mt quan im tuyn tnh trong mng 4G s c cu trc t
bo c ci tin cung ng tc ln trn 100Mb/s. Vi cch nhn nhn ny th
4G s chnh l mng 3G LTE , UMB hay WiMAX 802.16m. Nhn chung y cng
l khuynh hng ch o c chp nhn Trung Quc v Hn Quc.
Bn cnh , mc d 4G l th h tip theo ca 3G, nhng tng lai khng
hn ch gii hn nh l mt m rng ca mng t bo. V d chu u, 4G c
xem nh l kh nng m bo cung cp dch v lin tc, khng b ngt qung vi
n tt nghip Trang vii


kh nng kt ni vi nhiu loi hnh mng truy nhp v tuyn khc nhau v kh
nng chn la mng v tuyn thch hp nht truyn ti dch v n ngi dng
mt cch ti u nht. Quan im ny c xem nh l quan im lin i. Do ,
khi nim ABC-Always Best Connected (lun c kt ni tt nht) lun c
xem l mt c tnh hng u ca mng thng tin di ng 4G. nh ngha ny c
nhiu cng ty vin thng ln v nhiu nh nghin cu, nh t vn vin thng chp
nhn nht hin nay. D theo quan im no, tt c u k vng l mng thng tin di
ng th h th t 4G s ni ln vo khong 2010-2015 nh l mt mng v tuyn
bng rng tc siu cao. Vit Nam , hin nay 3G ang pht trin rm r v
tin ln 4G khng cn xa na. Theo tin t Tp on Bu chnh vin thng Vit
Nam (VNPT), n v ny va hon thnh vic lp t trm BTS s dng cho dch
v v tuyn bng rng cng ngh LTE (Long Term Evolution), cng ngh tin 4G
u tin ti Vit Nam v ng Nam .
n nghin cu v Cng ngh 4G LTE l cng ngh cn mi m v ph
hp vi thc trng hin nay ca Vit Nam.
Ni dung ca n bao gm 3 phn :
Phn A : Gii thiu
Phn B : Ni dung
Chng 1: Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan
v mng 4G
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan
Chng 3 : Quy hoch mng 4G LTE v p dng cho TP. HCM
Chng 4 : M phng
Phn C : Ph lc v ti liu tham kho
Trong qu trnh thc hin ti, ngi thc hin c nhng hn ch v kh
nng v cn nhiu sai st , rt mong s ng gp kin ca thy c v bn b .
n tt nghip Trang viii


MC LC
PHN A : GII THIU
LI CM N ......................................................................................................... i
QUYT NH GIAO TI ................................................................................ ii
NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN .....................................................iii
NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN ........................................................ iv
MC LC ........................................................................................................... viii
MC LC HNH .................................................................................................. xii
MC LC BNG................................................................................................. xv
PHN B : NI DUNG
CHNG 1: GII THIU V H THNG THNG TIN DI NG V TNG
QUAN V MNG 4G ............................................................................................ 1
1. 1 S pht trin ca h thng thng tin di ng .................................................. 1
1. 1. 1 H thng thng tin di ng th h 1 (1G) ............................................... 2
1. 1. 2 H thng thng tin di ng th h 2 (2G) ............................................... 3
1. 1. 3 H thng thng tin di ng th h 3 (3G) ............................................... 6
1. 1. 4 H thng thng tin di ng th h 4 (4G) ............................................... 7
1. 2 Tng quan v mng 4G [12] .......................................................................... 8
1. 3 S khc nhau gia 3G v 4G ....................................................................... 10
1. 3. 1 u im ni bt.................................................................................... 11
1.3.2 Cc ng dng to nn u im ca 4G LTE so vi 3G ...................... 11
CHNG 2 : CU TRC MNG 4G LTE V CC VN LIN QUAN .... 14
2.1 Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE........................................................................ 14
2.2 Cu trc ca LTE [1] .................................................................................... 24
n tt nghip Trang ix


2.3 Cc knh s dng trong E-UTRAN .............................................................. 29
2.4 Giao thc ca LTE (LTE Protocols) [2] ....................................................... 31
2.5 Mt s c tnh ca knh truyn .................................................................. 34
2.5.1 Tri tr a ng .................................................................................... 34
2.5.2 Cc loi fading ....................................................................................... 34
2.5.3 Dch tn Doppler .................................................................................... 35
2.5.4 Nhiu MAI i vi LTE ......................................................................... 35
2.6 Cc k thut s dng trong LTE .................................................................. 36
2.6.1 K thut truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM [1] .................. 36
2.6.2 K thut SC-FDMA [1] ......................................................................... 46
2.6.3 K thut MIMO [1] ................................................................................ 48
2.6.4 M ha Turbo [18] ................................................................................ 50
2.6.5 Thch ng ng truyn [18] ................................................................. 51
2.6.6 Lp biu ph thuc knh [18] ................................................................ 52
2.6.7 HARQ vi kt hp mm [18] ................................................................ 52
2.7 Chuyn giao ................................................................................................ 53
2.7.1 Mc ch chuyn giao ............................................................................ 53
2.7.2 Trnh t chuyn giao ............................................................................. 54
2.7.3 Cc loi chuyn giao ............................................................................. 56
2.7.4 Chuyn giao i vi LTE [3] ................................................................ 59
2.8 iu khin cng sut [3] .............................................................................. 60
2.8.1 iu khin cng sut vng h [8] ........................................................... 61
2.8.2 iu khin cng sut vng kn [8] .......................................................... 62
CHNG 3 : QUY HOCH MNG 4G LTE V P DNG CHO TP.HCM ..... 65
3. 1 Khi qut v qu trnh quy hoch mng LTE ............................................. 65
n tt nghip Trang x


3. 2 D bo lu lng v phn tch vng ph ..................................................... 66
3. 2. 1 D bo lu lng ................................................................................. 66
3. 2. 2 Phn tch vng ph ............................................................................... 67
3. 3 Quy hoch chi tit ....................................................................................... 67
3. 3. 1 Quy hoch vng ph ............................................................................ 67
3. 3. 1. 1 Qu ng truyn [2] .................................................................... 68
3. 3. 1. 2 Cc m hnh truyn sng ............................................................... 77
3. 3. 1. 3 Tnh bn knh cell ........................................................................ 83
3. 3. 2 Quy hoch dung lng ......................................................................... 85
3. 4 Quy hoch cho TP H Ch Minh ................................................................. 90
3.5 Ti u mng ................................................................................................. 91
3.6 iu khin cng sut knh PUSCH ca LTE [7] ......................................... 92
CHNG 4: M PHNG ................................................................................... 95
4.1 Cc lu .................................................................................................... 95
4.2 Quy hoch mng LTE .................................................................................. 96
4.2.1 Quy hoch vng ph .............................................................................. 97
4.2.1.1 Qu ng truyn ............................................................................ 97
4.2.1.2 Cc m hnh truyn sng ................................................................. 98
4.2.1.3 Quy hoch vng ph ...................................................................... 100
4.2.2 Quy hoch dung lng ca LTE .......................................................... 100
4.2.3 Ti u s trm ..................................................................................... 102
4.2.4 So snh vng ph ca LTE v WCDMA .............................................. 103
4.3. Chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut ........................................................ 105
4.3.1 Giao din chnh .................................................................................... 105
4.3.2 iu khin cng sut ............................................................................ 106
n tt nghip Trang xi


4.3.3 Chuyn giao ........................................................................................ 109
4.3.3.1 Trng hp chuyn giao thnh cng .............................................. 110
4.3.3.2 Trng hp chuyn giao b rt ....................................................... 111
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN CA TI ..................................... 113
PHN C: PH LC V TI LIU THAM KHO
PH LC 1 : CC T VIT TT .................................................................... 114
PH LC 2 : HNG DN S DNG ........................................................... 119
CHNG TRNH .............................................................................................. 119
TI LIU THAM KHO ................................................................................... 122
n tt nghip Trang xii



MC LC HNH
Hnh 2.1: So snh v cu trc gia UTMS v LTE ................................................ 24
Hnh 2.2: Cu trc c bn ca LTE ....................................................................... 25
Hnh 2.3: Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp 3GPP ........................................... 27
Hnh 2.4 : Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp3GPP v khng phi 3GPP .......... 28
Hnh 2.6: Giao thc ca UTRAN .......................................................................... 31
Hnh 2.7: Giao thc ca E-UTRAN ....................................................................... 32
Hnh 2.8: Phn phi chc nng ca cc lp MAC, RLC, PDCP ............................. 32
Hnh 2.9 : Truyn n sng mang.......................................................................... 36
Hnh 2.10 : Nguyn l ca FDMA ......................................................................... 36
Hnh 2.11 : Nguyn l a sng mang ..................................................................... 36
Hnh 2.12 : So snh ph tn ca OFDM vi FDMA .............................................. 37
Hnh 2.13 : Tn s-thi gian ca tn hiu OFDM ................................................... 37
Hnh 2.14 : Cc sng mang trc giao vi nhau ...................................................... 38
Hnh 2.15 : Bin i FFT ....................................................................................... 39
Hnh 2.16 : Thu pht OFDM ................................................................................. 39
Hnh 2.17: Chui bo v GI .................................................................................. 40
Hnh 2.18 Tc dng ca chui bo v ................................................................... 41
Hnh 2.19 Sng mang con OFDMA....................................................................... 42
Hnh 2.20 OFDM v OFDMA ............................................................................... 42
Hnh 2.21 : Ch nh ti nguyn ca OFDMA trong LTE ...................................... 43
Hnh 2.22 : Cu trc ca mt khi ti nguyn ........................................................ 44
Hnh 2.23 : Cu trc b tr tn hiu tham kho ....................................................... 45
Hnh 2.24: c tnh ng bao ca tn hiu OFDM ............................................... 45
n tt nghip Trang xiii



Hnh 2.25: PAPR cho cc tn hiu khc nhau ......................................................... 46
Hnh 2.26: OFDMA v SC-FDMA ........................................................................ 47
Hnh 2.28 M hnh SU-MIMO v MU-MIMO ...................................................... 49
Hnh 2.29: Ghp knh khng gian ......................................................................... 50
Hnh 2.30 iu ch thch nghi .............................................................................. 51
Hnh 2.31: Nguyn tc chung ca cc thut ton chuyn giao ................................ 55
Hnh 2.32 : Chuyn giao mm ............................................................................... 57
Hnh 2.33 : Chuyn giao mm - mm hn ............................................................. 58
Hnh 2.34 : Chuyn giao cng ............................................................................... 58
Hnh 2.35: Cc loi chuyn giao ............................................................................ 59
Hnh 2.36: iu khin cng sut vng h .............................................................. 62
Hnh 2.37: iu khin cng sut vng kn ............................................................. 63
Hnh 3. 1: Khi qut v qu trnh quy hoch mng LTE ........................................ 65
Hnh 3. 2 : Cc tham s ca m hnh Walfisch-Ikegami ........................................ 79
Hnh 3. 3: Quan h gia bng thng knh truyn v bng thng cu hnh .............. 88
Hnh 4.1 : Lu phn m phng quy hoch LTE ................................................ 95
Hnh 4.2 : Lu phn chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut ................................ 96
Hnh 4.3: Giao din phn quy hoch mng LTE .................................................... 96
Hnh 4.4: Qu ng truyn ca LTE.................................................................... 97
Hnh 4.5 Mi trng truyn sng trong nh ........................................................... 98
Hnh 4.6 : Mi trng truyn sng ngoi tri ........................................................ 99
Hnh 4.7: Mi trng xe c ................................................................................... 99
Hnh 4.8: Quy hoch vng ph LTE .................................................................... 100
Hnh 4.9 : Quy hoc dung lng LTE .................................................................. 101
Hnh 4.10: Tnh ton tc nh ......................................................................... 102
n tt nghip Trang xiv



Hnh 4.11: Ti u s trm .................................................................................... 102
Hnh 4.12 : So snh qu ng truyn ln ca LTE v WCDMA ........................ 103
Hnh 4.13: So snh qu ng truyn xung ca LTE v WCDMA .................... 103
Hnh 4.14: So snh vng ph ca LTE v WCDMA ............................................ 104
Hnh 4.15: Giao din phn chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut.......................... 105
Hnh 4.16: Nhp d liu cho iu khin cng sut ............................................... 106
Hnh 4.17: iu khin cng sut LTE ............................................................... 107
Hnh 4.18: Nhp liu ca WCDMA ..................................................................... 108
Hnh 4.19: So snh iu khin cng sut ca LTE v WCDMA .......................... 109
Hnh 4.20: Trng hp chuyn giao thnh cng .................................................. 110
Hnh 4.21: Trng hp chuyn giao b rt ........................................................... 111









n tt nghip Trang xv



MC LC BNG
Bng 2.1 : Cc thng s lp vt l LTE ................................................................. 17
Bng 2.2 : Tc nh ca LTE theo lp .............................................................. 18
Bng 2.3 : So snh cc dch v ca 3G so vi 4G LTE .......................................... 19
Bng 2.4 : So snh gia HSPA, WiMAX v LTE .................................................. 21
Bng 2.5 : S khi ti nguyn theo bng thng knh truyn ................................... 43
Bng 3. 1 :V d v qu ng ln ca LTE .......................................................... 71
Bng 3. 2 : V d ca qu ng xung LTE ......................................................... 73
Bng 3. 3 : So snh qu ng truyn ln ca cc h thng ................................... 74
Bng 3. 4 : So snh v qu ng truyn xung ca cc h thng ......................... 75
Bng 3. 5 : Cc gi tr K s dng cho tnh ton vng ph sng .............................. 85
Bng 3. 6 : Tc bit nh tng ng vi tng tc m ha v bng thng ........ 86
Bng 3. 7 Gi tr ca bng thng cu hnh tng ng vi bng thng knh truyn[4]
.............................................................................................................................. 88
Bng 3.8 Din tch v dn s tng qun ca TP.HCM [11] ................................ 90
Bng 3.9 Cc lp cng sut ca UE [10] ............................................................... 93





PHN B
NI DUNG




n tt nghip Trang 1
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

CHNG 1: GII THIU V H THNG THNG TIN DI
NG V TNG QUAN V MNG 4G
Thng tin di ng l mt lnh vc rt quan trng trong i sng x hi. X
hi cng pht trin, nhu cu v thng tin di ng ca con ngi cng tng ln v
thng tin di ng cng khng nh c s cn thit v tnh tin dng ca n. Cho
n nay, h thng thng tin di ng tri qua nhiu giai on pht trin, t th h
di ng th h 1 n th h 3 v th h ang pht trin trn th gii - th h 4.
Trong chng ny s trnh by khi qut v cc c tnh chung ca cc h thng
thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G.
1. 1 S pht trin ca h thng thng tin di ng
Khi cc ngnh thng tin qung b bng v tuyn pht trin th tng v
thit b in thoi v tuyn ra i v cng l tin thn ca mng thng tin di ng
sau ny. Nm 1946, mng in thoi v tuyn u tin c th nghim ti ST
Louis, bang Missouri ca M.
Sau nhng nm 50, vic pht minh ra cht bn dn cng nh hng ln n
lnh vc thng tin di ng. ng dng cc linh kin bn dn vo thng tin di ng
ci thin mt s nhc im m trc y cha lm c.
Thut ng thng tin di ng t bo ra i vo nhng nm 70, khi kt hp
c cc vng ph sng ring l thnh cng, gii c bi ton kh v dung
lng.







n tt nghip Trang 2
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

Hnh 1: L trnh pht trin ca h thng thng tin di ng t bo
1. 1. 1 H thng thng tin di ng th h 1 (1G)
Nhng h thng thng tin di ng u tin, nay c gi l th h th nht
(1G), s dng cng ngh analog gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA)
truyn knh thoi trn sng v tuyn n thu bao in thoi di ng. Vi
FDMA, ngi dng c cp pht mt knh trong tp hp c trt t cc knh trong
lnh vc tn s. Trong trng hp nu s thu bao nhiu vt tri so vi cc knh
tn s c th, th mt s ngi b chn li khng c truy cp.
1. 1. 1. 1 c im
Mi MS c cp pht i knh lin lc sut thi gian thng tuyn.
Nhiu giao thoa do tn s cc knh ln cn nhau l ng k.
Trm thu pht gc BTS phi c b thu pht ring lm vic vi mi MS trong
cell.
H thng FDMA in hnh l h thng in thoi di ng tin tin AMPS.
1. 1. 1. 2 Nhng hn ch ca h thng thng tin di ng th h 1
H thng di ng th h 1 s dng phng php a truy cp n gin. Tuy
nhin h thng khng tha mn nhu cu ngy cng tng ca ngi dng v c dung
lng v tc . N bao gm cc hn ch sau :
Phn b tn s rt hn ch, dung lng nh.
n tt nghip Trang 3
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

Ting n kh chu v nhiu xy ra khi my di ng chuyn dch trong mi
trng fading a tia.
Khng cho php gim ng k gi thnh ca thit b di ng v c s h tng.
Khng m bo tnh b mt ca cc cuc gi.
Khng tng thch gia cc h thng khc nhau, c bit chu u, lm cho
thu bao khng th s dng c my di ng ca mnh cc nc khc.
Cht lng thp v vng ph sng hp.
Gii php duy nht loi b cc hn ch trn l phi chuyn sang s dng k
thut thng tin s cho thng tin di ng cng vi k thut a truy cp mi u
im hn v c dung lng v cc dch v c cung cp. V vy xut hin
h thng thng tin di ng th h 2.
1. 1. 2 H thng thng tin di ng th h 2 (2G)
H thng thng tin di ng s s dng k thut a truy cp phn chia theo thi
gian (TDMA) u tin trn th gii c ra i chu u v c tn gi l GSM.
Vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca thu bao, h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 lc
p ng kp thi s lng ln cc thu bao di ng da trn cng ngh s. H
thng 2G hp dn hn h thng 1G bi v ngoi dch v thoi truyn thng, h
thng ny cn c kh nng cung cp mt s dch v truyn d liu v cc dch v
b sung khc. Vit Nam, h thng thng tin di ng s GSM c a vo t
nm 1993, hin nay ang c Cng ty VMS v GPC khai thc rt hiu qu vi hai
mng thng tin di ng s VinaPhone v MobiFone theo tiu chun GSM.
Tt c h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 u s dng k thut iu ch s.
V chng s dng 2 phng php a truy cp:
a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian (Time Division Multiple Access - TDMA):
phc v cc cuc gi theo cc khe thi gian khc nhau.
a truy cp phn chia theo m (Code Division Multiple Access - CDMA): phc
v cc cuc gi theo cc chui m khc nhau.

n tt nghip Trang 4
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

1. 1. 2. 1 a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA:
Trong h thng TDMA ph tn s quy nh cho lin lc di ng c chia
thnh cc di tn lin lc, mi di tn lin lc ny c dng chung cho N knh lin
lc, mi knh lin lc l mt khe thi gian (Time slot) trong chu k mt khung. Tin
tc c t chc di dng gi, mi gi c bit ch th u gi, ch th cui gi, cc
bit ng b v cc bit d liu. Khng nh h thng FDMA, h thng TDMA truyn
dn d liu khng lin tc v ch s dng cho d liu s v iu ch s.
Cc c im ca TDMA
- TDMA c th phn pht thng tin theo hai phng php l phn nh trc
v phn pht theo yu cu. Trong phng php phn nh trc, vic phn pht cc
cm c nh trc hoc phn pht theo thi gian. Ngc li trong phng php
phn nh theo yu cu cc mch c ti p ng khi c cuc gi yu cu, nh
tng c hiu sut s dng mch.
- Trong TDMA cc knh c phn chia theo thi gian nn nhiu giao thoa
gia cc knh k cn gim ng k.
- TDMA s dng mt knh v tuyn ghp nhiu lung thng tin thng qua
vic phn chia theo thi gian nn cn phi c vic ng b ha vic truyn dn
trnh trng lp tn hiu. Ngoi ra, v s lng knh ghp tng nn thi gian tr do
truyn dn a ng khng th b qua c, do s ng b phi ti u.
1. 1. 2. 2 a truy cp phn chia theo m CDMA
i vi h thng CDMA, tt c ngi dng s s dng cng lc mt bng tn.
Tn hiu truyn i s chim ton b bng tn ca h thng. Tuy nhin, cc tn hiu
ca mi ngi dng c phn bit vi nhau bi cc chui m. Thng tin di ng
CDMA s dng k thut tri ph cho nn nhiu ngi s dng c th chim cng
knh v tuyn ng thi tin hnh cc cuc gi, m khng s gy nhiu ln nhau.
Knh v tuyn CDMA c dng li mi cell trong ton mng, v nhng knh
ny cng c phn bit nhau nh m tri ph gi ngu nhin PN.
Trong h thng CDMA, tn hiu bn tin bng hp c nhn vi tn hiu bng
thng rt rng, gi l tn hiu phn tn. Tn hiu phn tn l mt chui m gi ngu
n tt nghip Trang 5
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

nhin m tc chip ca n rt ln so vi tc d liu. Tt c cc users trong mt
h thng CDMA dng chung tn s sng mang v c th c pht ng thi. Mi
user c mt t m gi ngu nhin ring ca n v n c xem l trc giao vi cc
t m khc. Ti my thu, s c mt t m c trng c to ra tch sng tn
hiu c t m gi ngu nhin tng quan vi n. Tt c cc m khc c xem nh
l nhiu. khi phc li tn hiu thng tin, my thu cn phi bit t m dng
my pht. Mi thu bao vn hnh mt cch c lp m khng cn bit cc thng tin
ca my khc.
c im ca CDMA
- Di tn tn hiu rng hng MHz.
- S dng k thut tri ph phc tp.
- K thut tri ph cho php tn hiu v tuyn s dng c cng trng rt
nh v chng fading hiu qu hn FDMA, TDMA.
- Vic cc thu bao MS trong cell dng chung tn s khin cho thit b truyn
dn v tuyn n gin, vic thay i k hoch tn s khng cn vn , chuyn
giao tr thnh mm, iu khin dung lng cell rt linh hot.
- Cht lng thoi cao hn, dung lng h thng tng ng k (c th gp t 4
n 6 ln h thng GSM), an ton (tnh bo mt thng tin) cao hn do s dng
dy m ngu nhin tri ph, khng nhiu tt hn, kh nng thu a ng tt hn,
chuyn vng linh hot. Do h s ti s dng tn s l 1 nn khng cn phi quan
tm n vn nhiu ng knh.
- CDMA khng c gii hn r rng v s ngi s dng nh TDMA v
FDMA. Cn TDMA v FDMA th s ngi s dng l c nh, khng th tng
thm khi tt c cc knh b chim.
- H thng CDMA ra i p ng nhu cu ngy cng ln dch v thng tin
di ng t bo. y l h thng thng tin di ng bng hp vi tc bit thng tin
ca ngi s dng l 8-13 kbps.
n tt nghip Trang 6
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

1. 1. 3 H thng thng tin di ng th h 3 (3G)
H thng thng tin di ng chuyn t th h 2 sang th h 3 qua mt giai
on trung gian l th h 2, 5 s dng cng ngh TDMA trong kt hp nhiu khe
hoc nhiu tn s hoc s dng cng ngh CDMA trong c th chng ln ph
tn ca th h hai nu khng s dng ph tn mi, bao gm cc mng c a
vo s dng nh: GPRS, EDGE v CDMA2000-1x. th h th 3 ny cc h
thng thng tin di ng c xu th ho nhp thnh mt tiu chun duy nht v c kh
nng phc v tc bit ln n 2 Mbit/s. phn bit vi cc h thng thng tin
di ng bng hp hin nay, cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 gi l cc h
thng thng tin di ng bng rng.
Nhiu tiu chun cho h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 IMT-2000 c
xut, trong 2 h thng W-CDMA v CDMA2000 c ITU chp thun v
a vo hot ng trong nhng nm u ca nhng thp k 2000. Cc h thng ny
u s dng cng ngh CDMA, iu ny cho php thc hin tiu chun ton th
gii cho giao din v tuyn ca h thng thng tin di ng th h 3.
W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) l s nng cp ca
cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 s dng cng ngh TDMA nh:
GSM, IS-136.
CDMA2000 l s nng cp ca h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 s dng
cng ngh CDMA: IS-95.
Yu cu i vi h thng thng tin di ng th h 3
Thng tin di ng th h th 3 xy dng trn c s IMT-2000 c a vo
phc v t nm 2001. Mc ch ca IMT-2000 l a ra nhiu kh nng mi nhng
cng ng thi bo m s pht trin lin tc ca thng tin di ng th h 2.
Tc ca th h th ba c xc nh nh sau:
- 384 Kb/s i vi vng ph sng rng.

