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FTTX V CC GII PHP TRIN KHAI FTTH LI NI U

Cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca cc gii php cng ngh h tng mng v nhu cu ngy cng cao v bng thng cho cc dch v,cng ngh quang c trin khai v ang pht trin mnh ti Vit Nam v th gii. Cng ngh truyn dn quang lm tng kh nng tc v cht lng truyn tin, chi ph thp ... cho php mng li tho mn tt hn cc nhu cu ca khch hng trong tng lai. Do vy, d ang chim u th vi s lng thu bao ln, nhng xDSL - h thng truy cp tc cao qua ng dy in thoi (cp ng) ang l r nhng hn ch v mt bng thng, n nh cng nh kh nng cung cp dch v. gi vng v tng th phn, mi nh cung cp dch v vin thng phi a ra c thm nhiu li ch cho khch hng thng qua cc dch v mi trn mng hay cc gi dch v hp dn. Trin khai h tng truyn dn cp quang, thay th dn h thng truyn dn cp ng mi l cha kha gip cho cc nh khai thc dch v vin thng tng doanh thu, m bo v tr cnh tranh trn th trng. Trong bi cnh Vit Nam v cc nc ang trin khai rng ri cng ngh truy nhp quang.Xut pht t mong mun tm hiu cng ngh trn , nhm 24 thc hin ti FTTx v cc gii php trin khai FTTH. Ni dung ti c trnh by gm 3 chng vi ni dung sau : CHNG I : GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX CHNG II : MNG QUANG TCH CC AON V MNG QUANG TH NG PON CHNG III: TRIN KHAI H THNG FTTH Trong qu trnh thc hin ti khng trnh khi thiu st , nhm 24 rt mong c nhng gp qu bu ca thy c ti c hon thin hn. thc hin ti ny , nhm 24 xin chn thnh cm n ging vin TS.Hong Trng Minh gip nhm trong thi gian qua. H Ni, ngy.thng.nm 2013 Ngi thc hin Kiu Minh Tin Nguyn Hu Tun L Thu Tho Nguyn Th Thy Nguyn Th Bch Hu

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Kiu Minh Nguyn Hu Nguyn Th L Thu Nguyn Th Bch

Tin Tun Thu Tho Hu

L11VT10 L11VT10 L11VT06 L11VT06 L11VT06

1.1 1.2 2.1 1.1 1.2 2.2 1.1 1.2 2.2 1.1 1.2 3.x 1.1 1.2 3.x

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LI NI U.................................................................................................................... 1 CC THUT NG VIT TT............................................................................................... 4 DANH MC HNH V.............................................................................................................. 5 CHNG 1 : GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX..................................6 1.1 GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX..........................................................6 1.1.1 GII THIU V FTTX............................................................................................... 6 1.1.2 Phn loi:............................................................................................................... 9 1.2 Mng truy nhp quang FTTH...................................................................................................................11 1.2.1 Gii thiu chung v FTTH..................................................................................... 11 ..................................................................................................................................... 11 1.2.2 Bc sng s dng FTTH..................................................................................... 11 1.2.3 ng dng ca FTTH............................................................................................. 12 1.2.4 u nhc im ca FTTH so vi cng ngh khc................................................13 1.3 Kt lun.......................................................................................................................................................14 CHNG 2 : MNG QUANG TCH CC AON V MNG QUANG TH NG PON.................15 2.1 Mng quang tch cc AON........................................................................................................................15 2.1.1 Khi nim............................................................................................................. 15 2.2.2 Cc phng thc trin khai AON..........................................................................15 2.2 Mng PON..................................................................................................................................................17 2.2.1 Khi nim............................................................................................................. 17 2.2.2 Cc chun PON.................................................................................................... 19 2.2.3 Cc cng ngh PON............................................................................................. 20 2.3 Kt lun chng.........................................................................................................................................24 CHNG 3: TRIN KHAI H THNG FTTH...........................................................................24 3.1 FTTx xu hng tt yu trong tng lai....................................................................................................24 3.2 Tnh hnh pht trin ca FTTH.................................................................................................................25 3.3 La chn cng ngh....................................................................................................................................26 3.3.1 Cc yu t nh hn n vic la chn cng ngh.............................................26

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3.3.2 Cng ngh c trin khai hin nay ...................................................................26 3.4 Mt s thit b c s dng.....................................................................................................................26 3.6 Quy trnh trin khai FTTH ti thu bao...................................................................................................31 3.7 Kt lun.......................................................................................................................................................32 TI LIU THAM KHO...................................................................................................... 32

CC THUT NG VIT TT
FTTx AON PON OLT ONU ODN CO APON BPON GPON Fiber to the x Active optical network Passive optical network Optical line terminal Optical network unit Optical distribution net work Centre Office ATM-PON Broadband PON Gigabit PON
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FTTX V CC GII PHP TRIN KHAI FTTH


WDM-PON Wavelength division multiplexing-PON

DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp cp quang...7 Hnh 2: Cu hnh tham chiu mng truy nhp quang.....8 Hnh 3: Cu trc mng truy nhp FTTB...10 Hnh 4: Cu trc mng FTTH...11 Hnh 5: Cu trc mng FTTC...11 Hnh 6: c tuyn suy hao trong si quang.13 Hnh 7: Mng AON......16 Hnh 8: Kin trc Home-Run17 Hnh 9: Kin trc Active Start..................17 Hnh 10:Cu hnh Ring.....17 Hnh 11:Cu hnh cy...19

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Hnh 12:Cu hnh BUS.20 Hnh 13:Nguyn l ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian ng xung.22 Hnh 14:Nguyn l ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian ng ln..22 Hnh 15:Cu hnh h thng EPON23 Hnh 16:Lu lng lung xung trong h thng EPON...23 Hnh 17:Lu lng lung ln trong h thng EPON24 Hnh 18:Cpquang....28 Hnh 19:Dy nhy quang.............................29 Hnh 20:Pig tall.29 Hnh 21: Gi phi dy quang30 Hnh 22:Converter AMP-Tyco Electronic30 Hnh 23:Switch quang...31 Hnh 24:M hnh u ni thit b..31 Hnh 24:Quy trnh trin khai.....32

