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January 2003

Damping of Low-Frequency Interarea Oscillations Using HVDC Modulation and SVC Voltage Support

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EMP 31(4) #4046

Electric Power Components and Systems, 31:389402, 2003 Copyright c 2003 Taylor & Francis 1532-5008/03 $12.00 + .00 DOI: 10.1080/15325000390112251

Damping of Low-Frequency Interarea Oscillations Using HVDC Modulation and SVC Voltage Support
A. R. MESSINA J. ARROYO N. EVARISTO I. CASTILLO T
Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering Cinvestav, IPN P.O. Box 31-438 Guadalajara, Jal. 44550 Mexico
This paper discusses the results of preliminary studies conducted to examine the applicability of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) technology and static Volt-Amp Reactive (VAR) compensation to aid damping of low-frequency interarea oscillations in the Mexican interconnected system (MIS). The study of interarea oscillations and the design of controls is done using modal analysis of a linearized AC/DC state space model of the power system at a particular operating point. The utilized methodology is tested on a planning model of the MIS that includes a proposed HVDC transmission system embedded in an AC network in which several SVCs are used for dynamic voltage support. Detailed time-domain analyses are performed to complement knowledge on the eect of FACTS technology on system transient behavior. Keywords interarea oscillations, HVDC transmission, SVC

1. Introduction
High-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems oer a powerful alternative to increase the stability of a power system as well as to improve system operating exibility. The application of HVDC technology is of special interest to transfer massive amounts of remote hydroelectric power over large distances [1, 2]. In complex interconnected systems, however, the application of this technology to achieve the most eective stabilization of critical interarea modes requires the proper assessment of many interacting factors such as the location of the DC link, the control conguration, and the use of modulation controls.
Manuscript received in nal form on 4 March 2002. The nancial support of the Mexican Council for Science and Technology under Grant 31840-A is acknowledged. Address correspondence to A. R. Messina. E-mail: aroman@gdl.cinvestav.mx

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This paper reports on the application of HVDC technology and Static VAR Compensator (SVC) modulation to aid damping of low-frequency interarea oscillations in power systems of essentially longitudinal structure. A planning model of the Mexican interconnected system (MIS) is adopted to assess the applicability of HVDC transmission to enhance transfer capabilities as well as to determine potential adverse interactions with other controllers. The analysis of low-frequency oscillations and the development of remedial measures based on Flexible ac Transmission Systems (FACTS) technology is done in the modal domain using a linearized state space representation of the power system. Time-domain simulations are then performed to validate the accuracy of the developed models. System studies focus on the analysis and control of two lightly damped interarea modes associated with the interaction of geographically widespread machines. Study results include the identication of interarea modes that are more controllable by the proposed HVDC link, and the use of SVC voltage support and modulation controls to enhance the damping of critical system modes. The eects of HVDC modulation and SVC voltage support on system damping are discussed for various control congurations and input signals. It is shown that the coordinated application of HVDC transmission and SVC voltage support can eectively contribute to the simultaneous stabilization of critical interarea modes.

2. Description of the Study System


2.1. General Structure of the MIS The bulk Mexican interconnected system comprises a huge 400/230 kV transmission system stretching from the border with Central America to its interconnection with the United States. A one-line diagram of the study system is given in Figure 1 showing major existing SVCs and the geographical location of the proposed HVDC system. The MIS consists of six areas designated as the north (N), northeastern (NE), western (W), central (C), southeastern (SE), and peninsular systems. System studies in this research are based on a reduced-order equivalent model of the MIS that includes the detailed representation of 49 machines, 191 buses, 183 transmission lines, and 5 SVCs. Loads are represented as 70% constant current load and 30% constant impedance characteristics for both active and reactive power. In this model no interconnections with the northwestern and peninsular systems of the Mexican system are considered. This system is considered a realistic test system to evaluate the performance of the proposed HVDC control scheme. 2.2. The Southeastern System The southeastern network of the MIS was singled out to investigate the capability of HVDC transmission of introducing damping to critical interarea modes. Figure 2 depicts the general structure of the 400/230 kV SE network, showing the main machines and transmission facilities. The SE network constitutes a typical longitudinal system, characterized by sparse, long transmission paths, and remote generation sources [3, 4]. Hydroelectric power is transmitted to the Mexico City metropolitan area over a distance of about 900 km by a 400 kV network of essentially longitudinal