- 2 Mb/s i vi vng ph sng a phng.
Cc tiu ch chung xy dng h thng thng tin di ng th h ba (3G):
n tt nghip Trang 7
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

- S dng di tn quy nh quc t 2GHz nh sau:
ng ln : 1885-2025 MHz.
ng xung : 2110-2200 MHz.
- L h thng thng tin di ng ton cu cho cc loi hnh thng tin v tuyn:
Tch hp cc mng thng tin hu tuyn v v tuyn.
Tng tc vi mi loi dch v vin thng.
- S dng cc mi trng khai thc khc nhau: trong cng s, ngoi ng,
trn xe, v tinh.
- C th h tr cc dch v nh:
Mi trng thng tin nh o (VHE: Virtual Home Environment) trn c
s mng thng minh, di ng c nhn v chuyn mng ton cu.
m bo chuyn mng quc t.
m bo cc dch v a phng tin ng thi cho thoi, s liu
chuyn mch knh v s liu chuyn mch theo gi.
- D dng h tr cc dch v mi xut hin.
1. 1. 4 H thng thng tin di ng th h 4 (4G)
H thng thng tin di ng th h 3 sang th h 4 qua giai on trung gian l
th h 3,5 c tn l mng truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao HSDPA. Th h 4
l cng ngh truyn thng khng dy th t, cho php truyn ti d liu vi tc
ti a trong iu kin l tng ln ti 1 cho n 1.5 Gbps. Cng ngh 4G c hiu
l chun tng lai ca cc thit b khng dy. Cc nghin cu u tin ca NTT
DoCoMo cho bit, in thoi 4G c th nhn d liu vi tc 100 Mbps khi di
chuyn v ti 1 Gbps khi ng yn, cho php ngi s dng c th ti v truyn ln
hnh nh ng cht lng cao. Chun 4G cho php truyn cc ng dng phng
tin truyn thng ph bin nht, gp phn to nn cc nhng ng dng mnh m
cho cc mng khng dy ni b (WLAN) v cc ng dng khc.
n tt nghip Trang 8
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

Th h 4 dng k thut truyn ti truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao
OFDM, l k thut nhiu tn hiu c gi i cng mt lc nhng trn nhng tn s
khc nhau. Trong k thut OFDM, ch c mt thit b truyn tn hiu trn nhiu tn
s c lp (t vi chc cho n vi ngn tn s). Thit b 4G s dng my thu v
tuyn xc nhn bi phn mm SDR (Software - Defined Radio) cho php s dng
bng thng hiu qu hn bng cch dng a knh ng thi. Tng i chuyn mch
mng 4G ch dng chuyn mch gi, do , gim tr thi gian truyn v nhn d
liu.
1. 2 Tng quan v mng 4G [12]
4G l h thng thng tin bng rng c xem nh IMT tin tin (IMT
Advanced) c nh ngha bi ITU-R. Tc d liu ra l 100Mbps cho thu
bao di chuyn cao v 1Mbps cho thu bao t di chuyn, bng thng linh ng ln
n 40MHz. S dng hon ton trn nn IP, cung cp cc dch v nh in thoi IP,
truy cp internet bng rng, cc dch v game v dng HDTV a phng tin
3GPP LTE c xem nh l tin 4G, nhng phin bn u tin ca LTE
cha cc tnh nng theo yu cu ca IMT Advanced. LTE c tc l thuyt ln
n 100Mbps ng xung v 50Mbps ng ln i vi bng thng 20MHz.
V s hn na nu MIMO, cc anten mng c s dng. LTE c pht trin u
tin hai th Stockholm v Olso vo ngy 14/12/2009. Giao din v tuyn vt l
u tin c t tn l HSOPA (High Speed OFDM Packet Access), by gi c
tn l E-UTRA (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access). Thc t cho thy, hu
ht cc hng sn xut thit b vin thng hng u th gii: Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson,
Motorola, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, Huawei, LG Electronics, Samsung,
NEC, Fujitsu. . . bt tay vi cc nh mng ln trn th gii (Verizon Wireless,
AT&T, France Telecom-Orange, NTT DoCoMo, T-Mobile, China Mobile, ZTE. . . )
thc hin cc cuc th nghim quan trng trn cng ngh LTE v t nhng
thnh cng ng k.
LTE Advanced l ng vin cho chun IMT-Advanced, mc tiu ca n l
hng n p ng c yu cu ca ITU. LTE Advanced c kh nng tng thch
vi thit b v chia s bng tn vi LTE phin bn u tin.
n tt nghip Trang 9
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

Di ng WiMAX (IEEE 802. 16e-2005) l chun truy cp di ng khng dy
bng rng (MWBA) cng c xem l 4G, tc bt nh ng xung l 128
Mbps v 56 Mbps cho ng xung vi rng bng thng hn 20 MHz.
UMB (Ultra Mobile Broadband) : UMB c cc t chc vin thng ca
Nht Bn, Trung Quc, Bc M v Hn Quc cng vi cc hng nh Alcatel-
Lucent, Apple, Motorola, NEC v Verizon Wireless pht trin t nn tng CDMA.
UMB c th hot ng bng tn c rng t 1,25 MHz n 20 MHz v lm vic
nhiu di tn s, vi tc truyn d liu ln ti 288 Mbps cho lung xung v
75 Mbps cho lung ln vi rng bng tn s dng l 20 MHz. Qualcomm l
hng i u trong n lc pht trin UMB, mc d hng ny cng ng thi pht
trin c cng ngh LTE.
Mc tiu v cch tip cn
4G cung cp QoS v tc pht trin hn nhiu so vi 3G ang tn ti,
khng ch l truy cp bng rng, dch v tin nhn a phng tin (MMS), chat
video, TV di ng m cn cc dch v HDTV, cc dch v ti thiu nh thoi, d
liu v cc dch v khc. N cho php chuyn giao gia cc mng v tuyn trong
khu vc cc b v c th kt ni vi h thng qung b video s.
Cc mc tiu m 4G hng n :
Bng thng linh hot gia 5 MHz n 20 MHz, c th ln n 40 MHz.
Tc c quy nh bi ITU l 100 Mbps khi di chuyn tc cao v 1 Gbps
i vi thu bao ng yn so vi trm.
Tc d liu t nht l 100 Mbps gia bt k hai im no trn th gii.
Hiu sut ph ng truyn l 15bit/s/Hz ng xung v 6.75 bit/s/Hz
ng ln (c ngha l 1000 Mbps ng xung v c th nh hn bng
thng 67 MHz)/
Hiu sut s dng ph h thng ln n 3 bit/s/Hz/cell ng xung v 2.25
bit/s/Hz/cell cho vic s dng trong nh.
Chuyn giao lin (Smooth handoff) qua cc mng hn hp.
n tt nghip Trang 10
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

Kt ni lin v chuyn giao ton cu qua a mng.
Cht lng cao cho cc dch v a phng tin nh m thanh thi gian thc,
tc d liu cao, video HDTV, TV di ng
Tng thch vi cc chun khng dy ang tn ti
Tt c l IP, mng chuyn mch gi khng cn chuyn mch knh na.
Cc im cn xt n
Vng bao ph, mi trng v tuyn, ph, dch v, m hnh thng mi v s
ngi s dng.
Cc k thut c s dng
K thut s dng lp vt l
- Khng s dng CDMA
- MIMO : t c hiu sut ph tn cao bng cch s dng phn tp
theo khng gian, a anten a ngi dng.
- S dng lng t ha trong min tn s, chng hn nh OFDM hoc SC-
FDE (single carrier frequency domain equalization) ng xung :
tn dng thuc tnh chn lc tn s ca knh m khng phi lng t
phc tp.
- Ghp knh trong min tn s chng hn nh OFDMA hoc SC-FDMA
ng xung : tc bit thay i bng vic gn cho ngi dng cc knh
con khc nhau da trn iu kin knh.
- M ha sa li Turbo : ti thiu yu cu v t s SNR bn thu.
Lp biu knh c lp : s dng cc knh thay i theo thi gian.
Thch nghi ng truyn : iu ch thch nghi v cc m sa li.
1. 3 S khc nhau gia 3G v 4G
Hin nay, cng ngh 3G cho php truy cp Internet khng dy v cc cuc
gi c hnh nh. 4G c pht trin trn cc thuc tnh k tha t cng ngh 3G. V
mt l thuyt, mng khng dy s dng cng ngh 4G s c tc nhanh hn mng
n tt nghip Trang 11
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

3G t 4 n 10 ln. Tc ti a ca 3G l tc ti xung 14Mbps v 5.8Mbps
ti ln. Vi cng ngh 4G, tc c th t ti 100Mbps i vi ngi dng di
ng v 1Gbps i vi ngi dng c nh. 3G s dng cc di tn quy nh quc
t cho UL : 1885-2025 MHz; DL : 2110-2200 MHz; vi tc t 144kbps-2Mbps,
rng BW: 5 MHz. i vi 4G LTE th Hot ng bng tn : 700 MHz-2,6
GHz vi mc tiu tc d liu cao, tr thp, cng ngh truy cp sng v tuyn
gi d liu ti u. Tc DL :100Mbps( BW 20MHz), UL : 50 Mbps vi 2 aten
thu mt anten pht. tr nh hn 5ms vi rng BW linh hot l u im ca
LTE so vi WCDMA, BW t 1.25 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, 20
MHz. Hiu qu tri ph tng 4 ln v tng 10 ln s ngi dng/cell so vi
WCDMA.
1. 3. 1 u im ni bt
Tc d liu cao hn rt nhiu ln so vi 3G
Tng hiu qu s dng ph v gim thi gian tr
Cu trc mng s n gin hn, v s khng cn chuyn mch knh na
Hiu qu tri ph tng 4 ln v tng 10 ln user/cell so vi WCDMA.
rng bng tn linh hot cng l mt u im quan trng ca LTE i vi
WCDMA
1.3.2 Cc ng dng to nn u im ca 4G LTE so vi 3G
Hiu sut ph cao
- OFDM DL
Chng nhiu a ng
Hu ht d liu ngi dng th t hn di ng
- SC-FDMA UL
PAPR thp
Ngi dng trc giao trong min tn s
- MIMO
n tt nghip Trang 12
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

Tc d liu cao
-Pht nhiu dng d liu c lp song song qua cc anten ring l => tng tc d
liu. (s dng MIMO)
tr thp
-Thi gian ci t v thi gian tr hon chuyn tip ngn
-Tr HO v thi gian ngt ngn : TTI ngn, trng thi RRC n gin
Gi thnh r
-Cu trc mng n gin, gim cc thnh phn ca mng
Cht lng dch v cao
-S dng cc tn s cp php m bo cht lng dch v : LTE s dng cc di
tn s khc nhau : 2100 MHz, 1900 MHz, 1700 MHz, 2600 MHz, 900 MHz, 800
MHz.
-Lun lun th nghim ( gim thi gian tr trong iu khin nh tuyn)
-Gim tr kh hi ( round trip delay)
Tn s ti s dng linh hot
Gim nhiu lin cell vi tn s ti s dng ln hn 1.
-S dng hai di tn s:
Di 1 : h s ti s dng ln hn 1 => cng sut pht cao hn
Di 2 : ph cn li
-Cc user cnh cell : s dng di 1 => SIR tt
-Cc user trung tm cell : s dng ton b bng => tc d liu cao
Dung lng v vng bao ph ca WCDMA UL b gii hn bi can nhiu: can
nhiu bn trong cell v can nhiu lin cell. Nhng i vi LTE th : do tnh trc
giao nn can nhiu trong cng mt cell c th khng xt n v gim can nhiu
inter-cell bng ti s dng cc b, thm cc anten c th trit can nhiu.
n tt nghip Trang 13
Chng 1 : Gii thiu v h thng thng tin di ng v tng quan v mng 4G

Chng 1 khi qut c nhng nt c trng, u nhc im v s
pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 1, 2 v 3, 4 ng thi
s lt tng quan ca h thng thng tin di ng th h 4. Hai thng s
quan trng c trng cho cc h thng thng tin di ng s l tc bit
thng tin ca ngi s dng v tnh di ng, cc th h tip theo cc thng
s ny cng c ci thin. Nu c u im ca 4G so vi 3G v cc c
s hnh thnh u im . tm hiu thm v 4G ta qua chng tip
theo.















n tt nghip Trang 14
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

CHNG 2 : CU TRC MNG 4G LTE V CC
VN LIN QUAN
H thng 4G c xy dng nhm chun b mt c s h tng di ng
chung c kh nng phc v cc dch v hin ti v tng lai. C s h tng 4G
c thit k vi iu kin nhng thay i, pht trin v k thut c kh nng ph
hp vi mng hin ti m khng lm nh hng n cc dch v ang s dng.
thc hin iu , cn tch bit gia k thut truy cp, k thut truyn dn, k thut
dch v (iu khin kt ni) v cc ng dng ca ngi s dng. Chng ny s
trnh by h thng di ng 4G LTE :cc c im k thut, so snh LTE vi
WiMAX, cu trc mng 4G LTE s nh th no, n lin kt vi cc mng khc ra
sao, cc knh s dng trong E-UTRAN, cc k thut s dngcho ng ln, ng
xung trong LTE, ng thi khi qut v cc th tc lin quan n giao din v
tuyn bao gm chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut.
2.1 Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE
H thng 3GPP LTE, l bc tip theo cn hng ti ca h thng mng
khng dy 3G da trn cng ngh di ng GSM/UMTS, v l mt trong nhng
cng ngh tim nng nht cho truyn thng 4G. Lin minh Vin thng Quc t
(ITU) nh ngha truyn thng di ng th h th 4 l IMT Advanced v chia
thnh hai h thng dng cho di ng tc cao v di ng tc thp. 3GPP LTE
l h thng dng cho di ng tc cao. Ngoi ra, y cn l cng ngh h thng
tch hp u tin trn th gii ng dng c chun 3GPP LTE v cc chun dch v
ng dng khc, do ngi s dng c th d dng thc hin cuc gi hoc truyn
d liu gia cc mng LTE v cc mng GSM/GPRS hoc UMTS da trn
WCDMA. Kin trc mng mi c thit k vi mc tiu cung cp lu lng
chuyn mch gi vi dch v cht lng, tr ti thiu. H thng s dng bng
thng linh hot nh vo m hnh a truy cp OFDMA v SC-FDMA. Thm vo ,
FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) v TDD (Time Division Duplexing), bn
song cng FDD cho php cc UE c gi thnh thp. Khng ging nh FDD, bn
song cng FDD khng yu cu pht v thu ti cng thi im. iu ny lm gim
n tt nghip Trang 15
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

gi thnh cho b song cng trong UE. Truy cp tuyn ln da vo a truy cp phn
chia theo tn s n sng mang (Single Carrier Frequency Division multiple Access
SC-FDMA) cho php tng vng ph tuyn ln lm t s cng sut nh trn cng
sut trung bnh thp (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio PAPR) so vi OFDMA. Thm
vo , ci thin tc d liu nh, h thng LTE s dng hai n bn ln h s
ph cell so vi h thng HSPA Release 6.
ng c thc y
- Cn th h tip theo ci thin cc nhc im ca 3G v p ng nhu cu
ca ngi s dng
- Ngi dng i hi tc d liu v cht lng dch v cao hn
- Ti u h thng chuyn mch gi
- Tip tc nhu cu i hi ca ngi dng v gim gi thnh (CAPEX v
OPEX)
- Gim phc tp
- Trnh s phn on khng cn thit cho hot ng ca mt cp hoc khng
phi mt cp di thng
Cc giai on pht trin ca LTE
- Bt u nm 2004, d n LTE tp trung vo pht trin thm UTRAN v ti
u cu trc truy cp v tuyn ca 3GPP.
- Mc tiu hng n l dung lng d liu truyn ti trung bnh ca mt
ngi dng trn 1 MHz so vi mng HSDPA Rel. 6: Ti xung: gp 3 n 4
ln (100Mbps). Ti ln: gp 2 n 3 ln (50Mbps).
- Nm 2007, LTE ca k thut truy cp v tuyn th h th 3 EUTRA-
pht trin t nhng bc kh thi a ra cc c tnh k thut c chp
nhn. Cui nm 2008 cc k thut ny c s dng trong thng mi.
- Cc k thut OFDMA c s dng cho ng xung v SC-FDMA c
s dng cho ng ln.

n tt nghip Trang 16
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Mc tiu ca LTE
- Tc d liu cao
- tr thp
- Cng ngh truy cp sng v tuyn gi d liu ti u
Cc c tnh c bn ca LTE
- Hot ng bng tn : 700 MHz-2,6 GHz.
- Tc :
- DL : 100Mbps( BW 20MHz)
- UL : 50 Mbps vi 2 aten thu mt anten pht.
- tr : nh hn 5ms
- rng BW linh hot :1,4 MHz; 3 MHz; 5 MHz; 10 MHz; 15 MHz; 20
MHz. H tr c 2 trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng nhau hoc
khng.
- Tnh di ng : Tc di chuyn ti u l 0-15 km/h nhng vn hot ng tt
vi tc di chuyn t 15-120 km/h, c th ln n 500 km/h ty bng tn.
- Ph tn s:
- Hot ng ch FDD hoc TDD
- ph sng t 5-100 km
- Dung lng 200 user/cell bng tn 5Mhz.
- Cht lng dch v :
- H tr tnh nng m bo cht lng dch v QoS.
- VoIP m bo cht lng m thanh tt, tr ti thiu thng qua mng
UMTS.
- Lin kt mng:
n tt nghip Trang 17
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

- Kh nng lin kt vi cc h thng UTRAN/GERAN hin c v cc
h thng khng thuc 3GPP cng s c m bo.
- Thi gian tr trong vic truyn ti gia E-UTRAN v
UTRAN/GERAN s nh hn 300ms cho cc dch v thi gian thc v
500ms cho cc dch v cn li.
- Chi ph: chi ph trin khai v vn hnh gim
Bng thng linh hot trong vng t 1.4 MHz n 20 MHz, iu ny c ngha
l n c th hot ng trong cc di bng tn ca 3GPP. Trong thc t, hiu sut
thc s ca LTE ty thuc vo bng thng ch nh cho cc dch v v khng c s
la chn cho ph tn ca chnh n. iu ny gip ng k cho cc nh khai thc
trong chin lc v kinh t v k thut. Trin khai ti cc tn s cao, LTE l chin
lc hp dn tp trung vo dung lng mng, trong khi ti cc tn s thp n c th
cung cp vng bao ph khp ni. Mng LTE c th hot ng trong bt c di tn
c s dng no ca 3GPP. N bao gm bng tn li ca IMT-2000 (1.9-2 GHz)
v di m rng (2.5 GHz), cng nh ti 850-900 MHz, 1800 MHz, ph AWS (1.7-
2.1 GHz)Bng tn ch nh di 5MHz c nh ngha bi IUT th ph hp vi
dch v IMT trong khi cc bng tn ln hn 5MHz th s dng cho cc dch v c
tc cc cao. Tnh linh hot v bng tn ca LTE c th cho php cc nh sn
xut pht trin LTE trong nhng bng tn tn ti ca h.
Cc thng s lp vt l ca LTE [14]
Bng 2.1 : Cc thng s lp vt l LTE
K thut truy cp UL DTFS-OFDM (SC-FDMA)
DL OFDMA
Bng thng 1.4MHz, 3 MHz , 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, 20
MHz
TTI ti thiu 1ms
n tt nghip Trang 18
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Khong cch sng mang con 15KHz
Chiu di CP Ngn 4.7s
Di 16.7 s
iu ch QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Ghp knh khng gian 1 lp cho UL/UE
Ln n 4 lp cho DL/UE
S dng MU-MIMO cho UL v DL
Bng 2.2 : Tc nh ca LTE theo lp
Lp 1 2 3 4 5
Tc
nh
Mbps
DL 10 50 100 150 300
UL 5 25 50 50 75
Dung lng cho cc chc nng lp vt l
Bng thng RF 20MHz
iu ch DL QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
UL QPSK, 16QAM QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM
Dch v ca LTE
Qua vic kt ni ca ng truyn tc rt cao, bng thng linh hot, hiu
sut s dng ph cao v gim thi gian tr gi, LTE ha hn s cung cp nhiu dch
v a dng hn. i vi khch hng, s c thm nhiu ng dng v dng d liu
ln, ti v v chia s video, nhc v ni dung a phng tin. Tt c cc dch v s
n tt nghip Trang 19
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

cn lu lng ln hn p ng cht lng dch v, c bit l vi mong i
ca ngi dng v ng truyn TV r nt cao. i vi khch hng l doanh
nghip, truyn cc tp tin ln vi tc cao, cht lng video hi ngh ttLTE s
mang c tnh ca Web 2.0 ngy nay vo khng gian di ng ln u tin. Dc
theo s bo m v thng mi, n s bng qua nhng ng dng thi gian thc nh
game a ngi chi v chia s tp tin.
Bng 2.3 : So snh cc dch v ca 3G so vi 4G LTE
Dch v Mi trng (3G) Mi trng 4G
Thoai (rich voice) m thanh thi gian thc VoIP, video hi ngh cht
lng cao
Tin nhn P2F(P2F
messaging)
SMS, MMS, cc email u tin
thp
Cc tin nhn photo, IM,
email di ng, tin nhn video
Lt
web(browsing)
Truy cp n cc dch v
online trc tuyn, Trnh duyt
WAP thng qua GPRS v
mng 3G.
Duyt siu nhanh, ti cc ni
dung ln cc mng x hi.
Thng tin cc
ph(paid
information)
Ngi dng tr qua hoc trn
mng tnh cc chun. Chnh
yu l da trn thng tin vn
bn.
Tp ch trc tuyn, dng m
thanh cht lng cao.
Ring
t(personalization)
Ch yu l m thanh
chung(ringtone), cng bao
gm mn hnh ch
(screensavers)v nhc
ch(ring tone) .
m thanh thc(thu m gc
t ngi ngh s), cc trang
web c nhn.
Games Ti v v chi game trc Kinh nghim game trc
n tt nghip Trang 20
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

tuyn. tuyn vng chc qua c
mng c nh v di ng.
Video/TV theo yu
cu (video/TV on
demand)
Chy v c th ti video. Cc dch v qung b tivi,
Tivi theo ng yu cudng
video cht lng cao.
Nhc Ti y cc track v cc
dch v m thanh.
Lu tr v ti nhc cht
lng cao
Ni dung tin nhn Tin nhn ng cp s dng ba
thnh phn cng nh tng
tc vi cc media khc.
Phn phi t l rng ca cc
video clip, dch v karaoke,
video c bn qung co di
ng.
M-
comerce( thng
mi qua in
thoi)
Thc hin cc giao dch v
thanh ton qua mng di ng.
in thoi cm tay nh thit
b thanh ton, vi cc chi tit
thanh ton qua mng tc
cao cho php cc giao
dch thc hin nhanh chng.
Mng d liu di
ng(mobile data
netwoking)
Truy cp n cc mng ni b
v c s d liu cng nh
cch s dng ca cc ng
dng nh CRM.
Chuyn i file P2P, cc ng
dng kinh doanh, ng dng
chia s, thng tin M2M, di
ng intranet/extranet.