CHNG 1 : GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX


1.1 GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX 1.1.1 GII THIU V FTTX
Cng ngh truy nhp quang l cng ngh truy nhp s dng mi trng truyn dn cp quang. Acc Ta c th phn loi cng ngh truy nhp quang thnh hai loi l cng ngh nhp quang ch ng (AON) v cng ngh quang th ng (PON) hoc ess phn loi theo v tr ca cp quang tham gia trong mng truy nhp thnh cc mng truy nhp quang FT FTTx khc nhau.
Me tro TN

BackB one
PO P

C O

FTT Cab
Cabi net

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Cp quang truy Cp quang truy nh?p nhp Cp d?ng truy nh?p Cp ng truy

FT TH

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FTTX V CC GII PHP TRIN KHAI FTTH

Hnh 1:Tng Quan mng truy nhp cp quang Mng truy nhp cp quang (OAN: Optical Access Network) l mng truy nhp ch yu s dng cp quang lm phng tin truyn dn u im Dung lng ln. Kch thc v trng lng cp nh. Khng b nhiu in. Tnh bo mt cao. Gi thnh cp quang r. Cht lng truyn dn tt. Nhc im:
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Vn bin i in quang: Yu cu lp t c bit i hi phi c k nng tt trong cng tc lp t v bo dng

FTTx l vit tt ca cm t " fiber to the x" bao gm FTTH (fiber to the Home), FTTB (fiber to the buiding), FTTN (fiber to the node), FTTC (fiber to the cabinet). Ni theo ngha en FTTX l vic dn ng truyn cp quang ti mt im, im c th l h gia nh (home), ta nh (building) im (node), t (cabinet), thc cht FTTx l h thng cung cp Internet qua ng truyn cp quang ti cc im ni trn

Hnh 2: Cu hnh tham chiu mng truy nhp quang

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Cu hnh tham chiu ca mng truy nhp quang c trnh by trn hnh 2 trong bao gm 4 module c bn: u cui ng quang (OLT) Mng phi dy quang (ODN) Khi mng quang (ONU) Module chc nng quang phi hp im tham chiu gm c: im tham chiu pht quang S, im tham chiu thu quang R, im tham chiu gia cc nt dch v V, im tham chiu u cui thu bao T v im tham chiu a gia cc ONU. Giao din bao gm: Giao din qun l mng Q3 v giao din gia thu bao vi mng UNI. V vy c th hiu mng truy nhp quang l mng s dng chung cc giao din vi cc mng khc nhau nhng h thng truyn dn truy nhp cp quang m nhim mt lot ng lin kt truy nhp v gm cc ONT, ODN, ONU v AF. u ni truyn dn gia OLT v ONU c th theo phng thc im- a im, cng c th theo phng thc im- im. V hnh thc truyn dn, c th p dng ghp knh theo thi gian (TDM), ghp knh theo bc sngCn phng thc truy nhp, nhn chung da trn a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian. Khi chc nng OLT Khi u cui ng quang (OLT- Optical Line Terminal) cung cp giao din quang gia mng vi ODN, ng thi cng cung cp t nht mt giao din in vi pha mng dch v. OLT c th chia thnh dch v chuyn mch v dch v khng chuyn mch. OLT cng qun l bo hiu v thng tin gim st iu khin n t ONU, t cung cp chc nng bo dng cho ONU. OLT c th lp t tng i ni ht hoc mt v tr xa. Khi chc nng ONU Khi mng quang (ONU-Optical Network Unit) gia ODN vi thu bao. Pha mng ca ONU c giao din quan, cn pha thu bao l giao din in. Do cn c chc nng chuyn i quang-in. ng thi c th thc hin chc nng x l v qun l bo dng tn hiu in. ONU c th t pha khch hng (FTTH/FTTB) hoc ngoi tri (FTTB). ONU bao gm cc b phn trung tm, b phn dch v v b phn chung. Cc chc nng ca b phn chung tm: Chc nng giao din ODN: Cung cp 1 giao din quang vt l, ni vi ODN, ng thi hon thnh vic bin i quang -in v in-quang Chc nng ghp knh thu bao dch v: T hp v phn gii cc thng tin n t thu bao khc nhau hoc a ti cc thu bao khc nhau.
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Cc chc nng b phn dch v:


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B phn ny cung cp giao din dch v khch hng, c th cung cp cho mt hoc mt nhm khch hng. N cng cung cp chc nng chuyn i bo hiu theo giao din vt l.
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Cc chc nng ca b phn khch hng:
-

Cp in v OAM. Tnh cht, chc nng b phn chung ging nh trong OLT

Khi chc nng ODN Khi phn phi quang (ODN-Opticcal Distribution Network) t gia ONU v OLT.Chc nng ca n l phn phi cng sut tn hiu quang. ODN ch yu l linh kin quang khng ngun v si quang to thnh mng phn phi ng quang th ng. Khi chc nng t thch nghi Khi chc nng t thch nghi (AF-Adaptation Function) ch yu cung cp cc chc nng phi hp ONU vi thit b thu bao. Khi thc hin c th n c th nm trong ONU, cng c th hon ton c lp 1.1.2 Phn loi: FTTx bao gm cc nhm nh: (FTTN, FTTC, FTTB, FTTH ...) FTTB v FTTO (Fiber to the Building v Fiber to the Office):

Hinh 3: Cu trc mng truy nhp FTTB Dch v mng quang n ta nh bao gm hai trng hp: dnh cho khu vc chung c MDU (multi-dwelling units) v dnh cho khu vc doanh nghip. Mi trng hp ny li bao gm cc tiu ch dch v nh sau: FTTB cho MDU : Bao gm cc dng dch v nh sau: - Dch v bng rng khng i xng (dch v broadcast s, video theo yu cu, download file ...)
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Dch v bng rng i xng (broadcast ni dung, email, trao i file, o to t xa, khm bnh t xa, chi game trc tuyn...) Dch v in thoi truyn thng v ISDN: mng truy nhp phi h tr mt cch linh hot cung cp cc dch v in thoi bng hp..
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FTTX V CC GII PHP TRIN KHAI FTTH


FTTB cho doanh nghip : Bao gm cc dng dch v nh sau: - Dch v bng rng i xng (broadcast ni dung, phn mm nhm, email , trao i file...) - Dch v in thoi truyn thng v ISDN: mng truy nhp phi h tr mt cch linh hot cung cp cc dch v in thoi bng hp. - ng thu knh ring: mng truy nhp phi h tr mt cch linh hot cung cp dch v thu knh ring vi cc mc tc khc nhau. FTTH (Fiber to the home ).