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Figure 1. AC/DC system conguration.

structure. Dynamic voltage support and series capacitive compensation are provided at several key locations to allow for enhanced steady-state and dynamic system performance. The main local generation includes important hydro power stations at MMT, ANG, MPD, and PEA accounting for about 3,900 MW of installed capacity. In addition, three generating units of 300 MW each are expected to come into service at MMT by the year 2002 to serve the increasing load in the Mexico City metropolitan area [4]. As a consequence, several AC/DC transmission and control alternatives are being currently considered to increase the power transfer capability of this network as well as to improve system operating security. In the present study, several operating alternatives to enhance transmission capabilities have been considered with an emphasis on the application of multiFACTS compensation and HVDC technology. The study focuses on the analysis of the applicability of these technologies in removing present operational restrictions. 2.3. HVDC Transmission Studies System studies were directed to assessing the impact of HVDC transmission augmented by SVCs on the damping of critical interarea modes. Sites identied as potential locations for a DC link are close to the AC lines linking hydro machines in the SE network with substations close to Mexico City. Of special interest, a DC link is considered between MMT 400 kV power station and Temascal, a 400 kV

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Figure 2. Detail of the 400 kV SE network showing the location of the HVDC links considered in feasibility studies.

substation located in the electrical center of the SE region (refer to Figure 2). Adequate reactive power support for this alternative is available at the rectier end by the 300 MVAr SVC at Temascal. For the purpose of this analysis, the HVDC system is represented as a twoterminal, bipolar 500 kV, 1,000 MW DC line model. Each terminal has an independent control loop. The rectier is provided with a proportional-plus-integral type of constant power controller with minimum ring angle control, while voltage control was assumed for the inverter with minimum reactive power consumption. A generic control diagram of the HVDC link including the use of supplemental control functions is given in the appendix. In addition to the normal rectier control, a power system damping control (PSDC) function is included with the control system to modulate the power or current setpoint (Pref , Iref ) in response to signals obtained from the adjacent AC system to improve the dynamic performance of the system. Inputs to the PSDC function are chosen to be rotor speed deviation from local hydro machines, AC power and current from adjacent transmission lines, and frequency dierence. Table 1 summarizes the main control characteristics of the DC link considered. 2.4. The SVC at the 400 kV Temascal Substation The Temascal static VAR compensator consists basically of two thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC) groups, one thyristor-switched reactor (TSR), and one thyristorcontrolled reactor group (TCR) [5]. Each of these groups has a three-phase rating of 75 MVAr, thus producing an overall dynamic range of 300 MVAr. A single-

Damping of Low-Frequency Interarea Oscillations Table 1 Control characteristics of the DC link DC substation Rectier Inverter AC substation MMT Temascal Control characteristics/setting

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Constant power (1,000 MW) and minimum ring angle control Constant voltage control (500 kV)

line diagram of the SVC is given in Figure 3. The primary voltage control loop includes a measuring device (MD), a six-pulse rectier, and a low-pass lter with a time constant of 1.5 ms to reduce fast transients in the bus voltage. No modulation controls are presently used. The SVCs at the TOP and TEX substations have similar control characteristics and are described elsewhere [3].

3. Small Signal Analysis of the Study System


3.1. Damping Characteristics in the MIS System The ve-area model of the MIS exhibits three critical lightly damped interarea modes at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.7 Hz [6, 7]. Table 2 lists the main characteristics of the these modes showing their oscillation pattern and most dominant machines. The 0.4 Hz north-south interarea mode 1 is of the utmost importance to system behavior as it involves the interaction of most machines in the north systems swinging against machines in the south systems. Also of concern, the 0.73 Hz eastwest interarea mode 3 shows the interaction of hydro-generating plants located in the SE network, swinging against those in the W and C systems. Damping characteristics of these modes are determined by generation patterns, the level of power transfers across the SE system, and network structure.

Figure 3. One-line diagram of the SVC at Temascal.