n tt nghip Trang 21
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

So snh LTE vi HSPA v WiMAX [17]
Bng 2.4 : So snh gia HSPA, WiMAX v LTE
Cc tiu ch HSUPA WiMAX LTE
Phin bn 3GPP release 6 802.16e (2005) 3GPP release 8 (3/2009)
C s h
tng v cc
thit b c
gi tr
Bt u nm
2007
Bt u nm 2007 Bt u nm 2010
Di tn hot
ng
700MHz, 850
MHz,1.5 GHz,
1.8 GHz,
1.7/2.1 GHz
2.5GHz, 2.6GHz,
3.5GHz, 3.65 GHz, 5.8
GHz,
700MHz, 850 MHz,1.5
GHz, 1.8 GHz, 1.7/2.1
GHz, 2.1GHz, 2.3GHz,
2.6GHz
Cc thng
s hng
n
Tc d liu
ln 5.6 Mbps
i vi knh
5MHz, bn
knh cell l
680m
Tc d liu ln
75Mbps/25 Mbps i
vi knh 10MHz vi
2x2 MIMO, bn knh
cell ln n 2-7Km,
100-200 ngi dng
Tc d liu ln
100Mbps/50 Mbps i
vi knh 10MHz vi
2x2 MIMO, bn knh
cell ln n 5Km, ln
hn 400 ngi dng
Kh nng
tng thch
li
Tng thch li
vi Release 99
Khng tng thch li
vi 3GPP hoc 3GPP2

K tha chun 3GPP,
nhng khc k thut nn
i hi thit b mi
RAN nu di tn khc
nhau c s dng
V cng ngh, LTE v WiMax c mt s khc bit nhng cng c nhiu
im tng ng. C hai cng ngh u da trn nn tng IP. C hai u dng k

n tt nghip Trang 22
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

thut MIMO ci thin cht lng truyn/nhn tn hiu, ng xung t trm thu
pht n thit b u cui u c tng tc bng k thut OFDM h tr truyn ti
d liu a phng tin v video.
ng ln t thit b u cui n trm thu pht c s khc nhau gia 2
cng ngh. WiMax dng OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access mt bin th ca OFDM), cn LTE dng k thut SC-FDMA (Single
Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access). V l thuyt, SC-FDMA c thit
k lm vic hiu qu hn v cc thit b u cui tiu th nng lng thp hn
OFDMA.
LTE cn c u th hn WiMax v c thit k tng thch vi c phng
thc TDD (Time Division Duplex) v FDD (Frequency Division Duplex). Ngc
li, WiMax hin ch tng thch vi TDDs. TDD truyn d liu ln v xung thng
qua 1 knh tn s (dng phng thc phn chia thi gian), cn FDD cho php
truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 2 knh tn s ring bit. iu ny c ngha
LTE c nhiu ph tn s dng hn WiMax. Tuy nhin, s khc bit cng ngh
khng c ngha quyt nh trong cuc chin gia WiMax v LTE.
Trn th gii, 4G d cha phi ph bin song cng c quc gia v cc
hng vin thng trin khai. Chng hn nh Ericsson. Thng 1/2009, Ericsson v nh
mng ti Thy in trin khai thng mi TeliaSonera mng LTE/4G u tin
ti Thy in. Ti thng 1/2010 trin khai din rng mng TeliaSonera trn ton
quc Na Uy v Thy in. Ngoi ra, Ericsson k hp ng trin khai LTE
trong thi gian ti vi cc nh mng AT&T (M), MetroPCS, Verizon Wireless
(M), NTT Docomo (Nht). Ericsson cng tin hnh cc th nghim LTE/4G
vi cc mng Telstra, SingTel, T-Mobile Hungary, Zain Saudia Arabia.
Vi Vit Nam, thi im ny, c quan qun l nh nc cha a ra quyt
nh s i ln 4G bng Wimax hay LTE m quan im s t chc mt hi tho gia
B vi cc doanh nghip tm ra s la chn hp l nht. Theo phn tch ca cc
chuyn gia, hin ti Wimax c li th i trc LTE. Khng ch trn th gii m
ngay c Vit Nam, mng Wimax c trin khai cung cp th nghim t nm
2004 ti gi. Cn LTE, li c cho rng phi ti khong nm 2012-2013 mi tr
n tt nghip Trang 23
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

nn ph bin. Xong, so vi Wimax, LTE li c mt th mnh c cho l rt quan
trng. LTE nu c trin khai cho php tn dng dng h tng GSM c sn d vn
phi u t thm thit b. Cn Wimax, nu mun trin khai th phi xy dng t u
mt mng mi. Vi Vit Nam, trong bi cnh hin nay, theo nhiu chuyn gia, vn
cha n thi im chn mui pht trin 4G cho d l Wimax hay LTE.
thi im ny, Vit Nam vn cha c k hoch trin khai 4G. Nu c, phi t nht l
nm 2012. V vi mc thi gian ny, bit u, LTE li thng th hn Wimax?
Nhng d c la chn cng ngh g i chng na, iu quan trng nht m ngi
dng Vit t k vng cc nh khai thc mng, cung cp dch v l lm sao
p ng c ba tiu chun. Mt chuyn gia ca Ericsson chia s.Th nht, l
tnh thn thin v n gin ca dch v cng ngh cung cp. a s ngi dng
trc y cha bit nhiu v Internet do tnh thn thin gip h s dng ln u
tin m khng b nhm ln l iu rt quan trng. Th hai chnh l nhng ni
dung ting Vit m h c th hng th t dch v.V th ba, l gi c hp l. c
bit l dch v tr trc. C th ni, a s ngi s dng khng hiu v s lin quan
gia Megabyte v gi c nn chnh sch gi phi d hiu.











n tt nghip Trang 24
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

2.2 Cu trc ca LTE [1]
Cu trc c bn SAE ca LTE

Hnh 2.1: So snh v cu trc gia UTMS v LTE
Hnh trn cho ta thy s khc nhau v cu trc ca UTMS v LTE. Song
song vi truy nhp v tuyn LTE, mng gi li cng ang ci tin ln cu trc tng
SAE. Cu trc mi ny c thit k ti u hiu sut mng, ci thin hiu qu
chi ph v thun tin thu ht phn ln dch v trn nn IP.
Mng truy nhp v tuyn RAN (Radio Access Network): mng truy nhp v
tuyn ca LTE c gi l E-UTRAN v mt trong nhng c im chnh ca n l
tt c cc dch v, bao gm dch v thi gian thc, s c h tr qua nhng knh
gi c chia s. Phng php ny s tng hiu sut ph, lm cho dung lng h
thng tr nn cao hn. Mt kt qu quan trng ca vic s dng truy nhp gi cho
tt c cc dch v l s tch hp cao hn gia nhng dch v a phng tin v gia
nhng dch v c nh v khng dy.
n tt nghip Trang 25
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

C nhiu loi chc nng khc nhau trong mng t bo. Da vo chng, mng
c th c chia thnh hai phn: mng truy nhp v tuyn v mng li. Nhng chc
nng nh iu ch, nn, chuyn giao thuc v mng truy nhp. Cn nhng chc
nng khc nh tnh cc hoc qun l di ng l thnh phn ca mng li. Vi
LTE, mng truy nhp l E-UTRAN v mng li l EPC.
Mc ch chnh ca LTE l ti thiu ha s node. V vy, ngi pht trin
chn mt cu trc n node. Trm gc mi phc tp hn NodeB trong mng truy
nhp v tuyn WCDMA/HSPA, v v vy c gi l eNodeB (Enhance Node B).
Nhng eNodeB c tt c nhng chc nng cn thit cho mng truy nhp v tuyn
LTE, k c nhng chc nng lin quan n qun l ti nguyn v tuyn.
Giao din v tuyn s dng trong E-UTRAN by gi ch cn l S1 v X2.
Trong S1 l giao din v tuyn kt ni gia eNodeB v mng li. S1 chia lm
hai loi l S1-U l giao din gia eNodeB v SAE GW v S1-MME l giao din
gia eNodeB v MME. X2 l giao din gia cc eNodeB vi nhau.

Hnh 2.2: Cu trc c bn ca LTE
n tt nghip Trang 26
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Mng li: mng li mi l s m rng hon ton ca mng li trong h thng
3G, v n ch bao ph min chuyn mch gi. V vy, n c mt ci tn mi:
Evolved Packet Core (EPC).
Cng mt mc ch nh E-UTRAN, s node trong EPC c gim. EPC
chia lung d liu ngi dng thnh mt phng ngi dng v mt phng iu
khin. Mt node c th c nh ngha cho mi mt phng, cng vi Gateway
chung kt ni mng LTE vi internet v nhng h thng khc. EPC gm c mt vi
thc th chc nng.
- MME (Mobility Management Entity): chu trch nhim x l nhng chc
nng mt bng iu khin, lin quan n qun l thu bao v qun l
phin.
- Gateway dch v (Serving Gateway): l v tr kt ni ca giao tip d liu
gi vi E-UTRAN. N cn hot ng nh mt node nh tuyn n
nhng k thut 3GPP khc.
- P-Gateway (Packet Data Network): l im u cui cho nhng phin
hng v mng d liu gi bn ngoi. N cng l Router n mng
Internet.
- PCRF (Policyand Charging Rules Function): iu khin vic to ra bng
gi v cu hnh h thng con a phng tin IP IMS (the IP Multimedia
Subsystem) cho mi ngi dng.
- HSS (Home Subscriber Server): l ni lu tr d liu ca thu bao cho
tt c d liu ca ngi dng. N l c s d liu ch trung tm trong
trung tm ca nh khai thc.
Cc min dch v bao gm IMS (IP Multimedia Sub-system) da trn cc
nh khai thc, IMS khng da trn cc nh khai thc v cc dch v khc. IMS l
mt kin trc mng nhm to s thun tin cho vic pht trin v phn phi cc dch
v a phng tin n ngi dng, bt k l h ang kt ni thng qua mng truy
nhp no. IMS h tr nhiu phng thc truy nhp nh GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000,
truy nhp hu tuyn bng rng nh cp xDSL, cp quang, cp truyn hnh, cng
n tt nghip Trang 27
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

nh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng WLAN, WiMAX. IMS to iu kin cho cc h
thng mng khc nhau c th tng thch vi nhau. IMS ha hn mang li nhiu li
ch cho c ngi dng ln nh cung cp dch v. N v ang c tp trung
nghin cu cng nh thu ht c s quan tm ln ca gii cng nghip. Tuy nhin
IMS cng gp phi nhng kh khn nht nh v cng cha tht s chn
thuyt phc cc nh cung cp mng u t trin khai n. Kin trc IMS c cho l
kh phc tp vi nhiu thc th v v s cc chc nng khc nhau.
IMS da trn cc nh khai thc: l IMS c tch hp sn trong cu trc
ca h thng 3GPP
- IMS khng da trn cc nh khai thc: l IMS khng c nh ngha
trong cc chun. Cc nh khai thc c th tch hp dch v ny trong
mng ca h. Cc UE kt ni n n qua vi giao thc c chp thun
v dch v video streaming l 1 v d.
- Cc dch khc khng c cung cp bi 3GPP v cu trc ph thuc vo
yu cu ca dch v. Cu hnh in hnh s c UE kt ni n my ch
qua mng chng hn nh kt ni n trang ch cho dch v lt web.
Cu trc ca LTE lin kt vi cc mng khc

Hnh 2.3: Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp 3GPP
n tt nghip Trang 28
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.4 : Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp3GPP v khng phi 3GPP

Hnh 2.5: Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp3GPP v lin mng vi CDMA 2000
H thng 3GPP hin ti (GSM v WCDMA/HSPA) v 3GPP2 (CDMA2000
1xRTT, EV-DO) c kt hp vo h thng mi thng qua nhng giao din chun
ha, min l ti u tnh di ng vi LTE. Vi h thng 3GPP, iu ny c ngha l
n tt nghip Trang 29
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

mt giao din bo hiu gia SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) v mng li mi,
vi h thng 3GPP2 cng c mt giao din bo hiu gia CDMA RAN v mng li
mi.
V d tn hiu iu khin cho di ng c x l bi node Mobility
Management Entity (MME), tch ri vi Gateway. iu ny thun tin cho vic ti
u trong trin khai mng v hon ton cho php chia t l dung lng mt cch linh
ng. Home Subscriber Server (HSS) ni n Packet Core qua mt giao din IP, v
khng phi SS7 nh s dng trong mng GSM v WCDMA. Mng bo hiu cho
iu khin chnh sch v tnh cc c da trn giao din IP. H thng GSM v
WCDMA/HSPA hin ti c tch hp vo h thng mi qua nhng giao din c
chun ha gia SGSN v mng li mi. Ngi ta c gng kt hp truy nhp CDMA
cng s a n tnh di ng lin tc gia LTE v CDMA, cho php s mm do
trong vic chuyn ln LTE.
LTE-SAE tip nhn khi nim QoS theo tng lp. iu ny cung cp mt
gii php n gin v n by gi vn hiu qu cho nhng nh khai thc c c s
phn bit gia nhng dch v gi.
2.3 Cc knh s dng trong E-UTRAN
Knh vt l : cc knh vt l s dng cho d liu ngi dng bao gm :
- PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel) : ph ti c ch (payload)
- PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel) : PUSCH c dng mang d
liu ngi dng. Cc ti nguyn cho PUSCH c ch nh trn mt
subframe c bn bi vic lp biu ng ln. Cc sng mang c ch nh
l 12 khi ti nguyn (RB) v c th nhy t subframe ny n subframe
khc. PUSCH c th dng cc kiu iu ch QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM.
- PUCCH(Physical Uplink Control Channel): c chc nng lp biu,
ACK/NAK.
- PDCCH(Physical Downlink Control Channel): lp biu, ACK/NAK.
- PBCH(Physical Broadcast Channel): mang cc thng tin c trng ca cell.
n tt nghip Trang 30
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Knh logic : c nh ngha bi thng tin n mang bao gm: [18]
- Knh iu khin qung b (BCCH) : c s dng truyn thng tin iu
khin h thng t mng n tt c my di ng trong cell. Trc khi truy
nhp h thng, u cui di ng phi c thng tin pht trn BCCH bit
c h thng c lp cu hnh nh th no, chng hn bng thng h
thng.
- Knh iu khin tm gi (PCCH) : c s dng tm gi cc u cui di
ng v mng khng th bit c v tr ca chng cp v v th cn
pht cc bn tin tm gi trong nhiu (vng nh v).
- Knh iu khin ring (DCCH) : c s dng truyn thng tin iu
khin ti/t mt u cui di ng. Knh ny c s dng cho cu hnh
ring ca cc u cui di ng chng hn cc bn tin chuyn giao khc nhau.
- Knh iu khin a phng (MCCH) : c s dng truyn thng tin cn
thit thu knh MTCH.
- Knh lu lng ring (DTCH) : c s dng truyn s liu ca ngi s
dng n/t mt u cui di ng. y l kiu logic c s dng truyn
tt c s liu ng ln ca ngi dng v s liu ng xung ca ngi
dng khng phi MBMS.
- Knh lu lng a phng (MTCH) : c s dng pht cc dch v
MBMS.
Knh truyn ti : bao gm cc knh sau [18]
- Knh qung b (BCH) : c khun dng truyn ti c nh do chun cung cp.
- N c s dng pht thng tin trn knh logic.
- Knh tm gi (PCH) : c s dng pht thng tin tm gi trn knh
PCCH, PCH h tr thu khng lin tc (DRX) cho php u cui tit kim
cng sut c quy bng cch ng v ch thc thu PCH ti cc thi im quy
nh trc.
n tt nghip Trang 31
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

- Knh chia s ng xung (DL-SCH) : l knh truyn ti pht s liu
ng xung trong LTE. N h tr cc chc nng ca LTE nh thch ng
tc ng v lp biu ph thuc knh trong min thi gian v min tn s.
N cng h tr DRX gim tiu th cng sut ca u cui di ng m vn
m bo cm gic lun kt ni ging nh c ch CPC trong HSPA. DL-DCH
TTI l 1ms.
- Knh a phng (MCH) : c s dng h tr MBMS. N c c
trng bi khun dng truyn ti bn tnh v lp biu bn tnh. Trong trng
hp pht a s dng MBSFN, lp biu v lp cu hnh khun dng truyn
ti c iu phi gia cc tham gia pht MBSFN.
2.4 Giao thc ca LTE (LTE Protocols) [2]
LTE chc nng ca RLC c chuyn vo eNodeB, cng nh chc
nng ca PDCP vi m ha v chn tiu . V vy, cc giao thc lin quan ca lp
v tuyn c chia trc y UTRAN l gia NodeB v RNC by gi chuyn
thnh gia UE v eNodeB.

Hnh 2.6: Giao thc ca UTRAN

n tt nghip Trang 32
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.7: Giao thc ca E-UTRAN
Giao thc ca E-UTRAN pht trin thm ca UTRAN bng cch thm L1 v
MAC mi.

Hnh 2.8: Phn phi chc nng ca cc lp MAC, RLC, PDCP


n tt nghip Trang 33
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Chc nng ca MAC(Medium Access Control) bao gm :
- Lp biu
- iu khin u tin (Priority handling)
- Ghp nhiu knh logic khc nhau trn mt knh truyn n RLC, cng nh
trong WCDMA c chc nng sau:
o Truyn li trong trng hp giao nhn cc lp thp (MAC v L1) b
hng, tng t trong trng hp ch ACK ca RLC UTRAN
o Phn on ph hp cho cc giao thc n v d liu
o Cung cp cc knh vt l cho cc lp cao hn
Chc nng ca PDCP bao gm:
- M ha (ciphering)
- Chn tiu
Trong sut nm 2006, PDCP vn c gi s trong mng li, nhng quyt
nh hin ti l a PDCP vo eNodeB bao gm m ha. iu ny lm cho chc
nng v tuyn ca LTE tng t nh ca HPSA ci tin.
Trong giao din iu khin, chc nng ca giao thc RRC th cng ging
nh bn UTRAN. Giao thc RRC cu hnh cc thng s kt ni, iu khin bo co
o lng thit b u cui, cc lnh chuyn giaoM ASN1 c s dng cho
RRC ca LTE, n dn cch s khc bit gia cc phin bn ng tng thch li.
Giao thc RRC s bao gm t trng thi hn EUTRAN. Ch c trng thi tch cc
hay ri c d on bi v c tnh linh ng ca s phn b ngun ti nguyn.
Cc trng thi ca RRC trong LTE l:
- RRC-ri: thit b s quan st bn tin paging v s dng cell cho di ng.
Khng c RRC no lu tr trong bt k eNodeB c nhn no. UE ch c duy
nht mt ID nhn dng n trong vng di chuyn.
- RRC-kt ni: bit v tr ca UE cell no v d liu c pht v nhn.

n tt nghip Trang 34
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Kt ni RRC tn ti n mt eNodeB. iu khin chuyn giao bi mng c s
dng cho di ng.
2.5 Mt s c tnh ca knh truyn
Ta tm hiu mt s c tnh ca knh truyn nh hng n vic truyn tn
hiu, cc c tnh ny bao gm tri tr, fading, dch tn Doppler, nh hng ca
dch tn Doppler i vi tn hiu OFDM, nhiu MAI, v cch khc phc nhiu
MAI.
2.5.1 Tri tr a ng
Tn hiu nhn c ni thu gm tn hiu thu trc tip v cc thnh phn phn
x. Tn hiu phn x n sau tn hiu thu trc tip v n phi truyn qua mt khong
di hn, v nh vy n s lm nng lng thu c tri rng theo thi gian. Khong
tri tr (delay spread) c nh ngha l khong chnh lch thi gian gia tn hiu
thu trc tip v tn hiu phn x thu c cui cng. Trong thng tin v tuyn, tri
tr c th gy nn nhiu xuyn k t nu nh h thng khng c cch khc phc.
i vi LTE, s dng k thut OFDM trnh c nhiu xuyn k t ISI.
2.5.2 Cc loi fading
Fading l s bin i cng tn hiu sng mang cao tn ti anten thu do
c s thay i khng ng u v ch s khc x ca kh quyn, cc phn x ca t
v nc trn ng truyn sng v tuyn i qua.
2.5.2.1 Rayleigh fading
Fadinh Rayleigh l loi Fading sinh ra do hin tng a ng (Multipath
Signal) v xc sut mc tn hiu thu b suy gim so vi mc tn hiu pht i tun
theo phn b Rayleigh.
2.5.2.2 Fading chn lc tn s v fading phng
Bng thng kt hp: l mt php o thng k ca di tn s m knh xem
nh l phng.
Nu tri tr thi gian a ng l D(s) th bng thng kt hp W
c
(Hz) xp x
bng: D W
c
2 / 1 ~
n tt nghip Trang 35
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Trong fading phng, bng thng kt hp ca knh ln hn bng thng ca tn
hiu. V vy, s lm thay i u tn hiu sng mang trong mt di tn s.
Trong fading chn lc tn s, bng thng kt hp ca knh nh hn bng
thng ca tn hiu. V vy, s lm thay i tn hiu sng mang vi mc thay
i ph thuc tn s.
2.5.3 Dch tn Doppler
H thng truyn v tuyn chu s tc ng ca dch tn Doppler. Dch tn
Doppler l hin tng m tn s thu c khng bng tn s ca ngun pht do s
chuyn ng tng i gia ngun pht v ngun thu. C th l: khi ngun pht v
ngun thu chuyn ng hng vo nhau th tn s thu c s ln hn tn s pht
i, khi ngun pht v ngun thu chuyn ng ra xa nhau th tn s thu c s gim
i. Khong tn s dch chuyn trong hin tng Doppler tnh theo cng thc sau :
c
v
f f
0
= A (2.1)
Trong f A l khong tn s dch chuyn, f
0
l tn s ca ngun pht, v l
vn tc tng i gia ngun pht v ngun thu, c l vn tc nh sng. i vi LTE,
khc phc hin tng dch tn Doppler, ngi ta chn khong cch gia cc
sng mang ln (f = 15 Khz).
2.5.4 Nhiu MAI i vi LTE
i vi LTE, ng ln s dng k thut SC-FDMA, n cng nhy cm
vi dch tn. Cc user khc nhau lun c dch tn s sng mang CFO (Carrier
Frequency Offset). Khi tn ti nhiu CFO, tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang b mt.
Nhiu lin sng mang (ICI : Inter Carrier Interference) v MAI (Multi Access
Interference) to ra lm gim cht lng ca tn hiu thu c. Mt phng php
trit ICI cng nh MAI, l da trn cc k hiu hoa tiu khi (block type pilots).
Cc user khc nhau giao tip vi trm gc ti cc khe thi gian khc nhau.
Phng php ny ly trc tip thnh phn nhiu bng cch li dng cc k hiu hoa
tiu khi, v vy n khng cn s dng c lng CFO nhiu ln. Sau , ma trn
can nhiu c th c khi phc li v nh hng ca cc CFO c th c trit d
n tt nghip Trang 36
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

dng bng cch s dng phng php o ma trn. Phng php trit nhiu MAI c
th c cp [19].
2.6 Cc k thut s dng trong LTE
LTE s dng k thut OFDMA cho truy cp ng xung v SC-FDMA cho
truy cp ng ln. Kt hp ng thi vi MIMO, cc k thut v lp biu, thch
ng ng truyn v yu cu t ng pht li lai ghp.
2.6.1 K thut truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM [1]

Hnh 2.9 : Truyn n sng mang

Hnh 2.10 : Nguyn l ca FDMA

Hnh 2.11 : Nguyn l a sng mang
K thut iu ch OFDM, v c bn, l mt trng hp c bit ca phng
php iu ch FDM, chia lung d liu thnh nhiu ng truyn bng hp trong
vng tn s s dng, trong cc sng mang con (hay sng mang ph, sub-carrier)
trc giao vi nhau. Do vy, ph tn hiu ca cc sng mang ph ny c php
chng ln ln nhau m pha u thu vn khi phc li c tn hiu ban u. S
n tt nghip Trang 37
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

chng ln ph tn hiu ny lm cho h thng OFDM c hiu sut s dng ph ln
hn nhiu so vi cc k thut iu ch thng thng.