Hinh 4: Cu trc mng truy nhp FTTH Bao gm cc dng dch v nh sau:
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Dch v bng rng i xng (broadcast ni dung, phn mm nhm, email , trao i file...) Dch v bng rng i xng (broadcast ni dung, email, trao i file, o to t xa, khm bnh t xa, chi game trc tuyn...)

FTTC v FTTCab (Fiber to the Curb ).

Hnh 5: Cu trc mng truy nhp FTTC. Bao gm cc dng dch v nh sau:

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-

Dch v bng rng khng i xng (dch v broadcast s, video theo yu cu, download file..) Dch v bng rng i xng (broadcast ni dung, email, trao i file, o to t xa, khm bnh t xa, chi game trc tuyn...) Dch v in thoi truyn thng v ISDN: mng truy nhp phi h tr mt cch linh hot cung cp cc dch v in thoi bng hp. Cc dch v mng trc xDSL.

1.2 Mng truy nhp quang FTTH

1.2.1 Gii thiu chung v FTTH

Hinh 5: Cu trc mng truy nhp FTTH FMS (Fiber Management System:) h thng qun l mng cp quang, c s dng phc v cho cng tc bo dng v xc nh li. FMP (Fibre Management point ): im qun l quang, phc v cho cng tc xc nh li v pht hin mt kt ni 1.2.2 Bc sng s dng FTTH Tn hao truyn sng trn si quang gy nh hng ln ti d tr cng sut, khong cch vt l, t s chia trong mng. Trong si quang, tn ti rt nhiu nguyn nhn gy ra suy hao tn hiu nhng ch yu bi 4 nguyn nhn chnh : suy hao do hp th vt liu, suy hao do tn x, suy hao do un cong v suy hao do ghp v chia si quang. Tng hp cc loi suy hao trong si v biu din mt tng quan theo bc sng ngi ta nhn c ph suy hao ca si quang. Mi loi si c c tnh suy hao ring. Mt c tuyn in hnh ca loi si n mode nh hnh 1.5. Nhn vo hnh 6 ta thy c ba vng bc sng suy hao thp nht, cn gi l ba ca s thng tin. * Ca s th nht: bc sng 850nm. Trong vng bc sng t 0.8m ti 1m,

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suy hao ch yu do tn x trong c mt phn nh hng ca suy hao hp th. Suy hao trung bnh trong ca s ny mc t (2-3)dB/Km. * Ca s th hai : bc sng 1300nm. bc sng ny tn sc rt thp, suy hao chnh do tiu hao tn x Rayleigh. Suy hao tng i thp khong t (0,4-0,5) dB/Km v tn sc nn c dng rng ri hin nay. * Ca s th ba : bc sng 1550nm. Suy hao thp nht cho n nay khong 0,3 dB/Km, vi si quang bnh thng tn sc bc sng 1550nm ln so vi bc sng 1300nm. Tuy nhin vi mt s loi si quang c dng phn b chit sut c bit c th gim tn sc bc sng 1550nm nh cc si quang DC, MC v si quang b tn sc. Lc vic s dng ca s th ba s c nhiu thun li : suy hao thp v tn sc nh.

Hnh 6: c tuyn suy hao trong si quang Hnh 6 trn ch ra ph suy hao trong si quang silicat. Thng thng, tn hao ln nht trn si quang bc sng 1,38 m gy ra bi hp th ca tp cht trong ion OH- do qu trnh sn xut cp quang. Thng qua cc tnh cht suy hao ca si quang, mng FTTH c trin khai da trn 3 vng bc sng chnh l 1310nm, 1490nm v 1550nm. Vng bc sng 1310nm truyn d liu tuyn ln, vng bc sng 1490nm c dng cho tuyn truyn dn quang tuyn xung cn vng bc sng 1550nm c s dng cho vic truyn tn hiu tng t trn cp truyn hnh CATV. 1.2.3 ng dng ca FTTH - Truy cp internet tc cao c bit ph hp vi cng ty t chc ln - Cc dch v i hi thi gian thc: o IPTV, IP Camera o VoD (xem phim theo yu cu), Game online

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o Video Conferrence (hi ngh truyn hnh), Cc dch v i hi tc cao n nh: o c bit ph hp vi i l Net o VPN (mng ring o)/ Server Game ring