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Table 2 The three slowest oscillation modes Mode designation North-south interarea mode 1 Interarea mode 2 East-west interarea mode 3 Eigenvalue 0.0860 j2.57 Frequency (Hz) 0.40 Oscillation pattern North systems vs. south systems Machines in the north systems W and C systems vs. SE system Dominant machines MTY FAL RIB MZD MTY MZD GPL SYC SLM MNZ ANG MMT

0.1877 j3.66

0.58

0.0675 j4.61

0.73

Table 3 Eect of HVDC and SVC modulation on the damping of the critical interarea modes System condition SVC at Temascal and no HVDC HVDC modulation and SVC at Temascal HVDC modulation and SVC at Temascal HVDC power modulation and SVC at Temascal HVDC power modulation and SVC at Temascal HVDC/SVC control control strategy SVC in voltage control mode HVDC input signal: speed deviation from MMT SVC input signal: tie-line power Temascal-PBD HVDC input signal: speed deviation from MMT SVC in voltage control mode HVDC input signal: tie-line power MMT-MPD SVC in voltage control mode HVDC input signal: speed deviation from ANG SVC input signal: tie-line power Temascal-PBD Eigenvalue 0.0860 0.1877 0.0675 0.3727 0.2318 1.0470 0.3143 0.2230 0.1207 0.3742 0.2226 0.2537 0.3725 0.2317 1.0480 j2.57 j3.66 j4.61 j2.80 j3.66 j4.71 j2.75 j3.69 j4.83 j3.03 j3.72 j5.45 j2.80 j3.70 j4.71

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Figure 4. Relative rotor angles following a three-phase fault at PBD with HVDC link on constant power control mode.

Earlier studies [7] identied several operating conditions under which FACTS compensation might increase overall system damping. In the following sections, small signal analysis is used to assess the eect of dynamic voltage support and HVDC transmission on system damping. Basic AC/DC transmission alternatives considered in this study included the following: 1. Two additional 400 kV AC lines with various levels of series compensation 2. One 500 kV HVDC transmission line between MMT and the Temascal substation, augmented by supplemental control functions and SVC voltage support 3. A combination of AC transmission and FACTS technology with an emphasis on the full utilization of existing SVCs and the addition of series capacitive compensation on the MMT-Temascal 400 kV lines. For each transmission alternative, detailed steady-state and dynamic studies were conducted including the representation of operating limits in machines, SVCs, and the DC link.

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Figure 5. Active power ow following a three-phase fault at PBD with HVDC link on constant power control mode.

3.2. Eect of HVDC Modulation Control and SVC Voltage Support on System Damping To assess the eectiveness of HVDC transmission on system stabilization, detailed models of SVCs and DC links were developed during the course of this research. Special care was taken to represent the dierent SVC control congurations used in the MIS. The approach in [7] was applied to determine the controllability of the critical interarea modes by major control devices. Results of these studies showed that interarea mode 1 is strongly controllable by the DC link. Further, the Temascal SVC was revealed to have a strong leverage on interarea mode 3. Based on these

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Figure 6. Relative rotor angles following a three-phase fault at PBD with HVDC modulation.

studies, the control systems of the DC link and the Temascal SVC were designed to provide stabilization for both interarea modes 1 and 3. Several dierent classes of measurement signals were investigated to be used as inputs to the supplementary damping control in both the SVC at Temascal and the proposed DC link. These included relative rotor deviations from selected machines and active power ow in a nearby AC line. Because of reliability considerations, the choice of the controller input signal was limited to local rotor speed and AC tie-line real power. Table 3 summarizes the eect of some selected AC/DC alternatives on system damping. The results show that the addition of the HVDC link provides positive damping on all three critical interarea modes. Of special interest, the HVDC link is seen to have a signicant eect on the 0.40 Hz north-south mode while the SVC is revealed to inuence the damping of the 0.73 Hz east-west interarea mode 3. Among the several supplementary signals analyzed, speed-based signals proved more desirable than other alternatives, which was further conrmed from observability studies. It is also noticed that the coordinated application of HVDC

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Figure 7. Active power ow following a three-phase fault at PBD with DC modulation.

control with a speed-based damping controller and SVC modulation, on the other hand, leads to increased system performance. The addition of series capacitive compensation was found to have a marginal eect on overall system damping. Additional studies are now being conducted to investigate possible interactions between the DC system, the Temascal SVC, and the parallel AC series-compensated 400 kV transmission lines.