Hnh 2.12 : So snh ph tn ca OFDM vi FDMA

Hnh 2.13 : Tn s-thi gian ca tn hiu OFDM
LTE s dng OFDM trong k thut truy cp ng xung v n c cc u
im sau:
- OFDM c th loi b hin tng nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI (Inter-Symbol
Interference) nu di chui bo v (guard interval) ln hn tr
truyn dn ln nht ca knh truyn.
n tt nghip Trang 38
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

- Thc hin vic chuyn i chui d liu t ni tip sang song song nn
thi gian symbol tng ln do s phn tn theo thi gian gy bi tri tr
do truyn dn a ng gim xung.
- Ti u hiu qu ph tn do cho php chng ph gia cc sng mang con.
Hn ch c nh hng ca fading bng cch chia knh fading chn lc
tn s thnh cc knh con phng tng ng vi cc tn s sng mang
OFDM khc nhau.
- OFDM ph hp cho vic thit k h thng truyn dn bng rng (h
thng c tc truyn dn cao), nh hng ca s phn tp v tn s
(frequency selectivity) i vi cht lng h thng c gim thiu nhiu
so vi h thng truyn dn n sng mang.
- Cu trc my thu n gin.
- Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu trong min tn s.
- Tng thch vi cc b thu v cc anten tin tin.

Hnh 2.14 : Cc sng mang trc giao vi nhau
Mt vn gp phi OFDM trong cc h thng thng tin di ng l cn
dch cc tn s tham kho i vi cc u cui pht ng thi. Dch tn ph hng
tnh trc giao ca cc cuc truyn dn n nhiu a truy nhp. V vy n rt nhy
cm vi dch tn. LTE chn khong cch gia cc sng mang l 15KHz, i vi
khong cch ny l khong cch ln i vi dch tn Doppler.
n tt nghip Trang 39
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

iu ch tn hiu OFDM s dng bin i FFT v IFFT cho bin i gia
min thi gian v min tn s.

Hnh 2.15 : Bin i FFT
Chiu di bin i FFT l 2
n

vi n l s nguyn. Vi LTE chiu di c th l
512 hoc 1024...Ta s dng bin i IFFT khi pht i, ngun d liu sau khi iu
ch c chuyn i t ni tip sang song song. Sau c a n b bin i
IFFT. Mi ng vo ca IFFT tng ng vi tng sng mang con ring bit (thnh
phn tn s ring bit ca tn hiu min thi gian) v mi sng mang c iu ch
c lp vi cc sng mang khc. Sau khi c bin i IFFT xong, tn hiu c
chn thm tin t vng (CP) v pht i. b thu ta lm ngc li.

Hnh 2.16 : Thu pht OFDM
Mc ch ca vic chn thm tin t vng l c kh nng lm gim hay loi
tr nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI (Inter Symbol Interference). Mt mu tn hiu c di
n tt nghip Trang 40
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

l T
S
, chui bo v tng ng l mt chui tn hiu c di T
G
pha sau c
sao chp ln phn pha trc ca mu tn hiu nh hnh v sau:

Do , GI cn c gi l Cyclic Prefix (CP). S sao chp ny c tc dng
chng li nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI do hiu ng phn tp a ng.
Nguyn tc ny gii thch nh sau: Gi s my pht i mt khong tn
hiu c chiu di l Ts, sau khi chn thm chui bo v c chiu di T
G
th tn hiu
ny c chiu di l T = T
S
+T
G
. Do hiu ng a ng multipath, tn hiu ny s ti
my thu theo nhiu ng khc nhau. Trong hnh v, hnh a, tn hiu theo ng
th nht khng c tr, cc ng th hai v th ba u b tr mt khong thi gian
so vi ng th nht. Tn hiu thu c my thu s l tng hp ca tt c cc
tuyn, cho thy k hiu ng trc s chng ln vo k hiu ngay sau , y chnh
l hin tng ISI.Do trong OFDM c s dng chui bo v c di T
G
s d dng
loi b hin tng ny. Trong trng hp T
G

MAX
nh hnh v m t th phn b
chng ln ISI nm trong khong ca chui bo v, cn thnh phn tn hiu c ch
vn an ton. pha my thu s loi b chui bo v trc khi gi tn hiu n b
gii iu ch OFDM. Do , iu kin cn thit cho h thng OFDM khng b
nh hng bi ISI l: T
G

MAX
vi
MAX
l tr truyn dn ti a ca knh.
Hnh 2.17: Chui bo v GI
n tt nghip Trang 41
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


a ) Khng c GI

b) C GI
Hnh 2.18 Tc dng ca chui bo v
OFDM lng t ha trong min tn s da trn c lng p ng tn s
ca knh. Do n hot ng n gin hn WCDMA v n khng ph thuc vo
chiu di ca knh (chiu di ca a ng trong cc chip) nh khi lng t
WCDMA. Trong WCDMA cc cell khc nhau c phn bit bi cc m tri ph
khc nhau nhng trong OFDM tri ph khng c gi tr, n s dng cc k hiu
tham kho ring bit gia cc cell hoc gia cc anten khc nhau.
LTE s dng OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
cho tuyn ln. OFDMA gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao l cng
ngh a truy cp phn chia theo sng mang, l mt dng nng cao, l phin bn a
ngi dng ca m hnh iu ch s OFDM
K thut a truy nhp ca OFDMA cho php nhiu ngi dng cng truy
cp vo mt knh truyn bng cch phn chia mt nhm cc sng mang con
(subcarrier) cho mt ngi dng ti mt thi im. cc thi im khc nhau,
n tt nghip Trang 42
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

nhm sng mang con cho 1 ngi dng cng khc nhau. iu ny cho php truyn
d liu tc thp t nhiu ngi s dng.

Hnh 2.19 Sng mang con OFDMA

Hnh 2.20 OFDM v OFDMA
Ti nguyn thi gian - tn s c chia nh theo cu trc sau : 1 radio frame
c chiu di l 10ms, trong chia thnh nhiu subframe nh c chiu di l 1ms,
v mi subframe nh li c chia thnh 2 slot vi chiu di ca mi slot l 0.5ms.
Mi slot s bao gm 7 k t OFDM trong trng hp chiu di CP thng thng v
6 k t OFDM trong trng hp CP m rng.
Trong OFDMA, vic ch nh s sng mang con cho ngi dng khng da
vo tng sng mang con ring l m da vo cc khi ti nguyn (Resource Block).
Mi khi ti nguyn bao gm 12 sng mang con cho khong thi gian 1 slot v
khong cch gia cc sng mang con l 15KHz dn n kt qu bng thng ti
thiu ca n l 180 KHz. n v nh nht ca ti nguyn l thnh phn ti nguyn
(RE), n bao gm mt sng mang con i vi khong thi gian ca mt k t
OFDM. Mt RB bao gm 84 RE (tc 7 x12) trong trng hp chiu di CP thng
thng v 72 RE (6x12) trong trng hp chiu di CP m rng.
n tt nghip Trang 43
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.21 : Ch nh ti nguyn ca OFDMA trong LTE
Bng 2.5 : S khi ti nguyn theo bng thng knh truyn
Bng thng knh truyn
(MHz)
1.4 3 5 10 15 20
S khi ti nguyn 6 15 25 50 75 100

n tt nghip Trang 44
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.22 : Cu trc ca mt khi ti nguyn
Tn hiu tham kho (RS) : LTE s dng cc tn hiu tham kho c bit
d dng c lng dch sng mang, c lng knh truyn, ng b thi
gianCc tn hiu tham kho c b tr nh hnh sau:
n tt nghip Trang 45
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.23 : Cu trc b tr tn hiu tham kho
Cc tn hiu tham kho ny c pht k t OFDM th nht v th nm
ca mi slot v sng mang th su ca mi subframe. Tn hiu tham kho cng
c s dng c lng tn hao ng truyn s dng cng sut thu tn hiu
tham kho (RSRP).
Nhc im ca OFDM l g? Ta xt cc hnh sau

Hnh 2.24: c tnh ng bao ca tn hiu OFDM



n tt nghip Trang 46
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.25: PAPR cho cc tn hiu khc nhau
T cc hnh trn ta thy, dng sng OFDM th hin s thng ging ng
bao rt ln dn n PAPR cao. Tn hiu vi PAPR cao i hi cc b khuch i
cng sut c tnh tuyn tnh cao trnh lm mo dng tn hiu. t c mc
tuyn tnh ny, b khuch i phi lm vic ch cng tc vi li (so vi
im bo ha cao). iu ny dn n hiu sut s dng cng sut (t s cng sut
pht vi cng sut tiu th mt chiu) thp v th c bit nh hng i vi cc
thit b cm tay. khc phc nhc im ny, 3GPP nghin cu s dng
phng php a truy nhp ng ln s dng DTFS-OFDM vi tn gi l SC-
FDMA v p dng cho LTE.
2.6.2 K thut SC-FDMA [1]
Cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c tn hiu PAPR tt hn OFDMA. y l mt trong
nhng l do chnh chn SC-FDMA cho LTE. PAPR gip mang li hiu qu cao
trong vic thit k cc b khuch i cng sut UE, v vic x l tn hiu ca SC-
FDMA vn c mt s im tng ng vi OFDMA, do , tham s hng DL v
UL c th cn i vi nhau. Ging nh trong OFDMA, cc my pht trong h thng
SC-FDMA cng s dng cc tn s trc giao khc nhau pht i cc k hiu
n tt nghip Trang 47
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

thng tin. Tuy nhin cc k hiu ny pht i ln lt ch khng phi song song nh
trong OFDMA. V th, cch sp xp ny lm gim ng k s thng ging ca
ng bao tn hiu ca dng sng pht. V th cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c PAPR
thp hn cc tn hiu OFDMA. Tuy nhin trong cc h thng thng tin di ng b
nh hng ca truyn dn a ng, SC-FDMA c thu ti cc BTS b nhiu gia
cc k t kh ln. BTS s dng b cn bng thch ng min tn s loi b nhiu
ny.

Hnh 2.26: OFDMA v SC-FDMA
Hnh trn cho thy s khc nhau trong qu trnh truyn cc k hiu s liu
theo thi gian. Trn hnh ny ta coi mi ngi s dng c phn thnh 4 sng
mang con (P = 4) vi bng thng con bng 15KHz, trong mi k hiu OFDMA
hoc SC-FDMA truyn 4 k hiu s liu c iu ch QPSK cho mi ngi s
dng. i vi OFDMA 4 k hiu s liu ny c truyn dng thi vi bng tn
con cho mi k hiu l 15KHz trong mi khong thi gian hiu dng T
FFT
ca mt
k hiu OFDMA, trong khi i vi SC-FDMA, 4 k hiu s liu ny c
truyn ln lt trong khong thi gian bng 1/P (P = 4) thi gian hiu dng k hiu
SC-FDMA vi bng tn con bng P x 15KHz (4 x 15 KHz) cho mi k hiu.
n tt nghip Trang 48
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Trong OFDM, bin i Fourier nhanh FFT dng bn thu cho mi khi k
t, v o FFT bn pht. Cn SC-FDMA s dng c hai thut ton ny c bn
pht v bn thu.

Hnh 2.27 : Thu pht SC-FDMA trong min tn s
2.6.3 K thut MIMO [1]
MIMO l mt phn tt yu ca LTE t c cc yu cu y tham vng
v thng lng v hiu qu s dng ph. MIMO cho php s dng nhiu anten
my pht v my thu. Vi hng DL, MIMO 2x2 (2 anten thit b pht, 2 anten
thit b thu) c xem l cu hnh c bn, v MIMO 4x4 cng c cp v a
vo bng c t k thut chi tit. Hiu nng t c ty thuc vo vic s dng
MIMO. Trong , k thut ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing) v pht
phn tp (transmit diversity) l cc c tnh ni bt ca MIMO trong cng ngh
LTE.
Gii hn chnh ca knh truyn thng tin l can nhiu a ng gii hn v
dung lng theo quy lut Shannon. MIMO li dng tn hiu a ng gia my
pht v my thu ci thin dung lng c sn cho bi knh truyn. Bng cch s
dng nhiu anten bn pht v thu vi vic x l tn hiu s, k thut MIMO c th
n tt nghip Trang 49
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

to ra cc dng d liu trn cng mt knh truyn, t lm tng dung lng knh
truyn.

Hnh 2.28 M hnh SU-MIMO v MU-MIMO
Hnh trn l v d v SU-MIMO 2x2 v MU-MIMO 2x2. SU-MIMO y
hai dng d liu trn vi nhau (m ha) ph hp vi knh truyn nht. 2x2 SU-
MIMO thng dng trong tuyn xung. Trong trng hp ny dung lng cell tng
v tc d liu tng. MU-MIMO 2x2 y dng d liu MIMO a ngi dng
n t cc UE khc nhau. Dung lng cell tng nhng tc d liu khng tng.
u im chnh ca MU-MIMO so vi SU-MIMO l dung lng cell tng m khng
tng gi thnh v pin ca hai my pht UE. MU-MIMO phc tp hn SU-MIMO.
Trong h thng MIMO, b pht gi cc dng d liu qua cc anten pht. Cc
dng d liu pht thng qua ma trn knh truyn bao gm nhiu ng truyn gia
cc anten pht v cc anten thu. Sau b thu nhn cc vector tn hiu t cc anten
thu, gii m thnh thng tin gc.
i vi tuyn xung, cu hnh hai anten trm pht v hai anten thu thit
b u cui di ng l cu hnh c bn, cu hnh s dng bn anten ang c xem
xt. y chnh l cu hnh SU-MIMO, v s dng k thut ghp knh khng gian
vi li th hn cc k thut khc l trong cng iu kin v bng thng s dng v
k thut iu ch tn hiu, SU cho php tng tc d liu (data rate) bng s ln
ca s lng anten pht.
Ghp knh khng gian cho php pht chui bit d liu khc nhau trn cng
mt khi ti nguyn tuyn xung. Nhng dng d liu ny c th l mt ngi dng
n tt nghip Trang 50
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

(SU-MIMO) hoc nhng ngi dng khc nhau (MU-MIMO). Trong khi SU-
MIMO tng tc d liu cho mt ngi dng, MU-MIMO cho php tng dung
lng. Da vo hnh 2.29, ghp knh khng gian li dng cc hng khng gian
ca knh truyn v tuyn cho php pht cc d liu khc nhau trn hai anten.

Hnh 2.29: Ghp knh khng gian
K thut phn tp c bit n t WCDMA release 99 v cng s l mt
phn ca LTE. Thng thng, tn hiu trc khi pht c m ha tng hiu ng
phn tp. MIMO c s dng khai thc vic phn tp v mc tiu l lm tng
tc . Vic chuyn i gia MIMO truyn phn tp v ghp knh khng gian c
th ty thuc vo vic s dng knh tn s.
i vi ng ln, t thit b u cui di ng n BS, ngi ta s dng m
hnh MU-MIMO (Multi-User MIMO). S dng m hnh ny BS yu cu s dng
nhiu anten, cn thit b di ng ch dng mt anten gim chi ph cho thit b
di ng. V hot ng, nhiu thit b u cui di ng c th pht lin tc trn cng
mt knh truyn, nhiu knh truyn, nhng khng gy ra can nhiu vi nhau bi v
cc tn hiu hoa tiu (pilot) trc giao ln nhau. K thut c cp n, l k
thut a truy nhp min khng gian (SDMA) hay cn gi l MIMO o.
2.6.4 M ha Turbo [18]
sa nhng bit b li do s thay i knh v nhiu, m ha knh c s
dng. Vi knh chia s hng xung ca LTE (DL-SCH), s dng mt b m ha
Turbo vi tc 1/3, theo sau l mt b so khp tc thch ng vi tc m.
Trong mi khung con chiu di 1ms, mt hoc hai t m c th c m ha v
truyn i.
n tt nghip Trang 51
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

2.6.5 Thch ng ng truyn [18]
Thch ng ng truyn gii quyt vn lin quan n cch thit lp cc
thng s truyn dn ca ng truyn v tuyn x l cc thay i cht lng
ng truyn v tuyn. N s dng iu ch thch nghi (Adaptive Modulation).
Phng php ny cho php h thng iu chnh nguyn l iu ch tn hiu theo t
l tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) ca ng truyn v tuyn. Khi ng truyn v tuyn
c cht lng cao, nguyn l iu ch cao nht c s dng lm tng thm dung
lng h thng. Trong qu trnh suy gim tn hiu, h thng LTE c th chuyn
sang mt nguyn l iu ch thp hn duy tr cht lng v s n nh ca
ng truyn. c im ny cho php h thng khc phc hiu ng fading la chn
thi gian. c im quan trng ca iu ch thch nghi l kh nng tng di s dng
ca nguyn l iu ch mc cao hn, do h thng c tnh mm do i vi
tnh trng fading thc t.

Hnh 2.30 iu ch thch nghi
n tt nghip Trang 52
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

K thut iu ch v m ho thch nghi l mt trong nhng u vit ca
OFDM v n cho php ti u ho mc iu ch trn mi knh con da trn cht
lng tn hiu (t l SNR) v cht lng knh truyn dn.
2.6.6 Lp biu ph thuc knh [18]
Lp biu ph thuc knh gii quyt vn cch thc chia s cc ti nguyn
v tuyn gia nhng ngi s dng (cc u cui di ng) khc nhau trong h
thng t c hiu sut s dng ti nguyn tt nht. Lp biu ph thuc knh
cho php gim thiu lng ti nguyn cn thit cho mt ngi s dng, v th cho
php nhiu ngi s dng hn trong khi vn p ng c cc yu cu cht lng
dch v. Nguyn l lp biu cng nh vic chia s cc ti nguyn gia nhng ngi
s dng, t nht v mt l thuyt, ph thuc vo cc c tnh ca giao din v tuyn,
vo vic ng truyn l ng truyn ln hay truyn xung v vo vic truyn dn
ca nhng ngi s dng vi nhau c trc giao hay khng. Thch ng ng truyn
v lp biu ph thuc knh lin quan mt thit vi nhau v thng th chng c
coi nh l mt chc nng lin kt.
2.6.7 HARQ vi kt hp mm [18]
Do tnh cht ngu nhin ca cc thay i cht lng ng truyn v tuyn,
khng bao gi c th t c thch ng cht lng knh v tuyn tc thi mt
cch hon ho. HARQ v th rt hu ch.
HARQ vi kt ni mm c s dng trong LTE, cho php u cui di ng
yu cu truyn li nhanh chng nhng khi vn chuyn b li, v cung cp mt cng
c cho thch ng tc ngm nh. Giao thc bn di l nhiu x l hybrid ARQ
dng v ch (stop-and-wait) song song nhau. Trong ARQ, u thu s dng mt m
pht hin li kim tra gi d liu c b li hay khng. u pht c thng bo
bng NAK hoc ACK. Nu gi d liu b li v c thng bo NAK, gi s c
truyn li.
Mt s kt hp ca FEC (Forward Error Correction) v ARQ c bit nh
l HARQ. HARQ trong thc t phn ln c xy dng xung quanh m CRC
pht hin li v m Turbo sa li, nh trong trng hp ca LTE.
n tt nghip Trang 53
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Trong HARQ vi kt ni mm, nhng gi nhn c b sai, c lu trong
mt b m v sau c kt hp vi truyn li t c mt gi ng tin cy.
Trong LTE, Incremental Redundancy (IR) c p dng, ngha l nhng gi c
truyn li khng ging nhng gi truyn u tin, m n mang thng tin b sung.
2.7 Chuyn giao
Chuyn giao l phng tin cn thit thu bao c th di chuyn trong
mng. Khi thu bao chuyn ng t vng ph sng ca mt cell ny sang mt cell
khc th kt ni vi cell mi phi c thit lp v kt ni vi cell c phi c hy
b.
2.7.1 Mc ch chuyn giao
L do c bn ca vic chuyn giao l kt ni v tuyn khng tha mn mt
b tiu chun nht nh v do hoc UE hoc E-UTRAN s thc hin cc cng
vic ci thin kt ni . Khi thc hin cc kt ni chuyn mch gi, chuyn giao
c thc hin khi c UE v mng u thc hin truyn gi khng thnh cng. Cc
iu kin chuyn giao thng gp l: iu kin cht lng tn hiu, tnh cht di
chuyn ca thu bao, s phn b lu lng, bng tn
iu kin cht lng tn hiu l iu kin khi cht lng hay cng tn hiu
v tuyn b suy gim di mt ngng nht nh. Chuyn giao ph thuc vo cht
lng tn hiu c thc hin cho c hng ln ln hng xung ca ng truyn
dn v tuyn.
Chuyn giao do nguyn nhn lu lng xy ra khi lu lng ca cell t ti
mt gii hn ti a cho php hoc vt qu ngng gii hn . Khi cc thu
bao ngoi ra ca cell (c mt ti cao) s c chuyn giao sang cell bn cnh
(c mt ti thp).
S lng chuyn giao ph thuc vo tc di chuyn ca thu bao. Khi UE di
chuyn theo mt hng nht nh khng thay i, tc di chuyn ca UE cng
cao th cng c nhiu chuyn giao thc hin trong E-UTRAN.