1.2.4 u nhc im ca FTTH so vi cng ngh khc u im Kin trc mng FTTH s dng c xem xt vi nhiu u im nh s lng cc b thu pht quang, thit b u cui ca tng i CO (Central Office) v si quang kh thp. FTTH l mng quang im a im vi cc linh kin quang th ng trn ng dn tn hiu t ngun n thu bao nh l si quang, b ni v b chia quang. Di gc ca nh phn phi th FTTH m ra mt th trng v nhng c hi mi v dch v truyn thoi , d liu tc cao cng cc dch v truyn hnh, multimedia tng tc khc. So snh vi mng ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) hin nay, tc upload ca FTTH vt qua ngng ca chun ADSL2+ (1Mbps) hin ti v c th ngang bng vi tc download. V vy thch hp vi vic truyn ti d liu theo chiu t trong mng khch hng ra ngoi internet. n nh v tui th cao hn dch v ADSL do khng b nh hng bi nhiu in, t trng; kh nng nng cp tc (download/upload) d dng. Ngoi cc ng dng nh ADSL c th cung cp Triple Play Services (d liu, truyn hnh, thoi), vi u th bng thng vt tri, FTTH sn sng cho cc ng dng i hi bng thng cao, c bit l truyn hnh phn gii cao yu cu bng thng ln n vi chc Mbps, trong khi ADSL khng p ng c. Ngy nay, cc knh truyn hnh s c nn ti tc t 1.5 6Mbit/s v tin ti cng ngh truyn hnh s HDTV vi tc truyn ti 20Mbit/s. Mng FTTH c th cung cp cho ngi dng ng thi t 5-10 knh truyn hnh HDTV vi cc dch v khc. V th , vi s pht trin ca truyn hnh s th FTTH l yu cu khng th thiu cho cc nh cung cp dch v truyn hnh. Hn na, n nh ca mng FTTH ngang bng nh dch v internet knh thu ring Leased-line nhng chi ph thu bao hng thng thp hn vi chc ln. y s l 1 gi dch v thch hp cho nhm cc khch hng c nhu cu s dng cao hn ADSL v kinh t hn leased-line. Bn cnh , mt mnh ca mng FTTH so vi cc mng khc chnh l FTTH c gi thnh bo dng v duy tr mng thp nht. Thng thng, cc cng ty vin thng cn tiu hao mt chi ph ln cho bo tr v thay th nhng cp ng c v xung cp do s ph hy ca mi trng hng nm. Trong khi , vic s dng si quang trong mng FTTH gim thiu chi ph bo tr h thng do si quang khng b nh hng mnh m bi mi trng, thi tit nh cp ng. Chnh bi nhng l do trn , FTTH l mt bc tin vng chc cho cng ngh Internet bng rng ang c trin khai ti mt s nc trn th gii nh M, Nht Bn, Hn Quc, v bt u c xy dng ti Vit Nam. Nhc im: Vn chuyn i in- quang l mt vn quan trng trong vic nng cao tc ca mng quang.Nu tc chuyn i in-quang chm th s lm gim kh nng truyn tc

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cao ca mng. Hin nay, cng ngh quang vn l mt cng ngh cn mi v ang pht trin mnh v vy chi ph cho cc thit b cn cao, i hi phi c k nng tt trong cng tc lp t v bo dng. 1.3 Kt lun Qua chng I chng ta c th thy c cu hnh ca mng FTTx ni chung v FTTH ni ring. Mng quang cho thy nhng u im vt tri ca n so vi mng cp ng. Vi nhng u im , trong tng lai mng quang s thay th dn mng cp ng hin nay.

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CHNG 2 : MNG QUANG TCH CC AON V MNG QUANG TH NG PON 2.1 Mng quang tch cc AON
2.1.1 Khi nim

Hnh 7. Mng AON Mng quang ch ng (AON Actice Optical Network) l mng quang c s phn phi tn hiu quang cn s dng cc thit b cn ngun nui d liu nh mt chuyn mch, router hoc multiplexer. D liu t pha nh cung cp ca khch hng no s ch c chuyn n khch hng . V vy d liu ca khch hng s trnh c xung t khi truyn trn ng vt l chung bng vic s dng cc b m ca cc thit b tch cc. T nm 2007, hu ht cc h thng mng quang tch cc c gi l ethernet tch cc (AOEN- All Optical Ethernet Network). Ethernet tch cc s dng cc chuyn mch ethernet quang phn phi tn hiu, do s kt ni cc cn h khch hng vi nh cung cp thnh mt h thng mng Ethernet khng l ging nh mt mng my tnh ethernet thng thng ngoi tr mc ch ca chng l kt ni cc cn h v cc ta nh vi nh cung cp dch v. Mi t chuyn mch c th qun l ti hng nghn khch hng Cc thit b chuyn mch ny thc hin chuyn mch v nh tuyn da vo lp 2 v lp 3. 2.2.2 Cc phng thc trin khai AON Mng AON c hiu l kiu kt ni im ti im (P2P-Point to Point) v AOEN (Active Optical Ethernet Network) . C hai cu hnh c trin khai l: Kin trc Home Run v kin trc Active Start Ethernet

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Kin trc Home- Run- fiber Kin trc ny c cp dnh ring ni t CO n tng nh thu bao. Kin trc ny yu cu nhiu si quang, nhiu OLT v mi nh thu bao cn 1 cng OLT) . Hnh 3.34 miu t kin trc cp chy ti tn nh thu bao.

Hnh 8. Kin trc Home Run Active Star Ethernet Kin trc Ethernet sao tch cc (ASE- Active Star Ethernet) c bit n nh kin trc sao kp, ASE s gim c s lng cp quang v gim gi thnh bng cch chia x cp u ra.

Hnh 9. Kin trc Active Start Kin trc sao tch cc, node t xa s c trin khai gia CO v nh thu bao. Mi