4. Dynamic Response to Large Disturbances


Extensive nonlinear time-domain simulations were conducted to assess the accuracy of the developed models as well as to verify potential adverse interaction with

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Figure 8. Comparison of Temascal 400 kV bus voltage response with and without HVDC modulation.

other devices and system modes. The criterion used to assess acceptable transient performance requires the maintenance of synchronization following the loss of a major single transmission element. The critical contingency is a fault at the substation PBD followed by the loss of the PBD-TEX 400 kV line. This disturbance is known to excite both the northsouth and the east-west interarea modes and causes loss of synchronism of machines in the SE system leading to severe postfault voltage swings at critical system buses. Following small signal analyses, a speed-input PSDC was designed for the HVDC link. In this study the speed deviation from the MMT generating station was tested as the input to the supplemental HVDC modulation control. The parameters of the controller were tuned to aid damping of interarea mode 1. Simulation results with and without DC modulation and voltage support are shown in Figures 47. The fault is a solid short circuit applied at 20 seconds cleared

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Figure 9. Comparison of Temascal SVC response with and without HVDC modulation.

in 5 cycles by opening one of the circuits. It should be noted that the system becomes unstable without the addition of the HVDC link, leading to severe postfault voltage oscillations and eventually voltage collapse, as shown in Figure 8. The simulation results indicate that the coordinated application of HVDC transmission and SVC voltage support allows for a more damped system response. Paramount to system dynamic behavior, Figures 8 and 9 depict the SVC response for the fault considered. In Figure 8 one sees the system dynamic enhancement manifested by improved dynamic voltage regulation throughout the 400 kV SE network. Also of interest, the analysis of the SVCs output in Figure 9, on the other hand, does not reveal any undesirable eect on the controller response.

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5. Conclusions
In this paper a fundamental investigation into the applicability of HVDC transmission to enhance system dynamic performed has been presented. HVDC transmission has been found to provide an eective contribution to systemwide damping particularly for two critical interarea modes. Such a contribution can be compared favorably to other AC transmission alternatives. Application studies on the Mexican interconnected system show that the coordinated application of HVDC technology and SVCs can provide signicant benets in terms of both increase transient stability margins and overall system damping. Experience with the coordination of controllers in HVDC systems seems to suggest that a properly selected controller could suce for most operating conditions. Additional studies are underway to explore the applicability of other FACTS controllers as well as to determine the potential for interaction with other controllers on the system.

References
[1] R. Rudervall, J. P. Charpentier, and R. Sharma, High voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission system technology review, presented at Energy Week 2000, Washington, D.C., March 78, 2000. [2] CIGRE JWG 14/37/38/39-24, FACTS technology for open access, Final Draft Report, August 2000. [3] J. G. Flores, C. F. Estrada, M. A. A. Rosales, and R. Grunbaum, Mexican grid uses FACTS for greater exibility, Modern Power Systems, pp. 14, June 1999. [4] H. G. Sarmiento, E. Estrada, J. Naude, C. Tovar, H. Ambriz, M. A. Avila, and C. Fuentes, Preliminary studies to evaluate the application of FACTS controllers in the Mexican electrical system, presented at the VII SEPOPE, Curitiba, Brazil, May 2000. [5] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, EPRI Power Systems Engineering Series, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 639655, 1994. [6] A. R. Messina, J. M. Ram rez, and J. M. Ca nedo, An investigation on the use of power system stabilizers for damping inter-area oscillations in longitudinal power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 13, pp. 552559, May 1998. [7] M. Nayebzadeh and A. R. Messina, Advanced concepts of analyzing static VAr compensators to damp inter-area oscillation modes, European Transactions on Electrical Power, vol. 9, pp. 159165, May/June 1999.

Appendix
Figure 10 shows the block-diagram representation of the two-terminal HVDC control used in the studies presented.

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(a)

(b) Figure 10. Block diagram representation of the HVDC control system: (a) functional diagram of converter station control system; (b) power system damping controller (PSDC).