n tt nghip Trang 54
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

2.7.2 Trnh t chuyn giao
Trnh t chuyn giao gm c ba pha : pha o lng, pha quyt nh v pha
thc hin.
o lng l nhim v quan trng trong qu trnh chuyn giao v hai l do c
bn sau:
Mc tn hiu trn ng truyn dn v tuyn thay i rt ln ty thuc vo
fading v tn hao ng truyn. Nhng thay i ny ph thuc vo mi trng
trong cell v tc di chuyn ca thu bao.
S lng cc bo co o lng qu nhiu s lm nh hng n ti h thng.
thc hin chuyn giao, trong sut qu trnh kt ni, UE lin tc o cng
tn hiu ca cc cell ln cn v thng bo kt qu ti mng, ti eNodeB.
Pha quyt nh chuyn giao bao gm nh gi tng th v QoS ca kt ni so
snh n vi cc thuc tnh QoS yu cu v c lng t cc cell ln cn. Ty theo
kt qu so snh m ta c th quyt nh thc hin hay khng thc hin chuyn giao.
eNodeB kim tra cc gi tr ca cc bo co o c kch hot mt b cc iu
kin chuyn giao. Nu cc iu kin ny b kch hot, eNodeB phc v s cho php
thc hin chuyn giao.
Cn c vo quyt nh chuyn giao, c th phn chia chuyn giao ra thnh hai
loi nh sau:
- Chuyn giao quyt nh bi mng (NEHO).
- Chuyn giao quyt nh bi thu bao di ng (MEHO).
Trong trng hp chuyn giao thc hin bi mng (NEHO), eNodeB thc
hin quyt nh chuyn giao. Trong trng hp MEHO, UE thc hin quyt nh
chuyn giao. Trong trng hp kt hp c hai loi chuyn giao NEHO v MEHO,
quyt nh chuyn giao c thc hin bi s phi hp gia eNodeB vi UE.
Ngay c trong trng hp chuyn giao MEHO, quyt nh cui cng v vic
thc hin chuyn giao l do eNodeB. ENodeB c trch nhim qun l ti nguyn v
tuyn (RRM) ca ton b h thng.
n tt nghip Trang 55
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.31: Nguyn tc chung ca cc thut ton chuyn giao
Quyt nh chuyn giao da trn cc thng tin o c ca UE v eNodeB cng
nh cc iu kin thc hin thut ton chuyn giao. Nguyn tc chung thc hin
thut ton chuyn giao c th hin trn hnh trn.
Cc thut ng v cc tham s sau c s dng trong thut ton chuyn giao:
Ngng gii hn trn: l mc tn hiu ca kt ni t gi tr cc i cho
php tha mn mt cht lng dch v QoS yu cu.
Ngng gii hn di: l mc tn hiu ca kt ni t gi tr cc tiu cho
php tha mn mt cht lng dch v QoS yu cu. Do mc tn hiu ca
ni kt khng c nm di ngng .
Gii hn chuyn giao: l tham s c nh ngha trc c thit lp ti
im m cng tn hiu ca cell bn cnh (cell B) vt qu cng tn
hiu ca cell hin ti (cell A) mt lng nht nh.
Tp tch cc: l mt danh sch cc nhnh tn hiu (cc cell) m UE thc
hin kt ni ng thi ti mng truy nhp v tuyn (E-UTRAN). Gi s thu
bao UE trong cell A ang chuyn ng v pha cell B, tn hiu hoa tiu ca
cell A b suy gim n mc ngng gii hn di. Khi t ti mc ny, xut
hin cc bc chuyn giao theo cc bc sau y:
n tt nghip Trang 56
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

(1) Cng tn hiu A bng vi mc ngng gii hn di. Cn tn hiu B
s c RNC nhp vo tp tch cc. Khi UE s thu tn hiu tng hp ca
hai kt ni ng thi n UTRAN.
(2) Ti v tr ny, cht lng tn hiu B tt hn tn hiu A nn n c coi l
im khi u khi tnh ton gii hn chuyn giao.
(3) Cng tn hiu B bng hoc tt hn ngng gii hn di. Tn hiu
A b xa khi tp tch cc bi RNC.
Kch c ca tp tch cc c th thay i c v thng thng trong khong
t 1 n 3 tn hiu.
Trnh t chuyn giao gia hai cell trong LTE thc hin nh sau:
UE truyn bo co o lng n eNodeB. Trong bo co ny l o lng cho
mt cell ch vi mc RSRP cao hn cell ang phc v.
eNodeB ngun quyt nh chuyn giao l cn thit, khi xc nh cell ch
ph hp v yu cu truy cp n eNodeB ch ang iu khin cell ch.
eNodeB ch chp nhn yu cu chuyn giao v cung cp cho eNodeB
ngun cc thng s i hi cho UE truy cp n cell ch chuyn giao
c th thc thi, cc thng s bao gm cell ID, tn s sng mang v ti
nguyn ch nh cho ng xung v ng ln.
eNodeB ngun gi mt bn tin mobility from E-UTRA n UE
UE nhn c bn tin, ngt kt ni v tuyn vi eNodeB ngun v thit lp
kt ni mi vi eNodeB ch. Trong sut thi gian ny ng truyn d liu
b ngt.
2.7.3 Cc loi chuyn giao
Ty theo hnh thc s dng trong cc c ch chuyn giao, c th phn chia
chuyn giao thnh cc nhm nh: chuyn giao cng, chuyn giao mm v chuyn
giao mm hn.


n tt nghip Trang 57
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

2.7.3.1 Chuyn giao mm v mm hn
Chuyn giao mm v mm hn da nguyn tc kt ni ni trc khi
ct (Make before break).
Chuyn giao mm hay chuyn giao gia cc cell l chuyn giao c thc
hin gia cc cell khc nhau, trong trm di ng bt u thng tin vi mt trm
gc mi m vn cha ct thng tin vi trm gc c. Chuyn giao mm ch c th
c thc hin khi c trm gc c ln trm gc mi u lm vic cng mt tn s.
MS thng tin vi 2 sector ca 2 cell khc nhau (chuyn giao 2 ng) hoc vi 3
sector ca 3 cell khc nhau (chuyn giao 3 ng).
Chuyn giao mm hn l chuyn giao c thc hin khi UE chuyn giao
gia 2 sector ca cng mt cell hoc chuyn giao gia 2 cell do cng mt BS qun
l. y l loi chuyn giao trong tn hiu mi c thm vo hoc xa khi tp
tch cc, hoc thay th bi tn hiu mnh hn trong cc sector khc nhau ca cng
BS.
Trong trng hp chuyn giao mm hn, BS pht trong mt sector nhng thu
t nhiu sector khc nhau. Khi c chuyn giao mm v chuyn giao mm hn c
thc hin ng thi, trng hp ny gi l chuyn giao mm - mm hn.
Chuyn giao mm - mm hn: MS thng tin vi hai sector ca cng mt cell v
mt sector ca cell khc. Cc ti nguyn mng cn cho kiu chuyn giao ny gm
ti nguyn cho chuyn giao mm hai ng gia cell A v B cng vi ti nguyn
cho chuyn giao mm hn ti cell B.

Hnh 2.32 : Chuyn giao mm
n tt nghip Trang 58
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.33 : Chuyn giao mm - mm hn
2.7.3.2 Chuyn giao cng
Chuyn giao cng c thc hin khi cn chuyn knh lu lng sang mt
knh tn s mi. Cc h thng thng tin di ng t ong FDMA v TDMA u ch
s dng phng thc chuyn giao ny.






Hnh 2.34 : Chuyn giao cng
Chuyn giao cng da trn nguyn tc ct trc khi ni (Break Before
Make) c th c chia thnh: chuyn giao cng cng tn s v chuyn giao cng
khc tn s. Trong qu trnh chuyn giao cng, kt ni c c gii phng trc khi
thc hin kt ni mi. Do vy, tn hiu b ngt trong khong thi gian chuyn giao.
Tuy nhin, thu bao khng c kh nng nhn bit c khong ngng . Trong
trng hp chuyn giao cng khc tn s, tn s sng mang ca knh truy cp v
tuyn mi khc so vi tn s sng mang hin ti.
u im ca chuyn giao cng l tip tc mt cuc gi khi vt qua mng
hin hnh, cung cp cc dch v m rng, gim rt cc cuc gi, bao ph v tch
hp mng LTE so vi nhiu mng c sn.
n tt nghip Trang 59
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Nhc im ca chuyn giao cng l c th xy ra rt cuc gi do cht
lng ca knh mi chuyn n tr nn qu xu trong khi knh c b ct.
2.7.4 Chuyn giao i vi LTE [3]
H thng WCDMA s dng chuyn giao mm cho c ng ln v ng
xung. H thng HSPA s dng chuyn giao mm cho ng ln nhng khng s
dng cho ng xung. h thng LTE, khng s dng chuyn giao mm, ch c
chuyn giao cng, do h thng tr nn n gin hn.
Trong h thng trc, mng li qun l RNC, RNC qun l cc trm BS v BS
li qun l cc UE. V th khi UE chuyn qua vng RNC khc phc v, th mng li
ch bit n RNC ang phc v UE. Mi chuyn giao c iu khin bi RNC
Nhng i vi E-UTRAN, mng li c th thy mi chuyn giao.

Hnh 2.35: Cc loi chuyn giao
Chuyn giao cng tn s (intra-frequency) c thc hin gia cc cell trong
cng mt eNodeB. Chuyn giao khc tn s (intra-frequency) c thc hin gia
cc cell thuc cc eNodeB khc nhau.
UE s thc hin trn d on o lng RSRP (Reference Signal Receive
Power) v RSRQ (Reference Signal Receive Quality) da trn tn hiu tham kho
RS (Reference Signal) nhn c t cell ang phc v v t cell nh hng mnh
nht. Gii thut chuyn giao da trn gi tr RSRP v RSRQ, chuyn giao c
thit lp khi cc thng s ny t cell nh hng cao hn cell ang phc v.
n tt nghip Trang 60
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

WCDMA, chng ta dng CPICH RSCP quyt nh chuyn giao th
LTE ta s dng RSRP. RSRP l cng sut thu tn hiu tham kho, n l trung bnh
cng sut ca tt c cc thnh phn ti nguyn (mang tn hiu tham kho) qua ton
b bng thng. N c th c o lng tn hiu OFDM mang tn hiu tham kho.
o lng RSRP cung cp cng tn hiu c th ca cell. o lng ny c s
dng lm ng vo cho chuyn giao v quyt nh chn li cell. RSSI c nh
ngha nh tng cng sut bng rng nhn c quan st bi UE t tt c cc ngun,
bao gm cell phc v v cell khng phc v, can nhiu knh v nhiu nhit trong
bng thng o lng c th. RSSI khng c bo co khi o lng m n c
xem l ng vo tnh ton RSRQ. Vic o lng RSRQ cung cp cht lng tn
hiu ca cell c th. Ging nh RSRP, vic o lng ny c dng xc nh
cc ng c vin cell theo cht lng tn hiu ca chng. o lng ny c s
dng nh ng vo ca chuyn giao v quyt nh chn li cell, o lng RSRP
khng cung cp tin cy cho quyt nh chuyn giao. RSRQ c nh ngha
l t s N.RSRP/RSSI trong N l s RB ca bng thng o lng RSSI ca LTE.
Vic o lng ny c t s v mu s phi c thc hin vi cng s RB. Trong
khi RSRP ch ra mnh tn hiu, RSRQ b sung mc can nhiu bi v n bao gm
RSSI. V vy RSRQ cho php kt hp gia cng tn hiu vi can nhiu bo
co mt cch hiu qu.
Khi thc hin o lng chuyn giao th chnh lch mc RSRP v
RSRQ phi mt mc chnh lch mi quyt nh chuyn giao. i vi 2 cell cng
tn s, chnh lch RSRP t +/- 2 dB n +/- 3 dB, chnh lch RSRQ t +/-
2,5 n 4 dB. i vi 2 cell khc tn s th chnh lch RSRP l +/- 6 dB,
chnh lch RSRQ t +/- 3 n 4 dB.
2.8 iu khin cng sut [3]
WCDMA, ta s dng iu khin cng sut c ng ln v ng xung.
Nhng i vi LTE, ch cn s dng iu khin cng sut ng ln. iu khin
cng sut ng ln trong h thng thng tin di ng vi cc mc ch quan trng
sau: n cn bng cng sut pht i vi QoS yu cu, ti thiu can nhiu v tng
tui th pin ca thit b u cui.
n tt nghip Trang 61
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

t c cc mc ch ny, iu khin cng sut ng ln phi thch
nghi vi cc c tnh ca knh truyn v tuyn, bao gm tn hao, che bng, fading
nhanh, cng nh can nhiu n t cc user khc - trong vng mt cell hay cc
cell ln cn.
i hi cho vic qun l can nhiu ng ln LTE kh l khc so vi
WCDMA. WCDMA, ng ln khng trc giao v vic qun l can nhiu u
tin l can nhiu gia cc user khc nhau trong cng mt cell. Cc user ng ln
WCDMA chia s cng ti nguyn v thi gian - tn s v chng to ra can nhiu
tng trn nhiu nhit ti b thu ca NodeB. iu ny c bit nh Rise over
Thermal (RoT), v n phi c iu khin cn thn v c chia s gia cc user.
Tng tc d liu ng ln cho user WCDMA th gim c h s tri ph
v tng cng sut pht tng ng.
Nhng ngc li, hng ln LTE th da trn trc giao, vic qun l can
nhiu gia cc user trong cng mt cell th t quan trng hn WCDMA. Thay i
tc d liu ng ln LTE th bng thng pht thay i v thay i MCS,
trong khi cng sut pht trn n v bng thng (chng hn nh PSD) c th khng
i i vi mt MCS.
Hn na, WCDMA iu khin cng sut c thit k vi truyn dn lin
tc cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh, trong khi LTE, lp biu nhanh cho cc UE
c p dng ti khong thi gian 1ms. iu ny c phn nh trong thc t l
iu khin cng sut WCDMA c d on vi vng lp tr hon l 0,67 ms v
bc iu khin cng sut thng thng l +/- 1 dB . Trong khi LTE cho php
bc iu khin cng sut rng hn (khng phi d on), vi vng lp tr hon
khong 5 ms. K thut iu khin cng sut LTE kt ni c vng h v vng kn.
Hi tip vng kn ch cn thit b cho trng hp UE c lng cng sut pht
khng tha mn.
2.8.1 iu khin cng sut vng h [8]
iu khin cng sut vng h c lng tn hao t c sau khi o lng
RSRP v tnh ton cng sut pht da trn phng trnh sau:
n tt nghip Trang 62
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

P
PUSCH
= min {P
max
, 10log
10
M + P
0
+ .PL} (2.2)

Hnh 2.36: iu khin cng sut vng h
2.8.2 iu khin cng sut vng kn [8]
UE s iu chnh cng sut pht ca mnh da trn lnh TCP. Lnh TCP
c pht da bi eNodeB n UE, da trn SINR mong mun v SINR m
eNodeB thu c. Trong h thng iu khin cng sut vng kn , b thu ng ln
ti eNodeB c lng SINR ca tn hiu thu v n so snh vi gi tr SINR mong
mun. Khi SINR thu c thp hn SINR mong mun, lnh TCP c pht n UE
yu cu tng cng sut pht. Ngc li, lnh TCP s yu cu UE gim cng sut
pht.

n tt nghip Trang 63
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan


Hnh 2.37: iu khin cng sut vng kn
Thch ng nhanh c p dng quanh im hot ng vng h to thnh
iu khin cng sut vng kn. iu ny c th iu khin can nhiu v tinh chnh
cng sut ph hp vi iu kin knh truyn (bao gm fading nhanh). Tuy nhin,
do tnh trc giao ng ln ca LTE, iu khin cng sut vng kn ca LTE
khng cn s dng iu khin cng sut vng kn nhanh nh p dng i vi
WCDMA ( trnh vn gn xa). Thay i bng thng pht cng vi vic thit
lp MSC t c n tc d liu pht mong mun.
Delta- MCS: cho php cng sut trn khi ti nguyn thch nghi theo tc
pht d liu thng tin. Cng sut pht i hi trn khi ti nguyn l (2
k.BPRE
1).
Trong BPRE l t s s bit thng tin trn thnh phn ti nguyn RE trong mt
RB, k l h s t l v gi tr thch hp cho k l 1.25 i vi cng sut offset ph
thuc vo MCS.
n tt nghip Trang 64
Chng 2 : Cu trc mng 4G LTE v cc vn lin quan

Chng 2 khi qut c cu trc mng 4 GLTE, cc c tnh k thut v
cc k thut s dng trong LTE. Mng LTE c u im vt tri so vi 3G v tc
, thi gian tr nh, hiu sut s dng ph cao cng vi vic s dng bng
thng linh hot, cu trc n gin nn gi thnh gim. to nn cc u im
, LTE phi hp nhiu k thut, trong , n s dng k thut OFDMA
ng xung. Cc sng mang trc giao vi nhau, do tit kim bng thng,
tng hiu sut s dng ph tn v gim nhiu ISI. Cng vi cc u im th
OFDM c khuyt im l s thng ging ng bao ln dn n PAPR ln, khi
PAPR ln th i hi cc b khuch i cng sut tuyn tnh cao trnh lm
mo dng tn hiu, hiu sut s dng cng sut thp v th c bit nh hng
i vi cc thit b cm tay. Do , LTE s dng k thut SC-FDMA cho ng
ln. Cng vi cc k thut , LTE cn h tr MIMO, MIMO l mt phn tt yu
ca LTE t c yu cu v thng lng v hiu qu s dng ph. Cng vi
cc k thut ny, chng 2 cn trnh by v lp biu ph thuc knh, thch ng
ng truyn, HARQ vi kt hp mm. Chuyn giao trong LTE, v chuyn giao
gia LTE vi cc mng khc. ng thi cn bng cng sut pht i vi QoS
yu cu, ti thiu can nhiu v tng tui th pin ca thit b u cui, iu khin
cng sut ng ln c s dng LTE, iu khin cng sut kt hp c vng
h v vng kn, nhng do tnh trc giao ng ln ca LTE nn trnh c
vn gn xa (vn in hnh trong iu khin cng sut ca WCDMA) v v
th LTE khng cn s dng iu khin cng sut vng kn nhanh.
T vic tm hiu khi qut cng ngh LTE v cc vn lin quan, ta tin hnh
quy hoch mng trong chng tip theo.



n tt nghip Trang 65
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

CHNG 3 : QUY HOCH MNG 4G LTE V P
DNG CHO TP.HCM
Quy hoch mng LTE cng ging nh quy hoch mng 3G. h thng
di ng 4G, ng ln v ng xung l bt i xng. Do vy, mt trong hai
ng s thit lp gii hn v dung lng hoc vng ph sng. Vic tnh ton qu
ng truyn v phn tch nhiu khng ph thuc vo loi cng ngh s dng. Mc
ch ca pha nh c l c lng s lng cc trm cn s dng, cu hnh trm
v s lng cc phn t mng d bo gi thnh u t cho mng. Chng ny
chng ta s tm hiu v qu ng truyn ca LTE, cc m hnh truyn sng
phc v cho qu trnh c lng s eNodeB ca mng theo iu kin ti u 1, v s
trm eNodeB theo iu kin ti u 2 t ta quyt nh c s eNodeB cn
thit cho vng cn quy hoch.
3. 1 Khi qut v qu trnh quy hoch mng LTE

Hnh 3. 1: Khi qut v qu trnh quy hoch mng LTE
Quy hoch mng LTE cng bao gm ba bc : nh c hay cn gi l khi
to, quy hoch chi tit, vn hnh v ti u ha mng.

n tt nghip Trang 66
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

3. 2 D bo lu lng v phn tch vng ph
3. 2. 1 D bo lu lng
Vic quy hoch mng phi da trn nhu cu v lu lng. Do d bo lu
lng l bc u tin cn thc hin trong qu trnh quy hoch mng.
D bo s thu bao : i vi th trng cn phc v, cn phi nh gi tng
s thu bao. L tng c th chia vic nh gi cho tng thng c th thy
c xu th pht trin thu bao. iu ny l cn thit v khi qui hoch ta cn
tnh d phng cho tng lai. Nu c th cung cp cc dch v khc nhau, th
cn d bo cho tng loi dch v. Chng hn nh khai thc c th chn t
hp cc dch v no gm ch ting, ting v s liu hoc ch s liu.
Ngoi ra cc dch v s liu cng c th c chia thnh cc dch v v cc
thit b khc nhau. Chng hn, dch v s liu ch gii hn trnh duyt web,
hoc c trnh duyt web ln email v mt s cc dch v khc nh khng
gian web. Dch v s liu cng c th l cc dch v o lng t xa. D bo
cn c thc hin cho tng kiu ngi s dng.
D bo s dng lu lng ting: D bo s dng dch v ting bao gm
vic nh gi khi lng lu lng ting do ngi s dng dch v ting
trung bnh to ra. vic d bo chnh xc ta cn cung cp d liu nh gi
cho tng thng. D liu ting bao gm phn b lu lng: t MS n c
nh, t MS n MS v t MS n E-mail. i vi t MS n c nh cn
phn thnh : phn trm ni ht v ng di. V vy ta cn c s liu v s
cuc gi trn mt thu bao trung bnh gi cao im v thi gian gi trung
bnh (MHT: mean hold time) trn cuc gi. Thng thng ta ch c thng s
v s pht s dng (MoU: minutes of using) ca thu bao/cuc gi. Trong
trng hp ny nhm d bo b phn thit k phi chuyn thnh vic s
dng trong gi cao im.
D bo s dng lu lng s liu: Ta cn phn loi nhng ngi s dng
dch v s liu v d bo cho tng kiu ngi s dng cng nh khi lng
thng lng s liu. Ta cng cn d bo khi no th thng lng bt u v
khi no th n kt thc.
n tt nghip Trang 67
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

D phng tng lai : Ta khng th ch qui hoch mng cho cc d kin
trc mt m cn qui hoch mng cho cc d kin tng lai khng phi
thung xuyn m rng mng. Ngoi ra vic d phng tng lai cng cho
php mng cung cp lu lng b sung trong trng hp s tng trng thu
bao ln hn thit k hoc s thay i t ngt lu lng ti mt thi im
nht nh. V l do kinh doanh, d phng tng lai cng cn thit a ra
cc k hoch nh gi mi cho php thay i ng k s thu bao hay hnh
mu s dng.
3. 2. 2 Phn tch vng ph
quy hoch mng v tuyn cho h thng thng tin di ng th h th t,
bc tip theo ta cn kho st cc chi tit: ni no cn ph sng v cc kiu ph
sng cn cung cp cho cc vng ny.
Thng thng ta s u tin ph sng trc tin cc khu vc quan trng nh:
cc vng thng mi, cc vng c mt dn c ng c, cc ng cao tc
chnh... da trn bn mt dn c. Da trn bn dn c cho php ta d
on c lu lng ngi s dng, iu kin mi trng truyn sng, cc nh
hng ca n ln m hnh truyn sng c th a ra la chn cho cc h s hiu
chnh mi trng v thm nhp to nh.
3. 3 Quy hoch chi tit [9]
Theo iu kin ti u 1: bn knh cell c xc nh da trn qu ng
truyn v m hnh truyn sng thch hp, kt hp vi din tch cn ph sng ta tnh
c s eNodeB c lp t. Theo iu kin ti u 2: da trn quy hoch vng
ph ta cng xc nh c s eNodeB. S eNodeB cui cng cn thit lp t cho
mt vng cn ph sng l s eNodeB ln hn.
3. 3. 1 Quy hoch vng ph
i vi mng di ng t bo, c lng vng ph c dng quyt nh
vng ph ca mi trm gc, n a ra mt vng ti a c th c bao ph bi
trm gc. Nhng n khng cn thit xc lp mt kt ni gia UE v trm gc. Tuy
nhin, trm gc c th pht hin c UE trong vng bao ph ca n.
n tt nghip Trang 68
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