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cng OLT v cp u ra gia CO v node t xa c chia x bi bn n hng nghn nh thu bao, ty thuc vo t l chia ca b lc qua nhng ng link phn phi dnh ring t node t xa. Node t xa trong mng sao tch cc c th l b ghp knh hoc l b chuyn mch. Node t xa chuyn mch tn hiu trong min in v th chuyn i quang sang in, in sang quang l rt cn thit node t xa. Do bng tn ca cp u ra CO b chia x gia nhiu im u cui, nn dung lng d tha ti a sn c cho mi ngi nh ng ln v ng xung u t hn so vi cp n tn nh, y chnh l nhc im ca cu trc sao so vi cu trc home run trn. 2.2 Mng PON 2.2.1 Khi nim Mng quang th ng (PON-Passive Optical Network) l mt kin trc mng im-a im, s dng cc b chia quang th ng (khng c ngun cp) chia cng sut quang t mt si quang ti cc si quang cung cp cho nhiu khch hng, thng t l chia l4, 8, 16, 32,64 , 128 ty thuc vo cu hnh mng. Mt mng PON bao gm mt u cui ng truyn quang OLT t ti tng i ca nh cung cp dch v v cc n v mng quang ONU t ti pha khch hng. Trong cc khuyn ngh v mng v cc h thng truyn dn, ITU-T a ra mt tp hp cc nh ngha v kin trc lm c s cho vic xy dng quang th ng. Da trn cc nh ngha , khi nim v mng quang th ng mt cch ngn gn nh sau mng quang th ng (PON) l mt mng quang khng c cc phn t in hay cc thit b quang in t. Nh vy vi khi nim ny, mng PON s khng cha bt k mt phn t tch cc no m cn phi c s chuyn i quang- in. Thay vo d PON s ch bao gm: Si quang, b chia, b kt hp, b ghp nh hng, thu knh, b lc v cc ph kin iu ny gip cho PON c mt s u im nh: khng cn ngun in cung cp nn khng b nh hng bi nhiu ngun, c tin cy cao v khng cn phi bo dng do tn hiu khng b suy hao nh i vi cc phn t tch cc. Mt s gii php cho PON c a ra cui nhng nm 80, da trn cc tiu chun v cc cng ngh mi. Mt s th nghim nh cng c tin hnh trong phm vi ca t chc ACTS ch yu l kt hp gia PON vi cng ngh mi, nh l cng ngh laser. ATM PON c ban hnh thnh tiu chun trong G983.1 ca ITU. S pht trin cao hn ca chun APON gc cng vi s dn mt a chung ca ATM dn n phin bn y v cui cng ca ITU-T G983 c xem nh PON bng rng hay BPON. Mt mng APON/BPON in hnh cung cp 622Mbt/s bng thng lung xung v 155 Mbit/s ng ln. Chun ITU-T G984 (GPON) m t s gia tng trong c bng thng v hiu sut s dng bng thng nh s dng gi ln, c di thay i. Hn na chun G984 cho php vi s la chn tc bt, c bn s dng tc 2,488 Mbit/s cho lung xung v tc 1,244

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Mbit/s cho lung ln. Phng thc gi tng hp GPON (GPON Encapsulation MethedGEM) cho php ng gi lu lng d liu ngi dng rt hiu qu, vi s phn on khung cho php m bo cht lng dch v QoS cao hn phc v cc lu lng nhy cm (dch v thi gian thc yu cu tr thp) nh truyn thoi v lung video. Chun IEEE 802.3 Ethernet PON (EPON hay GEPON) c hon thnh nm 2004 nh mt phn ca d n Ethernet First Mile. EPON chunn IEEE 802.3 s dng khung Ethernet i xng 1,24 Gbit/s tc lung ln v lung xung. EPON c th ng dng cho cc mng trung tm d liu, cng nh cc mng dch v b ba thoi, d liu v video. Gn y, bt u t nm 2006, tip tc thc hin chun EPON tc cc cao 10Gigabit/s (chun XEPON hay 10GEPON) Cu hnh PON Mng quang th ng c ba cu hnh c bn l: Cu hnh Ring Cu hnh cy Cu hnh bus

Hnh 10: Cu hnh Ring

Cu hnh cy c th hin trn hnh 3.37

Hnh 11: Cu hnh cy

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Hnh 12: Cu hnh Bus

2.2.2 Cc chun PON ITU-TG983 APON (ATM Passive Optical Network) Mng quang th ng ATM. y l chun mng quang th ng u tin. Tng c s dng ch yu cho cc ng dng thng mi v trn nn ATM. BPON (Broadband PON) l chun trn nn APON. c b xung h tr cho WDM ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng, cp pht bng thng ng ln ng v ln hn, v tnh chn lc. ng thi to ra giao din qun l chun gi l OMCI, gia OLT v ONU/ONT, cho php cc mng cung cp hn hp, c th : - G983.1 : Nm 1998, trnh by v lp vt l ca h thng APON/BPON. - G983.2: Nm 1999, c tnh ca giao din iu khin v qun l ONT - G983.3: Ph chun nm 2001, c tnh m rng cung cp nhng dch v thng qua phn b bc sng. - G983.4 : Thng qua nm 2001, m t nhng c ch cn thit h tr phn bng tn nng trong cc ONT ca cng mt mng PON. - G983.5: Thng qua nm 2002, xc nh nhng c ch chuyn mch bo v cho BPON - G983.6: Thng qua nm 2002, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nng chuyn mch ti ONT - G983.7: Thng qua nm 2001, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nm DBA ti ONT. - G983.8: Thng qua nm 2003, xc nh nhng m rng cho giao din iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng dch v m rng ti ONT ITU-T G984 GPON (Gigabit PON) l mt s pht trin ca chun BPON. N h tr tc cao hn, tng cng bo mt v chn lp 2 giao thc (ATM, GEM, Ethernet)
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G984.2: Xc nh nhng thng s ca GPON ti tc ln l (155Mb/s, 622Mb/s, 1,5Gb/s, 2, 5GB/s ), xung l (1,5Gb/s v 2,5Gb/s) G984.3 : M t nhng c tnh v khung hi t truyn dn ca GPON; bn tin, phng php xc nh khong, hot ng, gim st, nhng chc nng bo dng, v bo mt.

IEEE 802.3ah EPON hay GEPON (Ethernet PON) l mt chun IEEE s dng Ethernet cho d liu

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gi. Trong cc gii php mng PON, gii php EPON c h tr v pht trin nhanh nht. Nhiu nh cung cp dch v chn gii php ny lm mng truy nhp v truyn ti lu lng mng Metro (MEN) cung cp a dch v. Tuy nhin c ch duy tr v phc hi mng ca gii php EPON cn chm nn ch c th p dng cho mng c quy m va v nh. Bng di y cho thy s so snh c bn ca cc cng ngh PON hin nay Bng 1: So snh cc gii php mng PON

2.2.3 Cc cng ngh PON


APON

APON l s kt hp gia phng thc truyn ti khng ng b ATM vi mng truy nhp quang th ng PON. Tc hot ng l 155,52Mbps hoc 622,08Mbps. Bng tn cho mi thu bao l 4,8Mbps trong h thng 155,52Mbps v 19,4Mbps trong h thng 622.08Mbps Cu trc khung truyn dn cho APON
-

ng xung: ng xung, APON s dng cng ngh ghp knh theo thi gian.
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Trong , cc t bo gi cho cc ONU khc nhau c ghp knh lung xung theo thi gian. ng thi, trong cc khung ng xung cn c cc t bo PLOAM (physical layer OAM - lp vt l OAM) cha thng tin cp php (Grant) cho php cc ONU truyn dn ng ln.

Hnh 13: Nguyn l ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian ng xung ng ln: ng ln, APON s dng cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian. Mi ONU sau khi nhn c giy php t OLT trong t bo PLOAM ng xung s truyn thng tin ca mnh vo ng khe thi gian c phn. Cc t bo ca cc ONU khc nhau s an xen vi nhau v mt thi gian.

Hnh 14: Nguyn l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian ng ln EPON EPON l mng truy nhp quang th ng PON da trn cc cng ngh ca mng LAN Ethernet. EPON c to ra t s m rng khuyn ngh 802.3a, h ca IEEE cho php thc hin cc kt ni im - a im thng qua cc kt ni vt l im - im. Khi cc thit b u cui ng quang OLT v cc khi mng quang c th s dng cc giao din da theo chun ca Ethernet kt ni vi mng phn b quang ODN. Nhng cc kt ni gia OLT v ONU khng cn tun theo chun 802.3.

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H thng EPON c cu hnh theo phng thc song cng (khng theo c ch da truy nhp cm nhn sng mang v d tm ng CSMA/CD) trong cu hnh im a im(P2MP) s dng 1 si quang.Cc thu bao hoc cc ONU ch c th ly lu lng t cc OLT. Cc h thng EPON s dng cu trc phn tch quang,ghp knh cc tn hiu s dng cc bc sng khc nhau cho ng ln v ng xung nh sau: -Bc sng 1490nm cho ng xung -Bc sng 1310nm cho ng ln

Hnh 15: Cu hnh h thng EPON Lu lng lung xung v ng ln trong mng EPON : Lung xung

Hnh 15: Lu lng lung xung cho h thng EPON Ti ng xung, OLT s pht qung b cc gi tin n cc ONU. Trong khung qung b 802.3 s c cc ONU ly ra da vo a ch nhn dng kt ni logic. Bn tin GATE 64 byte c gi ng xung n nh bng tn cho ng ln. Lung ln

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Hnh 16: Lu lng ng ln trong h thng EPON MPCP s dng cc khe thi gian cha a khung 802.3 .Mi ONU s gi 1 bn tin REPORT c ln 64byte cha trng thi ca ONU ti OLT.Trong cu trc ny khng c hin tng tranh chp v phn mnh gi. GPON (Gigabit PON) Mng GPON u tin c FSAN chun ho vo nm 2001 vi bng tn l 1Gb/s. Kin trc ca mng GPON cho php cc dch v thoi v d li c truyn ti vi tc ln n 2.5GB/s. Bng tn dnh cho mi thu bao l 31.25 MB/s cho lung xung khi mng hot ng vi tc 2.5GB/s v 15.625 MB/s khi mng hot ng vi tc 1GB/s c im ca h thng GPON
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GPON h tr y cc dch v bao gm thoi (TDM), cc dch v Ethernet nh Video, Data Phm vi v mt vt l ca mng l 20km, trong khi phm vi v mt logic ca mng ln ti 60km H tr cho vic la chn cc tc bit khc nhau bao gm:622Mb/s,1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s cho lung xung v 1.25 Gb/s dnh cho lung ln. Kh nng vn hnh khai thc bo dng cao

GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) nh ngha theo chun IUT-T G984. GPON c m rng t chun BPON G983 bng cch tng bng thng, nng hiu sut bng thng nh s dng gi ln, c di thay i v tiu chun ha qun l. Thm na, chun cho php vi s la chn ca tc bt: cho php bng thng lung xung l 2,488Mbit/s v bng thng lung ln l 1,244Mbit/s. Phng thc ng gi GPON-GEM cho php ng gi lu lng ngi dng rt hiu qu, vi s phn on khung cho php cht lng dch v QoS cao hn phc v lu lng nhy cm nh truyn thoi v video.

GPON h tr tc cao hn, tng cng bo mt v chn lp 2 giao thc (ATM, GEM, Ethernet tuy nhin trn thc t ATM cha tng c s dng). iu cho php GPON phn phi thm cc dch v ti nhiu thu bao.
Vi cc u im trn GPON l h thng mng truy nhp quang th ng tin tin nht hin nay, c kh nng h tr truyn nhiu dch v, vi kh nng thit lp cc ch vn hnh

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qun l v bo dng tt nht. WDM-PON Mc d EPON cung cp li th v gi thp, s thc hin th ng ca cc RN, tin cy cao, nhng n vn cn mt s gii hn v kh nng m rng, dung lng knh kh dng, v tnh bo mt cho ngi s dng. V th, c th p ng c s pht trin rt nhanh ca lu lng internet cng vi nhu cu cho cc dch v ngy cng a dng, nh HDTV(TV cht lng cao), game tng tc, hi ngh truyn hnh., cng nh bo mt mng c tng cng, th cn phi c kin trc mi c th p ng c. Mt cng ngh c th khc phc c nhng hn ch ca EPON l WDM PON, khi cu hnh sao th ng trong RN c thay th bi thit b quang th ng c bit, gi l AWG. Trong WDM PON, mi ONU thng c gn mt bc sng hoc knh ring bit (t nht l cho ng xung) v nhng knh ny c nh tuyn bi mt AWG, i khi l hn (t ti RN), c im nh tuyn ph thuc vo bc sng. c tnh quan trng nht, mt AWG ti mt RN thay th chc nng phn chia cng sut cho cc ng xung bng chc nng nh tuyn sn c bn trong n cng vi ti s dng bc sng. c tnh ny ca AWG tng cng qu cng sut ( v do tng thm tnh linh hot ca mng) cho php iu tit cc yu cu bng thng thm nh s h tr ca nhiu bc sng thng qua WDM. Th hai, nu cn thit cc ONU khc nhau nhn cc bc sng khc nhau c th c thit lp s dng cc tc bit khc nhau. 2.3 Kt lun chng Chng 2 trnh by v mng quang tch cc AON v mng quang th ng PON .Qua chng ta nhn thy tc vt tri ca cc cng ngh quang so vi cng ngh ADSL ph bin hin nay.Nhng mt vn t ra i vi mng quang AON l vn chuyn i quangin . Hin nay trn mng li, ty vo mt m AON hay PON c dng