3. 3. 1. 1 Qu ng truyn [2]
Tnh ton qu ng truyn c lng suy hao tn hiu cho php cc i
(pathloss) gia di ng v trm gc. Tn hao ln nht cho php cho ta c lng
vng ph ca cell ln nht vi m hnh knh truyn ph hp. Vi vng bao ph ca
cell s cho ta tnh ton c s trm gc c s dng bao ph vng a l mong
mun. Tnh ton qu ng truyn cng c dng so snh quan h v vng ph
ca cc h thng khc nhau. Mi quan h qu ng truyn ch ra h thng v
tuyn LTE mi s thc hin tt nh th no khi n c trin khai trong cc trm
gc tn ti ca h thng GSM v WCDMA.
Tnh ton qu ng ln cho LTE
Cc thng s v cng thc s dng tnh ton qu ng truyn ln cho
LTE:
- Cng sut my pht (P
Txm
) : i vi ng ln cng sut my pht y l
cng sut ca UE. Ty thuc vo lp cng sut pht m UE s dng s c
gi tr cng sut ti a khc nhau. n v dng tnh ton cho cng sut
my pht l dBm.
- Khuch i anten (G
m
) : ph thuc vo thit b v bng tn s dng. N c
gi tr t -5 n 10 dBi.
- Tn hao phi v b ni (L
fm
)
- Tn hao c th (L
body
) : l tn hao in hnh i vi qu ng truyn cho
dch v thoi v di ng c gi gn vi tai nghe. C gi tr t 3 n 5 dB
i vi dch v thoi. n v l dB.
- Cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng (EIRP
m
) : c n v l dBm v
c tnh ton theo cng thc sau:
EIPR
m
= P
Txm
+ G
m
+ L
fm
L
body
(3. 1)
- H s tp m my thu (NF) : trong trng hp ny my thu l trm gc v c
n v l dB.
n tt nghip Trang 69
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

- Cng sut tp m nhit u vo my thu (N
i
) : c n v l dBm v c tnh
ton bng cng thc sau:
N
i
= 30 + 10lgk + 10log290K + 10lgB (3. 2)
Vi k l hng s Boltzman v c gi tr k = 1. 3824 x 10
-23

J/K. B l bng
thng ph thuc vo tc bit, tng ng vi mi tc bit s c s RB
khc nhau c pht i. Chng hn nh 64 kbps tng ng vi 2 RB c
pht i tng ng vi B l 360 KHz.
- Cng sut tp m nn my thu (N
i
) : c n v l dBm v c tnh ton theo
cng thc sau :
N = N
i
+ NF (3. 3)
- D tr nhiu (M
i
) : d tr nhiu LTE s nh hn d tr nhiu WCDMA
v cc tn hiu ng ln c trc giao. N c n v l dB v n c
gi tr nm trong khong t 1-10 dB.
- Tng tp m nhiu + giao thoa (N + I) : c n v l dBm v c tnh ton
theo cng thc sau : (N + I)(dBm) = N + M
i
(3. 4)
- T s SNR yu cu (SNR
r
) : c ly t m phng. C n v l dB.
- nhy my thu hiu dng (P
min
) : c n v l dB v c xc nh theo
cng thc sau:
P
min
= (N + I) (dBm) + SNR
r
(dB) (3. 5)
- Khuch i anten trm gc (G
b
) : ph thuc vo kch c anten v s sector.
C gi tr t 15 n 21 dBi. n v ca n l dBi.
- Tn hao phi v b ni (L
f
) : tn hao pha trm gc. C n v l dB.
- Khuch i MHA (G
MHA
) : MHA l b khuch i trn thp anten, n c n
v l dB.
- Tn hao ng truyn cc i cho php (L
max
) : c n v l dB v c tnh
ton theo cng thc sau:
L
max
= EIRP
m
P
min
+ G
b
L
f
+ G
MHA
(3. 6)
n tt nghip Trang 70
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Tnh ton qu ng xung cho LTE
Cc thng s v cng thc s dng tnh ton qu ng truyn xung cho
LTE:
- Cng sut my pht (P
Txb
) : i vi ng ln cng sut my pht y l
cng sut ca trm gc. n v dng tnh ton cho cng sut my pht l
dBm. Gi tr in hnh l t 43 - 48 dBm.
- Khuch i anten (G
b
) : ph thuc vo kch c anten v s sector. C gi tr
t 15 n 21 dBi. n v ca n l dBi.
- Tn hao phi v b ni (L
f
)
- Cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng (EIRP
b
) : c n v l dBm v
c tnh ton theo cng thc sau:
EIPR
b
= P
Txm
+ G
b
+ L
f
(3. 7)
- H s tp m my thu (NF) : trong trng hp ny my thu l trm gc v c
n v l dB.
- Cng sut tp m nhit u vo my thu (N
i
) : c n v l dBm v c tnh
ton bng cng thc sau:
N
i
= 30 + 10lgk + 10log290K + 10lgB (3. 8)
Vi k l hng s Boltzman v c gi tr k = 1. 3824 x 10
-23

J/K. B l bng
thng ph thuc vo tc bit, tng ng vi mi tc bit s c s RB
khc nhau c pht i. Chng hn nh 1Mbps tng ng vi 50 RB c
pht i tng ng vi B l 9 MHz.
- Cng sut tp m nn my thu (N
i
) : c n v l dBm v c tnh ton theo
cng thc sau :
N = N
i
+ NF (3. 9)
- D tr nhiu (M
i
) : N c n v l dB v c gi tr t 3-8 dB.
- B sung nhiu knh diu khin (M
cch
)
n tt nghip Trang 71
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

- Tng tp m nhiu + giao thoa (N + I) : c n v l dBm v c tnh ton
theo cng thc sau : (N + I)(dBm) = N + M
i
+ M
cch
(3. 10)
- T s SNR yu cu (SNR
r
) : c ly t m phng. C n v l dB.
- nhy my thu hiu dng (P
min
) : c n v l dB v c xc nh theo
cng thc sau:
P
min
= (N + I) (dBm) + SNR
r
(dB) (3. 11)
- Khuch i anten trm gc (G
m
) : ph thuc vo thit b v bng tn s dng.
N c gi tr t -5 n 10 dBi.
- Tn hao phi v b ni (L
fm
) : tn hao pha UE. C n v l dB.
- Tn hao c th (L
body
) : l tn hao in hnh i vi qu ng truyn cho
dch v thoi v di ng c gi gn vi tai nghe. C gi tr t 3 n 5 dB
i vi dch v thoi. n v l dB.
- Tn hao ng truyn cc i cho php (L
max
) : c n v l dB v c tnh
ton theo cng thc sau:
L
max
= EIRP
b
P
min
+ G
m
L
fm
- L
body
(3. 12)
V d v qu ng truyn [2]
- V d tnh qu ng ln LTE cho 64kbps vi my thu trm gc hai anten
Bng 3. 1 :V d v qu ng ln ca LTE
My pht (u cui di ng)
Cng sut pht (dBm) 24,0 P
Txm
Khuch i anten (dBi) 0,0 G
m
Tn hao phi + b ni
(dB)
0,0 L
fm
Suy hao c th ca MS 0,0 L
body
n tt nghip Trang 72
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

ng ln (dB)
Cng sut pht x ng
hng tng ng
(dBm)
24,0 EIRP
m
= P
Txm
+ G
m
- L
fm
- L
body

My thu (BS)
H s tp m my thu
trm gc (dB)
2,0 NF
Cng sut tp m nhit
u vo my thu (dBm)
-118,4 N
i
=30+10lgk+10lg290K+10lg(360KHz)
Cng sut tp m nn
my thu (dBm)
-116,4 N = N
i
+ NF
D tr nhiu (dB) 2,0 M
i
Tng tp m + giao thoa
(dBm)
-114,4 (N + I) (dBm) = N + M
i
T s SNR yu cu (dB) -7 SNR
r
, t m phng
nhy my thu (dBm) -121,4 P
min
= (N + I) (dBm) + SNR
r

Khuch i anten (dBi) 18,0 G
b
Tn hao phi + b ni
trm gc
2,0 L
f
Khuch i MHA (dB) 2,0 G
MHA
Tn hao ng truyn
cc i (dB)
163,4 L
max
=EIRP
m
-P
min
+G
b
+G
MHA
-L
f

n tt nghip Trang 73
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

- V d qu ng xung LTE cho 1Mbps vi my thu trm gc hai anten
Bng 3. 2 : V d ca qu ng xung LTE
My pht (trm gc)
Cng sut pht (dBm) 46,0 P
Txb
Khuch i anten (dBi) 18,0 G
b
Tn hao phi + b ni 2,0 L
f
Cng sut pht x ng
hng tng ng
(dBm)
62,0 EIRP
m
= P
Txm
+ G
b
- L
f

My thu (u cui di ng)
H s tp m my thu
(dB)
7,0 NF
Cng sut tp m nhit
u vo my thu (dBm)
-104,5 N
i
=30+10lgk+10lg290K+10lg(9MHz)
Cng sut tp m nn
my thu (dBm)
-97,5 N = N
i
+ NF
D tr nhiu (dB) 3,0 M
i
B sung nhiu knh iu
khin
1,0 M
cch
Tng tp m + giao thoa
(dBm)
-93,5 (N + I) (dBm) = N + M
i
+ M
cch
T s SNR yu cu (dB) -10 SNR
r
, t m phng
n tt nghip Trang 74
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

nhy my thu (dBm) -103,5 P
min
= (N + I) (dBm) + SNR
r

Khuch i anten (dBi) 0,0 G
b
Tn hao phi + b ni
(dB)
0,0 L
fm
Suy hao c th (dB) 0,0 L
body
Tn hao ng truyn
cc i (dB)
165,5 L
max
=EIRP
b
- P
min
+ G
m
- L
f
- L
body
- V d so snh qu ng truyn ca cc h thng [1]
Bng 3. 3 : So snh qu ng truyn ln ca cc h thng
ng ln GSM thoi HSPA LTE
Tc d liu (kbps) 12. 2 64 64
My pht (u cui di ng)
Cng sut pht (dBm) 33,0 23,0 23,0
Khuch i anten (dBi) 0,0 0,0 0,0
Suy hao c th ca MS
ng ln (dB)
3,0 0,0 0,0
Cng sut pht x ng
hng tng ng
(dBm)
30,0 23,0 23,0
My thu (BS)
H s tp m my thu
trm gc (dB)
- 2,0 2,0
n tt nghip Trang 75
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Cng sut tp m nhit
u vo my thu (dBm)
-119,7 -108,2 -118,4
Cng sut tp m nn
my thu (dBm)
- -106,2 -116,4
D tr nhiu (dB) 0,0 3,0 1,0
T s SNR yu cu (dB) - -17,3 -7
nhy my thu (dBm) -114,0 -123,4 -123,4
Khuch i anten (dBi) 18,0 18,0 18,0
Tn hao phi + b ni
trm gc
0,0 0,0 0,0
li chuyn giao mm
(dB)
0,0 2,0 0,0
Tn hao ng truyn
cc i (dB)
162,0 161,1 163,4

Bng 3. 4 : So snh v qu ng truyn xung ca cc h thng
ng xung GSM thoi HSPA LTE
Tc d liu (kbps) 12,2 1024 1024
My pht (trm gc)
Cng sut pht (dBm) 44,5 46,0 46,0
Khuch i anten (dBi) 18,0 18,0 18,0
n tt nghip Trang 76
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Tn hao phi + b ni 2,0 2,0 2,0
Cng sut pht x ng
hng tng ng
(dBm)
60,5 62,5 62,0
My thu (u cui di ng)
H s tp m my thu
(dB)
- 7,0 7,0
Cng sut tp m nhit
u vo my thu (dBm)
-119,7 -108,2 -104,5
Cng sut tp m nn
my thu (dBm)
- -101,2 -97,5
D tr nhiu (dB) 0,0 4,0 4,0
T s SNR yu cu (dB) - -5,2 -9,0
nhy my thu (dBm) -104,0 -106,4 -106,5
Khuch i anten (dBi) 0,0 0,0 0,0
Overhead ca knh iu
khin (%)
0,0 20,0 20,0
Suy hao c th (dB) 3,0 0,0 0,0
Tn hao ng truyn
cc i (dB)
161,5 163,4 163,5
Qu ng truyn cho ta thy rng LTE c th trin khai s dng cc trm
c sn ca h thng GSM v HSPA.

n tt nghip Trang 77
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

3. 3. 1. 2 Cc m hnh truyn sng
Qu ng truyn kt hp vi m hnh truyn sng thch hp s tnh c
bn knh ph sng ca cell. c im ca knh truyn dn v tuyn c tnh cht
ngu nhin, khng nhn thy c, i hi c nhng nghin cu phc tp. Mt s
m hnh thc nghim c xut v c s dng d on cc tn hao
truyn sng. Cc m hnh c xut nh gi cc cng ngh truyn dn s
xt nhiu c tnh mi trng gm cc thnh ph ln, nh, ngoi , vng nhit i,
vng nng thn v cc sa mc. Cc thng s chnh ca mi trng bao gm :
- Tr truyn lan, cu trc v cc thay i ca n.
- Quy tc tn hao a l v tn hao ng truyn b sung.
- Pha inh che ti.
- Cc c tnh pha inh nhiu ng cho hnh bao cc knh.
- Tn s lm vic.
Ta phn tch cc m hnh sau:
M hnh Hata-Okumura [5]
- Cc biu thc ton hc c s dng trong m hnh Hata-Okumura xc
nh tn hao trung bnh L:
L
p
= A + Blgf
c
13,82lgh
b
a(h
m
) + (44,9 6,55lgh
b
)lgr + L
other

(dB) (3. 13)
Trong :
f
c
: tn s hot ng (MHz)
L
p
: tn hao trung bnh
h
b
: cao anten trm gc (m);
h
m
:


cao anten trm di ng (m)
r : bn knh cell (khong cch t trm gc) (km)
a(h
m
): h s hiu chnh cho cao anten di ng (dB)
L
other
: h s hiu chnh theo vng.
n tt nghip Trang 78
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Thng s A&B:
69.55, 150:1500 z
46.3, 1500: 2000 z
f Mh
A
f Mh
=
=

=


26.16, 150:1500 z
33.9, 1500: 2000 z
f Mh
B
f Mh
=
=

=


- Di thng s s dng c cho m hnh Hata l:
150 f
c
2000 MHz; 30 h
b
200 m; 1 h
m
10 m; 1 r 20 km.
a(h
m
) tnh nh sau:
- i vi thnh ph nh v trung bnh:
a(h
m
) = (1,11lgf
c
-0,7)h
m
(1,56lgf
c
0,8)dB (3. 14)
- i vi thnh ph ln:
a(h
m
) = 8. 29(lg1,54h
m
)
2
1,1 dB ; f
c
s 200 MHz (3. 15)
hay: a(h
m
) = 3,2(lg11,75h
m
)
2
4,97 dB ; f
c
400 MHz (3. 16)
- i vi vng ngoi : Vi vng ngoi h s hiu chnh suy hao so
vi
vng thnh ph l:
L
p
= L
p(thnh ph)
- 2
2
lg 5, 4
28
c
f
(
| | | |
(
| |
\ . \ . (

(dB) (3. 17)
- i vi vng nng thn
L
p
= L
p(thnh ph)
-
2
4.78(lg ) 18.33(lg ) 40.49
c
fc f + Db (3. 18)
M hnh Walfish-Ikegami [5]
M hnh Walfisch-Ikegami da vo gi thit rng s truyn lan sng c
truyn trn mi nh bng qu trnh nhiu x. Cc ta nh nm trn ng thng gia
my pht v my thu.
n tt nghip Trang 79
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE


Hnh 3. 2 : Cc tham s ca m hnh Walfisch-Ikegami
Cc biu thc s dng cho m hnh ny nh sau:
L
p
= L
f
+ L
rts
+ L
msd
(3. 19)

hay L
p
= L
f
khi L
rts
+ L
msd
0
Trong : L
f
: tn hao khng gian t do
L
rts
: nhiu x mi nh - ph v tn hao tn x
L
msd
: tn hao cc vt che chn.
- Tn hao khng gian t do L
f
c xc nh:
L
f
= 32,4 +20lgr + 20lgf
c
(dB) (3. 20)
- Nhiu x mi nh - ph v tn hao phn tn tnh nh sau:
L
rts
= (-16,7) -10lgW + 10lgf
c
+ 20lgh
m
+ L
ori
(dB) (3. 21)
Trong :
W: rng ph (m)
h
m
= h
r
- h
m
(m)
h
r
: cao trung bnh to nh
hm : cao MS
n tt nghip Trang 80
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

hb : cao BS

0
0 0
or
0 0
10 0.3546, 0 35
( ) 2.5 0.075( 35), 35 55
4 0.114( 55), 55 90
i
L



+ s <

= + s <

s <


Trong : l gc n so vi trc ph.
- Tn hao cc vt che chn:
L
msd
= L
bsh
+ k
a
+ k
d
lgr + k
f
lgf
c
9lgb (3. 22)
Trong :
b: khong cch gia ta nh dc theo ng truyn v tuyn (m).

<
> A +
=
r b
r b b
bsh
h h
h h h
L
, 0
), 1 lg( . 18

k
a
=
54, ( )
54 0,8 , ( 500 , )
54 1, 6 , ( 500 , )
b r
b
b r
b b r
h h
h r m h h
h r m h h
>

> s

A < s



15
18 ,
18,
b
b r
r d
b r
h
h h
h k
h h
A
>

<


4 1, 5 1
925
c
f
f
k
| |
= +
|
\ .
vi thnh ph ln.
4 0, 7 1
925
c
f
f
k
| |
= +
|
\ .
vi thnh ph trung bnh.
V vy, L
p
s c tnh theo hai cng thc sau:
- Vi trng hp tia nhn thng (LOS):
L
p
= 42,6 + 26lgr + 20lgf
c
(3. 23)

- Vi trng hp tia khng nhn thng (NLOS):
L
p
= 32,4 + 20lgr + 20lgf
c
+ L
rts
+ L
msd
(3. 24)
- Di thng s cho m hnh Walfisch-Ikegami phi tha mn:
n tt nghip Trang 81
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

800 f
c
2000 MHz; 4 h
b
50 m; 1 h
m
3 m; 0,02 r

5 km
C th s dng cc gi tr mc nh sau cho m hnh:
b = 20 50m; W = b/2; = b/2.
Nc nh = 3 m cho nc nh c cao v 0 m cho nc nh phng.
h
r
= 3 *(s tng) + nc nh
Cc m hnh truyn sng trong nh [5]
C th ni hin nay i vi cc ta nh ln nh l sn bay, ga in ngm,
vn phng cao tng, siu th kinh doanh hng ha rng ln th vn vng ph
v dung lng u rt quan trng v cht lng thoi di dng nh hng trc tip
n uy tn ca nh cung cp dch v. Tuy nhin, do c trng vng ph ca nhng
khu vc ny rng hoc tri di theo chiu dc, sng v tuyn t trm BTS bn ngoi
ta nh (BTS outdoor macro) b suy hao nhiu khi xuyn qua cc bc tng b tng
dn n cng tn hiu khng t yu cu, nn gii php ph sng trong ta nh
hin nay c nhiu nh cung cp dch v di ng quan tm.
- M hnh cho mi trng nhiu tng
Cc biu thc ton hc c s dng trong m hnh xc nh tn hao
trung bnh:
( ) ( ) 10*
P o
L R L R n = + (nhiu tng)
0
lg( / ) R R (3. 25)
0
( ) L R : suy hao ng truyn t my pht n khong cch tham kho
0
R
(dB)
n: m tn hao trung bnh
R: khong cch t my pht (m) n my thu

0
R : khong cch tham kho t my pht.
- M hnh cho mi trng cng tng
Cc biu thc ton hc c s dng trong m hnh xc nh tn hao
trung bnh.
n tt nghip Trang 82
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

( ) ( ) 10*
P o
L R L R n = + (cng tng)
0
lg( / ) AF R R F + dB (3. 26)
n: m tn hao trung bnh
R: khong cch t my pht (m) n my thu

0
R : khong cch tham kho t my pht.
AF F (dB) :tha s tn hao tng.
- M hnh Motley-Keenan
Cc biu thc ton hc c s dng trong m hnh xc nh tn hao
trung bnh :[9]

( ) 32.5 20 * lg 20 * lg * ( ) * W( ) ( )
b
L dB f R k F k p k D R d = + + + + +
(3. 27)
Trong :
L: tn hao truyn sng (dB)
F: tn s (MHz)
R: khong cch t my pht n my thu (km)
K: s tng m sng trc tip truyn qua
F : h s tn hao ca tng(dB)
P: s bc tng m song truyn qua
W: h s tn hao ca tng(dB)(ch 1)
D: h s tn hao tuyn tnh(dB/m)(ch 2)
d
b
: im ngt trong nh(indoor breakpoint) (m)(ch 2)
Ch 1: cc bc tng mng thng thng c tn hao 7dB cn cc bc tng
dy c tn hao 10dB.
Ch 2: i vi khong cch trn im ngt, trung bnh cng thm 0. 2dB/m,
im ngt in hnh : 65m.
n tt nghip Trang 83
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Ton b cc tham s trn ta c th tnh c bng s logic ca to nh thit
k.
M hnh IMT-2000
- M hnh truyn sng trong nh
L
p
= 37 + 30lgR + 18,3F
[(F+2)/(F+1)-0,46]
(dB) (3. 28)
Trong R l khong cch gia my thu v my pht (m) v F l s tng
trn ng truyn.
- Mi trng gia trong nh v va h
L
p
= 40lgR + 30lgf
c
+ 49 (3. 29)
Trong f
c
l tn s sng mang
M hnh ny ch ph hp khi khng c tm nhn thng v m t truyn sng
tt nht vi pha inh che ti vi lch chun 10dB. Tn hao thm nhp ta
nh trung bnh 18dB vi lch chun l 10dB.
- Mi trng trn phng tin giao thng
L
p
= 40(1-4. 10
-2
h
b
)lgR-18lgh
b
+21lgf
c
+80 (3. 30)
Trong : R l khong cch gia MS v BS
f
c
l tn s sng mang (MHz)
h
b
l cao ca anten BS so vi mc trung bnh ca mi nh.
M hnh ny thch hp cho cc ng dng s dng u cui c nh.
3. 3. 1. 3 Tnh bn knh cell
Trc tin, da vo cc tham s ca qu ng truyn xc nh suy hao
ng truyn ti a cho php. Khi , d dng tnh c bn knh cell nu bit
c m hnh truyn sng p dng vi mi trng ang kho st (Lmax = Lp).
Suy ra cng thc tnh bn knh cell nh sau:
R
cell
= 10
(Lp - L)/X

(3. 31)
L
P
= L

+ X *lgR (3. 32)


n tt nghip Trang 84
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

- M hnh Hata-Okumura :
L=A + Blgf
c
13,82lgh
b
a(h
m
) + L
other
(3. 33)
X=(44,9 6,55lgh
b
) (3. 34)
- M hnh Walfisch-Ikegami :
-NON-LOS :
L= 32,4 +20lgf
c
+ L
bsh
+ k
a
+ k
f
lgf
c
9lgb + L
rts
(3. 35)
X =( 20+k
d
)
-LOS :
L=42. 6 +20lgf
c
(3. 36)

X= 26

- M hnh to nh:
-Nhiu tng:
L= L(R
0
)-10*n*lg(R
0
) (3. 37)
X= 10 *n
-Cng tng:
L= L(R
0
)-10*n*lg(R
0
)+FAF. (3. 38)
X= 10 *n
- M hnh Motley-Keenan:
L= 32. 5 + 20*lgf + k*F(k) + p*W(k) + D - d
b
(3. 39)
X= 1+*10
a/20

Vi a = 20lgR
- M hnh IMT-2000
- To nh :
L=37+18. 3F
[(F+2 ) / ( F+1 ) - 0,46 ]
(3. 40)


n tt nghip Trang 85
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

M= 30
- Trong nh v va h:
L= 30 lgf
c
+49 (3. 41)
X=40
- Mi trng xe:
L= -(18*lgh
b
) + 21*lgf
c
+ 80 (3. 42)
X= 40(1-4*10
-2
h
b
)
Sau khi tnh c kch thc cell, d dng tnh c din tch vng ph vi
ch din tch vng ph ph thuc vo cu hnh phn on trm gc. Din tch
vng ph i vi mt cell c cu trc lc gic u c tnh nh sau:
S = K. r
2
(3.43) [2]
Trong : S l din tch vng ph, r l bn knh cc i cell, K l hng s.
Bng 3. 5 : Cc gi tr K s dng cho tnh ton vng ph sng
Cu hnh
trm
Ommi
(v hng)
2-sector 3-sector 6-sector
K 2,6 1,3 1,95 2,6
3. 3. 2 Quy hoch dung lng
Dung lng l thuyt ca mng b gii hn bi s eNodeB t trong mng.
Dung lng ca mng b nh hng bi cc yu t nh mc can nhiu, thc thi lp
biu, k thut m ha v iu ch c cung cp. Sau y l cc cng thc dng
tnh s eNodeB c tnh bi kha cnh dung lng.
S eNodeB =
Ton b tc d liu (overalldatarate)
Dung lng site(site capacity)
(3.44) [9]
Trong site capacity l bi s ca thng lng cell (cell throughput), n ty thuc
vo cu hnh ca cell trn site.
n tt nghip Trang 86
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Tnh ton cell throughput
- tnh ton cell throughput trc tin ta xt tc bit nh (peak bit rate).
Tng ng vi mi mc MCS (iu ch v m ha) cng vi c kt hp MIMO
hay khng s to ra cc tc bit nh khc nhau. Tc bit nh c tnh theo
cng thc sau:
Tc bit nh =
S bit
Hz
x S sng mang con x
S t subIramc
1ms
(3. 45)[2]
i vi mi loi iu ch khc nhau s mang s bit trn k t khc nhau.
QPSK mang 2 bit/k t, 16QAM mang 4bit/k t v 64QAM mang 6bit/k t.
2x2 MIMO gp i tc bit nh. QPSK (tc m ha ) mang 1bps/Hz,
vi 64QAM khng s dng tc m ha v vi 2x2 MIMO s mang 12bps/Hz.
Mi bng thng ch nh s c s sng mang tng ng cho mi bng thng: 72
sng mang i vi 1.4 MHz, 180 i vi 3MHz, v i vi bng thng 5MHz,
15MHz, 20MHz tng ng s l 300, 600 v 1200 sng mang con. Tc nh
l thuyt cao nht xp x 170 Mbps s dng 64QAM, 2x2 MIMO. Nu s dng
4x4 MIMO, tc nh s gp i l 340 Mbps. S k t trn subframe thng
l 14 k t tng ng vi mi slot l 7 k t.
Bng 3. 6 : Tc bit nh tng ng vi tng tc m ha v bng thng
MCS K thut
anten s
dng
Tc bit nh trn sng mang con / bng thng
72/1.4
MHz
180/3.0
MHz
300/5.0
MHz
600/10
MHz
1200/20
MHz
QPSK1/2 Dng n 0. 9 2. 2 3. 6 7. 2 14. 4
16QAM1/2 Dng n 1. 7 4. 3 7. 2 14. 4 28. 8
16QAM3/4 Dng n 2. 6 6. 5 10. 8 21. 6 43. 2
64QAM3/4 Dng n 3. 9 9. 7 16. 2 32. 4 64. 8
n tt nghip Trang 87
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

64QAM4/4 Dng n 5. 2 13. 0 21. 6 43. 2 86. 4
64QAM3/4 2x2
MIMO
7. 8 19. 4 32. 4 64. 8 129. 6
64QAM4/4 2x2
MIMO
10. 4 25. 9 43. 2 86. 4 172. 8
Tng ng vi mi MCS v tc bit nh l mi mc SINR, ta xt trong
iu kin knh truyn AWGN nn SNR c dng thay cho SINR, tc bit
nh c xem nh dung lng knh. Da vo cng thc dung lng knh
Shannon:
C1 = BW1 log
2
(1+SNR) (3. 46)
Ta suy ra c SNR :
SNR = 2
(C1/BW1)-1
(ln) (3. 47)
Trong BW1 l bng thng ca h thng (chng hn nh 1. 4 MHz,
3MHz20MHz)

- T SNR tm c ta tnh thng lng cell (cell throughput) qua cng thc sau:
C = F BW log
2
(1+SNR) (3. 48) [6]
Trong BW l bng thng cu hnh ch chim 90% ca bng thng knh
truyn i vi bng thng knh truyn t 3-20 MHz. i vi bng thng knh
truyn 1. 4 MHz, bng thng truyn ch chim 77% ca bng thng knh truyn. V
vy trin khai knh truyn 1. 4 MHz, hiu sut s dng ph thp hn so vi bng
thng 3MHz. Bng thng cu hnh c tnh theo cng thc sau:
BW =
Nsc NsNrb
Tsub
(3. 49) [6]
Trong :
n tt nghip Trang 88
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Nsc l s sng mang con trong mt khi ti nguyn (RB), Nsc = 12
Ns l s k t OFDM trn mt subframe. Thng thng l 14 k t
nu s dng CP thng thng.
Nrb l s khi ti nguyn (RB) tng ng vi bng thng h thng
(bng thng knh truyn). Chng hn nh i vi bng thng knh
truyn l 1. 4 MHz th s c 6 RB c pht i.

Hnh 3. 3: Quan h gia bng thng knh truyn v bng thng cu hnh
Bng 3. 7 Gi tr ca bng thng cu hnh tng ng vi bng thng knh truyn[4]
Bng thng knh truyn
(MHz)
S RB ch nh cho
bng thng knh truyn
Bng thng cu hnh
1. 4 6 1. 08
3 15 2. 7
5 25 4. 5
10 50 9
15 75 13. 5
20 100 18. 0
n tt nghip Trang 89
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

F l h s sa li, F c tnh ton theo cng thc sau:
F =
Tframe -Tcp
Tsub

NscNs/2-4
NscNs/2
(3.50) [6]
Trong :
Tframe l thi gian ca mt frame. C gi tr l 10 ms. Mi frame bao
gm 10 subframe v mi subframe c gi tr l 1ms.
Tcp l tng thi gian CP ca tt c cc k t OFDM trong vng mt
frame. Chiu di khong bo v cho mi k t OFDM l 5.71 s i
vi CP ngn v 16.67 s i vi CP di. Mi frame s bao gm 10
subframe, mi subframe li bao gm 2 slot m mi slot bao gm 7 k
t OFDM. Do Tcp s c gi tr l 14x10x5.71 = 779.4 s hay
14x10x16.67 = 2. 33ms.
Tnh ton overalldatarate
Overalldatarate c tnh ton theo cng thc sau:
Overalldatarate = S user x Tc bit nh x H s OBF (3.51)[9]
Trong : h s OBF (overbooking factor) l s user trung bnh c th chia
s trn mt n v knh truyn. n v knh truyn s dng trong quy hoch
mng l tc bit nh, c trnh by trn. Nu gi s 100% ti th h
s OBF s l t s gia tc nh v tc trung bnh (PAPR). Tuy nhin
iu ny khng an ton cho vic quy hoch mng vi ti 100% v v th h
s utilisation c s dng. H s utilisation ny, trong hu ht tt c cc
mng u nh hn 85% bo m cht lng dch v (QoS). H s OBF
c tnh ton theo cng thc sau:
OBF = PAPR H s utilisation (3.52) [9]
Sau khi tnh ton c s eNodeB theo vng ph v s eNodeB theo dung
lng, ta ti u s eNodeB li bng cch ly s eNodeB ln nht trong hai trng
hp. S eNodeB ny l s eNodeB cui cng c lp t trong mt vng nh sn.
n tt nghip Trang 90
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

3. 4 Quy hoch cho TP H Ch Minh
p dng cch thc tnh theo quy hoch vng ph v quy hoch lu lng
cho thnh ph HCM. T din tch ca thnh ph v bn knh cell c xc nh
da trn qu ng truyn v m hnh truyn sng thch hp ta tnh c s
eNodeB c lp t trong thnh ph. T s user c c lng cho tng
qun huyn ca thnh ph, kt hp vi MCS, bng thng knh truyn, da trn
cc cng thc tnh ton ta xc nh c s eNodeB lp t cho tng qun
huyn ca thnh ph. T hai iu kin ti u ny, s eNodeB cui cng s l s
eNodeB ln nht ca hai iu kin ti u trn.
Din tch thnh ph HCM l 2908.7 km
2
v vi dn s l 7123340 ngi.
Bng 3.8 Din tch v dn s tng qun ca TP.HCM [11]
Qun Din tch (km
2
) Dn s (ngi)
Qun 1 7.72 226736
Qun 2 49.74 102001
Qun 3 4.92 222446
Qun 4 4.18 192007
Qun 5 4.27 209639
Qun 6 7.14 253166
Qun 7 35.69 111828
Qun 8 19.18 328686
Qun 9 114.01 148582
Qun 10 5.72 239927
Qun 11 5.14 238074
n tt nghip Trang 91
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Qun 12 52.78 168379
Qun Tn Bnh 22.38 417897
Qun Bnh Thnh 20.76 402045
Qun Ph Nhun 4.85 183000
Qun Th c 47.46 442110
Qun G Vp 19.74 308816
Qun Bnh Tn 51.87 254635
Qun Tn Ph 16.07 310876
Huyn Bnh Chnh 252.69 421996
Huyn Cn Gi 714 68213
Huyn Nh B 100,4 99172
Huyn Hc Mn 109.18 348840
Huyn C Chi 439,5 343132

3.5 Ti u mng
Ti u mng l qu trnh phn tch cu hnh v hiu nng mng nhm ci thin
cht lng mng tng th v m bo ti nguyn ca mng c s dng mt cch
c hiu qu.
Giai on u ca qu trnh ti u l nh ngha cc ch th hiu nng chnh.
Chng gm cc kt qu o h thng qun l mng v s liu o thc t xc
nh cht lng dch v. Vi s gip ca h thng qun l mng ta c th phn
tch hiu nng qu kh, hin ti v d bo tng lai.
Mc ch ca phn tch cht lng mng l cung cp cho nh khai thc mt ci
n tt nghip Trang 92
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

nhn tng quan v cht lng v hiu nng ca mng, bao gm vic lp k hoch v
trng hp o ti hin trng v o bng h thng qun l mng lp bo co
iu tra. i vi h thng 2G, cht lng dch v gm: thng k cc cuc gi b rt
v phn tch nguyn nhn, thng k chuyn giao v kt qu o cc ln gi thnh
cng. Cn cc h thng 3G, 4G c cc dch v rt a dng nn cn a ra cc nh
ngha mi v cht lng dch v.
Trong h thng thng tin di ng th h th t vic ti u ha mng rt quan
trng v mng th h th t cung cp nhiu dch v a dng. iu chnh t ng
phi cung cp cu tr li nhanh cho cc iu khin thay i lu lng trong mng.
3.6 iu khin cng sut knh PUSCH ca LTE [7]
Cng sut pht ca UE hng ln c nh ngha nh sau:
P
PUSCH
= min {P
max
, 10log
10
M + P
0
+ .PL +
mcs
+f(
i
) } (3.53)
Trong :
P
max
l cng sut pht ti a cho php ca UE. N ph thuc vo lp cng
sut pht ca UE.
M l s khi ti nguyn (RB).
P
0
l thng s c th ca cell/UE .
l h s b tn hao. N thuc [0,1]. Trong = 0 l khng c iu khin
cng sut, 0<<1 l iu khin cng sut phn on (fractional control
power) v =1 l iu khin cng sut chun (conventional control power).
PL l c lng tn hao ng xung. N c tnh ton UE da trn
RSRP.

mcs
l iu ch v m ha c nh ngha c tnh ca LTE.
f(
i
) vi
i
l gi tr iu chnh vng kn v f l hm cho php s dng tch
ly t c gi tr tt nht.
P
0
c tnh ton theo phng trnh sau:
P
0
= (SNR
0
+ IN) + (1- )(P
max
-10log
10
M
0
) [dBm] (3.53) [7]
n tt nghip Trang 93
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE

Trong :
SNR
0
l SNR ch ca vng h
IN l cng sut nhiu trn khi ti nguyn.
M
0
l s khi ti nguyn tng ng vi SNR ch. N c gi s bng 1
thc thi n gin.
Bng 3.9 Lp cng sut pht ca UE [10]
Di
hot
ng
Cng sut
lp1
Cng sut lp
2
Cng sut
lp 3
Cng sut lp
3
Cng sut
lp 4
Cng
sut
(dBm)
Sai
s
(dB)
Cng
sut
(dBm)
Sai
s
(dB)
Cng
sut
(dBm)
Sai
s
(dB)
Cng
sut
(dBm)
Sai
s
(dB)
Cng
sut
(dBm)
Sai
s
(dB)
Band
I
+33 +1/-
3
+27 +1/-
3
+24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
II
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
III
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
IV
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
V
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
VI
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
VII
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
VIII
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
Band
IX
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
n tt nghip Trang 94
Chng 3: Quy hoch mng 4G LTE


Chng 3 trnh by v cch quy hoch mng 4G LTE v ng dng quy
hoch ny TP.HCM. xc nh s eNodeB cn thit lp t cho mt vng quy
hoch c th, cn phi xc nh s eNodeB theo vng ph v s eNodeB theo dung
lng. T hai kt qu ny, ta ly s eNodeB ln hn chnh l s eNodeB cn thit
lp t. quy hoch vng ph ta cn da vo qu ng truyn v m hnh
truyn sng c th, kt hp vi din tch vng cn ph sng. Quy hoch dung lng
ta da vo MCS, bng thng v s user c lng cho tng qun c th. Thm vo
, ti u cho vic quy hoch mng, chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut cng
c s dng trong quy hoch ny.
Band
X
- - - - +24 +1/-
3
23 +2/-
2
+21 +2/-
2
n tt nghip Trang 95
Chng 4: M phng.

CHNG 4: M PHNG
Chng ny trnh by phn m phng quy hoch mng 4G LTE s dng
ngn ng VS 2008 (Visual Studio 2008) v lin kt d liu vi SQL Server 2005
Express. Phn m phng trnh by li cch tnh ton vng bao ph, quy hoch dung
lng a ra s trm cn thit lp t trong vng cn ph sng m c th l
TP.HCM. ng thi, ti u quy hoch, phn m phng cng trnh by v iu
khin cng sut v chuyn giao ca LTE.
4.1 Cc lu

Hnh 4.1 : Lu phn m phng quy hoch LTE








n tt nghip Trang 96
Chng 4: M phng.


Hnh 4.2 : Lu phn chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut
4.2 Quy hoch mng LTE

Hnh 4.3: Giao din phn quy hoch mng LTE

n tt nghip Trang 97
Chng 4: M phng.

4.2.1 Quy hoch vng ph
Nh l thuyt nu, quy hoch vng ph cho mng LTE, ta cn cc
thng s v qu ng truyn, cc m hnh truyn sng v din tch vng cn ph
sng, y c th l TP.HCM.
4.2.1.1 Qu ng truyn

Hnh 4.4: Qu ng truyn ca LTE
Hnh trn m phng li cch tnh ton qu ng truyn ca LTE. N bao
gm qu ng ln v qu ng xung. Hin ti, LTE l cng ngh cn rt mi
m, v th cc thng s k thut tnh ton cho vic quy hoch rt t. Ngi thc
hin ti tm nhiu ti liu v ch tm c hai bng thng s v d v qu
ng ln v qu ng xung ca LTE. p dng cc cng thc nu chng 3,
ta tnh c suy hao cc i. Vic tnh ton qu ng truyn suy ra tn hao cc
i lm c s cho quy hoch vng ph. Qu ng truyn ln c tnh ton cho
tc 64 kbps, tng ng vi mi tc l s c mt s khi ti nguyn (RB) c
pht i, v tng ng vi n s c bng thng nht nh. Chng hn, i vi tc
64 kbps ng ln s c 2 RB c pht i v tng ng vi n l bng thng
n tt nghip Trang 98
Chng 4: M phng.

360 KHz. 1 Mbps ng xung s c 50 RB c pht i v bng thng tng
ng ca n l 9 MHz.
4.2.1.2 Cc m hnh truyn sng
Cc m hnh truyn sng l iu kin th hai c c s tnh ton vng ph.
Da trn l thuyt th cc m hnh truyn sng bao gm : cc m hnh truyn sng
trong nh, m hnh truyn sng ngoi tri v mi trng xe c. M phng cc m
hnh truyn sng gip ta nhp thng s kt hp vi qu ng truyn tnh ton
vng ph nh nu chng 3.

Hnh 4.5 Mi trng truyn sng trong nh
Phn m phng cc m hnh truyn sng, ngi thc hin a ra cc m
hnh truyn sng c th c th p dng cho tt c trng hp. Ty vo khu vc ta
quy hoch, ta s chn mi trng truyn sng thch hp. p dng vic quy
hoch i vi TP. HCM ta s chn mi trng Hata-Okumura, p dng cho thnh
ph ln. LTE c th hot ng cc tn s khc nhau ca cc mng tn ti ,v
th ta gi thit, tn s hot ng ca LTE nm trong dy tn s hot ng ca 3G l
1950 Mhz. cao ca anten c th thay i, ta p dng chiu cao trung bnh ca
anten l 30m, cao MS l 1.5 m. i vi cc ni l trung tm th chiu cao anten
n tt nghip Trang 99
Chng 4: M phng.

c th hn. u im ca m phng l chng trnh tnh ton c sn, nu c thng
s nhp vo th s cho ra kt qu.

Hnh 4.6 : Mi trng truyn sng ngoi tri

Hnh 4.7: Mi trng xe c
n tt nghip Trang 100
Chng 4: M phng.

4.2.1.3 Quy hoch vng ph
y l giao din ca quy hoch vng ph ca LTE. Ta chn mi trng
truyn sng nhp thng s, sau chn qu ng truyn, nhp din tch vng
cn ph, m c th l TP.HCM vi din tch 2098.7 km
2
, nhp h s K, h s ny l
h s ca s sector c cp chng 3. y ta chn K = 1.95 tng ng
vi 3 sector. Kt qu tnh c s BS tng l s BS ln nht trong hai trng hp
tnh ton cho qu ng ln v cho qu ng xung. T m phng ta cng tnh
c bn knh ph sng ca LTE ln n 5km, s BS tng c gi tr l 5339 trm.

Hnh 4.8: Quy hoch vng ph LTE
4.2.2 Quy hoch dung lng ca LTE
Quy hoch dung lng l iu kin th hai tnh c s trm cn thit
lp t cho mt vng c th, y l TP.HCM. Da trn dn s ca cc qun ca
TP.HCM c lit k bng 3.8 chng 3, cng vi vic chn tc m ha v
iu ch (MCS), bng thng knh truyn, k thut anten c s dng ta tnh ton
c s trm cn thit c lp t. ng thi chng trnh m phng cng tnh
ton c tc nh ti a m LTE c th t c i vi mi bng thng knh
n tt nghip Trang 101
Chng 4: M phng.

truyn c th. Bng thng knh truyn c s dng trong phn m phng ny bao
gm cc bng thng ca LTE : 1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz. Cc
phng thc iu ch bao gm QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM vi cc tc m ha
khc nhau. Cc k thut anten c s dng l dng n, 2x2 MIMO, 4x4 MIMO.

Hnh 4.9 : Quy hoc dung lng LTE
V ch c hai bng thng s v qu ng truyn, nn cc thng s tnh ton
cho phn quy hoch cn gii hn nhiu. phn quy hoch dung lng ny, ta chn
bng thng knh truyn l 1.4 Mbps tng ng vi qu ng truyn vi bng
thng 1 MHz ca LTE. H s utilisation c chn l 0.6 v PAPR l 1.1, t ta
tnh c tc nh ti a l 0.86 Mbps. S BS cho tng qun huyn ca
TP.HCM c lit k trn bng v s BS tng l tng s BS ca ton thnh ph c
kt qu l 7863 trm.
T m phng ny, ta c th tnh c tc nh ti a (peak data rate) ca
LTE ng vi bng thng knh truyn. Trn thc t, bng thng knh truyn ca
LTE ln n 20 MHz, v th tc nh ti a ca LTE s l 172.8 Mbps.
n tt nghip Trang 102
Chng 4: M phng.


Hnh 4.10: Tnh ton tc nh
4.2.3 Ti u s trm

Hnh 4.11: Ti u s trm
n tt nghip Trang 103
Chng 4: M phng.

T s trm ca hai iu kin ti u : quy hoch theo dung lng v quy
hoch theo vng ph, ta tnh c s trm cn thit lp t. l s trm ln
hn trong hai trng hp. Vy s trm cn thit lp t cho TP.HCM l 6740.
4.2.4 So snh vng ph ca LTE v WCDMA

Hnh 4.12 : So snh qu ng truyn ln ca LTE v WCDMA

Hnh 4.13: So snh qu ng truyn xung ca LTE v WCDMA
n tt nghip Trang 104
Chng 4: M phng.

Phn m phng trn tnh ton qu ng ln ca LTE v WCDMA. Thng
s cn gii hn nn ngi thc hin so snh qu ng truyn hai iu kin khc
nhau. Tc bit LTE lin quan n bng thng knh truyn, cn WCDMA tc
bit lin quan n tc chip (v WCDMA s dng tri ph). T kt qu qu
ng truyn cho thy, ng ln ca LTE c suy hao ng truyn ln hn so
vi WCDMA. Nhng ng xung tc bit ln hn rt nhiu nhng chnh
lch suy hao cc i khng ng k. l u im ca LTE, khi n p dng k
thut OFDM ng xung.