CHNG 3: TRIN KHAI H THNG FTTH 3.1 FTTx xu hng tt yu trong tng lai
FTTH v ang c trin khai mnh m cc nc pht trin trn th gii.Hin Nht Bn, Trung Quc v M l cc quc gia i u trong lnh vc bng thng rng s dung cng ngh cp quang ny.

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Vi tnh nng u vit, FTTH c kh nng s thay th dn ADSL trong tng lai gn mt khi bng thng ADSL khng sc cung cp ng thi cc dch v trc tuyn trong cng mt thi im. Theo d bo, vo cui nm 2012, ring chu s c 54 triu kt ni FTTH, tip theo l chu u/ khu vc Trung ng/ chu Phi vi 16 triu, ri n Bc M v Nam M vi 15 triu. Hin nay, qu trnh chuyn i sang FTTH ang c thc hin nhiu nc, gm an Mch, Php, Hng Kng, Nht Ban, Hn Quc, Thuy in, i Loan v M Ngi dng Vit Nam bit n FTTx k t khi FPT Telecom bt u th nghim cng ngh vo thng 12/2006, sau ln lt n VNPT, Viettel.Trong 4 dng FTTx, th FTTH l hon chnh nht v cng ngh, tiu chun quc t v ti u tin ch cho ngi dng. vi cng ngh FTTH- GPON hon chnh, c tc ln ti 2,5Gbps (gp khong 200 ln ADSL), h tr a dch v nh data, thoi, hnh nh... p ng nhu cu nng cao hiu qu cc ng dng CNTT trong hot ng sn xut, kinh doanh ca khch hng doanh nghip v c ngi dng h gia nh. Hin nay, gi cc cc ng truyn FTTx thng thng c th di 1 triu ng/thng, nhng internet cp quang chun (tc FTTH - GPON) th ln 1,5 n 30 triu ng/thng (ty theo tc ). Tuy nhin tng lai gn, v ngay c thi im hin ti, yu t gi c khng phi l vn qu ln bi cc nh mng ang tranh trua quyt lit v cng ngh, cng nh tm mi cch h gi thnh xung thp hn, nhm khuyn khch ngi dng ADSL chuyn qua. Ngoi ra, khi cc dch v ni dung ngn bng thng nh: HD TV (truyn hnh nt cao), IPTV (truyn hnh tng tc), VoD (xem phim theo yu cu), Video Conferrence (hi ngh truyn hnh), IP Camera... ngy cng thnh hnh, i hi tc ng truyn cao, th ch FTTH mi c th p ng. Trong xu th pht trin ca cc dch v truyn hnh, ni dung s bng n trn ton th gii, FTTH thay th ng truyn ADSL cng s l tt yu, nh cch ADSL thay dch v Internet dial up chm chp trc y 3.2 Tnh hnh pht trin ca FTTH Hin nay, Vit Nam c mt s nh cung cp dch v FTTH sau:
-

Thng 8/2006 FPT Telecom chnh thc tr thnh n v u tin cung cp loi hnh dch v tin tin ny.

Ngy 1/5/2009,VNPT cung cp dch v internet FTTH trn cp quang vi tc cao ln ti 20Mbps/20Mgps. Cc chi nhnh ca VNPT ti cc tnh thnh cng pht trin mt cch rm r. - Ngay 15/05/2009,Viettel chnh thc trin khai cung cp dch v truy nhp Internet FTTH Cp quang siu tc nhm phc v khach hng doanh nghip m dch v truy nhp internet hin ti (ADSL v Leased Line)cha p ng c v tc s dng v chi ph s dng Ngy 10/04/2010, CMCIT chnh thc khai trng dch v FTTH y l cng ty u tin ti Vit
-

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Nam trin khai loi hnh FTTH da trn chun GPON l chun tin tin nht hin nay. 3.3 La chn cng ngh 3.3.1 Cc yu t nh hn n vic la chn cng ngh La chn s dng cng ngh theo tng CES Mt thp (<200 u cui quang) s dng AON Mt ln hn hoc bng 200 u cui quang u tin s dng GPON La chn cng ngh GPON nhng vn trin khai AON khi + Giai on u cha u t c GPON + Cc tuyn c khong cch > 14km + C nhiu khch hng c nhu cu bng thng >50M Kh nng lp t: mt s im khng th iu kin lp sw phi trin khai GPON Khong cch phc v: GPON khong 14km, AON khong 70%*70km
-

3.3.2 Cng ngh c trin khai hin nay Trin khai FTTx AON p ng nhu cu pht trin thu bao quang n cui nm 2009. - Sau nm 2009 mng FTTx GPON s hon thnh vic trin khai v bt u cung cp kt ni quang cho khch hng c nhu cu. Nh vy sau nm 2009, trn mng s gm 2 h thng thit b cung cp kt ni truy nhp quang cho thu bao, v mng s c qui hoch nh sau: Trin khai FTTx GPON ti nhng ni c nhu cu v mt thu bao cao. Trin khai FTTx AON ti nhng ni c nhu cu nhng mt thu bao thp. Do mng FTTx AON v mng FTTx GPON trin khai nhng thi im khc nhau v vy c th xy ra nhng trng hp sau y: Ti nhng vng m mng truy nhp quang FTTx AON v FTTx GPON khng trng nhau v ti khch hng vn c nhu cu s dng dch v FTTx th gi nguyn cung cp dch v. Ti nhng vng m mng truy nhp quang FTTx AON v FTTx GPON trng nhau th ln phng n c th v tng bc chuyn kt ni ca thu bao t FTTx AON sang FTTx GPON. Sau iu chuyn cc thit b mng FTTx AON ti nhng ni m khch hng c yu cu s dng FTTx nhng mng FTTx GPON cha trin khai v mt thu bao thp.
-