Hnh 4.14: So snh vng ph ca LTE v WCDMA
so snh vng ph, ta cng tin hnh nhp thng s qu ng truyn,
chn m hnh truyn sng ca tng cng ngh LTE v WCDMA, khi ta suy ra
c bn knh v din tch ca LTE so vi WCDMA. T m phng ta thy, vng
ph ca LTE ln hn nhiu ln so vi vng ph ca WCDMA. Bn knh ph sng
ca LTE l 5 Km, trong khi WCDMA l 0.5 Km. Tc cao, dung lng ln, vng
n tt nghip Trang 105
Chng 4: M phng.

ph tng, l cc u im ni bt ca LTE. L ng lc thc y tin t 3G
ln 4G.
4.3. Chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut
Phn chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut c m phng tng hiu qu
ca vic quy hoch mng, ngi thc hin m phng m hnh iu khin cng sut
v chuyn giao cho mng LTE, khng p dng cho TP.HCM.
4.3.1 Giao din chnh

Hnh 4.15: Giao din phn chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut





n tt nghip Trang 106
Chng 4: M phng.

4.3.2 iu khin cng sut
4.3.2.1 iu khin cng sut LTE

Hnh 4.16: Nhp d liu cho iu khin cng sut
Hnh trn m t phn nhp d liu cho LTE trong phn iu khin cng sut.
Cc thng s cn thit cho vic iu khin cng sut c cp chng 2. Phn
m phng thc hin tn s 2110 MHz, tc d liu 144 Kbps. phn m
hnh truyn sng p dng m hnh Walfish-Ikegami, cc thng s c trnh by
nh trn hnh trn.
phn m phng ny, ngi thc hin gi s cc UE di chuyn quanh trm,
di chuyn theo hnh lc gic (bn knh khng i vi cc v tr ca UE), UE di
chuyn ra xa trm v UE di chuyn li gn trm. i vi mi trng hp khc nhau,
UE s quyt nh mc cng sut pht khc nhau. Ty theo mc RSRP m UE thu
c, UE s quyt nh tng hay gim cng sut pht.
iu khin cng sut LTE l iu khin cng sut ng ln, ta khng
cn iu khin cng sut ng xung. N kt hp c iu khin cng sut vng
kn v vng h. iu khin cng sut vng kn y l iu khin cng sut vng
kn chm. Khi s dng iu khin cng sut vng h th do nh hng ca mi
n tt nghip Trang 107
Chng 4: M phng.

trng nn khng chnh xc v th cn c thnh phn b vo s nh hng . Khi
my di ng nhn c tn hiu RSRP t trm ln th n iu khin cng sut nh
li v ngc li, khi nhn c RSRP nh th n tng cng sut pht ln.

Hnh 4.17: iu khin cng sut LTE
Kt qu m phng cho thy c, khi RSRP mc thu nh, chng hn nh
m 115 dBm th cng sut pht ca UE s mc cao l 33.3 dBm, nhng RSRP thu
c mc cao hn, chng hn nh -48 dBm th cng sut pht ca UE li nh li
l -19 dBm. Cng sut pht ti a ca UE ty theo lp cng sut ca n, c trnh
by bng 3.9 chng 3. Nu mc cng sut pht ca UE ln hn mc cng sut
pht ti a th cn phi quy hoch li mng.



n tt nghip Trang 108
Chng 4: M phng.

4.3.2.2 So snh iu khin cng sut ca LTE v WCDMA
So snh iu khin cng sut ca LTE v WCDMA ta xt gc cng
mt di ng chuyn ng, mc cng sut pht ca UE i vi LTE thp hn so vi
WCDMA.

Hnh 4.18: Nhp liu ca WCDMA
so snh iu khin cng sut ca LTE v WCDMA, ta phi nhp liu cho
WCDMA. Ta s dng cc thng s nh nhau, v m hnh truyn sng ta s dng
m hnh Walfish-Ikegami, vi tn s 2120 Mhz, v tc 144 kbps.
LTE ngi ta s dng cng sut thu tn hiu tham kho RSRP lm tham
s quyt nh mc cng sut pht, cn WCDMA, ngi ta s dng cng sut thu
m tn hiu RSCP lm tham s o lng quyt nh mc cng sut pht.




n tt nghip Trang 109
Chng 4: M phng.


Hnh 4.19: So snh iu khin cng sut ca LTE v WCDMA
. Thm vo , LTE s dng SC-FDMA ng ln, do cc tn hiu c
tnh trc giao, dn n vn gn xa t nh hng v n khng phi l vn quan
trng cn ch n nh WCDMA. V th, thay v iu khin cng sut vng kn
nhanh, LTE ch s dng iu khin cng sut vng kn chm. WCDMA, n
thc hin 1500 lnh trong 1s, tc l khong 0.67ms l thc hin mt lnh iu khin,
nhng i vi LTE, khong thi gian gia hai lnh cch nhau khong t 2-3ms. T
kt qu m phng ta thy c, cng mt mc thu tn hiu nh nhau ( LTE l
RSRP cn WCDMA l CPICH_RSCP) l -118.22 dBm chng hn, WCDMA,
UE pht mc cng sut ln hn mc cng sut pht LTE. K thut iu khin
cng sut ca LTE n gin hn m hiu qu tng ng vi WCDMA, l mt
u im ca LTE.
4.3.3 Chuyn giao
phn chuyn giao, ngi thc hin ti ch m phng dng m hnh, cc
thng s ch l gi nh ch ra khi no UE quyt nh chuyn giao v khi no
n tt nghip Trang 110
Chng 4: M phng.

khng. ng thi cng m phng cc dng chuyn giao ca LTE. phn m
phng chuyn giao ny, chia thnh hai phn : trng hp chuyn giao thnh cng
v trng hp chuyn giao khng thnh cng. Chuyn giao trong LTE l chuyn
giao cng khng c chuyn giao mm, bao gm cc kiu chuyn giao cng mng
LTE v chuyn giao qua cc mng khc. Khi RSRP thu c ca cell ang phc v
nh hn RSRP ca cell k cn th UE thc hin chuyn giao.
4.3.3.1 Trng hp chuyn giao thnh cng

Hnh 4.20: Trng hp chuyn giao thnh cng
Phn m phng thc hin m phng chuyn giao gia cc cell, cc kiu
chuyn giao. hnh trn, m phng UE ang chuyn giao t cell1A qua cell1B,
kiu chuyn giao y l bn trong LTE v cng tn s. Mc chnh lch RSRP v
RSRQ gia 2 cell quyt inh thc hin chuyn giao c trnh by chng
2. Trn hnh mc RSRP o c cell1A l -99 dB v -65 dB, UE nhn thy mc
RSRP thu c cell1B ln hn v do chuyn giao c thc hin.

n tt nghip Trang 111
Chng 4: M phng.


4.3.3.2 Trng hp chuyn giao b rt

Hnh 4.21: Trng hp chuyn giao b rt
Chuyn giao c th thc hin khng thnh cng c th do nhiu nguyn nhn.
C th quyt nh chuyn giao c thc hin qu tr, c th do iu kin mi
trngChuyn giao cng c khuyt im l ct trc khi ni, v th d xy ra
hiu ng ping pong. Hiu ng ping pong l hin tng UE b chuyn giao lin tc
trong vng phc v. Do nh hng ca mi trng xung quanh, lm cho RSRP thu
c ca cell phc v ti UE nh, dn n UE c quyt nh chuyn giao qua
cell khc, lt sau RSRP ca cell phc v tr nn tt, dn n UE li c chuyn
giao li cell ang phc v.

n tt nghip Trang 112
Chng 4: M phng.

Phn m phng trnh by cch tnh ton s trm cn thit lp t cho mt
vng ph nht nh, ng thi trnh by v chuyn giao v iu khin cng sut
tng thm hiu qu cho vic quy hoch mng.















n tt nghip Trang 113
Kt lun v hng pht trin ca ti

KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN CA TI
ti tm hiu v LTE, mt ng c vin cho mng 4G trong tng lai. Hin
ti vn cha c quyt nh chnh thc ci no s l 4G. Nhng vi cc u im ca
LTE, n s l ng c vin sng gi. Ngi thc hin ti chn ti ny nhm
nng cao s hiu bit, ng thi y cng l ti mi m, ph hp vi thc t. Ni
dung ca n tm hiu v cng ngh LTE v vic tnh ton p dng cho quy hoch
mng v tuyn tin 4G LTE. n thc hin c :
V phn l thuyt l tm hiu qu trnh pht trin ca h thng thng tin di
ng, m t tng quan v mng thng tin di ng LTE, mt cng ngh tin 4G. Tm
hiu v cc k thut s dng trong LTE, chuyn giao, iu khin cng sut, ng
thi cng so snh im khc bit gia LTE v WCDMA trong cc kha cnh ny.
V phn m phng, n thc hin da trn ngn ng VS v SQL Server
2005. Ni dung phn m phng bao gm : tnh ton s trm cn thit lp t cho
mt vng m c th l tnh ton s trm cn thit lp t cho TP.HCM, ng
thi n cng thc hin vic so snh v vng ph ca LTE so vi WCDMA, iu
khin cng sut, chuyn giao m bo cho vng ph sng l ti u nht.
Hn ch ca ti l hin ti VN cha tin hnh quy hoch mng 4G, v
th cc thng s a ra tnh ton quy hoch cn qu t, cc thng s a ra trong
phn m phng ch da vo sch v da trn dn s ca TP.HCM m khng tm
c cc thng s thc t do cc nh mng cung cp. Cha c bn truyn sng
thc t. phn chuyn giao cc thng s ch mang tnh cht v d minh ha cho
l thuyt m cha tnh ton c th.
Hng pht trin ca ti l dung lng v vng ph sau khi quy hoch s
c phn tch cho tng , tm bn truyn sng thc t, tm c cc thng s c
th. C th p dng ASP.NET hiu chnh kt qu tnh ton c. ng thi cng
c th tm hiu cch nh v cell hiu chnh kt qu.







PHN C
PH LC & TI LIU THAM
KHO
n tt nghip Trang 114
Ph lc 1: Cc t vit tt

PH LC 1 : CC T VIT TT
K hiu T vit tt Ngha
1G

2G

3G

4G

3GPP
One Generation Cellular

Second Generation Cellular

Third Generation Cellular

Four Generation Cellular

Third Generation Patnership
Project
H thng thng tin di ngth h th
nht
H thng thng tin di ngth h th
hai
H thng thng tin di ngth h th
ba
H thng thng tin di ngth h th
t
D n hp tc th h 3

A
ACK Acknowledgement Tn hiu xc nhn
B
BCCH
BCH
BW
Broadcast Control Channel
Broadcast Channel
Band Width
Knh iu khin qung b
Knh qung b
Bng thng
C
CDMA

CAPEX
CP
Code Division Multiple
Access
Capital Expenditure
Cycle Prefix
a truy cp phn chia theo m


Tin t lp
D
DL-SCH
DL
Downlink Share Channel
Downlink
Knh chia s ng xung
Hng xung
E
EDGE

Enhance Data rates for GSM
Evolution
Tc d liu tng cng cho mng
GSM ci tin
n tt nghip Trang 115
Ph lc 1: Cc t vit tt

E-
UTRAN
EPC
eNodeB
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access
Evolved Packet Core
Enhance NodeB
Mng truy nhp v tuyn ci tin

Mng li gi
NodeB ci tin
F
FDMA

FDD
FEC
Frequency Division Multiple
Access
FrequencyDivision
Duplexing
Forward Error Correction
a truy cp phn chia theo tn s

Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
Sa li hi tip
G
GSM
GERAN

GPRS
GI
Global System for Mobile
GSM/EDGE Radio Access
Network
General Packet Radio Service
Guard Interval
H thng di ng ton cu
Mng truy nhp v tuyn GSM/EDGE

Dch v gi v tuyn thng dng
Khong bo v
H
HSDPA

HDTV
HSOPA

HO
HSPA
HSS
High Speed Downlink Packet
Access
High Definition Television
High Speed OFDM Packet
Access
Handover
High Speed Packet Access
Home Subscriber Server
Truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao

Tivi c phn gii cao
Truy cp gi OFDM tc cao

Chuyn giao
Truy nhp gi tc cao
Qun l thu bao
I
ITU

IP
IMS
International
Telecommunication Union
Internet Protocol
IP Multimedia Sub-system
n v vin thng quc t

Giao thc internet
H thng a phng tin s dng IP
n tt nghip Trang 116
Ph lc 1: Cc t vit tt

ISI
IFFT
Inter-Symbol Interference
Inverse Fast Fourier
Transform
Nhiu lin k t
Bin i Fourier ngc
L
LTE Long Term Evolution
M
MS
BTS
MIMO
MME
MAC
MU-
MIMO
MoU
MCS
Mobile Station
Base Station
Multi Input Multi Output
Mobility Management Entity
Medium Access Control
Multi User MIMO

Minutes of Using
Modulation Coding Scheme
Trm di ng
Trm gc
a ng vo a ng ra
Qun l tnh di ng
iu khin trung nhp trung bnh
a ngi dung a ng vo a ng ra

Thi gian s dng
K thut m ha v iu ch
O
OPEX
OFDM

OFDMA
Operating Expense
Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple
Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access

Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc
giao

a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc
giao
P
PAPR

P2P
PCRF

PDSCH

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

Point to Point
Policyand Charging Rules
Function
Physical Downlink Shared
Channel
T s cng sut nh trn cng sut
trung bnh
im n im


Knh vt l chia s ng xung

n tt nghip Trang 117
Ph lc 1: Cc t vit tt

PUCCH

PDCCH

PBCH
PCCH
PCH
Physical Uplink Control
Channel
Physical Downlink Control
Channel
Physical Broadcast Channel
Paging Control Channel
Paging Channel
Knh vt l iu khin ng ln

Knh vt l iu khin ng xung

Knh vt l qung b
Knh iu khin tin nhn
Knh tin nhn
Q
QoS Quality of Services Cht lng dch v
R
RLC
RRC
RB
RE
RSRP

RSRQ

RS
Radio Link Control
Radio Resource Control
Resource Block
Resource Element
Reference Signal Receive
Power
Reference Signal Receive
Quality
Reference Signal
iu khin kt ni v tuyn
iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn
Khi ti nguyn
Thnh phn ti nguyn
Cng sut thu tn hiu tham kho

Cht lng thu tn hiu tham kho

Tn hiu tham kho
S
SDR
SNR
SC-
FDMA
SMS
SAE
SGSN
SU-
MIMO
Software - Defined Radio
Signal to Noise Ratio
Single Carrier Frequency
Division multiple Access
Short Message Service
System Architecture Enhance
Serving GPRS Support Node
Single User Multi Input Multi
Output
Phn mm nhn dng v tuyn
T s tn hiu trn nhiu
a truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc
giao n sng mang
Tin nhn ngn
Cu trc h thng tng cng
Nt cung cp dch v GPRS
n user-a ng vo a ng ra
T
n tt nghip Trang 118
Ph lc 1: Cc t vit tt

TDMA

TTI
TDD
TPC
Time Division Multiple
Access
Time Transmit Interval
Time Division Duplexing
Transmit Power Command
a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian

Khong thi gian pht
Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian
Lnh cng sut pht
U
UMB
UL
UTRAN

UTMS

UE
Ultra Mobile Broadband
Uplink
UTMS Terrestrial Radio
Access Networks
Universal
Telecommunication Mobile
System
User Equipment
Di ng bng rng m rng
ng ln
Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t

H thng thng tin di ng

Thit b ngi dng (Di ng)
V
VHE
VoIP
Virtual Home Environment
Voice IP
Mi trng nh o
Thoi s dng IP
W
WCDMA

WAP
Wideband Code Division
Multiple Access
Wireless Applicaion protocol
a truy cp phn chia theo m bng
rng
Giao thc ng dng khng dy
n tt nghip Trang 119
Ph lc 2 : Hng dn s dng chng trnh

PH LC 2 : HNG DN S DNG
CHNG TRNH
1.Ci t chng trnh
Phn m phng s dng cng c l Visual Studio 2008 (VS) v Microsoft
SQL Server 2005 Express. S dng VS vit chng trnh tnh ton v lin kt d
liu vi SQL. ci t VS ta mua a v ci t bnh thng. i vi SQL ta c
th lm theo cc bc sau:
Yu cu v phn cng v h iu hnh s dng
- H iu hnh ti thiu: Windows 2000 Service Pack 4; Windows Server
2003 Service Pack 1; Windows XP Service Pack 2
- Phn cng:
o My tnh chip Pentium III 600 MHz tr ln (Cu hnh ngh: Chip 1
GHz hoc cao hn.)
o Ti thiu 192 MB RAM (Cu hnh ngh: 512 MB RAM.)
o cng cn trng ti thiu 525 MB
B ci t:
1. ci t SQL Server 2005 Express, my bn phi c b Windows Installer 3.1
tr ln, download v ti a ch: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=46459
2. Microsoft .Net Framework 2.0
o H iu hnh 32bit: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=55731
o H iu hnh 64bit: http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=55734
3. Bn phi c file ci t SQL Server 2005 Express, c th download t a ch
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=220549b5-0b07-4448-
8848-dcc397514b41&displaylang=en
4. SQL Server Management Studio Express :
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=C243A5AE-4BD1-
4E3D-94B8-5A0F62BF7796&displaylang=en
n tt nghip Trang 120
Ph lc 2 : Hng dn s dng chng trnh

Cc thnh phn trn c tn file ci t ln lt l:
1. WindowsInstaller-KB893803-v2-x86.exe: Windows Installer 3.1
2. dotnetfx.exe: Microsoft .Net Framework 2.0
3. SQLEXPR.EXE: SQL Server 2005 Express
4. SQLServer2005_SSMSEE.msi: Cng c qun l SQL Server Management
Studio Express
Khi ng nhp c th chn Windows Authentication hoc SQL Server
Authentication. Nu chn SQL Server Authentication th phi nhp password.
Password ny c thit lp trong qu trnh ci t SQL Server 2005 Express
Edition. Nu trong qu trnh ci t SQL Server 2005 Express Edition chng ta
khng cho php SQL Server kch hot ngay khi khi ng my, bm nt Connect s
gy ra li. khc phc vo Start->Run nh services.msc->Enter. Tm service
SQL Server (SQLExpress), double click v trong comboxbox Startup type chn
Automatic -> Apply - >Start -> OK.
2. To bng d liu
chy c chng trnh m phng ca n, cn phi to cc bng d
liu trong SQL nh sau :
1.Quy hoch vng ph
TN BNG : LTERcell_RLB
( Rb,[Suyhao(UL)],[Suyhao(DL)],
[Rcell(UL)(m)],[Rcell(DL)(m)],[Dt(UL)(m2)],[Dt(DL)(m2)],[S BS(UL)],[S
BS(DL)],[S BS tng])
2.Quy hoch dung lng
TN BNG : THROUGHPUT
([Throughput],[s BS Q1],[s BS Q2],[s BS Q3],[s BS Q4],[s BS Q5],[s BS
Q6],[s BS Q7],[s BS Q8],[s BS Q9],[s BS Q10],[s BS Q11],[s BS Q12],[s
n tt nghip Trang 121
Ph lc 2 : Hng dn s dng chng trnh

BS QTn Bnh],[s BS QBnh Thnh],[s BS QPh Nhun],[s BS QTh c],[s
BS QNh B],[s BS QBnh Chnh],[s BS QG Vp],[s BS QCn Gi],[s BS
QBnh Tn],[s BS QHc Mn],[s BS QTn Ph],[s BS QC Chi],[S BS tng]
3. So snh LTE v WCDMA
TN BNG : SSRcell_RLB
( Rb,[Suyhao(LTE)],[Rcell(LTE)(m)],[Dt(LTE)(m2)],[Suyhao(WCDMA)],[Rcell(
WCDMA)(m)],[Dt(WCDMA)(m2)])
4.iu khin cng sut
*TN BNG : DKCSVH1
(MS,[R(m)],[P0(dBm)],[PUSCH_TX(dBm)],[Pathloss(dB)],[RSRP(dBm)],[UE_TX
(dBm)],[Pmax_UE(dBm)])
*TN BNG : DKCSVHLTE
(MSLTE,[R(m)LTE],[P0(dBm)LTE],[PUSCH_TX(dBm)LTE],[Pathloss(dB)LTE],
[RSRP(dBm)LTE],[UE_TX(dBm)LTE],[Pmax_UE(dBm)LTE])
*TN BNG :DKCSVHW
(MSW,[R(mW)],[CPICH_TX(dBm)W],[Pathloss(dB)W],[Nhieu_UL(dB)W],Hangs
o_KW,[CPICH_RSCP(dBm)W],[UE_TX(dBm)W])

n tt nghip Trang 122
Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO
[1]. Harri Holma and Antti Toskala both of Nokia Siemens Netwworks,
Filand;LTE for UMTS-OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access; John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd.
[2]. Harri Holma and Antti Toskala both of Nokia, Filand;WCDMA for UMTS-
HSPA Evolution and LTE; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2007.
[3]. Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik and Matthew Baker; LTE-The UMTS Long
Term Evolution : From Theory to Practice; 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[4]. FAROOQ KHAN Telecom R&D Center Samsung Telecommunications,
America; LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband Air Interface Technologies and
performance; Cambridge University Press(tham kho cho phn bng thng cu
hnh v bng thng knh truyn)
[5]. Vijay K.Garg; IS-95 CDMA and CDMA 2000 cellular/PCS systems
implementation; Prentice hall PTR, Upper saddle river NT07458,2000.
[6]. Christian Mehlf uhrer, Martin Wrulich, Josep Colom Ikuno, Dagmar
Bosanska, Markus Rupp; SIMULATING THE LONG TERM EVOLUTION
PHYSICAL LAYER; Institute of Communications and Radio-Frequency
Engineering Vienna University of Technology;Gusshausstrasse 25/389, A-1040
Vienna, Austria
[7]. R1-074850;Ericsson;Uplink Power Control for E-UTRA-Range and
Representation of P0; 3GPP TSG-RAN WG1 #51;Jeju, Korea, November 05-
09,2007.
[8]. Bilal Muhammad; Closed loop power control for LTE uplink; Blekinge
Institute of Technology School of Engineering; November 2008
[9]. Abdul Basit, Syed; Dimensioning of LTE Network;Helsinki University
n tt nghip Trang 123
Ti liu tham kho

[10]. User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception(FDD) (Release 7)
[11]. http://khudothimoi.com/dulieu/ban-do-quy-hoach/350-ban-do-cac-quan-
tphcm.html
[12]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4G (tham kho cho chng 1)
[13]. http://www.thongtincongnghe.com/article/3121 (tham kho cho chng 1)
[14]. http://www.3gpp.org/LTE (tham kho cho cc thng s lp vt l ca LTE)
[15]. 3GPP Long-Term Evolution / System Architecture Evolution Overview
September 2006; Alcatel. (tham kho cho chng 1)
[16]. 3G long-term evolution;Dr. Erik Dahlman Expert Radio Access
Technologies, Ericsson Research.
[17]. Philip Solis Practice Director, Wireless Connectivity Aditya Kaul Senior
Analyst, Mobile Networks Nadine Manjaro Associate Analyst Jake Saunders Vice
President, Forecasting; Prospects for HSPA, LTE, and WiMAX; ABI
research.(tham kho cho phn so snh gia LTE v WiMAX).
[18]. Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G, TS.Nguyn
Phm Anh Dng. Nh xut bn Thng tin v truyn thng.
[19]. Xiupei Zhang, Jangsu Kim, and Heung-Gyoon Ryu; Multi-Access
Interference in LTE Uplink with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets; Department
of Electronic Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheong Ju, Korea 316-
763; 2009 IEEE.