3.4 Mt s thit b c s dng Optical fiber - Cp quang: Cp quang chn ngm Cp quang cheo

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Hnh 17: Cp quang Path cord - Dy nhy quang Dy nhy quang dng kt ni cc thit b quang vi nhau trong h thng quang Phn loi : + Hai u cp c u theo cc chun SC/PC- SC/PC, FC/PC-FC/PC, LC/PC-LC/PC, ST/PC-ST/PC + loi cp Multi-mode v Single-mode + Theo chiu di : 2m, 3m, 5m

Hnh 18: Dy nhy quang

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Pig tall ui ln:

Hinh 19: Pig tall End to End connecter kt ni giao din quang :

Hnh 20:Kt cui giao din quang Gi phi quang ODF (Optical Distribution Frame

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Hinh 21: Gi phi dy quang ODF c thit k bao gm cc khung u ni, khay cha mi ni c dng kt ni u cui hoc phn phi si quang B chuyn i quang in:

Hnh 22 :Converter AMP Tyco Electronics Cc c tnh c bn ca Converter quang in -Tng thch hon ton vi chun 10Base-T, 100Base-T v 100Base-FX. - Ph hp vi c truyn dn quang n mode v a mode. - S dng b ni SC, ST hoc MT-RJ cho 100Base-FX. - H tr full-duplex v hafl-duplex. - H tr hiu chnh auto-polarity trn port RJ-45. - S dng n LED ch th gim st v theo di. - Cho php t ng hc ti 1000 a ch MAC.

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- H tr back-pressure v flow control. - H tr Link loss forwarding cho cc tn hiu truyn li. - Kt ni cp quang ln ti 2 km (a mode) hoc 30 km (n mode). Cng ngh WDM ch s dng duy nht cp n mode Converter quang in AMP Fast Ethernet media converter l thit b chuyn i tn hiu in chun 10/100 Base-TX sang tn hiu quang 100 Base-FX. FE converter c ci t rt d dng v l tng cho vic m rng mng Ethernet thng qua cp quang trong mng Small office/Home office (SOHO), Fiber-to-the-Business (FTTB), Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) v cc chi nhnh ca cc doanh nghip. Media converter cho php m rng khong cch ca mng 10/100Base TX Ethernet ln n 2 km nu s dng cp quang a mode v ln n 30 km nu s dng cp quang n mode. Switch quang:

Hnh 23 : Switch quang Switch i khi c m t nh l mt Bridge c nhiu cng. Trong khi mt Bridge ch c 2 cng lin kt c 2 segment mng vi nhau, th Switch li c kh nng kt ni c nhiu segment li vi nhau tu thuc vo s cng (port) trn Switch. Cng ging nh Bridge, Switch cng "hc" thng tin ca mng thng qua cc gi tin (packet) m n nhn c t cc my trong mng. Switch s dng cc thng tin ny xy dng ln bng Switch, bng ny cung cp thng tin gip cc gi thng tin n ng a ch. Ngy nay, trong cc giao tip d liu, Switch thng c 2 chc nng chnh l chuyn cc khung d liu t ngun n ch, v xy dng cc bng Switch. Switch hot ng tc cao hn nhiu so vi Repeater v c th cung cp nhiu chc nng hn nh kh nng to mng LAN o (VLAN).

3.5 M hnh u ni thit b

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Hnh 24: M hnh u ni thit b T BRAS ca cng ty vin thng s c ni qua 1 Switch metro trung tm ni n cc Switch metro access cc tng i. Nu Switch lp truy nhp c sn module quang, ta c th cm 1 SFP vo module v cm thng si quang vo SFP. u khch hng cn 1 converter O/E chuyn i t quang sang cng Ethernet v ni vo mng LAN khch hng. Nu trn Switch metro access khng c module quang, ta phi s dng thm 1 converter O/E tng i chuyn i tn hiu in ethernet t Metro Switch a ra sang tn hiu quang truyn xung khch hng. Ti khch hng cng cn 1 Converter O/E chuyn i t tn hiu quang sang tn hiu in. V cc nh cung cp dch v FTTH thng ch cp cho khch hng 1 a ch IP public, nhiu ngi c th cng s dng IP public truy nhp Internet, u khch hng cn c thm 1 thit b lm chc nng NAT server chuyn i nhng a ch IP dng ring ca mi my trong mng LAN khch hng thnh a ch IP public ca nh cung cp dch v i ra ngoi Internet 3.6 Quy trnh trin khai FTTH ti thu bao

Hnh 25: Quy trnh trin khai FTTH ti thu bao Cc thit b v quy trnh trin khai FTTH cn kh nhiu v phc tp nhng vi nhng tin ch v li ch m FTTH mang li,FTTH hon ton kh nng canh tranh vi cc phng thc

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truy nhp khc v s dn chim lnh th phn ln trn th trng,c th hng ti mi i tng khch hng t thu bao c nhn ti cc doanh nghip,cng ty.... 3.7 Kt lun Chng 3 trnh by v trin khai mng truy nhp quang FTTH trong thc t vi cc vn chnh:
-

Cng ngh (AON v PON) c s dng hin nay trong trin khai FTTH M hnh u ni thit b Quy trnh trin khai

TI LIU THAM KHO


-

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp-Dng Th Thanh T Bi ging: FTTH-Trng TH BCVT&CNTT Min Ni http://www.tapchibcvt.go

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